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# ME 383S Bryant February 17, 2006

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CONTACT
• Mechanical interaction of bodies via surfaces

## • Size (area) of contact dependent on forces, materials,

geometry, temperature, etc.

• Contact mechanics
ME 383S Bryant February 17, 2006
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NATURE OF CONTACT
Rough surfaces contact

Consequence

## contact stresses higher

heating (friction) more intense
electrical contacts: local constriction resistance
ME 383S Bryant February 17, 2006
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CONTINENTAL ANALOGY
OF CONTACT
• Earth's surface rough:
mountains & valleys

on North America

## • Contact: highest peaks

against highest peaks
- Andes/Appalachia
- Highlands/Rockies

## • Contact between bodies similar

ME 383S Bryant February 17, 2006
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CONTACT MECHANICS
FUNDAMENTALS

• Fundamental Solutions:
• Boussinesq: 3D Elastic deformations from point
force normal to semi-infinite space
• Flamant: 2D Elastic deformations from point force
normal to semi-infinite space

## • Contact between spheres

elastic: Hertzian contact
plastic: Indentation (Meyer) hardness
overall
quirks
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## FLAMANT SOLUTION (2D)

• Point force P, normal to semi-infinite elastic space
• 2D: plane strain or plain stress
P

x
(x, y)
u
y
v

## • Elastic deformations: (u, v) along (x, y)

P & 2xy ) P % 2y 2 (
u=" '(\$ "1)% " 2 * , v = " &(\$ + 1)log r " 2 )
4#µ ( r + 4#µ ' r *
• Stresses:
2P % y y 3 ( 2P % y 3 ( 2P % xy 2 (
" xx = # & 2 # 4 ) ’ " yy = # & 4 ) ’ " xy = # & 4 )
\$ 'r r *! \$ 'r * \$ 'r *
!
µ: elastic shear modulus, ν: Poisson's ratio
Elastic modulus: E = 2(1 + ν)µ
! !
Dundars constant: κ = 3!– 4ν, plane strain,
= (3 – ν)/(1 + ν), plane stress
2
r = x 2 + y , tan θ = x/y

!
ME 383S Bryant February 17, 2006
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SOLUTION (2D)
• Point force P, tangential to semi-infinite elastic space
• 2D: plane strain or plain stress
P

x
(x, y)
u
y
v

## • Elastic deformations: (u, v) along (x, y)

P % 2y 2 ( P & 2xy )
u=" &(\$ + 1)log r + 2 ) , v = '(# \$1)% + 2 * ,
4#µ ' r * 4"µ ( r +
• Stresses:
2P % x xy 2 ( 2P % xy 2 ( 2P % y y3 (
" xx = &\$ + ) " = # & 4 ) ’ " xy = &\$ + )
# ' r 2 r 4 * ’! yy \$ 'r * # ' r2 r4 *
!
µ: elastic shear modulus, ν: Poisson's ratio
κ: Dundars constant
! ! strain; = (3 – !
= 3 – 4ν, plane ν)/(1 + ν), plane stress
2
r = x 2 + y , tan θ = x/y

!
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BOUSSINESQ SOLUTION (3D)
• Point force P on semi-infinite elastic space
P

y x
(x, y, z)
u
z
w

## • Elastic deformations: (u, v, w) along (x, y, z)

P xz x
u = 4πµ { r3 - (1 - 2 ν) r (r + z) }

P yz y
v = 4πµ { r3 - (1 - 2 ν) r (r + z) }

P z2 2(1 - ν)
w = 4πµ { r3 +
r }

## µ: elastic shear modulus, ν: Poisson's ratio

r = x 2+ y 2 + z 2
ME 383S Bryant February 17, 2006
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HERTZIAN CONTACT THEORY
• Contact between elastic curved bodies

• Initial Contact

origin
R1

## Z o (x, y) • curvatures R1, R2

x
R2 • elastic parameters
E2 !2
(E1,ν1) (E2,ν2)

• initial separation
initial contact (parabolas)

x2 + y2 1 1
Zo(x, y)= 2
{R +R }
1 2
ME 383S Bryant February 17, 2006
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HERTZIAN CONTACT THEORY

## • Induces contact pressures p = p(x, y)

• normal surface
deformations w1, w2
P wi = wi[p(x, y); Ej, νj, Rj]
(from Boussinesq)
p(x,y)
• final separation
Z f (x, y)
x
2a Zf(x, y) = Zo(x, y)
- α + w1 + w2
P
• contact diameter 2a,
defines contact area

