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ME 383S Bryant February 17, 2006

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CONTACT
• Mechanical interaction of bodies via surfaces

• Surfaces must “touch”

• Forces press bodies together

• Size (area) of contact dependent on forces, materials,


geometry, temperature, etc.

• Contact mechanics
ME 383S Bryant February 17, 2006
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NATURE OF CONTACT
Rough surfaces contact

Highest peaks on highest peaks

Contact area = discrete islands

Real contact area small fraction of apparent area

Consequence

contact stresses higher


heating (friction) more intense
electrical contacts: local constriction resistance
ME 383S Bryant February 17, 2006
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CONTINENTAL ANALOGY
OF CONTACT
• Earth's surface rough:
mountains & valleys

• Place South America


on North America

• Contact: highest peaks


against highest peaks
- Andes/Appalachia
- Highlands/Rockies

• Apparent contact area large, real contact area small

• Contact between bodies similar


ME 383S Bryant February 17, 2006
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CONTACT MECHANICS
FUNDAMENTALS

• Fundamental Solutions:
• Boussinesq: 3D Elastic deformations from point
force normal to semi-infinite space
• Flamant: 2D Elastic deformations from point force
normal to semi-infinite space

• Contact between spheres


elastic: Hertzian contact
plastic: Indentation (Meyer) hardness
overall
quirks
ME 383S Bryant February 17, 2006
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FLAMANT SOLUTION (2D)


• Point force P, normal to semi-infinite elastic space
• 2D: plane strain or plain stress
P

x
(x, y)
u
y
v

• Elastic deformations: (u, v) along (x, y)


P & 2xy ) P % 2y 2 (
u=" '($ "1)% " 2 * , v = " &($ + 1)log r " 2 )
4#µ ( r + 4#µ ' r *
• Stresses:
2P % y y 3 ( 2P % y 3 ( 2P % xy 2 (
" xx = # & 2 # 4 ) ’ " yy = # & 4 ) ’ " xy = # & 4 )
$ 'r r *! $ 'r * $ 'r *
!
µ: elastic shear modulus, ν: Poisson's ratio
Elastic modulus: E = 2(1 + ν)µ
! !
Dundars constant: κ = 3!– 4ν, plane strain,
= (3 – ν)/(1 + ν), plane stress
2
r = x 2 + y , tan θ = x/y

!
ME 383S Bryant February 17, 2006
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SOLUTION (2D)
• Point force P, tangential to semi-infinite elastic space
• 2D: plane strain or plain stress
P

x
(x, y)
u
y
v

• Elastic deformations: (u, v) along (x, y)


P % 2y 2 ( P & 2xy )
u=" &($ + 1)log r + 2 ) , v = '(# $1)% + 2 * ,
4#µ ' r * 4"µ ( r +
• Stresses:
2P % x xy 2 ( 2P % xy 2 ( 2P % y y3 (
" xx = &$ + ) " = # & 4 ) ’ " xy = &$ + )
# ' r 2 r 4 * ’! yy $ 'r * # ' r2 r4 *
!
µ: elastic shear modulus, ν: Poisson's ratio
κ: Dundars constant
! ! strain; = (3 – !
= 3 – 4ν, plane ν)/(1 + ν), plane stress
2
r = x 2 + y , tan θ = x/y

!
ME 383S Bryant February 17, 2006
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BOUSSINESQ SOLUTION (3D)
• Point force P on semi-infinite elastic space
P

y x
(x, y, z)
u
z
w

• Elastic deformations: (u, v, w) along (x, y, z)

P xz x
u = 4πµ { r3 - (1 - 2 ν) r (r + z) }

P yz y
v = 4πµ { r3 - (1 - 2 ν) r (r + z) }

P z2 2(1 - ν)
w = 4πµ { r3 +
r }

µ: elastic shear modulus, ν: Poisson's ratio

r = x 2+ y 2 + z 2
ME 383S Bryant February 17, 2006
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HERTZIAN CONTACT THEORY
• Contact between elastic curved bodies

• Initial Contact

E1 !1 • bodies (spheres) touch at


origin
R1

Z o (x, y) • curvatures R1, R2


x
R2 • elastic parameters
E2 !2
(E1,ν1) (E2,ν2)

• initial separation
initial contact (parabolas)

x2 + y2 1 1
Zo(x, y)= 2
{R +R }
1 2
ME 383S Bryant February 17, 2006
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HERTZIAN CONTACT THEORY

