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FLEXIBLE A.C.

TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS

Document By
SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY
Email: help@matlabcodes.com
Engineeringpapers.blogspot.com
More Papers and Presentations available on above site

These changes have been mandated by


provisions of the Energy Policy Act of
ABSTRACT 1992, and electric utilities to provide
open access to the transmission
The rapid development of system.
power electronics technology provides Several advanced methods are
exciting opportunities to develop new developed for maintaining a high
power system equipment for better degree of power quality and reliability
utilization of existing systems. Such as under a deregulated environment. At
enhancing the security, capacity and the distribution level, flexible control
flexibility of power transmission strategies involve computerized
systems. FACTS solutions enable automation of system control devices
power grid owners to increase existing such as capacitor banks, under load
transmission network capacity while tap changing transformers (Ultc’s)
maintaining or improving the and voltage regulators. In the
operating margins necessary for grid transmission system, a new method of
stability. Supply of reliable, high- achieving this control is through the
quality electrical energy at a use of power electronics based
reasonable cost is at the heart of the Flexible AC Transmission System
nation's economy. The electric power (FACTS) devices. This paper provides
system is one of the nation's important a comprehensive guide to FACTS,
infrastructures, and the infrastructure covering all the major aspects in
most closely tied with the gross research and development of FACTS
domestic product. In view of changes technologies. Various real-world
in both the operating and business applications are also included to
sector of the electric utility industry. demonstrate the issues and benefits of
applying FACTS.The objective of this transmission systems including series
project is to create a multi- impedance, shunt impedance, current, voltage,
phase angle and the damping of oscillations at
institutional power curriculum to
various frequencies below the rated frequency.
address this new environment and
technologies.

INTRODUCTION NEEDS OF FACTS


Over the years, it has become clear that the
maximum safe operating capacity of the
TECHNOLOGY:
transmission system is often based on

There are number of stability issues that limit


the transmission capability which include:
1. Transient stability
2. Dynamic stability
3. Steady state stability
The FACTS technology can be used to
overcome any of the stability limits, thus
enhancing the transmission ability and load
capability of the system.

voltage and angular stability rather than on its BASIC TYPES OF FACTS
physical limitations. So rather than constructing
new lines, industry has tended towards the CONTROLLERS:
development of technologies or devices that
increase transmission network capacity while
maintaining or even improving grid stability. FACTS devices are integrated in a system for a
Many of these now established technologies fall variety of reasons, such as power flow control,
under the title of FACTS (Flexible AC reactive power (var) compensation, loop flows or
Transmission Systems). They not only improve ancillary functions like damping of oscillations.
the capacity of power transmission systems, but These devices can be applied in shunt, in series,
flexibility is also greatly enhanced. and in some cases, both in shunt and series.
The FACTS is not a single high power Series devices include Thyristor-controlled series
controller, but rather a collection of controllers, capacitors (TCSC) and Fixed series capacitors
which can be applied individually or in co- (SC). Shunt devices include static vary
ordination with others to control one or more of compensators (SVC), and SVC Light®
the interrelated system parameters mentioned (otherwise known as STATCOM)
above. A well-chosen FACTS controller can
overcome the specific limitations of a designated STATIC SERIES
transmission line or a corridor. Because all
FACTS controllers represent applications of the COMPENSATORS:
same basic technology, there production can
eventually take advantage of technologies of
scale. Just as a transistor is a basic element for a Fixed series capacitors (SC):
whole variety of micro-electronic chip and
circuits, the thyristor or high power transistor is The series controller can be a variable
the basic element for a variety of high power impedance, such as capacitor, reactor. Or a
electronic controllers. power electronics based variable source of min
The opportunities arising through the ability of frequency, sub synchronous and harmonic
FACTS controllers to control the inter-related frequencies (or a combination) to serve the
parameters that govern the operation of desired need .in principle all controllers inject
voltage in series with the line. Even variable Controlled Series Capacitors (TCSC) provide a
impedance multiplied by the current flow proven technology that addresses specific
through it, represents an injected series voltage dynamic problems in transmission systems.
in the line. as long as the voltage is in phase TCSC's are an excellent tool to introduce if
quadrature with line current, the series controller increased damping is required when
only supplies or consumes variable reactive interconnecting large electrical systems.
power . any other phase relationship will involve Additionally, they can overcome the problem of
handling of real power as well. Static series Sub synchronous Resonance (SSR), a
compensation is used in order to decrease the phenomenon that involves an interaction
transfer reactance of a power line at power between large thermal generating units and series
frequency. The result is improved functionality compensated transmission systems.
of the power transmission system through:
1. increased angular stability of the power
corridor
STATIC SHUNT
2. roved voltage stability of the corridor
3. optimized power sharing between
COMPENSATORS:
parallel circuits
As in the case of the series controller, the
shunt controllers may have a variable
impedance, variable source, or a combination of
these. In principle, all shunt controllers inject
current into the system at the point of
connection. Even a variable shunt impedance
connected to the line voltage causes a variable
current flow and hence represents injection of
current into the line. As long as the injected
current is in phase quadrature with the line
voltage, the shunt controller only supplies or
consumes variable reactive power. Any other
phase relationship will involve handling of real
power as well.
Various types of Static
series compensators are:
Various types of static shunt
GCSC - GTO Thyristor-controlled series compensators are:
capacitor.  SVC -Static Var Compensation
TSSC - Thyristor switched series capacitor.  STATCOM–STATic
TCSC - Thyristor-controlled series capacitor.
SSSC - Static synchronous series compensator.
COMpensator.
Among these types, TCSC is the most
useful and has many applications. Thus we shall
be proceeding with the explanation of
TCSC(Thyristor-controlled series capacitor

