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# Code No: V3205/R07 ^ĞƚEŽͲϭ

## III B. Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2010

ESTIMATING AND COSTING
(CIVIL ENGINEERING)
Time: 3 Hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any three Question from Part - B
*****
Part – A

1. Estimate the required quantities and provide rate analysis for the following
data from the given plan (Fig: 1) by using centre line method.
¾ Earth work excavation in foundation
¾ C.C in foundation
¾ Brick work in sub structure
¾ Plastering
¾ D.P.C.
¾ First class brick work in super structure [50 M]

Part – B

2. [3 X 10 M]
(a)Distinguish the contractor and the contract And What are the types of
contracts and explain?
(b)What points to be considered in case of “Rates of Particular item of
work” and explain?
(c)What do you understand about the Valuation and explain in detail
(d)Write the standard specifications for different items of building
constructions and explain?
(e)What do you understand about the Contract Documents and explain?
Fig: 1
Code No: V3205/R07 ^ĞƚEŽͲϮ
III B. Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2010
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
(CIVIL ENGINEERING)
Time: 3 Hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any three Question from Part - B
*****
Part – A

1. Estimate the required quantities and provide rate analysis for the
following data from the given plan (Fig: 2) by using individual wall
method.
¾ Earth work excavation in foundation
¾ C.C in foundation
¾ First class brick work in foundation (C.M of 1:4)
¾ First class brick work in super structure
¾ Painting or white washing
¾ Flooring with 1: 4 C:M [50 M]

Part – B

2. [3 X 10 M]
(a)What is approximate method of Estimation and explain?
(b)Explain the types and conditions of contracts in detailed?
(c)What do you understand about the bar bending and what factors plays
major roll in case if bar bending?
(d)What do you understand about the Valuation and explain in detail
(e)Explain the principle and procedure for the earth work of roads and
canals?
Fig:2
Code No: V3205/R07 ^ĞƚEŽͲϯ
III B. Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2010
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
(CIVIL ENGINEERING)
Time: 3 Hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any three Question from Part - B
*****
Part – A
1. Estimate the required quantities and provide rate analysis for the following
data from the given plan (Fig: 3) by any one method.
¾ Earth work excavation in foundation
¾ C.C in foundation
¾ Second class brick work in foundation (C.M of 1:4)
¾ First class brick work in super structure
¾ Flooring with 1: 4 C:M [50 M]

Part – B
2. [3 X 10 M]
(a)What are the Principles of working out quantities and explain them in
brief?
(b)Explain the conditions of contracts in detailed?
(c)What do you understand about the Valuation and explain in detail
(d)Write the standard specifications for different items of building
constructions and explain?
(e)What are the points to be considered in case of “Rates of particular item
of work” and explain?
Fig: 3
Code No: V3205/R07 ^ĞƚEŽͲϰ
III B. Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2010
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
(CIVIL ENGINEERING)
Time: 3 Hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any three Question from Part - B
*****
Part – A
1. Estimate the required quantities and provide rate analysis for the following
data from the given plan (Fig: 4) by any one method.
¾ Earth work excavation in foundation
¾ C.C in foundation
¾ Second class brick work in foundation (C.M of 1:4)
¾ First class brick work in super structure
¾ Flooring with 1: 4 C:M
¾ Sand filling basement [50 M]

Part – B

2. [3 X 10 M]
(a)What are the Principles of working out quantities and explain them in
brief?
(b)Explain the conditions of contracts in detailed?
(c)What do you understand about the Valuation and explain in detail
(d)Write the standard specifications for different items of building
constructions and explain?
(e)What are the points to be considered in case of “Rates of particular item
of work” and explain?
Fig: 4
Code No: V3219/R07 Set No. 1
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
VLSI DESIGN
( Common to Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Electronics &
Communication Engineering, Bio-Medical Engineering and Electronics &
Telematics)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. With neat sketches, explain in detail, all the steps involved in electron lithography
process. 

2. (a) Define the threshold voltage of a MOS device and explains its significance.
(b) Explain the effect of threshold voltage on MOSFET current equation. [8+8]

## (a) NMOS inverter.

(b) P-Well CMOS inverter. [8+8]

4. Calculate on resistance of the circuit shown in the figure 4 from VDD to GND. If
n- channel sheet resistance Rsn =104 Ω per square and P-channel sheet resistance
Rsp = 3.5 × 104 Ω per square. 

Figure 4
5. (a) Draw and explain the schematic of Pseudo-nMOS comparator.
(b) Draw and explain the structure of multiplier which computes the partial prod-
ucts in a radix-2 manner. [8+8]

## 6. (a) Explain the methods of programming of PAL CMOS device.

(b) Draw and explain the architecture of an FPGA . [8+8]

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Code No: V3219/R07 Set No. 1
7. (a) Explain how VHDL is developed and where it was used initially.
(b) What are the different design capture tools? Explain them briefly. [8+8]

## 8. (a) Explain the gate level and function level of testing.

(b) A sequential circuit with ?n? inputs and ‘m’ storage devices. To test this
circuit how many test vectors are required.
(c) What is sequential fault grading? Explain how it is analyzed. [6+4+6]

?????

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Code No: V3219/R07 Set No. 2
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
VLSI DESIGN
( Common to Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Electronics &
Communication Engineering, Bio-Medical Engineering and Electronics &
Telematics)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

## 1. (a) What are the steps involved in the nMOS fabrication?

(b) In what way PMOS fabrication is different from nMOS fabrication.
(c) Which fabrication is preferred and why? [8+4+4]

## 2. (a) Derive an equation for Transconductance of an n channel enhancement MOS-

FET operating in active region.
(b) A PMOS transistor is operated in triode region with the following parameters.
VGS =- 4.5V, Vtp = -1V; VDS =-2.2 V, (W/L) =95, µn Cox =95µA/V 2 . Find its
drain current and drain source resistance. [8+8]

## (a) NMOS inverter.

(b) P-Well CMOS inverter. [8+8]

4. Describe three sources of wiring capacitances. Explain the effect of wiring capaci-
tance on the performance of a VLSI circuit. 

## 5. (a) Design a magnitude comparator based on the data path operators.

(b) Draw the Schematic and mask layout of array adder used in Booth Multiplier
and explain the principle of multiplication in Booth Multiplier. [6+10]

6. (a) Draw the typical standard-cell structure showing regular-power cell and ex-
plain it.
(b) Draw and explain the pseudo-nMOS PLA schematic for full adder and what

7. (a) What are the advantages of Hardware Description Languages and give some
examples?
(b) Explain the different types of simulators used to predict and verify the per-
formance of given circuit. [8+8]

8. (a) Why stuck-at faults occur in CMOS circuits? Explain with suitable logical
diagram and layout.
(b) Draw a schematic for a CMOS edge-sensitive scan-register and also draw some
circuit level diagrams of its implementation. [8+8]

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Code No: V3219/R07 Set No. 2
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Code No: V3219/R07 Set No. 3
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
VLSI DESIGN
( Common to Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Electronics &
Communication Engineering, Bio-Medical Engineering and Electronics &
Telematics)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

## 1. With neat sketches explain BICMOS fabrication process in a P well. 

2. (a) Find gm for an n-channel transistor with Vgs =1.2V: Vtn =0.8V; (W/L) = 10;
µn Cox = 92µA/V 2 .
(b) Define the term threshold voltage of MOSFET and explain its significance.
[8+8]

3. Design a stick diagram and layout diagram for the CMOS logic shown below
Y = (A + B) (C + D). 

4. (a) For a 5µm technology,the standard unit of capacitances for metal 1,polysilicon
and n-diffusion are 0.0075 Cg , 0.1 Cg and 0.25 Cg respectively. Calculate
the capacitances for area shown in figure 4. Consider same area for calculation.
i. metal
ii. polysilicon
iii. n-diffusion.
(b) Impliment a 3-input NOR gate in dynamic logic and explain its operation.
[8+8]

Figure 4
5. (a) Explain how the transistor might be sized to optimize the delay through the
(b) Design a two input XOR using a ROM. [8+8]

6. (a) What are the characteristics of 22V10 PAL CMOS device and draw its I/O
structure.
(b) Explain any one chip architecture that used the antifuse and give its advan-
tages. [8+8]

7. (a) What are basic design units of VHDL? Explain them with suitable examples.

