Sei sulla pagina 1di 10

# !

• "
• # "
• # "
• "

# " "
\$
% # & ' () #
* & +* ## * ) ,
& + )
& + )
# *

## = (δ " " − − ) = (β " " − − ) &-' '".)

• / /
• δ /β /
• / /

+ !
∂ ∂
= = 0 &-' -"()
∂δ ∂β
, 1
# /

+ 2
!
= ′ &-' 3)
• 4 4 4 0 + #
" " # " !

′= '
.
σ. 5
′= '
.
τ. 5 &-' 6"7)

• +4 # !

= '
.
σε = δ . = '
.
τγ = β . &-' 8"9)

% " #"
4# # " 4 !
. .
' '
= = &-' ':"'')
. .
#
; + <' =
0 1#

31.1
& ') "
* " ## * "
" # " %
4 + ##
α 4 & + )0
4 % 4
4 +
+
" 4 α 4 "
( A. # " !

## -' '/ α= " = π = .

+π. .
" = = .
+π. .
0
π α
&-' '."'-"'()
α+ 1 # !

=π = π &-' '3"'6)

# # 4 " "
# ;
> #
!" "
; !
• "
• * & + < ? )"
• # & + @)"
• " ## " 4"
• 0
• < & ? #
)? 4
" 4< 4
<:
'&* + # @)
, # # !

π (
π. .
= = \$= &-' '7"'8)
-. (

% 4 4 "
4 "
+ +
%
< A. B # . !

% % = α = α &-' '9".:)

α . α .
α
= = &-' .'"..)

α + # %≈:" ≈:"
A.
α
≈ " ≈ A. #
α
1 4 !
-' ./
τ =& + &-' .-)
. \$
= "\$ ' # 4
4 "& , +
# " + # ;
" \$ ' # !
8 (
τ = + &-' .()
π -
π .

& -) &.() 1 !

31.2
8 :3
τ= '+ &-' .3)
π -

## < A 4 &6C C'.) ) <'?: 3A " 1 # !

8 8
τ =) =) &-' .6)
π -
π .

) +
D &.-/.6) !
• # #
& ) & )
E FG "
• # #
#
& -)
& ) & ) > # )* " H "
&.6) 1 !

τ = )* 8 = )* 8
-' -/ I ! )
" ) " ) 0 &-' .7)
" ) # π -
π .

)* + !

## )* = ( − ' + : 6'3 &-' .8".9)

( −(
)* 4 ,
+ !
. (( + .)
) = )* ) ≈ &-' -:)
(( − -)(. + ')
# # 1 )* 1
# ) )

4 4 δ 1 G
H 1 4 &'') + !
. . . . . .
' -. ( (
= = = π &-' -')
. (π (
π (
π (

!
. -
(
= ( &-' -.)

4 # < δA. !
-
=τ ) π
8 .
δ = ( 0 &-' --)

# # δ =∂ ∂

(∂ +∂δ + + !
(
= -
&-' -()
8
#
!
, &7) &'8) !

31.3
.
′ = ' )* 8 π. .
= )*. 8
. -
&-' -3)
. π -
( (

## " &3) &-.)" <: 3A)*,0 )*<' . <: -3

"
# " % + " "
# δ' δ ." ' ." # ' .
<& ./ ')A&δ./δ') J 1 # 4
% # " ' . "
+ *
D " " '':K δ ." 4#
# ':K , 5 <' ' .
# δ 5<' 'δ. > 4 !

## ( ?' ' δ. < & ? # ?' ' δ.

)? 4 &-' -6)
* *
# \$!

" " # # , +
# # +
4 +

(
= = = &-' -7)
. . ρ . π . .
ρ
+ ρ # '3
.: # #
%
"
1

τ = σ
: (3 : -3 # J
# " " # # " #
= # ! <: 63 <: 33" #

>
"
4 & + )& ()
;
# "
*< #
# >
- ##
-' ( / * (
!

• "
• * "
• "
• -
# &'7) &'8) # " 4
+

<π (
A6( &-' -8)

31.4
L + ## *< " 1
- 4 1
!
σ = )* -. -- &-' -9)
π
)* # #
H #
# !

)* = ( − − ' )* = ( + − '
. .
&-' (:)
( ( − ') ( ( − ')
4

4 4 β 1 G 4
&':)
.
' -. .
-.
= = &-' (')
. .
!
-. .
- .π
= ( &-' (.)

4 # < -βA. !

β = -
6(
= σ )* . π &-' (-)
(

, # # -β = ∂ ∂

## <∂ +∂β<∂& -)+∂β + + !

(
= &-' (()
6(
, , &(() .π
!
(
;
′= &-' (3)
': .
> # #
': . # 4 !
(
′= &-' (6)
': 8

!
, &7) &'8)

σ.
.