• normal approach α,
amount centers of bodies
come together
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HERTZIAN CONTACT THEORY

Problem Statement
Unknowns
• a, α (eigenvalues)
• Contact pressures p(x, y)
P (eigenfunction)

## p(x,y) Physics: static equilibrium

Z f(x, y) Boundary Conditions
x
2a
• over contact (x2+ y2 < a2)
Zf(x, y) = 0, p(x, y) ≥ 0
P

## • outside (x2+ y2 ≥ a2)

p=0

• P= ⌡p(x,
⌠ y) dx dy
contact area
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HERTZIAN CONTACT THEORY

Solution
Sphere on Sphere (point
contact):
x2 y 2
P
• p(x, y) = po 1" "
a 2 a2

p(x,y) 3P
po = 2π a2
Z f (x, y)
x 1
2a
• a= { 3"P(k1 + k2 )R1 R2
4(R1 + R2 )
} 3

P
1- νi2
ki = πE
i

•α= { 2 2
9" P ( R1 + R2 ) ( k1 + k2 )
16R1 R2
2

} 3

!
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Cylinder on Cylinder (line contact):

x2 2P
• p(x) = po 1" a 2 , po =
"al
1/ 2
" 4P(k1 + k 2 )R1R2 %
1- νi2
• a = \$# l(R + R ) '& , ki = πE
! 1 2 ! i

P / ) 4l 3 #1 1 &,2
! " = (k1 + k 2 )11+ ln* % + (-4
• l 10 + (k1 + k 2 )P \$ R1 R2 '.43

## • l: length of contact along axis of cylinders

!
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• PLASTIC CONTACT THEORY
• Indentation (Meyer) hardness

## • Contact pressures p(x, y)

P approximately uniform
p
• Hardness pressure
!A (indentation hardness)

P P
Η ≡ p ≈ δA

## Load P > elastic limit • Use: estimate contact

⇒ plastic deformations area, given H and P
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P α P
1

p(x,y)

α
2 2a

P P

• Spheres

## 0 ≤ P < Pe ; Elastic (Hertzian) contact model

1

α = α1+α2 = { 9π2P2(k1+k2)2(R1+R2)
16R1R2 } 3

16R1R2 } 3

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## Hardness (Indentation) Test

• Brinell hardness H B F

## – Hard steel ball (diameter D, load F) Hard St eel Ball

(d ia mete r D)
– indent for 30 sec.
– measure permanent (pla stic) set
– HB = F/(! D t) [N/m 2 ] (units of s pecim en

stress)
– t " {D - (D 2 - d 2 )1/2 }/2 d
t

## • Other hardness tests

– Vickers: Diamond point indentation
– Rockwell: measured like Brinell
or Vickers
– scratch test
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Brinell Hardness
• For steels S = S(H)
• Ultimate strength
Su = KB HB
• Yield Strength
Sy ! 1.05S u - 30ksi
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## Micro hardness tester:

• Indents specimen
• Use on thin films, e.g. hard drive coatings
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CONTACT QUIRKS
• Nonlinear contact stiffness P = P(α)

3/2 4 R1R2
P=Cα , C = 3π(k +k ) R1+R2
1 2

with friction

## high pitched "squeal" / fingernail on blackboard

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ROUGH CONTACT MODELS
• Greenwood & Williamson
P

## • Rough surfaces contact: current separation = d

P

P
• Asperities contact

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r1

z1
h do
z2

r2

## • Relate contact quantities to surface heights z = z1 + z2

(random variable)

## • Expected values ⇒ Macroscopic Contact Parameters

"

E[H(z)] = N # H (z)F(z)dz
d

## N: total number asperities

H(z): physical quantity, dependent on heights z
Lower limit: heights z ≥ d for asperities to touch

## • Microscopic understanding ⇒ Important

practical engineering parameters
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## Contact force (elastic) on ith asperity

3/2 3/2
Asperity force: Pi(z) = C α = C (z - d) (Hertz)

"

i
d

## • Real contact area

Asperity area: H(z) = Ai(z) = π a2

## From Hertz: a = C1 " 1/ 2

= C1 (z " d )1/ 2

• Contact conductance
Asperity conductance: Gi(z) = ρ/2a (Holm)