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‘Theodore Spandounes (On the origin of the Ottoman Emperors “Theodore Spandanes (oF Spandgnio) Belonged to a Byzantine fags fly who ha std in Vee afer the Osos conus of Comansiople in 4) He wrote an acount of the origins of the “Twkish ler and ofthe phesomena ie to power Iwas gary pe tothe Pope and prin of wen Chriaendom 0 ue gat the infdean one ofthe exe wos ofits kind “Theft version of the book, writen in In appre in 1909 ‘nd was eat eo Frech in 919. The fal verona mide 6 13a 2 fl intext at pln in 89, tough without ay ‘torial eommenary. This book presets an Engh ataaton of the {alle with apreee,cameary and nota dacusionofthe sce “thch pander might have contd and anamenmest of he vale sndinerest of this hither get and undead tease. BAR-ILAN UNIVERSITY 4 “THE MOSES HORNSTEIN (MEMORIAL LIBRARY ENDOWMENT FUND IN BIBLE AND JEWISH STUDIES Theodore Spandounes On the origin of the Ottoman Emperors “Translated and edited by DONALD M, NICOL 3) CAMBRIDGE 8 USiversrry Press aR, Sanson “fb bulng mpage net Cabs Us Rago oe eee Seton ag webu aa “Toned ome ain a aed Gs nl oP rama, Ch eh a pie a gh Cong ner Pei ene Ses Oey gh aon © Cm nest esp? “Tatlin Sr ary spn nt keperitas Ua lang ema, = endnote carpe eben pnd ne Cy Pr Pi nen King te ery Pro Cae {ype omer Aerie df ak afm hey ny ane abet e Spon Te ee a Sapien Bo pe pF nl ‘nr pda wif at en Ep “Tae mth tain wo ph ted. en ae idea MN all xi "shan uty Nl Boal Contents nroduction Genealogical ale Lis of abbreviations Map of Greece andthe Aegean On the origin ofthe Ottoman Emperors Dedication Noeand onmeny 1 ioe alco u sand men 1 Vv us 5 Introduction the carly sinteenth century in westem Europe there was a ready for works about the origins and history ofthe Ontoman Turks. ny of thom were collected and eeprintd with greater or lester racy in the celebrated compendium of Francesco Sansovino ded Misora Univeral del!” orgie, guerre, etimpero de Tachi, wont through seven eins berween 1565 and 1644. The which Sansovino collected and reissued were alin te Taian ‘Among them is a substantial pat of the present rentise, the tile of Dixcrso di Teadoro Spandupino Conacuine Pho Castasinoplitano Dall origin d'princip Turck, vided hee pars! Iewasnotthe fit work ofits kid, Busie asthe ist be presented by an author who was of Byzantine Greek extraction, all that he wrote in Taian. He knew his marke inthe wes, and ‘yas 10 western readers that he directed his observations on the ‘of a world power which was neither Greek nor Latin, nad already engulfed allofthe Greckspeskingeastand which, his day, seemed capable of conquering the rest ofthe Christian in western Europe, “Theodore Spandounes oF Spandagnino was proudto boast descent, the imperial Byzantine family of Canracuzene which had once Emperors of Constantinople and Despots or princes inthe family consetions in Sein and Bosna, He knew the Turks and "mc amo Mans amen 4 eat Irerodaction their language. He was not unduly bigoted against ther. He found ‘some thing to admire in Turkish culture, Yet, aa second-genertion GGresk-speaking refugee fFom Constantinople and the lost word of| Byzantium he felt bound to alert his Christian ein in the west 10 the dangor tha threatened them fromthe ast. From sme o time they ‘were jolted into an awareness of the danger. The Popes, the Holy Roman Emperors, the Kings of France and Spa, of Hungary and Poland, the Doges of Venice expressed pious horror and dread of impending doom, Momentous evets ik the fll of Constantinople sn 453, the Ottoman conquests of Smederevoin 1459, of Negroponte (Euboia) in 1479, of Belgrade in 1534, of Rhodes in 1522, oF the battle ‘of Mohacs in 152, concentrate their minds on the idea of a united ‘counterattack ora crasade against the infidel warioes ofthe Musi ‘ith, Spandounes sepeatedly deplores the inability of the westem (Chisian powers to sink their own perry squabbles and collaborate in this nobler and more vital eause. He was a devout Christian, though not given to the obsesive Orthodoxy which so many ofhis fellow Byzantine expatriates found comforting afer the loos oftheir material world. He conders the fgnorance ofthe Orthodox Christians. He was half in love with the humanist cukure of Kaly. He numbered Popes and prelates ofthe ‘Roman church among his acquaintances and indeed served as 2 confidant and adviser to Popes Leo X (115-31), Clement VII (ay25-34 and Paul IT (134-4). In them he saw the champions and promoters ofa just war which might dive the Turks a least out of Europe. He was particularly disappoimed by Pope Hadian VI (2-5) who showed litle enthusiaim for thie project. Spandounes accuses Hadrian, not without justice offing to suppor the Knights (of St John in Rhodes and s0 consbuting to thee defeat. There was ko some personal ill-will. For it was Hadrian who cut short the pension which his predecessors had been paying tothe Spandounes family. Ie wast the Republi of Venice, however, that Spandounes roduction his special allegiance; fort was in Venice thas forebears had accepted as refiges From Byzantium: and it was in Venice hat mostprobably wasborn. His moter, Eudokia, was a Cantacuzene, ich ended him 10 use that name. She had moved to Italy the fall of Constansinople in 1455; and about 1460 she had another Byzantine refugee called Mathew Spandounes or sgino.! Mathew is said to have distinguished himself sone of Greek cavalrymen in the service of Venice known asthe stad ore has nothing to say about his father’s military exploits; but ‘one reason or another Matthew was honoured by the Habsburg Frederick IL in 1454 with hettes of 2 Count and Kaight of Holy Roman Empire. He was also granted a fe in Greece on northern se of she Gulf of Corinth not far fom Naupaktos or Included the town of Loidorik and the offshore island of. for Teidona. 1 was ipa nie iam ad hardly in the gift a the ime; but the deed ay indicate the fact that his of Greece wasthe earlier home ofthe Spandounes fil, forthe of Trizona wa lo called Spandonis and the district had been he name of Cantacuzinopolis after thehercic deeds done there by one Constantine Cantacuzene> Spandounes and Endokia Cantacutene had at least three a daughuer who marsed Michael Trevisan of Venice; a cilled Alexander who served the interest of Venice and his own, asa merchant and Theodore. Mathew was dead by 151; but efor that dae, pethaps when Budokia died (before 1490), be the sill young Theodore wo be a ward of his great-aunt Mara oF eee ere coe ea ae poten of Cok rem nme tht Coron ine pn manly Vc deamon hg Danmar ae mnig og Sa een fn ofc Deanne oa pp a min Fh Jrradution Maria who was living in some styl as a weaihy widow in eastern ‘Macedonia. Mara-Mara was aSerbian princess who had been gvenia ‘marriage to che Ottoman Sultan Murad I When he died in 1951 she Inad been granted her feedom as the favoured stepmother of his ‘son and successor, the Sultan Mehmed Il, sn so be known asthe Conqueror, He wt very attached to hee asa mother-igure, forall that she remained a Christan; and it was he who inthe end settled her ‘on he extate at Jedevo in Macedonia nor far fom the city of Serresin usp. She war well provided for and mainaned a privileged and protected enclave of Chistian faith and charicy in what had become a ‘Muslim world, Her stepson allowed her 1 be joined at Jelewoby her der sister Catherine who had become a widow in 1456 andthe rwo ‘widowed ladies for many years thereafter held court in Macedonia “Though they did not venture far afield hei influence was well known and respected not only in Turkish Constansiople ut also in ‘Christian Venice, Ambassadors from Venice and elsewhere in the ‘west would ofien make a detour on thir missions 10 the Satan Mehmed to ssek the advice and support ofthe great man’s step- mother 1 was inthis exalted and privileged atmosphere that Theodore Spandounes spent soe of his boyhood and it was no doubs under the care of his great-aunts Mara and Catherine cat he leat some "Turkish and acquired his interest in the history and exstoms ofthe ‘Ottoman people and their rulers. In later life he was to put his knowledge