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Code No: V3219/R07 Set No. 3
(b) Compare the circuit-level and logic-level simulations for CMOS circuits.[8+8]

## 8. (a) Explain the functionality test of a chip with suitable examples.

(b) What are the categories of Design for testability? Explain them briefly. [8+8]

?????

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Code No: V3219/R07 Set No. 4
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
VLSI DESIGN
( Common to Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Electronics &
Communication Engineering, Bio-Medical Engineering and Electronics &
Telematics)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

## 1. Explain the following:

(a) Thermal oxidation technique
(b) Kinetics of thermal oxidation. [8+8]
2. (a) Explain the operation of BiCMOS inverter? Clearly specify its characteristics.
(b) Explain how the BiCMOS inverter performance can be improved. [8+8]
3. (a) Draw the following transistors using lambda based design rules
i. NMOS enhancement
ii. NMOS depletion
iii. PMOS enhancement.
(b) Discuss the design rules for wires (both NMOS and CMOS) using lambda
based design rules. [2+2+2+10]
4. Describe three sources of wiring capacitances. Explain the effect of wiring capaci-
tance on the performance of a VLSI circuit. 
5. (a) Draw the multiplier array using a square array and explain the operation of
multiplication.
(b) How is the parity generator designed as a linear column of XOR gates with a
tree routing channel and draw the layout of it. [8+8]
6. (a) What are different classes of Programmable CMOS devices? Explain them
briefly.
(b) What is the basis for standard-cell? What are basic classes of circuits for
Library cells? [8+8]
7. (a) Explain how VHDL is used to simulate and synthesise a CMOS circuit.
(b) Write a VHDL program for a Multiplexer with parameterized bit width. [8+8]
8. (a) Explain how function of system can be tested.
(b) Explain any one of the method of testing bridge faults.
(c) What type of faults can be reduced by improving layout design? [6+5+5]

?????

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Code No: V3215/R07 Set No. 1
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
DESIGN OF MACHINE MEMBERS-II
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

## 1. A rolling contact bearing is subjected to the following work cycle:

(a) radial load of 6000N at 150 r.p.m for 25% of the time;
(b) radial load of 7500N at 600 r.p.m for 20% of the time; and
(c) radial load of 2000N at 300 r.p.m for 55% of the time.

The inner ring rotates and loads are steady .Select a bearing for an expected average
life of 2500hours. 

## 2. The following data refer to a 4-stroke cylinder vertical engine.

Piston diameter=125mm
Stroke=150mm
Speed of the engine=1200r.p.m
Weight of the reciprocating parts =45N
Design stress for the material used =80N/mm2
Design a suitable connecting rod and check for stresses due to inertia. 

## 3. (a) What are the requirements of a piston material?

(b) Design a CI piston for a single acting four stroke petrol engine of the following
specifications :
Cylinder bore = 100mm
Stroke Length =120mm
Maximum gas pressure = 5MPa
[4+12]
Break mean effective Pressure =0.65MPa
Fuel Consumption = 0.17kg/bhp/min
Speed =220rpm

## 4. (a) Draw the distribution of bending stresses in curved beams.

(b) Determine the stresses at section X-X of the punch as shown in figure 4b, W
= 2 kN. [8+8]

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Code No: V3215/R07 Set No. 1

Figure 4b
5. (a) What is meant by creep of a belt and what is its effect?
(b) A belt,100×10mm is transmitting power at 15m/s. The angle of contact on the
driver (smaller ) pulley is 1560 . If the permissible stress for the belt material is
2N/mm2 ; determine the power that can be transmitted at this speed. Take the
density of leather as 1000kg/m3 , and coefficient of friction as 0.25. Calculate
the maximum power that can be transmitted by this belt, and the speed at
which this can be transmitted. [4+12]

6. A motor shaft rotating at 1440rpm has to transmit 15kW power to a low speed shaft
rotating at 500rpm. A 200 pressure angle involute tooth gear pinion is used. The
pinion has 25 teeth. Both gear and pinion are made of cast iron having allowable
strength of 55N/mm2 . Design a suitable gear drive. Check wear load, dynamic

## 7. A screw press is to exert a force of 60kN with an applied torsional moment of

550Nm. The unsupported length of the screw is 0.45 and a thrust bearing of
hardened steel on CI is provided at the power end. The screw is to be made of steel
having an ultimate strength of 530MN/mm2 and a yield stress of 265MN/mm2 . The
design stresses are to be 87.5MN/mm2 in tension and compression 52.5MN/mm2
in shear and 14MN/mm2 in thread bearing. The nut is of CI and the permissible
shear is 21MN/mm2 . Determine the dimension of the screw and nut. 

## 8. Briefly explain the procedure of speed diagram. 

?????

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Code No: V3215/R07 Set No. 2
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
DESIGN OF MACHINE MEMBERS-II
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. (a) What are the dimensionless parameters used in designing hydrodynamic bear-
ing? Explain their significance.
(b) A 3 kN load is supported by a journal bearing of 75mm dia and 75mm long.
Diametral clearance 0.05 mm and bearing is lubricated by an oil of 0.0207
Pa S viscosity at operating temperature. Determine the maximum speed of
rotation of bearing when it is capable of dissipating 80 watts by heat transfer.
1 centipoise =103 Pa S. [6+10]

2. Design an overhang crankshaft with two main bearings for an I.C engine
with the Following data:
Cylinder bore = 250mm
Stroke length =300mm
Flywheel weight =27kN
Maximum pressure=2.5N/mm2
Maximum torque is at crank rotation 300 , the pressure at that instant = 1.7 N/mm2 .


3. The piston of an automobile engine is held to the connecting rod by a wrist pin
having an external diameter of 20mm and internal diameter of 11mm. The length
of the bearing in the rod end is 25mm and the bearing in each boss of the piston
is 15mm. The maximum load transmitted is 14.50kN.

(a) Determine the bearing pressure between the rod end and the wrist pin.
(b) Compare the maximum bending stress in the pin, assuming that it is a simple
(c) Compute the maximum deflection of the pin. 

## 4. A load P=15 kN is applied on a C-clamp as shown in the figure 4. Determine the

stresses at the points A and B. 