TCSC - Thyristor-controlled series capacitor: Static Var Compensation


Thyristo
r SVC:
(Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor).With the
advent of STATCOM, better performance
Dynamic and steady-state voltage
control
Transient stability improvements
Power oscillation damping
Ability to control active as well as
reactive power.

Practical application of
statcom in Steel Industry:

Electrical loads both generate and absorb Industry, as well as commercial and
reactive power. Since the transmitted load varies domestic groups of users, demands power
considerably from one hour to another, the quality. Flickering lamps are no longer accepted,
reactive power balance in a grid varies as well. nor are deratings or interruptions of industrial
The result can be unacceptable voltage amplitude processes due to insufficient power quality.
variations, a voltage depression, or even a Demands for increased steel production and rules
voltage collapse. A rapidly operating Static Var for network disturbances have, together with
Compensator (SVC) can continuously provide increasing cost of energy, made reactive power
the reactive power required to control dynamic
voltage swings under various system conditions
and thereby improve the power system
transmission and distribution performance.
Installing an SVC at one or more suitable points
in the network can increase transfer capability
and reduce losses while maintaining a smooth
voltage profile under different network
conditions. In addition, an SVC can mitigate
active power oscillations through voltage
amplitude modulation.
compensation a profitable solution in the steel
industry. A common trend among steel
STATCOM: producers is to increase the rating of the
Electrical Arc Furnace. Often, the power supply
STATCOM (Static Compensator) has a is poor and insufficient. A modern and cost
characteristic similar to the synchronous efficient steel melting process demands a stable
condenser, but as an electronic device, it has no and steady voltage support for the Electric Arc
inertia and is superior to the synchronous Furnace. With dynamic reactive power
condenser in several ways - better dynamics, a compensation, the random voltage variations
lower investment cost, and lower operating and characterized by an arc furnace are minimized.
maintenance costs. STATCOM is to be selected The minimized voltage variations are achieved
when the technical performance in a specific by continuously compensating the reactive
application so requires. However, utilizing power consumption from the arc furnace. The
thyristors with turn-off capability (GTO or result is an overall improvement of the furnace
IGCT), which is the common approach in the operation, which leads to better process and
industry, does not allow the full potential of a production economy.
STATCOM concept to be obtained.
STATCOM are based on voltage source
converter technology equipped with IGBT
Applications of FACTS in networks is very important. FACTS have more
than proven itself when it comes to power
Power Systems: quality problems. as the following example will
illustrate.
Suppose a region or a country decides to
FACTS can confine or neutralize build a much needed steel plant. A suitable
electrical disturbances such as voltage sags and location is determined in terms of potential GNP
fluctuations, flicker, harmonic distortion, and growth and employment. However, the ability of
phase unbalance in three-phase systems. In the supplying grid is, in many cases, overlooked.
addition, improved economy of the process or The factory is built but the grid is often found to
processes in question will also be achieved. be weak or even insufficient. The result is
FACTS are designed to remove such constraints unsatisfactory plant performance as well as
in a fast and intelligent way so that planners', added "pollution" to the grid that spreads and
investors' and operators' goals are met without affects other industries connected to it.
them having to undertake major system In such cases, FACTS can confine or
additions. neutralize electrical disturbances such as voltage
FACTS solutions enable power grid owners to sags and fluctuations, flicker, harmonic
increase existing transmission network capacity distortion, and phase unbalance in three-phase
while maintaining or improving the operating systems. In addition, improved economy of the
margins necessary for grid stability. As a result, process or processes in question will also be
more power can reach consumers with very little achieved.
impact on the environment, project
implementation times are shorter, and investment
costs are lower when compared with the Long distance AC power
alternative of building new transmission lines or
power generation facilities. Flexibility is transmission:
provided as FACTS can influence several
parameters in the grid, such as active and
reactive power flows. In cases of long distance
The fast var capabilities of SVC make it AC power transmission,
highly suitable for: maintaining synchronism as well
Steady-state as well as dynamic voltage as stable system voltages,
stabilization. This means that power particularly in conjunction with
transfer capability is increased and system faults is very important. With series
voltage variations are reduced. compensation, safe bulk AC power transmissions
Synchronous stability improvements. over distances of more than 1,000 km are very
This in turn leads to increased transient much a reality today. With the advent of
stability and improved power system thyristor-controlled series compensation, greater
damping. capability as well as flexibility is added to the
Dynamic balancing of AC power transmission concept.
unsymmetrical loads.