to good use. For he had relatives, rend and acquaint ances ia many quarters ofthe Christian and Moslim wodds ofthe late filcenth century, in Venice, in Constantinople, inthe great cy of| "Thessalonica which the Turk had taken from the Venetians in 1430, in Greece and the Aegean islands and in Serbia, He seems to have ‘sited Constantinople in 05, after peace, ora leasta truce haben * Ones. Te yin (mii. 9 8-049 Introduction -erween Venice nd the Onomaa Porte fllowing three yearsof is purpose was parly to try to disentangle the business ‘of his brother Alexander who, like many other Venetian sin the Oxtoman Empire, had bee rancaly ruined by the ofthe peace treaty, for it had allowed the Tks wo erin all Venetian goods thar they had seized during the hostilities. He was ate to make any representations, fore found that his brother had Nothing of his fortune was ever restored. ft was, ashe admits, to fiom the shock ofthis afar that he undertook the laborious cof composing his account ofthe rise ofthe Ottoman Empice. ‘The patriotic Greek scholar and statesman of the nineteenth y Constantine Sathas, who produced the fist proper text of ‘eagerly seed upon any scraps ofvidencein shat ext to that its author had been one of he glorious radia, heroically ing Venice and his Greek fitherland in warfare against the Turks, evidences meagre, Theodore’ patriotism oti doubs uct patriotism fr the whole Christian woe, castand west alike, as well as Greek. It was not directed, as Sathas would have to prove, simply 10 a war of Greek independence fom the . To Spandounes the word Greece or Grecia meant Europe, ‘merely the peninsula of the Hellenes. Taking his eve from the he divided the word ito Greia or Rumalia and Asia or ia the European and the Asiatic trios. Byte ime hate -wtting Anatolia had been Turkish for many generations Ir was ly ivedcemabe. His concem was to ensure that Greece, or jan Europe, should nt sue the same fate. Theres, however, in his work to suggest that he ever took up arms in the ease What infiuence or westh he enjoyed derived more probably business, merchandise or property. On the other hand he knew ‘where and in what quarters he could best exer hi inlence ous persuasion incined him more 1 the Koman church ‘than tothe Orthodoxy which wa is ancestral ft andi was othe snorouction Popes and princes ofthat church chat he advessed himself Ir was to Pope Leo X that he sent the second draft of his rats in 1519S He cmphasised the moral thatthe victories of the Tueks in Europe were signs of God's punishment ofthe princes of Christendom for ‘reed and selfshnes, Disaster upon dsastr could beatibuted othe sins of the Christians This was music tothe ear ofthe leaders of| the church. In truth, however, Spandounes was more excited by the new humanism in Renastnce Italy than by Christianity whether GGreck or Roman, sympathetic though he was 10 the plight of CCuistians condemned to live under Turkish rule. He goes ou of his ‘way to record how Sigismondo Malatesa exhumed the mortal remains of the neoplatonist philosopher George Gemisios Pethon fom Mista and brought them to Rimini He clivated the fiend- ship of the humanist scholar Janus Lasars who like himself, claimed ‘Byzantine ancestry. twat friendship tht cost him dear for Laas Ina heen acting as ambassador of the French King Louis XII in Venice and was obliged to leave when the League of Cambrat was formed in December 198, Spandounes, as a suspected Francophil, ‘was ened by the Venetian government. He was later tobe found in France; and it was to Louis XII thar he presented another early ‘version of his treatise on the Oxtomans. He was back in Venice in 1516, atively pressing is lim to possession ofthe castle of Belgrado ‘Fea, which igh belonged ro his faher Mathew and which the ‘Venetians had appropriated” He had interests of his own and perhaps property in the cy of “Thesalonia, where Venetian merchants had serled agin after its ‘conquest by the Turks in 1430. In 1458 the Sultan Mehmed tt had ranted Theodore’s great-aunt Maria-Mara fall posession of and ‘Fights over the monastery ofS Sophia in the city; and one ofthe most TSEREESSERENS sendy an ep hurodcton osperous and sucesfl ofthe business men there was a member of se's own faily, Loukas Spandounes! He dod in 148t and ered his own success and claim to immoral fame by a huge ¢ lavish marble tomb which sil, somewhat incongruousy,cccu- cs wall ofthe grst and ancient Byzantine church ofSt Demetrios Thesslonica, It seems incongruous because itisa blatantly Talia Jjnument ofthe Venetian Renassance style. Yet the inscription on recording the many virtues of the deceased is carved in elegant ical Greek Ietering nthe form of iambic metre, Itis strange that, nothing is known about Loukas Spandounes. The ecord of. is talens and achievements before his death in January 48 isso rial generalized that the elegant inscription reveals no rial facts He was ‘an exe fom his county’ nother words a from Constantinople; and atthe end hes described 2a scion Byzantium and ofthe Hellees. Yeti s obvious thatthe syle sculptural adornment of his monuments nether Byzantine or I undeniably Venetian inform and fashion; and it was bly produced inthe workshop of Piet Lombardo in Venice. odoreSpandounes commented on and admired the gest tomb of Doge Pietro Mocenigo ia Venice which was created in the same only a few years before that of his own relative Loukas dunes Whoever Loukas may havebeer, nd Theedore makes mention of hit, histomb remains testimony othe wealth ofthe rodaction only to record his memory of having known ofthe presence there of Ishak Pasha, who was Ottoman governor ofthe ety from 1482 10 "uf. Tt was he who built the Alita mosque which sil stands in the upper town of Thesslonica. The same Iskak Paska had helped Bayer Io become Sultan in Constantinople in 1481. Tis strange that Theodore has nothing say abou his illustrious older contem- porary and relative Loukas Spandounes, who was evidently a very ‘wealthy and inlentl citizen of Turkish Thesslonea. Several cher members of the Spandounes family are recorded berween the four- teenth nd siteenth entries allo whom could no doubt race thee origins back to Byzantine Constantinople, Theodore wat not alone in describing himself a Contaninopoltan’. Some, however, were gin Venice early asthe 1570 and their names, in the ean {orm of Spandlino or Spendine appear in Venetian documents of the time." ‘Theodore’s grestgrandather on his mother George Palsologos Cantacuzene who fst distinguished himself in the service of Constantine Paailogos, Despot ofthe Peloponnese, ‘who was to become the las Byzantine Emperor. George waa scholar as well as soldier, He left the Peloponnese about 1437 and, afer a ‘while in Constansinople he seed in Serbia where his sister Birene had married the Serbian Despot George Brankovig. I was he who bul dhe great fortress of Smederevo on the Danube; and Theodore records with pride how his ancestor helped 1 defend i against the Hungarians in 496 He ded shout four years ier! The other sister side was one On at Pa pode Satan». 