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Code No: V3215/R07 Set No. 2

Figure 4
5. (a) Classify the wire ropes, based on the direction of twist.
(b) A rope drive is to transmit 250kW from a pulley of 1.2m diameter, running at
a speed of 300 rpm. The angle of lap may be taken as π radians. The groove
half angle is 22.50 . The ropes to be used are 50mm in diameter. The mass
of the rope is 1.3 kg per meter length and each rope has a maximum pull of
2.2kN, the coefficient of friction between rope and pulley is 0.3. Determine
the number of ropes required. If the overhung of the pulley is 0.5m, suggest
suitable size for the pulley shaft if it is made of steel with a shear stress of
40MPa. [6+10]
6. (a) What is the herringbone gear? Where are they used?
(b) A helical cast steel gear with 30o helix angle has to transmit 35kW at 2000
r.p.m. If the gear has 25 teeth, find the necessary module, pitch diameters
and face width for 20o full-depth involute teeth. The static stress for cast steel
may be taken as 100MPa. The face width may be taken as 3 times the normal
pitch. The tooth form factor is given by expression yI = 0.154-0.912 / TE ,
where TE represents the equivalent number of teeth. The velocity factor is
given by Cv = 6/ (6+V) where V is the peripheral speed of the gear in m/s.
[4+12]
7. (a) Sketch the different thread profiles.
(b) A sluice weighing 600kN is raised and lowered by means of two square threaded
screws. The coefficient of friction between the thrust collar and screw is 0.003
and that between the screw and that between the screw and nut is 0.05. Design
the screw and the nut. Assume the data if necessary. [6+10]

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Code No: V3215/R07 Set No. 2
8. Briefly explain the procedure of speed diagram. 

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Code No: V3215/R07 Set No. 3
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
DESIGN OF MACHINE MEMBERS-II
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. A journal bearing with a diameter of 200mm and length 150mm carries a load of
20kN, when the journal speed is 150r.p.m. The diametral clearance ratio is 0.0015.
If possible, the bearing is to operate at 350 C ambient temperature without external
cooling with a maximum oil temperature of 900 C. If external cooling is required, it
is to be as little as possible to minimize the required oil flow rate and heat exchanger
size.

## (a) What type of oil do you recommend?

(b) Will the bearing operate without external cooling?
(c) If the bearing operates without external cooling, determine the operating oil
temperature?
(d) If the bearing operates with external cooling, determine the amount of oil in
kg/min required to carry away the excess heat generated over heat dissipated,
when the oil temperature rises from 850 C to 900 C, when passing through the
bearing. 

2. A crank shaft of the center- crank type is to be designed for a diesel engine devel-
oping 7.5kW on brake at 1200r.p.m. The crank shaft is of the forged type has to
carry two fly wheels of 500N each on either side of the main bearing. The plane of
rotation of each flywheel is 100mm from the center line of adjacent main bearing.
The maximum load on connecting rod is 35kN. The length of stroke of piston is
160mm and the length of connecting rod 320mm. Maximum torque will be expe-
rienced in the crank shaft when the crank turns 300 from the inner dead center
position. The maximum permissible stress in crank pin, web and shaft should not
exceed 60N/mm2 , the safe limit for the bearing stress for the crank pin and the
main bearings is 800N/mm2 . Design the crank shaft. 

3. (a) How the piston head of an IC engine is usually cooled? What are the advan-
tages of cooling ?
(b) A horizontal four stroke diesel engine has the following speciation:
Break Power =5kW
Speed = 1200 rpm
Imep = 0.35 N/mm2
Mechanical efficiency = 80%
Calculate the dimensions of the cylinder and the cylinder head. [6+10]

4. A Circular ring of rectangular section, with a slit is loaded as shown in the figure
4. Determine the magnitude of the force P if the maximum resultant stress along

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Code No: V3215/R07 Set No. 3
the section a-b is not to exceed 150 N/mm2 . Draw the stress distribution along ab.


Figure 4
5. (a) With the help of sketches, discuss about the various types of belt joints.
(b) In an open flat belt drive; the pulley diameters are 300mm and 450mm, and
the corresponding angles of lap are 1600 and 2000 . The smaller pulley runs at
240 r.p.m. The coefficient of friction between the pulleys and belt is 0.3. It is
found that the belt is on the point of slipping when 5kW power is transmitted.
To increase the power transmitted; two alternatives are suggested, viz.,
i. increasing the initial tension by 15%, and
ii. increasing the coefficient of friction by 15%. Which of the above two
methods would be more effective? [4+12]

6. (a) Write the expression for static strength, limiting wear load and dynamic load
for helical gears and explain the various terms used.
(b) Two precision cut forged helical gears have 200 full depth involute teeth. The
angleof helix is 230 . Permissible static bending stress 100MPa, module 3mm,
face width 500mm. The speed of rotation of pinion 900rpm.gear ratio 5:1,sur-
face endurance strength 630MPa. Find the transmitted and wear load and
state whether the design is safe. [8+8]

7. (a) Explain the procedure of checking the design of a screw for buckling.

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Code No: V3215/R07 Set No. 3
(b) A 50kN capacity screw jack consists of a square threaded steel screw, meshing
with a bronze nut. The nominal diameter is 70mm and the pitch is 10mm.
The permissible bearing pressure at the threads is 7N/mm2 . Determine
i. the length of the nut and
ii. the transverse shear stress induced in the nut. [6+10]

## (a) Design of drives

(b) Force analysis of lathe guide ways. [8+8]

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3 of 3
Code No: V3215/R07 Set No. 4
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
DESIGN OF MACHINE MEMBERS-II
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

## 1. (a) Explain the following terms:

i. Rated life
(b) Select the suitable dimensions for a journal bearing which is subjected to
3.5kN radial load. The diameter and length of the bearing are 75mm each.
The journal rotates at 400r.p.m. [6+10]

2. Design a mild steel connecting rod with an I section for a single cylinder spark
ignition engine from the following data :
Diameter of piston, D=0.104m
Weight of reciprocating parts =18.2N
Length of connecting rod from centre to centre=0.314m
Stroke length=0.14m
Speed of the engine=1500rev/min
Maximum explosion pressure = 2.28MPa gauge
Assume that the maximum thrust takes place at T.D.C. during the explosion stroke.


3. Design a trunk type cast iron piston for an I.C. Engine from the following data:
Diameter of the Cylinder = 10cm
Stroke = 15cm
Maximum explosion pressure = 3.5MPa
Maximum permissible tension for cast iron for the design of head thickness is 30MPa
and the flexural stress for the pin may be taken from 90 to120Mpa. The gudgeon
pin should be hardened and ground and should turn in phosphor bronze bushing.
Bearing pressure should be limited to 20MPa.
Sketch the piston inserting important dimensions of the piston with piston pin,
piston ring and scraper ring in position. Check the design from heat transfer view
point. 

## 4. Starting from fundamentals derive an expression for radius of neutral axis of a

rectangular cross- section curved beam. 

## 5. (a) On what factors, the design of belts depends?

(b) Select a suitable V-belt drive to connect a 7.5kW, 1440 rpm induction motor
to run a fan at approximately 480 rpm for a service of 16hrs per day. The
space available for centre distance is 1000mm. [3+13]

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Code No: V3215/R07 Set No. 4
6. Design a pair of helical gears to transmit 50kW power at a speed reduction ratio
of 5:1. The input shaft rotates at 3000rpm. Take helix and normal pressure angles
equal to 25 degree and 20degree. Both pinion and gear are made of steel (the
following data is given)
Name of the part Permissible BHN
Pinion 55MPa 340MPa
Gear 40MPa 300MPa
The number of teeth on the pinion may be taken 20. 

7. A vertical square threaded screw of a 75mm nominal diameter and 10mm pitch,
supports a vertical load of 50kn. It passes through the boss of a spur gear of 72
teeth, which acts as a nut. For raising or lowering the load, the spur gear is turned
by means of a pinion having 24 teeth. The mechanical efficiency of the gear is
90%. The axial thrust on the screw is taken-up by a collar bearing having a mean
diameter of 110mm. The coefficient of friction for the screw and nut is 0.15, and
that for collar bearing is 0.12. Determine,

## (a) the torque applied to the pinion shaft,

(b) the maximum (principal) shear stress induced in the screw, and
(c) height of the nut, if the permissible bearing pressure is 12MPa. 