Power quality improvement: POWER OSCILLATION


DAMPING IN INDIA:
Power quality includes many aspects: sags,
disruptions, harmonics, flicker and fluctuations
are just some of the phenomena involved.
Voltage sags, for example, result from faults in In
the grid and may be caused by lightening strikes,
insulation breakdowns or flash-over to ground.
Whatever the reason, maintaining or improving
power quality in transmission and distribution
India, two TCSCs have been installed on a To increase the installation
double circuit 400 kV power transmission inter- availability, or exchange obsolete technology. A
connector between the Eastern and Western typical problem may be the spare parts
regions of the grid. The total inter-connector availability or the desire to facilitate
length is 412 km. This AC inter-connector is maintenance.
needed so that surplus energy is exported from To add functionality to the
the Eastern to the Western regions of India installation, e.g. new control or protective
during normal operating conditions and during functions, remote communication, diagnostics,
contingencies. etc.
The use of TCSC ensures that inter-area
Changes in environmental
power oscillations between the regions are
requirements e.g. sound emission, seismic
damped. Without it, it is highly probable that
qualification, aesthetic perception, reduced
power transfer over the inter-connector would be
footprint, etc.
limited. Dynamic simulations proving the
effectiveness of the TCSC as power oscillation
dampers were performed during the design stage CONCLUSIONS:
and these were subsequently confirmed at the
commissioning and testing stage. A site view of
the TCSC is shown Control of power flow as ordered. The
use of control of the power flow may be to
follow a contract, meet the utilities own
INCREASING EXISTING needs, ensure optimum power flow, ride
through emergency conditions, or a
GRID UTILIZATION: combination thereof.
Increase the loading capability of lines
FACTS solutions are an attractive means to to their thermal capabilities, including short
raise the capability or enhance the reliability of term and seasonal. This can be
the grid. In many countries new transmission accomplished by overcoming other
facilities are not permitted and transmission grids limitations and sharing of power among
world-wide are as a consequence of load growth lines according to their capability.
stressed closer to their power transfer limits. In Increase the system security through
many cases FACTS solutions appear as an raising the transient stability limit, limiting
attractive short term means to raise the transfer short-circuit currents and overloads,
limit or to more generally enhance the reliability managing cascading blackouts and damping
of the existing grid. electro mechanical oscillations of power
systems and machines.
Provide secure tie line connections to
neighboring utilities and regions thereby
FACTS UPGRADE: decreasing overall generation reserve
requirement on both sides.
There are more than a thousand FACTS Provide greater flexibility in sitting new
installations worldwide. A great deal of those has generation.
been in-service for decades. Lifetime expiration Upgrade of lines.
is not the only reason to consider a FACTS Reduce reactive power flows, thus
upgrade. Other reasons may be: allowing the lines to carry more active
Changes in the power system, e.g. power.
short-circuit power may have or will be changed; Reduce loop flows.
there may be an urge to increase transmitted .
power, etc. Increase utilization of lowest cost
To gain from the technology generation. One of the principle reasons for
development taken place since the original transmission interconnections is to utilize
installation was delivered. lowest cost generation. When this cannot be
done, it follows that there is not enough cost
effective transmission capacity. Cost
effective enhancement of capacity will
therefore allow increased use of lowest cost
generation.

References:-

1. Understanding facts by
naraing. hingorani and laszlo
gyugyi.
2. http://www.abb.com.tw
3. diane.leonard@au.abb.com

Document By
SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY
Email: help@matlabcodes.com
Engineeringpapers.blogspot.
com
More Papers and
Presentations available on
above site