34 buns, Te etn te oe rac Mp nv Yap, ree ‘mr Benonctcy men 2 cea atmo scl en fe pda ity dom 9 8 we Fees vam ebayer SES pa. on Ga tn cnn Na Pome reroucion George Paluiclogoe was Helena, who became the wife of David the last Greek Emperor of Trebizond. ‘Theodore’ of Helena'stragic death n 1463, whichis recorded inno other mst ave been an oftn-told anecdote in hie family. He was naturally well informed about the Serbian family of his other -auntEiren, the wife of George Brankovig for the elder of two daughters was chat Macia-Mara who, a6 the widow Sultan Murad Il, lived at Jebevo in Macedonia under the protecion er devoted stepson Mehmed Il It was with her that Theodore 3, hor great-nephew, stayed asa child. He ao knew her Catherine, who had marred Ulich I, Count of Gilly, in 434. ‘was astsnated in 1496 and Catherine, fier some stormy joined her widowed seria her estae in Macedonia. Al hat had managed o save fom the wreck of her family fortunes was a in Friuli and in 188 she made this ove to Theodore’s father Spandounes. Theodore therefore knew much ofthe lol ry of Friuli and Gori through Catherine of Cilly when she was, with her sste Maran Macedonia He recalls tht Catherine's rmarted Matthew I Corvinus Hunyadi of Hungary, who in 1490. He also recalls hat, when he was lad and inthe care his great-aunt, he saw a crowd of Christian prisoner-of-war at that ofthe Duchy of SSavain Bosnia. For Anna, another ofthe deughters of Theodore’ grea-grandither George had maried favor Vladislav, Duke of Se Sava, about ras. When the Sultan ed I invaded Bosna in 1465 Anna fled with her husband co fungary, where Ladidas sors to have died in 1489, Theodore "Spade Si vo. On Cahn iN gi Fh Somes SS es ome Introduction -ecalsthat the unhappy couple stayed with his familia Venice when ‘they were on their Way to Hungary. ‘Among Theodore’s more isan relatives tapped in the ruins of the Byzantine Empire in the Balkans andthe east were some who despated and went ove tothe enemy by becoming or being made Muslin. One was the younger brotber of Lass, Duke of St Sava, ‘who had been given as ostage to Mehmed Late inhi life he came t0 be known 3 Sinan (or Ahmed?) Pasha Herzegoglou, oF som of the Duke (Here) and oto the hgh feof Beery of “Anatolia Another was Mesh (or Mesi) Pasha (Palilagos), who parkipsted in Meh I's aborive ack on Rhodes in 480. He vas evden brother of Theodore’spandmother ats n sie he redeemed his reputation in the military service of the Sultan ‘Bayesid I who made him Beyleey of Runa and Grand Visit. He hud a brother called Hass Murad Pash (Paiologos) who became a favourite ofthe Suan Mehmed I “There are two independent sources for the family background and ancestry of Theodore Spandoune, although both ae more directly ‘concerned withthe genealogy of the fay of Cantacuzene, to which “Theodoce's mother belonged. Neither mentions the name of Spandounes; but both provide mach information about persons ‘whom Theodore names a his forebears: One isthe short dossier of documents relating to the Cantacuzene family dawn up by Hugues| ‘Busac early in the sinteenh century. Busae was a member of the French ascendancy in Cyprus. He bad marred Carola Cantacuréne dle Flory, daughter of James 11 de Flory, Count of Jaf. Her mother, Zoe Cantacazsne, was one ofthe five daughters of George Palaologos Cantacuzene whom Spandounes lied a his mothers Senn aS pf. On A'S Ne nti Fa “SEMEL Stn nnn cn noduction (Cavo mater’), Carola died in Rome in 1915. Busac’s Ws, writen in a form of Greek transcribed in Roman rs, were published in 1952. other source remains unpublished, Is contained in manu inthe Vacan (Codex Vatcanus Latins 13127, fot 349°), some of the minor works of Angelus Massarllus. It is ‘Dellimperadori Consaninopolian’. Massrellus was scrctary snd diars ofthe Council of Trent and die in 1566. he bad aces to documents the Vatican which are other- unknown but there is no knowing his reasons for compiling amounts toa work of genealogy deualing the ramifications of ‘of Palsilogos and Cantacuzene in the fourteenth and centuries, Some of his information sfancifals but much oft inary accurate and can serveto correct, controlar ampify offered by Spandounes and by Busac about members ofthese The text and ie sources Spandounes produced several versions of his treatise, rewriting and adding new passage it over a number of All were writen in Kalin. His Sr vection was dedicated to ‘Louis X11 of France (1498-1619), in whose kingdom he was in enle from Venice fom 1509. This was translated into bby Balarin de Raconis in ts and formed the basis of the eer ros rede ts CC yi Coe ro den caren pe TVonics fraruninetgeemeesopohrtt ese Gp anes nS ae nm 9. ft eoucd wee a Tot Boase for pe oat we apt ssi Pen rete alae Tagh iedontintay naar tnangc nga mney Ireroducion French eltion by ©. H. A. Schéfer which was published in 1896 tundce the tiles Patt wei’ de Urine des Turse par Théodore “Spondouyn Canaczi Pats, 1896). This, witha sdeficlences, was forlong the only published version ofthe text. ‘A few yeas Iter Spandounes prepared a revised version, This he presented to Pope Leo X, with 3 copy to Giovanni Giber, who had been the private secretary of Pope Clement VI and papal legate 10 Venice in 153 Bishop of Verona His inal version, made in 538, he presented to Henry of Valois, Dauphin of France, later to Become Ring Henry 11 (1547-59) It is on thio version chat the present ‘ranalation or paraphrase based, Is nota tral translation, forthe Talian text i feequently repetitive and unnecessarily verbose; and some of the passages oft have been only summarised or condense. 1 was fit published in printed form at Lucea in sso and then, with ‘numerous inaccuracies a Florence ia 15915 and it was this printed form, with all irs defects, which was reproduced by Sansovino in s6s4.8 The fill text, however, was first published by the Greek scholaran statesman Constantine Sthas in 89, nthe inh volume ‘Of his great collection of documents concerning the history of ‘Greece inthe middle ages; and this isthe text which 1 have had before Saas farished his eition with long Preface in French but with ro commentary ornoteson the bare tex Iris arly to fil his gap that 1 undertook the present snd. For although Spandounes was no systematic hitorian and many of his feral errors ean be demon- 2 sei ei Foo. TEOMSAR aan eS torn an nh hin Shes ra na eens nl ct an ee Sem mori mae nrg ni pr ‘Seer Se cacao epi nG So Sen oe (Se ho Irroduction 1, mich of his material is original, unique and sometimes ning. One extract ftom the final redaction of his reatise he to. friend called Constantine Musachi whom he seemed 10 ‘met in Rome in 1535 and who compiled a numberof notes and abouthis own fly and ancestors in Epiros and Albania. The ‘of Spundouness contribution to this curious compilation was hel in 875 by Carl Hopf in his Chroniger grésoromanes pea cones (Belin, 1873), pp. 315-s$, under thei: Breve del dcendent de sr casa Masaci sources from which Spandoures derived his information are hard mine. It is evidenthathe had accesso many orl and perhaps xy accounts of family history and even to eye-wimess of certain events, The writen narativesources which he may sed, however, ae elusive. He makes much of his reliance on he call the ‘anal di Tureh. But there ismo clear evidence that read any ofthe works of she Turkish annals and chroniclers have survive, such as Mehmed Neshri, Tursun Beg or Tho | There is no doubt that there were ether Tuskish writers works have not survived; and one may therfore allow es the benef ofthe doubt on this matter The sme does however, hold good for the Greck historians ofthe fiieemh ry whose wring should have been available to him. Notable theses Lacnikos Chalkokondes, often called the last ofthe historians, whose record of evens spans the years from to 1463, with numerous digressons and accounts of affairs the years 1484 and 1487. Chalkokondyles, like Spandounes, his emphasis more onthe progres ofthe Ontoman Turks than on main eatereimn note an, 98, = aa rerun the demise of the Byzantines and he ceatly had acess wo Turkish source. Spandounes could have read some of this account; but the ‘only diret reference that he makes 1 Chalkokondyls i inaccurate ‘oat east misleading? (Ofthe Greek hisorins ofthe fal of Constantinople a 1455 and of ‘the reign ofthe Sultan Mehmed I, Spandounes makes 0 mention. “This is peshaps not surprising, OF the Hlaary of Doukas, which ‘coves the years fom 134 to 146 there are now only two known ‘manuscripts and theft printed edition appeared in 649, although | there was an Talia translation made about a hundred years calc. Of the Hires of Krieoboulos of imbeos (1451-67) the only known manuscript isin the Seraglio Library in Istanbul and belonged to “Mehmed II 1 whom its author dedicated it. Satis claimed to detect echoes ofthe text of Kritboulosin Spandounes and suggested that he ‘mighthave read itn Constaninopleorin the ibrar of his great-aunt Maria-Mara in Jeiovo. But the echoes are hard 10 find." Of the ‘Memoirs of Geonge Sphrantaes (1401-77) there are no known man ‘scrips eres than the sient century and no printed eon before 1796 The Gruck Chronicle of the Turkish Suns (1373-1512) was probably writen by a Grek living in Venice or on Venetian-held territory and could have been useful to Spandounes. Buti its present form the Chronicle is no older than 17:5 Finally, chene i the so-called Voyages of Nikandtos Noukios, «native of Corfu who seated in Venice where he seems to have worked as copyist and editor of Greek manuscripts, He was presenta the Turkish assault on Corfu in 137-8 and his account ofthat events therefore expecially pros 6 Nin Emp ne Anan ra” {eto at fram ee = Speteeyed pe eae PERSE Son Then che nde roucton le. But his work was not complete until 14st atthe eariest and therefore have been availble to Spandounes.