8. Design the head stock gear box of a lathe having arrangement for 10 spindle speeds
ranging from 50 to 1000 rev/min. 

?????

2 of 2
Code No: V3224/R07 Set No. 1
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
COMPUTER NETWORKS
( Common to Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology
and Electronics & Computer Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

## 1. (a) What is the relationship between telecommunications and data communica-

tions? Is one a subset of other? Give reasons for your answers?
(b) What are the different goals and applications of networking? Give five reasons
of how networks are a part of our lives? [8+8]
2. (a) Television channels are 6MHz wide. How many bits/sec can be sent if four
level digital signals are used? Assume a noiseless channel
(b) How does a virtual circuit differ from a physical circuit? What advantages
would a virtual circuit provide? [8+8]
3. (a) Discuss the error control technique which is commonly used in data network.
What value of N is used in go-back-N ARQ technique used in ARPANET and
why?
(b) Imagine that you are writing the data link software for a line used to send
data to you, but not from you. The other end uses HDLC, with a 3-bit
sequence number and a window size of seven frames. You would like to buffer
as many out of sequence frames as possible to enhance efficiency, but you are
not allowed to modify the software on the sending side. Is it possible to have
a receiver window greater than one, and still guarantee that the protocol will
never fail? If so, what is the largest window that can be safely used? [8+8]
4. (a) Discuss about fast Ethernet cabling?
(b) Explain various token bus control frames? [8+8]
5. What is non- adaptive routing. Explain any two non- adaptive routing algorithms.

6. (a) What is the significance of home agent and Foreign agent in routing for mobile
hosts?
(b) Why tunneling is used for routing in mobile hosts? [10+6]
7. (a) Compare a conventional TDM leased line with an ATM PVC from the user’s
point of view and from the network operator’s point of view. Which feature
of PVC makes it attractive from both points of view.
(b) Explain how ATM fixed size cells makes cell switching quicker.
(c) What are the applications which use constant bit rate and variable bit rate
services of ATM? [5+5+6]

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Code No: V3224/R07 Set No. 1
8. (a) What are the fields in message header of email system?
(b) What are SMTP types & subtypes? Explain them. [6+10]

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2 of 2
Code No: V3224/R07 Set No. 2
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
COMPUTER NETWORKS
( Common to Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology
and Electronics & Computer Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. (a) What are the distinct characteristics of local area networks, explain briefly?
Why is a LAN required and what objectives are achieved by having a LAN
(b) A group of 2n − 1 routers are interconnected in a centralized binary tree, with
a router at each tree node. Router i communicate with router j by sending a
message to the root of the tree. The root then sends the message back down
to j. Derive an approximate expression for the mean number of hops per
message for large n, assuming that all router pairs are equally likely. [8+8]

## 2. (a) Write a brief notes on:

ii. Microwave transmission. [8+8]
(b) Discuss about Narrow band ISDN?

3. (a) Explain one -bit sliding window protocol. Give the advantages and disadvan-
tages of one-bit sliding window protocol?
(b) Discuss the services provided by the data link layer to the network layer?
[8+8]

4. What is a token? Discuss the protocol of token ring LAN in general. Discuss with
example how priority is implemented in a token ring LAN? 

5. Routing can be classified in to two types Source routing and hop-by-hop routing.
In source routing, source determines the complete route, places the route in the
packet header and intermediate routers just switch packets from one link to other
link. In hop-by-hop routing each router maintains a routing table and when packet
arrives on input link it places it on output link based on routing table. Compare

## 6. (a) What are ATM Service categories? Explain.

(b) What is Quality of Service? How ATM supports Quality of Service? [8+8]

7. (a) Network layer can provide both connection oriented service and connection
less service. Similar is the case with Transport layer, then why two different
layers are required.
(b) What are the Transport layers Quality of Service parameters? [8+8]

1 of 2
Code No: V3224/R07 Set No. 2
8. (a) When user clicks a hyperlink, what are the steps that occur between the user’s
click and the page being displayed?
(b) What is proxy server? How proxy server works?
(c) Explain the http request methods? [5+6+5]

?????

2 of 2
Code No: V3224/R07 Set No. 3
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
COMPUTER NETWORKS
( Common to Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology
and Electronics & Computer Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

## (a) Client server model

(b) MAN
(c) Interfaces and services. [4+6+6]

2. (a) Television channels are 6MHz wide. How many bits/sec can be sent if four
level digital signals are used? Assume a noiseless channel
(b) How does a virtual circuit differ from a physical circuit? What advantages
would a virtual circuit provide? [8+8]

3. (a) What is flow control? Why is essential at the data link layer? Mention few
techniques for the same?
(b) Explain how the band width wastage is reduced in case of sliding window
protocol with selective repeat? [8+8]

4. (a) Explain any two protocols that resolve the contention for the channel with out
any collisions at all?
(b) A very heavily loaded 1?km?long, 10-Mbps token ring has propagation speed of
200 m/µsec. Fifty stations are uniformly spaced around the ring. Data frames
are 256-bits, including 32 bits of overload. Acknowledgements are piggybacked
onto the data frames and are included as spare bits within the data frames
and are effectively free. The token is 8 bits. Is the effective data rate of this
higher or lower than the effective data rate of a 10-Mbps CSMA/CD network?
[8+8]

## 5. (a) Explain Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm.

(b) Consider graph given figure 5b. Compute the shortest path from A to D. [8+8]

Figure 5b

1 of 2
Code No: V3224/R07 Set No. 3
6. (a) Explain Load shedding for congestion control.
(b) What is Jitter? Why it is important to control jitter for Audio and Video
applications? How Jitter is controlled? [6+10]

7. (a) Explain the protocol scenarios for establishing a connection using three way
handshake.
(b) Why abrupt connection release results in data loss? [12+4]

## 8. What is DNS? What is its use? How DNS works? 

?????

2 of 2
Code No: V3224/R07 Set No. 4
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
COMPUTER NETWORKS
( Common to Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology
and Electronics & Computer Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

## 1. (a) How does Internet differs from WAN?

(b) Give an example where we require
i. Simplex communication
ii. Half duplex communication
iii. Full duplex communication.
(c) What are the two reasons for using layered protocols. [6+6+4]
2. (a) If a binary signal is sent over a 3KHz channel whose signal to noise ratio is
20dB. What is the maximum achievable data rate?
(b) Which switching method allows real-time data transfer? Mention the advan-
tages of packet switching? [8+8]
3. (a) Give the detailed description of PPP frame format?
(b) Explain the following terms related to the data link layer
i. Framing
ii. Error control
iii. Flow control. [8+8]
4. (a) Discuss about the file key assumptions in case of dynamic channel allocation
in LANs and WANs?
(b) Discuss in detail the working of token bus? [8+8]
5. (a) Two approaches can be used for ordering of packets, buffering all the packets at
the receiver and then reordering them or receiver accepts only packets in order
and sender retransmits packets if necessary. Compare these two approaches.
(b) Consider an environment in which probability of errors is high. What should
be packet size in such an environment, Large/ Small? Justify your selection.
[10+6]
6. Explain in detail
(a) OSPF and
(b) BGP. [8+8]
7. (a) In TCP Why three?way handshake is required for connection establishment
and release.

