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+ 2
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τ. 5 &-' 6"7)

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31.1
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α 4 & + )0
4 % 4
4 +
+
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-' '/ α= " = π = .


+π. .
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0
π α
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α+ 1 # !

=π = π &-' '3"'6)

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α . α .
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α + # %≈:" ≈:"
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= "$ ' # 4
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# " + # ;
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π .

& -) &.() 1 !

31.2
8 :3
τ= '+ &-' .3)
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< A 4 &6C C'.) ) <'?: 3A " 1 # !


8 8
τ =) =) &-' .6)
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π .

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# # δ =∂ ∂

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8
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31.3
.
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(
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ρ
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τ = σ
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31.4
L + ## *< " 1
- 4 1
!
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π
)* # #
H #
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)* = ( − − ' )* = ( + − '
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4

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!
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= ( &-' (.)

4 # < -βA. !

β = -
6(
= σ )* . π &-' (-)
(

, # # -β = ∂ ∂

<∂ +∂β<∂& -)+∂β + + !


(
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σ.
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31.5
%
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β 4 % +
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, + &'7)

+!
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τ = &-' (8)
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G 4 &':)
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π (

4 # < βA. !
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β = =τ &-' 3:)
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(∂ +∂β + + !
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!
, &7) < π .A("

′=
τ. .
π . .
5 = ' '6 = -. &-' 3.)
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( π (

" &3) &(9)" <: 3

& '
% +
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# 4 "
#
δ δ , 1"
α
β +

- &β /α) , 3 # & <:)


-' 3 / N # α 4 0 + "
3"
!

• "
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• 4 # α

M 3 &3:) # " β" !

π (
= - ( β −α ) = β &-' 3-)
-.

31.6
, &(8)"
4 !
'6 - ( β −α )
τ = = β &-' 3()
π -
.
4 # !
β= - (β − α ) -. &-' 33)
π (

δ
# δ
β + !
∂ ∂ ∂β
(β ) = = &-' 36)
δ
∂δ ∂β ∂δ
β
4 4 " &3()" +!

π (
β
=
( β −α )
&-' 37)
-. -
+ !

δ =-[ α+ ( β − α )] &-' 38)

M # 4 β # !

∂ π (
'+ β ( β −α ) ∂δ
= =- ( β −α )
( β −α )
&-' 39"6:)
∂β -. - ∂β
" &36)" !

π (
'+ β ( β −α )
δ(β ) =
( β −α )
. . &-' 6')
-. -
&6') +# + β Cα > 4
# + + # !

= π (
&-' 6.)
δ
-. -.
# +
&β <α)
"
# " "- α % " #
&β <α)" # ∆δ & 6) δ δ
(∆δ<δ /δ )" &33) 1 # !
-.
β =α = - &-' 6-)
π (

M 6 # β = −'
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τ =
.
( −'
∆δ - + α ) = τ &-' 6()

% α &6-) &6()" !

31.7
'6
τ = −'
∆δ - + - &-' 63)
. π -

" "- B #
# 1 # #
∆δ #!
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α
β
δ
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.
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%
# #
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' . . -
σ. 5 '8 . -
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; # +
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31.8
!
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σ 5 =6 . = 6 . &-' 77)
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G 4 &8) #
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4 # < δA. !

6 - .
δ = =σ &-' 8:)
" -.: "
1 # 4
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(∂ +∂δ + + !

" - .:
= &-' 8')
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, &6) &76)

′=
σ. . -
5 =9 &-' 8.)
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# # " #
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31.9
, # = # =
, +
*
(
; & 8)"
+ !

= ' = . δ = δ' + δ . &-' 8-"8()

, !

= = = = ' = '+ . &-' 83)


δ δ' + δ . '+ . ' ' +' . ' .

,
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)
; & 9)"
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δ = δ' = δ . = '+ . &-' 87"88)

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= = '+ = + = '+
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δ δ δ δ
.

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= &-' 9:)

δ
'

δ. δ'
δ'
δ
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-' 8 / -' 9 /

31.10