®* nines was not the fst to attempt a history ofthe Oxtomane fn, Nor was he by any means the ls.” Sansovino's collection rcatises,ncadng the earier version of Spandounes, testifies erange and popularityand one nesd notaccepthe patronising of Franz Babinger tht ‘It is hard to think of anything silier degrading than the ani-Turkis literary exercises thatthe humanists of fly sumed ou in those years Only the etliest productions, however, could have been availble 10 anes and ofthese two names stand out: Nicola Sagundine and i Maria Angiclello Sagundino, who knew Greek, had been service ofthe Venetian Republic in Negroponte (Euboia) and nica; and when that ity was captured by the Turks in 430 ‘been taken prisoner and held for thirteen months before ack to Negroponte. He acted a an interpreter tthe Council ce in 1438-9. In 1456 he wrote for Aeneas Sylvine sO De rigine et gets Tarra liber, which Babinger ‘the frst European attempt a a istory ofthe Ottomans’. Ie ‘ormay nothavebeen consulted by Spandounes, The first printed oft appeared in Viennain 1551.” Angiclelo of Vicenza wrote ia turcesca covering the yeas 1300 14 Tis not included 0 and was not published until goo. He served the Suan Tas slave from 1470 and then inthe Otoman army under ‘command of Mehmed’s son Mustafa in the campaigns against Hasan in 1472-3. Aer Masai’ defeat and death in 1474 be pny a Pon pe sacs Sedan peo Tu, Sa Irerodaction severed 10 the Sultans service and took part in campaigns against Stephen the Great of Moldavia (1476), against Mathew Corvinus in Bosnia (1476-7) and agains the Veneans in Albania (1478). Afr ‘Mchmed’sdeathin 1481 he escaped homeo Vicenza, Later, owever, ‘he returned othe eat, to Persia; and he also wrote an account of the lie and deeds of Unun Hasan. Angioello's works, pechaps rather more than thote of Sxgundino, might have been helpful 10 ‘Spandounes in his researches; bu there is no clear indication that he knew of ether” Nor, it seem, was he acquainied with the writings of Paolo Giovio, which are so similar sn form t0 his own. Giovio's com- ‘mentaries on the origins of the Ortoman Empire, the ives of is Selans and the nature and strength oftheir armed fores probably ‘appeared t00 late for Spandounes to consul them, although one of them was published in Rome before #53. The only Tian chronicler af his day 10 whose work Spandounes makes specific reference by ‘ame is Marino ‘Scodrense’, or Marius Barlsus. Mains wrote an ‘account ofthe siege by Mehmed I of Skodra(Shkodr) i Albania in ‘ara shich was printed at Venice in 150g He also wrote a Life ofthe celebrated Albanian leader George Kastiues Skanderbeg, which was fest prined at Rome in 1509 or 110, Is evident that Spandounes knew the fst of thexe publications ifnot both." “Three other chroniclers ofhistime whose writings could haveeen known 10 Spandaunes were Constantine of Ostrovica, Felix ‘Ragusinus and George of Hungary. Consanine Mibsilovig, bora 4k Ontroviea about 149, served in an expeditionary force com- tmandcered fom George Brankovi, Despot of Serbia, by the Suan “Mehmed ifr assist in the siege of Constantinople in 1453. After that ple i th side, Pa el (SpE eel Conse Chey Lad, = niyo Cond es nrouction went back to Serbia and was ten prisoner bythe Tks when captured Novo Bro. He was then foribly enrolled in the saris, became a Muslim, and fought on various campaigns. In 53 he was a Zeta in Bosnia, where he weleomed the iberaion prt of the country by Mathew Corvinus. He revered t0 rity and Sinaly sled in Poland; and there he composed bis erween 1490 and 14, perhaps originally in Serbian, then nto Poh and Czech. The historical sceton of his work 9 1037) narrates Onoman and Serbian history fom Osman he cape ofKiiaand Akkeran by Bayes in 484-One note- fete of his account isthat nowhere does he make mention Venice orth Venetians. Spandoures, when emphasising his own ance on Turkish soures, makes passing remark about German, and ether chronicler. This might be consrod asa reference Constantine of Ostovica Fea Ragin ot Felix Potancé was ascolar who worked atthe ca Corvin at Bud fom 1487-90. He was then a notary and at Dubrovnik (Ragusa) ia 1496 Later e was again t Buda a court of Matthew Corvinus seceior, Vlainlas who sen him diplomatic misions to Rhodes (502), to Vere (104). t0 Spin, France and othe cour of Selim Tat Constantinople in 31.0 1512 wrote fo Vlada It 3 Miso ie (aneived) and in 1516 2 ck ented: De orgie ct mtr dip magni Terce dem sue habia ie, which was published in 3302 Finally there was George of Hungary, or ‘Brother George’ of \hlenbsch. George was among the thousands caprred during the id on Transylvania in 438 He wasthen sll aboy and he ined a prisoner ora slave, fr rweny yeu. Airis escape he sao, ein 1, te Come Oren Fe Shao an Senge le Fb Pepin. ra 7 Inrodcion became a Dominican friars and in 1479 he wrote his Zractars onthe “Turks. It wae frst printed in Rome in 148o and was remarkably popular. A German translation oft was published at Wienber in 1539, with a Preface by Martin Lathe; and in ts Latin or German editions ic was reprinted many times inthe siueenth cenmry. Is popularity stemmed from he fc thatitwasnotso mucha calltarms gaint the Muslims asa handbook for survival for thone Christians ‘who had the misforune tobe taken captive by the Turks. He knew them well, however, and, like Spandounes, he was not above com- ‘merling some oftheir characteristics and customs. “These were the son of works which were of interest and concerto -westemers in the sicteenth century. Ordinary readers were fascinated by the origins ofthese orenals who were so defiantly anti-Christian ‘and who had ssen ro such heights of power and influence over the ‘world, taesmen were interested to discover all that could be known shout the structure and governmental system of the (Ottomans, Theodore Spandounes, lke others before and aftr him, set out to provide information about the historical development of the Oroman Empize, bu alo about the form ofits government and society and is military and naval suength. The second and shorter past of his treatise sims to record this statistical information. His efforts otanlterate Turkish word and les produce some srange and occasionally baling results. His near contemporary Angiolello and how the Emperor Casseuzene had rounded up allzheporntates z (On the origin ofthe Ottoman Emperors: 1 and lords in Albania and appointed governors and landlords who ‘were his servants. When he ded, having volunaly forfeited his sovereignty and become a monk, Albania was wholly denuded of| fighting men and was peopled by more petty lords fighting one another than there were towns and castles init. rim Bayesid, who was always on the watch, invaded Albania and perpetated unbelievable butchery and destin. He captured Valona and then tamed on Greece and took ‘Solna’ [Salona on the efi atthe entrance tothe Gulf of Patras. Then he went on to lay siege to antnople ‘The ety mighe well ave fallen tothe Turks had itnotboen forthe sight of the Emperor Manuel Il]. He sent to the Emperor of Tarts, the Grand achat 0 inform him ofthe siege and ofthe activities of ldrim Bayesid. He suggested that it would be honourable ifthe great city of Constantinople surendereditelf 2 most noble Emperor, Sachati than fall into the hand ofthe ns, who were the descendans of mere shepherd. Sachats Dy puting several thousand warriors in the id wo attack plunder all Natalia, killing