′= 5
= ' -. - π. .
= . '.8 .
-. &-' (7)
π
* - * (
. . (
.
" &3) &(.)" <: .3 *

"
"
* -9

31.5
%
"
" 4 " 4 0
β 4 % +
!
• "

, + &'7)

+!
'6
τ = &-' (8)
π -

G 4 &':)
# +!
.
'6
= &-' (9)
π (

4 # < βA. !
-. .
β = =τ &-' 3:)
π (

(∂ +∂β + + !
π (
= &-' 3')
-.
!
, &7) < π .A("

′=
τ. .
π . .
5 = ' '6 = -. &-' 3.)
. . π -
( π (

& '
% +
- #
# -" 3"
# 4 "
#
δ δ , 1"
α
β +

## - &β /α) , 3 # & <:)

-' 3 / N # α 4 0 + "
3"
!

• "
• "
• # -"
• 4 # α

## M 3 &3:) # " β" !

π (
= - ( β −α ) = β &-' 3-)
-.

31.6
, &(8)"
4 !
'6 - ( β −α )
τ = = β &-' 3()
π -
.
4 # !
β= - (β − α ) -. &-' 33)
π (

δ
# δ
β + !
∂ ∂ ∂β
(β ) = = &-' 36)
δ
∂δ ∂β ∂δ
β
4 4 " &3()" +!

π (
β
=
( β −α )
&-' 37)
-. -
+ !

## δ =-[ α+ ( β − α )] &-' 38)

M # 4 β # !

∂ π (
'+ β ( β −α ) ∂δ
= =- ( β −α )
( β −α )
&-' 39"6:)
∂β -. - ∂β
" &36)" !

π (
'+ β ( β −α )
δ(β ) =
( β −α )
. . &-' 6')
-. -
&6') +# + β Cα > 4
# + + # !

= π (
&-' 6.)
δ
-. -.
# +
&β <α)
"
# " "- α % " #
&β <α)" # ∆δ & 6) δ δ
(∆δ<δ /δ )" &33) 1 # !
-.
β =α = - &-' 6-)
π (

M 6 # β = −'
∆δ - + α " &3() !

τ =
.
( −'
∆δ - + α ) = τ &-' 6()

% α &6-) &6()" !

31.7
'6
τ = −'
∆δ - + - &-' 63)
. π -

" "- B #
# 1 # #
∆δ #!
δ '-
α
β
δ
'6 - '
= &-' 66)
π −'
∆δ -
-' 6 / M τ −
.
% &66) # + " -

%
# #
. " # " & 4 "
) #

, # & )
# !
6 & − ) 6
σ = " σ = &-' 67"68)
." . 5
.: ":.
, 4 .: ": # 4 & <:)
, ; . "
" # =." " 4&6) &8) #

' . . -
σ. 5 '8 . -
= .
= ′= ." = " &-' 69"7:)
. . "- . . "-
<: ''' "
" + σ #
# . " σ <σ !
6 6 ( − )
. = &-' 7'"7.)
.: ": . ".
% "<":" . # # 0
.<.:" " # # !

.: ( − ) ( − )
.= " = ": &-' 7-"7()

; # +
& 7) "
& * *A.)"
*" 4 4 = % +
.:< *

.: *

.
"

-' 7/

31.8
!
• 4 "
• 1 #

O " !
• ""
• "
• * .:"

, "# 4 " # # !

.: ( − ) " -
= < .: "A. &-' 73"76)
'.
, " * &68) 1 !

σ 5 =6 . = 6 . &-' 77)
.: " *"

G 4 &8) #
# " < & / )" + !

'. .& − ). .
= ' = 6 - ( − ) &-' 78)
: " & − ) .:
-
. " .: :
!
. -
-
= &-' 79)
" -.:
4 # < δA. !

6 - .
δ = =σ &-' 8:)
" -.: "
1 # 4
" +δ = ∂ ∂

(∂ +∂δ + + !

" - .:
= &-' 8')
6 -
!
, &6) &76)

′=
σ. . -
5 =9 &-' 8.)
. "-.:
" &3) &79)" <: --
"
% " " A
# "" " .: &77)"
&8:) &8') % &77) &8:) "
# # " #
, "
" #
& 7) #
# 4

31.9
, # = # =
, +
*
(
; & 8)"
+ !

, !

## = = = = ' = '+ . &-' 83)

δ δ' + δ . '+ . ' ' +' . ' .

,
= ' &-' 86)
'

)
; & 9)"
" # +
!

; " !

= = '+ = + = '+
. ' . &-' 89)
δ δ δ δ
.

,
= &-' 9:)

δ
'

δ. δ'
δ'
δ
' .

-' 8 / -' 9 /

31.10