1 of 2
Code No: V3224/R07 Set No. 4
(b) Why TCP is not suitable for request?reply type of transfers?
(c) As application developer under what circumstances you use TCP and under
what circumstances you use UDP? [6+5+5]

## 8. (a) Classify security problems and explain each of them.

(b) What is the role played by different layers in providing security? [8+8]

?????

2 of 2
Code No: V3230/R07 Set No. 1
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-II
(Chemical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

## 1. (a) Give a brief account of diagnosing reactor ills in a reactor expected to be a

plug flow reactor.
(b) The concentration readings in the table represent a continuous response to the
pulse input into a closed vessel which is to be used as a chemical reactor for a
liquid decomposing with rate -rA = kCA , k = 0.307min - 1
Time t, min 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Tracer output concentration, 0 3 5 5 4 2 1 0
Cpulse gm/liter fluid
Find the fraction of reactant unconverted in the real reactor and compare this with
the fraction unconverted in a plug flow reactor of the same size. [6+10]

2. (a) Discuss about axial dispersion and the dispersion model. What are its limita-
tions and applications?
(b) RTD studies were carried in a tubular reactor ( L = 1.21 m, 35 mm ID ). A
squirt of NaCl solution ( 5 N ) was rapidly injected at the reactor entrance and
mixing cup measurements were taken at the exit. From the following results
calculate the vessel dispersion number, also the fraction of reactor volume
taken up by the baffles. ( ν = 1300 ml/min ) [8+8]
t, sec NaCl sample
0 - 20 0
20 - 25 60
25 - 30 210
30 - 35 170
35 - 40 75
40 - 45 35
45 - 50 10
50 - 55 5
55 - 70 0

3. (a) A viscous liquid is to react while passing through a tubular reactor in which
flow is expected to follow the convection model. What conversion can we
expect in this reaction if plug flow in the reactor will give 80% conversion?
Reaction follows zero- order kinetics.
(b) Write short notes on convection model and its RTD. [8+8]

4. (a) Sketch the contacting patterns which can give the same exponential decay
RTD.

1 of 2
Code No: V3230/R07 Set No. 1
(b) For a single fluid, discuss the role of segregation and earliness of mixing with
respect to
i. effect of kinetics, or reaction order
ii. effect of mixing factors for non- first order reactions,
iii. effect of conversion level and
iv. effect on product distribution. [8+8]

5. The rate law for the hydrogenation (H) of ethylene (E) to form ethane (A) over a
Cobalt - molybdenum catalyst is
-rE = K PE PH / (1 + KE PE )
Suggest a mechanism and rate limiting step consistent with rate law. High light
the most difficult part in finding the mechanism. 

6. Tell how many rate steps are involved in the burning of a carbon particle in an
C + O2 → CO2
Ignore the possible formation of CO
Sketch the schematics and explain. 

## (a) Parallel deactivation

(b) Series deactivation
(c) Side-by-side deactivation
(d) Independent deactivation. [4+4+4+4]

8. What is the difference between progressive conversion model and the shrinking core
model? Explain with suitable examples. 

?????

2 of 2
Code No: V3230/R07 Set No. 2
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-II
(Chemical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. A pulse test on a piece of reaction equipment gave the following results: The output
concentrations rose linearly from zero to 0.5 µmol/dm3 in 5 min, then fell linearly
to zero in 10 min after reaching the maximum value.

(a) Calculate in tabular form the values of E(t) and F(t) at 1 min intervals
(b) What is the mean residence time? If the flow rate were 150 gal/min, what
would be the total reactor volume? A second order reaction with kCA0 = 1.2
min - 1 is carried out in the system. 

2. (a) Write about dispersion model and mention its applications and limitations
(b) An injected slug of tracer material flows with its carrier fluid down a long,
straight pipe in dispersed plug flow. At point A in the pipe the spread of
tracer is 16m. At point B, 1 kilometer downstream from A, its spread is 32m.
What do you estimate its spread to be at a point C, which is 2 kilometers
downstream from point A? [8+8]

## 3. A reactor with a number of dividing baffles is to be used to run the reaction

A → R with -rA = 0.05 CA mol/liter. min.
Time, min 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Concentration 35 38 40 40 39 37 36 35

## (a) How many tanks in series is this vessel equivalent to?

(b) Calculate XA assuming mixed flow.
(c) Calculate XA assuming the tanks-in-series model. [6+5+5]

4. (a) Find the expression for conversion of a macrofluid in two equal-size mixed
reactors for a zero-order reaction. If conversion is 99% for the microfluid,
what is it for a macrofluid having the same reaction rate?
(b) Consider a single reacting macrofluid being processed in turn in batch, plug
flow and mixed flow reactors. How does the degree of segregation affect the
conversion in each case? [10+6]

5. A solid catalyzed gaseous reaction has the form A + B → C. Sketch curves of the
Initial rate (rate at zero conversion) Vs the total pressure for the following case.
The Mechanism is reaction between adsorbed A and adsorbed B molecules on the
Catalyst. The controlling step is the surface reaction. 

1 of 2
Code No: V3230/R07 Set No. 2
6. What is Thiele modulus. Discuss its physical significance with reference to the
diffusion in a single catalyst pore. Sketch the profile for effectiveness factor versus
Thiele modulus. 

7. What is catalyst deactivation? How and why it occurs? What are the factors that
are responsible for deactivating a porous catalyst pellet? 

8. What is Henry’s law? Discuss its role in gas-liquid reaction. If Henry’s constants
are 0.01 and 1000atm.lit/mol. What do you understand by them? 

?????

2 of 2
Code No: V3230/R07 Set No. 3
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-II
(Chemical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. (a) What are the various reasons for deviation from ideal flow?
(b) Explain RTD and the step experiment for determining E.
(c) A reactor with a number of dividing baffles is to be used to run the reaction
A → R with -rA = 0.05CA mol/liter.min. A pulse rate test gives the following
curve.

Time, min 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Concentration
Reading 35 38 40 40 39 37 36 35

## (a) Calculate XA assuming mixed flow.

(b) Calculate XA directly form the data. [2+6+8]

2. Tubular reactors for thermal cracking are designed on the assumption of plug flow.
On the suspicion that nonideal flow may be an important factor now being ignored,
let us make a rough estimate of its role. For this assume isothermal operations in
a 2.5-cm ID tubular reactor, using a Reynolds number of 10,000 for flowing fluid.
The cracking reaction is approximately first order. If calculations show that 99%
decomposition can be obtained in a plug flow reactor 3 m long, how much longer
must the real reactor be if nonideal flow is taken into account? 

## 3. A reactor with a number of dividing baffles is to be used to run the reaction

A → R with -rA = 0.05CA mol/liter.min . A pulse tracer test gives the following
curve.
Time, min 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Concentration 35 38 40 40 39 37 36 35

## (a) Calculate the variance of the curve

(b) How many tanks in series is this vessel equivalent to?
(c) Calculate XA assuming the tanks-in-series model. [8+2+6]

## 4. (a) Explain the difference in behavior of microfluids and macrofluids in a mixed

flow reactor.
(b) Derive the expression for a zero order reaction of a macrofluid in a mixed flow
Reactor. [8+8]

1 of 2
Code No: V3230/R07 Set No. 3
5. What is a catalyst? Explain its role in a chemical reaction with suitable examples.
Describe about the homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic processes. 

## 6. The irreversible reaction.

A(g) + B(s) → R(g)
Takes place on a solid catalyst B. Dilute A diffuses through a stagnant film onto a
plane surface containing B. There A and B react to yield R. The reaction is second
order with respect to ‘A’ Derive the over all rate of reaction interms of Kg, Ks, and

## 7. Sketch quantitatively the reactant ,product and activity profiles as a function of

length at various times for a packed bed reactor for the case kd  k. In addi-
tion,sketch the effluent concentration of A as a function of time. 
The reaction is simple isomerization
A→B
Rate law : -r0A = k aCA ,
Decay law: rd = kd aCA .