men, women and children of che 25 though they were not Mahometens ofthe same ath but deceit dogs Idrim Bayer had not anticipated that sich army would desend upon hm wth such wrath He crossed into with his own army: and with him was the son ofthe King of Giorgio, who, afte his father’s death was samed Despo; and suffered more snd more damage ftom their enemies. Finally, in atl, drm Bayexid was taken prisoner and the rest ofthe army was complecly desuoyed and persed.” The great ln Sachata then came and established hinuelf in Bursa, the Emperor Manuel sent ambesador o offer him obedience Sachatsi, ke the magmanimoas lord that he was, exercised @ liberality for he replied tothe ambassadors: ‘it snot God's thaca most splendid ey, all oF nobility and ubanity, should be “Theodore Spandounes made a slave and a subject. Lam aot moved by ambition or by greed to acquire cts, lands and countries. Ihave enough of these. My ‘motive isthe defence of nobility, asi he dur ofa good emperor. Live therefore under your ancient laws, and I shll chasse anyone ‘who sso rashas to want enslave you." He went back whence he ad come; and he kept Idrim Bayexid continuously bound by golden ropes and took hm with him wherever he went in anion cage, sd sade him serve as amounting block with his shoulder. / ‘When Sachataigorback1o Seyi’ he staged magnificent riumph forhis vcwry over Bayeid and a great aembly atended by aloe all the lords and princes of Seytias ad the cage containing Rayexid ‘was brought in. Then [Sachatai] did something very out of keeping -withhis grandeur and noble character. He had Ildrim's wif, who was also his prisoner, brought in and he cased her clothes tobe sipped down to her navel so that she showed all her pudenda; and he made her wait upon and serve fod to all his guests. drm, secing hie wife thus shamed, bewiled his fortune and waned to kill himself a once. ‘Bute ha no kafe or other means. So he banged bis head agains the iron bars of his cage so hard that he dispatched himself miserably After him hs son Mehmed (Mehemeth’) came to power. He was the Sis ofthat name and alo the fst cal himself Suan” So Sultan Mehmed [1], the Sith Emperor ofthe Turks, succeded his acer tin Baye and when Sacharal died he recovered bis [kingdom and chased ou the governors whom Sacha id installed. ‘After the bale in which Bayesid was capeured, one of his sos, Mustapha, died. There were thre other sons whom he had let st ‘Adinople, namely: Sultan Mehmed and ewo others As soon s he heard of his father’s capure, [Mehmed] summoned his brothers and fod wo Karamania(‘Caramano"); and there he stayed until Sachat’s death after which he sumed the Empire of the Turks, ruined and fagmented though twas.” The Tutkis historians did wot praise him ‘ery highly because he did nos acquiceary more testory. Sil in my H (the orgin of he Ozman Emperors ‘opinion he was a most valiant prince. He found his fairs in etal isueray; yet he constanly defended, conserved and restored all he lands that had been lost and devastated. He was enabled to achieve this because of the weakness and dissension among, the Christian princes who, when they should have taken advantage ofthe rin and Gefeat of the Turks and joined forces, abandoned Greece and devoted themselves to their diabolical quarrels with one another, The Emperor Mane! [Il] was generally beset by allhis neighbours, twat ‘daring this period thatthe Sultan Mehmed stabilised his poston in Greece; while Manuel in Constantinople negotiated with his neigh- ing Chrsan rulers; had no other means of diving the Turks of Greece sine his treasury was empty. Bu he acted contrary t0 policies ofall his predecessors. For wile eich of them bad several one alone was destined to become Emperor and to inbetit ing, while the others had nothing. Manuel Paleologo bad sons and he divide his Empire into seven pars, giving cach his potion. This led wo dissension among the brothers, which allowed for our sins and was the cause of our ruin and tat ofall, fstendom. This Mehmed Sultan died and wasbuied inthe cy of leaving wo sons, Murad (Amurath’) and Mustapha. ‘The Sultan Murad, the second of that name, became Emperor of| Turks / by strangling bis brother Mustapha and consolidating his He observed the cxasless division and discord among the ian princes, and this was for our sins and arose because Empire had been divided into seven parts with seven heads Inthe ion Saloichi had fallen by lot to a son of Manuel called 0 ‘Despost', who was an invalid. Secing the quareling his brothers, he sought 10 strengthen his own position by nf a arrangement with the Signoria of Venice. He promised sive them Salonichi i they woul let him live in Treviso. The fenetans thus acquted possesion of Salnichi. Andronico died on fis way to Venice ad the Venetian sent governors of thee own 10 "Theodore Spandoures Salonichi, who administered the place in a manner quite diferent from its previous administration. When the Suan Murad heard of| this he was provoked and, with the encouragement of many ofthe greatest inthe land, he marched on the fine and famous city under pretext of demanding the aibure which Andronico Paleologo had ‘aid him, none of which had been received during the four and a ‘lf years thatthe Venetians had held Salonichl He besiege i for some months and fnally conquered it.The Venetian governors and soldier were caprred snd killed and che sons ofthe locals were taken to Adrianople at hostages. Others were left in possession of thee belongings on payment ofthe Aerag(‘carazo”) or eustomary tax. “Another ofthe Emperor Manuel's sons, the Despot Andress, had ‘ben alloted the lordship of Vizye (Visu’) wih is district. He died childless and Murad took over the place. Murad chen saw that Albania, or rather piros, was in uter disorder. This was because, ‘when the Emperor [John] Cantacuzene contol it, he had vent to Janina a member ofthe family of Spata and made him Vie-Despot ‘and governor, slong with another called Musachi Theopia. One of ‘these resided in Janina which was the capital of the realm of piros; Musachi resided in Durazzo and governed certain places which were known as “la Musachia’" The Spata who governed Janina found Himself monarch ofthe place by siccession afer the death ofthe “Emperor Cantacuzene. For many years he was ar odds with the lord ‘of Angelocastro, and he enlisted the help ofone Carlo Tocco. Tocc'> father, a» we have recorded, had bought the islands of Ithaka, Zakynthos (tach, Jacinto}, Cephalonia and Santa Maura fom those who had acquired them by conquest from Ancronico (1) Paleologo, son of Michael [VII] and the King of Naples had made him Duke ofthese islands ‘This Carlo Tocco was a gentleman from the Capuano side of ‘Naples, He sold his services to the said Gin Spata as a mercenary, together with his brother Leonardo, Leonaedo brought a naval force (On he origin of th Otosan Emperes: 1 1nd Calo a land army; and they easly dislodged the said lord of ‘Angelocasio and reduced him to subservience to Junin, Carl then demanded his pay fom Gin Spas, who had no money with which 10 pay bm. So Carlo occupied and held / Angelocasro; though later others intervened and arranged the mater. Calo took to wife the only daughter of Gin Spats, who died son aftr and lft Carlo Tocco as his hee to ll his posesions. He was the frst of his house to be tamed Despot. [The le] was granted to him by Manuel Pleologo ‘who divided the Empire ofthe Greeks, as weave indicated. Thistle ‘of Despor was not an ofce that passed by sucesion from one 10 another. I came by imperial appointment and was usally granted rothes sons, near relatives and other grandee by favour of the ¥ The sid Carlo Tocco reigned in Janina for eleven years, it over the Albanians inthe Taian syle with a severity 10 hey were not accustomed. When he ded, the men of Janina at ‘went to Murad and prolsimed hm thei lor ade set a called Turshan(‘Turacnbe’) wit other offers and took Janina, a songhold and capital of all Epi.” For ou in it God's wl hat Carlo had no legitimate children by his aforesaid only ive bastards His brother Count Leonardo was aleady Helefe legitimate soncalled Caro who, after hisuncle's dest, have ied to go to Constantinople to he invested 28 Despot: he called himsellord of Ara, Carlo de Toca. He fought biterly the aforesaid bastard, and some of them sought th help of claiming tht ther father’s lordship belonged to them; for ‘knew thatthe Turks make distinction bere egimat and sons. Others of them wet 1 the Despotsof the Morea, oe to the Signoriof Venice. Murad and his army invaded Epiros, ied Arta and Angelocasto and many other places an the sid lo Toceo was freed 1 live in Saea Maura, where he sill beld os, hues and Cephalonia, and 10 pay annual erbute 0 ‘He aap surrendered his son Leonardo as hottage, and “Theodore Spandounes ‘Murad made him over to his son Mchemeth [Mehmed], shough late ta efi the Seraglio a Christian ashe ha entered it This Caro [1] recognised the Venetians as his lodsin respect ofthe islands whic he ruled so chat all appeals in vil and criminal cases went tobe decided jn Venice. But Murad, having stile affairs in one pat of Albania, ‘tumed to the other. He saw that Janina and dhe places within its jurisdiction were rent by discord and uma. Cerin pty lords came to himona three day journey task hat'Musai Cal’, reputedly the leading man in Epirs, should ake control. Ochers, for one reason oF nother, dapstd this nd the sid Musai Carl, in desperation, went to Murad and was made his captain. Afer Musai Carlos death, his sons were made Sasjek bys (sanzacei’), and Murad found waysand ‘means of curbing the dsunited Albanians, continally haratsingshem swith ads and incursions and everyday he carrie off innumerable prisoners nwo miserable captivity Manuel Emperor of Constantinople was succeeded by his son John [VII] Paleologo, who had no children by his wife. / The power ‘ofthe Tusk was growing and Joba realised that he could not resist it ‘on his own; also che Despot Theodore who had reigned at Selymbria (Silva) had died with no mal issue, only a daughter marie ro the King of Cypaus, who wae the mother of Queen Calo, who died at Rome.® Joho therefore decided ogo tothe council in Kay; and bie summoned from the Peloponnese the Despor Constantine called agas, a mort belligerent sole, who was, ia view ofthe death of the Despot Theodore, destined to succeed as Emperor when John ed, [Jota] lef him Constantine) in Constantinople and hse se ‘out on the journey to aly; he ook with him his other brother, the Despot Demetrios, who ruled Lacedemonia and Misthra. There was such rivalry between Demetrios and his brosher Thomas, who ruled at Patras, thatthe one seemed likely to eat ou the heart of| the other. This is why the Emperor John [VII] thought it wise to take Demetrioe with him, as well as a large number of lords (she origin of he Onornan Emperors and gentlemen. The Despot Conttntine took with him 10 Constantinople John Cantacuzen,a famous capain ofthe time, nd several other soldiers also, among them George Cantacizeneeilled ‘Sacha’ who wat the grandson or son of the son of che Emperor John [VI] Canracuzene. [George was a prince endowed with all he ‘ire and highly estcemed among the Greeks because of his lineage and his talents. He wentto vst i sster'Helen’ [Bene], wifeof the Despot George of Serbia, where he found thatthe Despot was at war with Hungary. Soe elected to say there and was instrumental in building the stong fortess of Smederevo (Sfenderone’).] This prince was accompanied by a large body of men. “Murad saw thatthe Peloponnese was denided of fighting men. The Despot Thomas wa stil here buthe had no control over the unruly and quarrelsome Grecks. Murad was eager to go there and demolish the ‘Examil the sc-mile wall stretching from seat ea. And 0 he id, not once but twice, afer five-year interval. Thi ed 0 the total ruin of Greece “The Emperor John {VII} came to Italy in the time of Pope Eugeaius IV and they began to hold the Council at Ferrara, later ‘moving to Florence on account of the plague. There they were in Aiscussion for thre ands half years, until the Greek and Latin sites ‘were brought nto mony. John then went t Rome o vst the holy places, and from there to France, to "Borgog, and he elled on ‘many other Christan princes o incite them to war against the Turks, “He was away fiom Constantinople for seven years.° During that time ‘Murad gave all the Christian rulers cause to fer for thee religion a8 John VIII id personally oF by Jeter forewamed them. Only the King of Hungary and Philip, Duke of Burgundy, took action / agains the Turks 444, though the most reverend Cardinal Juliano ‘Cesarini went as legate from the Apostolic See. The Christian army ‘encountered Murad ataplace called Varna and wuch were thei talents and their dicipline that the Chrsans were victorious, breaking and > “Theodore Spandounes scattering the army of the Tus, so that Murad and bis Janissries| were forced to retrest tthe top of small hill nearby together with a ‘very few others who thus escaped death, Thre they were surrounded by the vicorious Christian army. After thee days of siege and starvation, Murad was forced to capitate, om these terms he himsell| would be allowed t0 go fe; all the other Turks would be atthe mercy oftheir conquerors. When the terms were brought him for signature, Murad began cry lke ababy. One of his Janissaries then sccosted him and sid: "Do you think that you can mitigate the wrath of your victorious enemies by teas? Emperors defeat thei enemies by the sword not by tear.” Murad replied: ‘I weep for the mean capitulation forced wpon me... Then the Janissary suddenly tok ‘ut his sword and sai: "You stupid, deceitful wator! You have brought us here to save your own skin and leave the rest of us to perish by the sword prey 10 our enemies. You wil de with the rest of ux? So saying, he struck down Murad’s horse. Our Christian, trutingin the apitslation, were disarmed and nt prepared when the ‘Turks in arms unexpectedly attacked them. They had no time ro put this hands to their words, and they were routed and defeated. Among the dead were King Vladislav of Hungary and Poland andthe (Cardinal Cesarn, dhe Pop's legate. To this day at Varna there ean bbescenahuge mound ofthe bones of the Christians who ded in shat rout Ale the bate, the Dake Philip of Burgundy (Bergpia’) was brought othe presence of Murad, who aroyanly asked hime "What Jed you to come and make war on me when you have no common frontier with me anywhere?” He answered: "My lord came to defend ‘my Christian religion.” Murad ssid “If your Chenin religion were ‘ere than mine, God would not ave allowed me to defeat you with such dshonour and loss” He summoned that Janssry of whom we poke above and bade hm insult he Due, prince whose rath and honour need no comment. Having fled him wih dead he took hia tothe block to cut ohis head, However, he was imately ransomed On the origin of te Otoman Emperors: I 00,90 sl andthe money wa vento he ansay. The Duke Burgundy then west home and prepared fo [urer war guint Turks. But itpleaed God to cll him to Himsel. He fa curse is son fe fae wo pursue his vendena. The son disobeyed arms that he should have tard agains the Turks he tamed against his elatves for eleven years, for which Go justly ims ‘The Sultan Murad took to wife Maria, daughter of George (Ju), Despr of Serbia. He had no chen by he of her elas, Stephen and Gregory [gu aged cen and the caused be blinded. They had gone to vis shi sinter in Adrianople When outhuntingwth Murad they shota deer he was chasing, / He was sspcious and remarked: og po fa su lps ike fer ke sn); and at supper he had thei eyes nd had the orbs sent direct tthe ater. Then he wen 19 ith the Depot George, drove him ot and conquered all of in and Seba. The Despr escaped and found refuge wit his rene Canacuene and thi ilren inthe dy of Rags. the said Etene had banked mach money which she had ‘unbeknownst to her husband; and with ths he enlited Corvinus Hunyad (Janco Vaivod’), father of King Mathew ried iecrteedbiesain Nea arapes aleyetes ‘Aers, whose Duke was then a Florenine ofthe howe of i Acris) called Nevo. He suendered and gave Murad son Franco a8 a hostage ® Murad then went ro Albsnia and the stronghold of Krjé (Cro!) which was then held by Bat dang this operation Murad fl land died ia ‘vat aken to Adkanople and there buried; and hs son had a rmonquc anda hopice bul in which prayers were oeed fr hi band ic the general opinion among Turkish horns shat, all his tismphs, Murad was outshone by his son Mebmed eth)? “Theodore Spandounes So the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed, the second ofthat me and the _seventh Emperor ofthe Turs, suceeded his father Murad. He was ‘strong and warlike, yet liberal and magnanimous prince. As soon at he came to power he had his five-year old brother strangled. He then tured on Constantine, Emperor of Constantinople, who had come ro histhrone is Murad’s time in place ofhis deceased brother John [VI] Paleologe.