8. What is a fluid-fluid reaction? How it differ from fluid-solid reaction? Give some
examples of fluid-fluid reactions of industrial importance, gas-liquid and liquid -
liquid reactions. 

?????

2 of 2
Code No: V3230/R07 Set No. 4
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING-II
(Chemical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. (a) Define RTD and write about the experimental methods of determining RTD.
(b) A pulse input to a vessel gives the results shown in figure 1
i. Check the material balance with the tracer curve to see whether the results
are consistent.
ii. If the result is consistent, determine V and sketch the E curve. [8+8]

Figure 1:

2. (a) Write about dispersion model and mention its applications and limitations
(b) Water is drawn from a lake, flows through a pump and passes down a long
pipe in turbulent flow. A slug of tracer (not an ideal pulse input) enters the
intake line at the lake and is recorded downstream at two locations in the pipe
L meters apart. The mean residence time of fluid between recording points is
100sec and variance of the two recorded signals is
σ12 = 800 sec2 σ22 = 900 sec2

What would be the spread of an ideal pulse response for a section of this pipe,
free from end effects and of length L/5? [8+8]

3. (a) Assuming plug flow we calculate that a tubular reactor 12m long would give
96% conversion of A for the second order reaction A → R. However the fluid is
very viscous, and flow will be strongly laminar, thus we expect the convection
model, not the plug flow model, to closely represent the flow. How long should
we make the reactor to insure 96% conversion of A?
(b) Give a brief account of chemical conversion in laminar flow reactors. [10+6]

1 of 2
Code No: V3230/R07 Set No. 4
4. (a) Find the expression for conversion of a macrofluid in two equal-size mixed
reactors for a zero-order reaction. If conversion is 99% for the microfluid,
what is it for a macrofluid having the same reaction rate?
(b) Consider a single reacting macrofluid being processed in turn in batch, plug
flow and mixed flow reactors. How does the degree of segregation affect the
conversion in each case? [10+6]

5. What is a catalyst? Explain its role in a chemical reaction with suitable examples.
Describe about the homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic processes. 

6. How the particle size of the pellet will be affecting controlling mechanism of the
rate
³ in a´slurry reaction. Identify the rate controlling mechanisms by observing the
ln 1/rcr versus ln dp profiles on lag-log graph figure 2. 

Figure 2:

7. What are the experimental devices used for collecting experimental data to estimate
the kinetic parameters of a catalytic reaction. Explain the strategy of applications
of those devices for different reactions. 

8. Derive an expression to calculate the time required for complete conversion of par-
ticle when resistance through the gas film is controlling. List out the assummptions
clearly. 

?????

2 of 2
Code No: V3235/R07 Set No. 1
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
OPTOELECTRONIC AND LASER INSTRUMENTATION
(Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. (a) The velocity of light in the core of a step index fiber is 2.01 ×108 ms−1 ,and the
critical angle at the core cladding interface is 800 . Determine the numerical
aperture and the acceptance angle for the fiber in air, assuming it has a core
diameter suitable for consideration by ray analysis. The velocity of light in
vacuum is 2.999 ×108 ms−1 .
(b) An optical fiber has a numerical aperture of 0.20 and a core refractive index
of 1.59 determine.
i. The acceptance angle for the fiber in water which has refractive index of
1.33.
ii. The critical angle at the core cladding interface. [8+8]

2. (a) Explain why LEDs are primary sources in optical fiber communication system.
(b) With the assistance of a neat diagram, describe the process of spontaneous
and stimulated emissions. [8+8]

## 3. (a) What is meant by tunable laser? Explain how tunability is achieved.

(b) Describe in detail the construction and working of Alexandrite laser. [8+8]

4. (a) Discuss in detail about the different light modulating techniques that are used
in optical sensors.
(b) What is meant by photometric filtering? How is it used in optical sensors?
[8+8]

5. (a) With neat diagram explain about laser fusion in power plants.
(b) With necessary diagrams explain how lasers are useful in surgery. [8+8]

## 6. (a) Discuss in detail about holographic computer memories.

(b) With revalant sketches explain about recording and reconstruction of volume
holograms. [8+8]

## (a) Lasers and their tissue interaction

(b) Laser instruments for sugary. [8+8]

8. (a) With the assistance of an equivalent circuit, describe the function and opera-
tion of APD device.

1 of 2
Code No: V3235/R07 Set No. 1
(b) Define photocurrent gain. What are the elements that contribute to pho-
tocurrent gain? What is the relationship between reverse biasing voltage and
photocurrent gain? [8+8]

?????

2 of 2
Code No: V3235/R07 Set No. 2
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
OPTOELECTRONIC AND LASER INSTRUMENTATION
(Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

## 1. (a) Explain the phenomenon of pulse dispersion in step index fibers.

(b) Explain about intramodal and intermodal dispersion in optical fibers. [8+8]

2. (a) Describe, with suitable diagram, three common techniques used for the me-
chanical splicing of optical fibers.
(b) Describe the three types of fiber misalignment which contribute to the inser-
tion loss at optical fibers joint. [8+8]

## 3. (a) Explain Einstein’s theory of spontaneous emission and stimulated emission.

(b) Describe the construction and action of carbon dioxide laser. [8+8]

4. (a) Draw and explain the working of pressure sensor based on optical reflection.
(b) Write in detail about the optical sensors that work on principle of variation
of Refractive index. [8+8]

## (a) Lasers in diagnostics

(b) Laser in photo medicine. [8+8]

## 6. (a) With neat sketches explain about holographic interferometers.

(b) Discuss in detail about holographic computer memories. [8+8]

7. (a) What are the various laser instruments used for surgery give their merits and
demerits.
(b) Explain with relevant sketches how lasers are useful in the removal of tumors
in vocal cards. [8+8]

8. (a) Explain with relevant diagrams the basic principle of confinement of carriers
optical power in the active region of a double hetrojuntion LED.
(b) Discuss different modulation drive circuits for LED s and explain their oper-
ation. [8+8]

?????

1 of 1
Code No: V3235/R07 Set No. 3
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
OPTOELECTRONIC AND LASER INSTRUMENTATION
(Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. (a) What is meant by light guidance? Explain about the reflection of ray at a
plane boundary.
(b) Define ‘Reflectance’ and ‘Reflection coefficient’.
(c) A ray of light enters a glass optical fiber of Refractive index 1.45 surrounded
by air. Calculate the angle of incidence greater than which total internal
reflection occurs. [8+4+4]
2. (a) Differentiate between the fiber star and tree couplers.
(b) Discuss the major techniques used in the fabrication of multimode fiber star-
coupler. [8+8]
3. (a) Explain the term ‘population inversion’. How is it achieved.
(b) Under what conditions a set of laser beams are said to be coherent.
(c) Describe the construction of ruby laser. Illustrate the action of ruby laser with
a suitable diagram. [4+4+8]
4. (a) Discuss the application of fiber optic fluorescence sensor in measurement of
underground water contamination,
(b) Explain the working of optical sensor based on optical time-domain reflectom-
etry (OTDR). [8+8]
5. (a) What is laser Tracking ? With a neat diagram explain about laser tracking.
(b) With necessary diagram explain how lasers are useful in weather monitoring.
[8+8]
6. With necessary diagrams. Discuss in detail about the following:
(a) Holographic recording materials.
(b) Recording and reconstruction of fourier transform holograms. [8+8]
7. (a) What are the advantages of lasers in medical applications?
(b) List out all possible applications of lasers in medicine. [8+8]
8. (a) Write about the Fabry- Perot laser diode and list its operating characteristics.
(b) Draw the current / optical power output wave of fabry- perot laser and explain
the relationship. [8+8]

?????