# He exprued the great city of Selymbria(Silvres), an event that heralded the un of Constantinople, forthe Turks could then make constant incursions ight up tothe gues of the city Mehmed then brought «huge army by land to besiege the city. By sea he had ships dragged over the il of Pera and Taunched into the harbour of Constantinople. The Emperor Constantine had sent envoys to Rome to Pope Nicholas V and had writen round tall the ‘Christian princes appealing for thee aid. But, for our sin, none of them responded, forall the Pope's exhortations and the Emperors ‘pleas ~ except forthe Venetians and the Genoese. For one of thee rovveditors, ofthe hous of Armer, happened tobe herewith three falleys; and when the enemy stacked he was constrained 0 defend the placeS® The Venetian Senate deliberated whether they should send help or no but thee deliberations went on fr so long tht they ‘were notin ime, fr the eaptan who led the relief goto Negroponte ‘only o lar tat the unhappy city was already taken. There were some soldiers of Genoa who bravely defended the walls. Bur Mehmed hel the city unde sige for fifty-four days and when he mounted his attack the Genoese constable was wounded and God wile it, for our sins that che Turks broke in at chat spot on a9 May 1453: Tt was God's will that, as Constantinople had been built by 2 Gonstatine, son of Helena, / 20 aio ic was lost by force of arms inthe time of nother Constantine, son of Helens. And the seventh Emperor of the (Ottomans defeated the seventh Emperor ofthe house of Paleologo- “The Christan Emperor could havesaved himself bu he refused to do 0, When the Turks were almost inside she walls he sa “My God, On che origin ofthe Ottoman Emperors: 1 not wish o bean Emperor without an Empite. wish ode with Tand” And 0 some nobles who were standing round him he "Whoever wants 1 sve himself may go; whoever wants 1 his Emperor, follow me and come with me to death’ Soa of more thin 300 went with himon horhack tothe srt of igo! where the Turks had broken ny and they engaged the “Takis army in fighting fr four hours, so thatthe enemy 46 no farther. But when the Turks had taken the iy the sins were sucounded frm every side and he blesed Emperor ile with 20 other marys, ot without a ret slugher of jc enemicn No human tongue could tl the savagery with which [the Turk] rested he churches nd the Christians. They trned and shrines into brothels nd ables for hore. Tey broke conven of holy nuns devoted t0 God they tok fom the econ anchone’ of sins onthe alas, puting ot thir and throwing them on the ground they wna the bly nuns aphemed against the inte providence, saying‘ yout ath 0d, let God work miracle a thi ime” Thy also robe open shacered she gorgeous tombs of the Emperors and oer princes ‘Greece seal the Crowns, the golden spurs and other military rns wth which princes andlor were wort tobe buried. The ofthe Turks and che debaemen of Chinianity made the Pope Nichols V ssa and melancholy hae lil and de, “The Turkish historias write that Mehmed made ascarch forthe ofthe Holy Emperorand hat when he was found he moaned it and honoured i ad accompanied it its rave. But the cia ay tat dhe body was never dscoveed or a uh 00 wa ver found in Constantinople ® ‘When he savage slaughter of Christians was over, Mehmed did wan olive in the palace ofthe Caciars. He tok fo iseridence convent of the Fas of St Francis ™ On the next day he isd a hall who wereholdg prisoners mut pres he on pala “Theodore Spandounes af death. When they were presented, he ordered that shose of rank ‘Should he fe, tying tha twas ot sght tha noblemen should Tea sve someone ee OF the common people, some were ld, vome taken 2 slaves slong with dhs wives and children Later, Mined decreed that ll proven genefil should be more sbundanly provided for than they had been under the Chistian Emperors, frit was wrong dat gentleman shoul afer and have to gobexging, Some folsh onesamong them went reir and 2 {ay was fed on whch they would recive thee promised provision It was the day of St Peter / And on that day, by command of ‘Mehmed, they were all executed” As Vrgl sys [Aeneid 194-6 “O erququaterque bea quant or parm [Trine sub moenibus als conigtoppetee]’ God was merifal inno allowing them 1 furvive or thee descendants o prove how hard its for noblemen to trveoliveon the mere of ters, like dogs. This b what happend tome and my companioasinthe ie of Hadrian VI when he deine topay ur thar which previo Pons had paid and some of ws ded fom sarvton while cers wer cst ino prison on he peer hat -welad dealings wih the Tus * ‘Mehmed then leat tat the prince of Gothia had murdered his elder brother and usurped his place, So he set his Belry (Chiles is eapsin-generalonLnd, ro make war on the sid ince An agreement was reached 0 the fet cat his person ad Property wee safe. But in te end Mehmed bad him brought 9 ‘Convansinople a decptated, ling him that be had broken his tgreement He made one of the Kings ie sons 2 Turk and =” tim silalve when Iwaslastin Constnsinopl [Now the Chisian princes, seing Constansnople oui! by the Sala Mehmed whose power grew by ihe day while shee ove Stcngh grew fle nd ebles, dd no as they shoud have done, take common military action apis heir common enemy. Instead they fog and queda themselves. There wasat that ine » (On the org of he Otoman Emperors: I fierce warfare berween the Despot George (Jury) of Serbia and the King of Hungary, though they were at each othe’ throat. The Despot George observed the Greek rie, the King of Hungary the atin; and thete were many bloody bates beween them and great carnage on citer side. The Hungatians were more ofen the losers, though inthe end, in a savage feat of ams, they tok the Despot captive and with him the lord Theodore Cantacurene. Both were taken to prison in Hungary. Theodore, however, was allowed to go ‘on oith to Serbia to collect and provide 303,000 ducts as ransom. “Thishe was unable to find;but soa nto breaks oath, he returned to prison in Hungary unl the money was paid. The Hungarians were barbarised by war, They wanted to keep the Despot aswell s “Caniscuzenein their hands They sent ahage army to ay siege:othe famous city of Smederevo, called Semendria by the Turks who now i They were unable ro rae it because within is walls was eclebrated wacror prince George Cantacuzene who had built the “He defended it with all his might an all he strength and ity that he postesed; and this he demonstrared when the lungaran ed his son, their prisoner [Theodore] upto the walls and to kill him before his father’s eyes if he would not . Theson bravely declared that he didnot are, fon death] would have liberated his country from servitude. Allthese discords permitted because / of our sins and a a consequence Mehmed thes places enfebled and occupied them al] ‘He made war on the Bulgars and butchered them, depriving them their lives and occupying their country. Then he tumed on ruler of Karamania(Caramano’), who was evicted and led tothe ing of Persia, where he died a miserable death. He took Smyrna, (CFoghi’) and other Chrinian towas. The lord Gatilsio lsc’) ruled over Mytilene, Ainos (‘Eno’), Samothrace, (stalimen’) and some other islands which she Emperor {¥) Palocloge had given to his forcbear [Francesco] Gatilsio “Theodore Spandounes sfier he expelled John Cantacuzene from Constantinople. He had murdered his brother and usurped power. When Mehmed gohold of im he sag sall reat you 38 you treated you brother to obtain your poston” And he bad him executed. His wife and some of his household were taken as prisoners! Nchmed next planned to occupy the Peloponnese. This was made easy for him by the great distension prevailing berween the Despor Demetrios and his brother the Despot “Thomas. Afi thi father Masuel [1] died, these rwo brothers were so quarelsome that they seemed ik ro eat each other's heart ut [fer the fall of Constantinople and the death of their brother ‘Constantine, the Greck nobles and lords were for appointing ‘Demetrios as their Emperor because they saw him as a reasonable ‘man, Buthisbrother Thomas would norbadge forall that Demetrcs was the elder The leading men of Greece none the les concerted theie efforts to bring peace between the brothers, They never succeeded. Thomas, who ceally was bad lor, schemed to ake over the realm of his slative, the prince of Clarentza (Chiarenz’), and other places in what was stil called the Principality of Achaia He ‘summoned his relative 1 come under safe conduct to Patras, then ‘broke his pledge and put him in prison, where he was left wo die of hunger together with his sons. Then he selzed a nobleman called “Theodore ‘Dissipas’[? Dsypator, who had marie his daughter ‘while the Prince of Achaia was in prison, cut of his hand, ears and nose and gouged outhiseyes, truly savageand terrible deed, Helo captured one Theodore Rochalis (Boceal) who was under safe conduct, He was aman of high estate andthe leading gre ofall the Peloponnese He had the sight to mint coinage and he held dhe court tile ofMegacuca’. Thomas had him blinded and seized his etre, though he was tobe Hbersted by Dissipato with some ofhis sons who were in custody, remumed and recovered his propery.® Another role gentleman was Manuel Cantscuzene, brother ofthat George called Sacha, who was my mother’s grandfuher (mio avo (nthe eign of he Onan Emperors: mater’) He held sway overall he promontory of Mani (‘Maysa’) and was most highly regarded a the leading lord among dhe Greek ‘ation, He too was invited by the suid Thomas to present himself nde safe conduc; but being prudent and sensible he declined the faitation and put up so brave a resistance that Thomas wanted t0 estoy him. The courage and resistance of Manuel Cantacuzene _gaveheart 1 many of he Albanians who were subjected to aed bly treated by various Greck lords and masters. They were inspired t0 Iiberte themselves fom servitude; and they acdaimed. Manuel ‘Cantacazene as their own Despot./ They changed his name to Gin Cantaessino and calle his wile Cuchisntead of Maria, these being an names-# Such were the hostilities between these Despors each wat prisoner of his own ambition, Thomas being besieged Patras, Demetrios in Misra or Lacednemonia, and Manuel lrding all over the country. Mehmed, who knew all abou i, rok swift lary action, marched into the Peloponnese and impuintly and occupied all “Thoms did nox wai forthe wrath of Mehmed but left Patras by ‘aking with him the head of St Andrew the Apostle, which he to the Pontifex Maximus, Pi I. The Pope came ou 9 Ponte Malle to receive it and to this day there is a chapel ymemorating the reception of the holy relic Thomas also tok hen his two sons, the Desps Andrew and Manuel, and also his er who, after Thomas’s death, Pope Sixtus TV gave as wife to Grand Muscovite van TI (Gioanne’. Andrew lived in Rome in poverty and misery. His brother Manuel, a generous and man and speriorto Andcew in character prudence and way life, despite of his brother's miserable condition, let Rome and oft fd the Suan Mehmed. He expected the worst buc onthe Mehmed received him with kindness, provided foe him and red him at court more than any other prince; and he was 10 dieas a Christian ike al is frebears 7 “Theodore Spandounes “The Despot Demetrios who ruled at Misra seems toave allowed ‘he Sultan 0 conquer the Peloponnese becuse Mehmed had promised to take hit daughter o wife. She was his ony child and heiresstoall hate had. Manael Cantacuzen also came to agreement svth Mehmed and surtendered to him. Mehmed, however, no longer ‘wanted to marry Demetroe’s daughter; and she ded as a virgin at [Adrianople. Manuel Cantacuzen, though well provided for by the Sultan, did not rust him and fled to she King of Hungary, where he died, Demettor, accused of ome fraud over thecolleton ofthe sat tax, was deprived of ll his sustenance and soon died of rie’ Note also hat when Nchmed invaded the Peloponnese and the Despet ‘Thomas fled, another who escaped was the son of the lord Carlo “Tocco eilled Leonardo whom the Grand Turk held as a hostage; nd ‘Mehmed ordered a search party t0 6d him and bring him back * “Another vitim was the Dake of Aes, Franco Actajoli, who wes obliged to serve a a vassal ofthe Sultan, He sent a Jaisary with some colleagues to pretend to dine with the Duke and they brutally ‘musdered him.® One place in the Peloponnese that Mehmed file 0 ‘xpmure was Mouchli Muli although he tied for fifty-four days But it was defended by its mos valiant lord, ‘Andrea Paleologo di Grizz. Nor id he atempr o capare Monemvasia / (Malvasia!) an impregnable fortress, which was held by Nicolo Pleologo in the name of the Despot. When Mehmed left, however, Paleologo Grizza abandoned Mouehli and wentto Venice, where the Senate weleomed tim and made him captain-genera of deilight eavaly, although he died soon afer. The other, Nicolo Paleologo, having itl hope th the Christin princes would moust an atack onthe Twsks, sold hie seronghold of Monemvasia to the Venetians for ating sum of ‘money. On his way bick 10 Adrianople Mehmed tock possesion of Athens, since its Duke had died without sons. In Adranople he celebrated his great victories wid tiamph* ‘Now when the Despot George [Brankovi] of Sesbi died he lef (nthe eign of he Otoman Empero: 1 wo daughters: one called Maria had been married to the Sultan Murad of whom we have spoken; the other, Catherine, had marsied the Count of Cilly (il), a brother ofthe Emperor Frederick of| ‘Ausca, Both were widows, Maria had no isue; but Catherine had a daughter who was the first wife of Matthew CMathia’) King of| Hungary? The Despot George [Brankovi) also left theee sons: frst the Despor Stephen (Stefano, seeoad the Depot Gregory (Curgue). Both of these were blinded by Murad, at mentioned ve. The third was the Despot Lavar and his father arranged for jim 20 marry the daughter of Thomas Paleologo, Despot of the “They were cloel relate, for Thomas’ father, the Emperor [U), bad given him in martage to a sister ofthe Despot rg, and George was Lana's father, Experience his shown tht marriages arranged among relatives, although contacted by tion ofthe church, seldom end happily. Now because the ald ad hie eyesight, while hie elder brother had boon blinded by Lazar was more active than they in affirs of state; and he to the goverment when his father George died. His irene Cantcuzen, str ofthat prince George Cantacsino was my mother’s grander (‘mio avo mateo’), was content be regent and guardian of her sons realm. Lazar, however, was not 3. He-wanted i all and, with no fear of God, he poisoned hie mother Kiren,a princess endowed with every vir. Ths did ake himdelfsunced and hated by all hs vatals and bis and in the confusion earned the implacable wrath of J, who resolved to ake over Rascia and Sesbia. This news ‘Lazar to fil il, and before long. he ded, leaving no sont ‘only his three daughters.” Stephen, the frt-born [of the sons of rg] was, 6 Ihave sid, blind and he led the wrth of Mehmed went sto Albania withhisretinveand there he me and married vitous lady called Angelina, daughter of Signor Golemo Arai; they didnot ick offpring Athisdeathhe lft two sons, George “Theodore Spandounes and John, called Despos, anda daughter called Maria who mavied Boniface, Marquis of Montferat. George's second son, Gregory CGurgur), went to Hungary where he died without legitimate ‘offipring.* / The aforementioned Lazar had, as reported three