1 of 1
Code No: V3235/R07 Set No. 4
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
OPTOELECTRONIC AND LASER INSTRUMENTATION
(Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. (a) What is the velocity of light in vacuum? Calcuate velocity of light in a glass
core optical fiber of refractive index 1.5.
(b) Define critical angle.
(c) Define attenuation. With the assistance of a formula, describe the input /
output relationship of a signal traveling through an optical fiber. [2+8+6]

## 2. (a) What are the fundamental performance characteristics of optical detector?

(b) Draw the schematic and Energy band diagram of a photodiode and explain
its operation.
(c) Define response time of a photo diode. [4+8+4]

## 3. (a) Compare the DFB laser with a Fabry - perot laser

(b) Discuss the techniques to improve the performance of DFB Laser. [8+8]

4. (a) Draw an explain the working of an optical fluid level detector and justify it is
and extrinsic sensor.
(b) Explain the working of reflective or photonic sensor for the measurement of
displacement. [8+8]

5. (a) With relevant diagrams explain the uses of lasers in material processing.
(b) List out the applications of lasers in Biomedical field. [8+8]

## 6. (a) Discuss in detail about various methods available in holography.

(b) With necessary diagrams, discuss the principle of operation of holographic
interferometers. [8+8]

7. (a) Explain in detail, how lasers are useful in removal of tumors of vocal cords.
(b) With neat sketches explain how lasers are useful in plastic surgery. [8+8]

8. (a) With the assistance of an equivalent circuit, describe the function and opera-
tion of APD device.
(b) Define photocurrent gain. What are the elements that contribute to pho-
tocurrent gain? What is the relationship between reverse biasing voltage and
photocurrent gain? [8+8]

?????

1 of 1
Code No: V3253/R07 ^ĞƚEŽͲϭ
III B. Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2010
FINITE ELEMENT AND MODELLING METHODS
(Aeronautical Engineering)
Time: 3 Hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions Carry Equal Marks
*****


ϭ͘ Explain with two examples equilibrium and energy bases for designing
stiffness and flexibility characteristics.

Ϯ͘ Consider a uniform bar under linearly varying distributed axial load q=cx.
Apply Raleigh-Ritz method and obtain (a) Displacement (b) Stress






## ϯ͘ Three dimensional simplex elements are used to find the pressure

distribution in a fluid medium. The xyz-coordinates of nodes I,j,k and l of an
element are given by (2,4,2), (0,0,0), (4,0,0), (2,0,6). Find the shape
functions Ni, Nj, Nk and Nl of the element.

## ϰ͘ Consider the differential equation.

d 2φ
+ 400 x 2 = 0 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 with the boundary conditions ĳ(0)=0, ĳ(1)=0. The
dx 2
functional corresponding to this problem, to we extremised is given by
1 2
­ 1 ª dφ º
I =³ ®− « » + 400 x φ ]dx
2

0 ¯ 2 ¬ dx ¼
Code No: V3253/R07 ^ĞƚEŽͲϭ

Find the solution of the problem using Raleigh-Ritz method using a one term
solution as ĳ(x) =c1x(1-x)

Bn x nbw

## (a) Thermal stress problem - A steel sleeve is inserted into a rigid

insulated wall. The sleeve fits snugly and the temperature is raised by
ǻT, indicate how you model the boundary conditions

## ϴ͘ Explain the mesh generation aspects of CAFEEM.




Code No: V3253/R07 ^ĞƚEŽͲϮ
III B. Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2010
FINITE ELEMENTS AND MODELLING METHODS
(Aeronautical Engineering)
Time: 3 Hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions Carry Equal Marks
*****


characteristics.

## 2. How do you choose interpolation functions for finite elements? Explain in

detail with an example.

3. Show that the condition to be satisfied for constant value of the field variable
r
is ¦N
i =1
i = 1 where Ni denotes the shape function corresponding to node i and r

## represents the number of nodes in the element.

4. A cantilever beam is uniformly loaded with w per unit length. Assuming the
πx 3πx
deflection as φ ( x) = C1 sin + C2 sin
2l 2l

## 5. What is super parametric formulation? Explain with two examples.

6. For a symmetric (10 x 10) matrix with all nonzero elements, determine the
number of locations needed for banded and skyline storage methods.

## ϴ͘ Explain in detail the mesh generation options of NASTRAN package.

Code No: V3253/R07 ^ĞƚEŽͲϯ
III B. Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2010
FINITE ELEMENTS AND MODELLING METHODS
(Aeronautical Engineering)
Time: 3 Hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions Carry Equal Marks
*****

1. Explain some bases of the finite element formulations.
2. Explain in detail area and volume coordinates with two examples

3. Triangular elements are used for the stress analysis of a plane subjected to
inplane loads. The components of displacement parallel to (x,y) axes at the
nodes I, j and k of an element are found to the (-0.001, 0.01) (-0.002,0.01)
and (-0.002, 0.02) cm respectively if the (x,y) coordinates of the nodes
shown in the figure are in cm find (a) displacement of the (x,y) displacement
components inside the element , and (b) the components of displacement of
the point (xp,yp)=(30,25) cm.

3
(40,40)


1
2
(20,20)
(40,20)



## 4. Determine the stiffness matrix of the stepped bar shown.

     

 
   
     
    

##     

Code No: V3253/R07 ^ĞƚEŽͲϯ

## 6. Provide an example to explain how element and node numbering is

performed to reduce the size of the stiffness matrix.

## 8. Describe the mesh generation techniques using NISA.

Code No: V3253/R07 ^ĞƚEŽͲϰ
III B. Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2010
FINITE ELEMENTS AND MODELLING METHODS
(Aeronautical Engineering)
Time: 3 Hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions Carry Equal Marks
*****

## 2. Explain the utility of generalized coordinates in representing continuum and

discrete systems.

## 3. Assume a rod of length 0.2 m with temperature at x=0 maintained at

1000C.Assume a constant heat source of Q=3(106)w/m3 along the length of
the rod, a boundary heat flux of q=3 (106) w/m3 along the length of the rod, a
boundary heat flux of q=1.8 (106) w/m3 removing heat at x=0.2 m and
thermal conductivity of k=6000 w/m.0k. Assume the area of the rod is 0.4
(10-3) m2. Determine the temperature distribution in the rod.

4. Evaluate the lowest Eigen value and corresponding Eigen mode for the
cantilever beam with the given data.

## 5. The interpolation functions corresponding to node i of a triangular element

can be expressed in terms of natural coordinates L1, L2 and L3 using the
relationship
Ni=f(i) (Li) f(i) (L2) f(i) (L3) ĺ (1)
p
1
Where f(i) (Lj)= 
k =1 k
( mL j − k + 1) if p ≥1 ĺ (2)
= 1 if p = 0

with i=1,2,…..n;
n=total number of nodes in the element
p=m L(ij ) n= order of the interpolation model
(2 for quadratic, 3 for cubic etc)
^ĞƚEŽͲϰ
Code No: V3253/R07
L(ij ) = value of the coordinate Lj at node i
Using equation (1) find the interpolation function corresponding to node 1 of

## 6. Clearly explain the connectivity and prefront routine employed in frontal

technique.
7. Derive the element matrices and vectors for the axisymmetric triangular
element shown.

Ŭ
;ϳ͕ϲͿ
 ƋϬсϱϬǁͬĐŵϯ
ŬсϲϬǁͬĐŵϬŬ
ŚсϭϬǁĂƚƚͬĐŵϮŽŬ
dьсϰϬϬ
ůĞŵĞŶƚ
 ! d ũ
;ϰ͕ϮͿ ;ϳ͕ϮͿ
ŚсϭϱǁĂƚƚͬĐŵϮŽŬ
dьсϰϬϬ

## 8. Explain the mesh generation techniques available in ANSYS.

Code No: V3256/R07 Set No. 1
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
PC BASED INSTRUMENTATION
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. Explain about the functional units of motherboard and their inter communication
with typical diagram. 
2. (a) What is STE bus conector?
(b) Explain different types of signals on STE bus conector. [4+12]
3. (a) Describe the need for an operating system.
(b) Describe the steps involved in loading whenever the system is booted. [8+8]
4. (a) What are the tasks performed by microprocessor in PLC CPU?
(b) Explain the function of each block in the PLC CPU processor with the help
of block diagram. [6+10]
5. Draw the ladder diagram to represent:
(a) Two switches are normally open and both have to be closed for a motor to
operate.
(b) A lamp is to be switched on if there is an input from sensor A or sensor B.
(c) A light is to come on if there is no input to a sensor.
(d) A motor is switched on by pressing a spring - return push button start switch
and the motor remains on until another spring - return push button stop
switch is pressed. [4+4+4+4]
6. Explain the following PLC Matrix functions.
(a) AND and OR matrix functions
(b) Complement and compare matrix functions. [8+8]
7. Write shot notes on the following: [8+8]
(a) Characteristics of PID module
(b) PLC PID operation.
8. Explain the following: [8+8]
(a) Applications of HART protocol.

?????

1 of 1
Code No: V3256/R07 Set No. 2
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
PC BASED INSTRUMENTATION
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. Explain in detail the bus structure with in a computer system, with the help of a
block diagram. 

2. What is IEEE GPIB interface? Explain the advantages, limitations and specifica-
tions. 

## 3. (a) Describe the steps involved in developing assembly language programs.

(b) List out the software tools required in the development process of assembly
Language programming. [10+6]

4. Describe the difference between a data processing and a process control computer
in detail with diagram. 

5. Draw and discuss a ladder diagram to actuate a relay coil when two toggle switches
and one limit switch are actuated. 

## 7. Explain P + I controller operation with an example. 

8. Explain how the FORCE mode function is used for PLC program testing and
analysis. 

?????

1 of 1
Code No: V3256/R07 Set No. 3
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
PC BASED INSTRUMENTATION
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. What are the different components included on the motherboard of a PC. Draw
typical layout diagram of mother board and explain. 

2. (a) What are I/O devices in Data Acquisition and Control system? Explain the
function of I/O devices in detail.
(b) What are the guide lines to be followed in selecting the data acquisition &
control? [8+8]

## (a) Int dos ( )

(b) Int 86 ( )
(c) Int 86 x ( )

4. Describe in detail each block of the PLC CPU power supply including the battery
backup system with the help of block diagram. 

## 8. (a) What is a field bus?

(b) Explain the operation of field bus with a neat diagram. [6+10]

?????

1 of 1
Code No: V3256/R07 Set No. 4
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
PC BASED INSTRUMENTATION
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. What is a snubber circuit? How do we protect solid state relays from DC transients
and AC transients. 

2. (a) What are I/O devices in Data Acquisition and Control system? Explain the
function of I/O devices in detail.
(b) What are the guide lines to be followed in selecting the data acquisition &
control? [8+8]

## 3. (a) Explain procedure to create Batch files in DOS with examples.

(b) Explain how parameters are passed to Batch files. [8+8]

4. Describe the operation of output module interface with the help of PLC output
module used. 

## 5. (a) Explain programming of a PLC with an example.

(b) Explain a ladder logic diagram. [10+6]

## 6. (a) What are the general characteristics of registers in a PLC.

(b) List the five major types of registers in a PLC. [8+8]

## (a) Applications of HART protocol.

?????

1 of 1
Code No: V3262/R07 ^ĞƚEŽͲϭ
III B. Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2010
IMMUNOLOGY
(Biotechnology)
Time: 3 Hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions Carry Equal Marks
*****


## 1. What is the difference between antigens and immunogens? Explain their

chemical biological properties. [16 M]

## 4. a. Explain B-lymphocyte cell lineage

b. What are Dendritic cells? Explain their functions. [8+8 M]

## 6. Describe in detail production of monoclonal antibodies and their

applications. [16 M]

## 7. Write short notes on:

(b) Diapedesis
(c) Autoimmunity
(d) Abzymes [4+4+4+4 M]

## 8. Write short notes on:

(a) Chimeric Immunoglobulin
(b) MALT
(c) Principle of hypersensitivity
(d) Graft [4+4+4+4 M]
Code No: V3262/R07 ^ĞƚEŽͲϮ
III B. Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2010
IMMUNOLOGY
(Biotechnology)
Time: 3 Hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions Carry Equal Marks
*****

## 3. What are different types antigenic determinants on antibody? Classify

antibodies based on the antigenic determinants [16 M]

## 4. Describe experimental models used treatment of autoimmune diseases .

[16 M]
5. Discuss different applications of monoclonal antibodies. [16 M]

## 6. What are the different types a granular leucocyte involved in Immune

response? Explain their functions [16 M]

## 7. Write short notes on:

(a) Immunosuppressive drugs
(b) Haptens
(c) Mast cells
(d) Spleen [4+4+4+4 M]

## 8. Write short notes on:

(a) TCR diversity
(b) APC
(c) Autoimmunity
(d) Tumor [4+4+4+4 M]
Code No: V3262/R07 ^ĞƚEŽͲϯ
III B. Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2010
IMMUNOLOGY
(Biotechnology)
Time: 3 Hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions Carry Equal Marks
*****

## 1. Describe differences between primary and secondary lymphoid organs .

[16 M]
2. Describe genetic control of antibody diversity [16 M]

## 6. Discuss mechanism of activation of B-lymphocytes and effector functions

[16 M]
7. Write short notes on:
(a) Innate immunity
(b) Active immunization
(c) Macrophages
(d) Lymph nodes [4+4+4+4 M]

## 8. Write short notes on:

(a) NK cells
(b) Graft rejection
(c) Phagocytosis
(d) IgE [4+4+4+4 M]
Code No: V3262/R07 ^ĞƚEŽͲϰ
III B. Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2010
IMMUNOLOGY
(Biotechnology)
Time: 3 Hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions Carry Equal Marks
*****

immunity. [16 M]

## 2. Explain function of macrophages and NK cells [16 M]

3. What are the secondary lymphoid organs? Explain their role in immune
response. [16 M]

## 4. Discuss in detail different types antigen – antibody interactions and their

significance. [16 M]
5. Describe Hybridoma Technology for production of monoclonal antibodies
and their applications. [16 M]
6. What is autoimmunity? Explain different models of treatment of
autoimmune disorders. [16 M]

## 7. Write short notes on:

(a) IgG
(b) Acquired immunity
(c) Antigen processing
(d) Tumors [4+4+4+4 M]

## 8. Write short notes on:

(a) Abzymes
(b) Transplantation
(c) Immunosuppressive drugs
(d) Bone marrow [4+4+4+4 M]