• Compressive normal load P

• Induces contact pressures p = p(x, y)

• normal surface
deformations w1, w2
P wi = wi[p(x, y); Ej, νj, Rj]
(from Boussinesq)
p(x,y)
• final separation
Z f (x, y)
x
2a Zf(x, y) = Zo(x, y)
- α + w1 + w2
P
• contact diameter 2a,
defines contact area

• normal approach α,
amount centers of bodies
come together
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HERTZIAN CONTACT THEORY

Problem Statement
Unknowns
• a, α (eigenvalues)
• Contact pressures p(x, y)
P (eigenfunction)

p(x,y) Physics: static equilibrium


Z f(x, y) Boundary Conditions
x
2a
• over contact (x2+ y2 < a2)
Zf(x, y) = 0, p(x, y) ≥ 0
P

• outside (x2+ y2 ≥ a2)


p=0

• P= ⌡p(x,
⌠ y) dx dy
contact area
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HERTZIAN CONTACT THEORY

Solution
Sphere on Sphere (point
contact):
x2 y 2
P
• p(x, y) = po 1" "
a 2 a2

p(x,y) 3P
po = 2π a2
Z f (x, y)
x 1
2a
• a= { 3"P(k1 + k2 )R1 R2
4(R1 + R2 )
} 3

P
1- νi2
ki = πE
i

•α= { 2 2
9" P ( R1 + R2 ) ( k1 + k2 )
16R1 R2
2

} 3

!
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Cylinder on Cylinder (line contact):

x2 2P
• p(x) = po 1" a 2 , po =
"al
1/ 2
" 4P(k1 + k 2 )R1R2 %
1- νi2
• a = $# l(R + R ) '& , ki = πE
! 1 2 ! i

P / ) 4l 3 #1 1 &,2
! " = (k1 + k 2 )11+ ln* % + (-4
• l 10 + (k1 + k 2 )P $ R1 R2 '.43

• l: length of contact along axis of cylinders

!
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• PLASTIC CONTACT THEORY
• Indentation (Meyer) hardness

• Contact pressures p(x, y)


P approximately uniform
p
• Hardness pressure
!A (indentation hardness)

P P
Η ≡ p ≈ δA

Bodies in contact H ≈ 3 x Yield stress

Load P > elastic limit • Use: estimate contact


⇒ plastic deformations area, given H and P
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OVERALL CONTACT MODEL


P α P
1

p(x,y)

α
2 2a

P P

• Spheres

• Increasing normal load P

0 ≤ P < Pe ; Elastic (Hertzian) contact model


1

α = α1+α2 = { 9π2P2(k1+k2)2(R1+R2)
16R1R2 } 3

P ≥ Pe ; Elastic-Plastic contact model

α = α1+α2 > { 9π2Pe2(k1+k2)2(R1+R2)


16R1R2 } 3

• Similar formulations, tangential loads & deformations

P >> Pe, Meyer Hardness problem


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Hardness (Indentation) Test

• Brinell hardness H B F

– Hard steel ball (diameter D, load F) Hard St eel Ball


(d ia mete r D)
– indent for 30 sec.
– measure permanent (pla stic) set
– HB = F/(! D t) [N/m 2 ] (units of s pecim en

stress)
– t " {D - (D 2 - d 2 )1/2 }/2 d
t

• Other hardness tests


– Vickers: Diamond point indentation
– Rockwell: measured like Brinell
or Vickers
– scratch test
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Brinell Hardness
• For steels S = S(H)
• Ultimate strength
Su = KB HB
• Yield Strength
Sy ! 1.05S u - 30ksi
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Micro Hardness Measurements

Micro hardness tester:


• Indents specimen
• Use on thin films, e.g. hard drive coatings
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CONTACT QUIRKS
• Nonlinear contact stiffness P = P(α)

3/2 4 R1R2
P=Cα , C = 3π(k +k ) R1+R2
1 2

• ⇒ nonlinear contact vibrations

• Tangential motions: slip/stick

with friction

high pitched "squeal" / fingernail on blackboard


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ROUGH CONTACT MODELS
• Greenwood & Williamson
P

• Rough surfaces contact: current separation = d


P

P
• Asperities contact

interference α = (z1 + z2) - d

z1 , z2 surface heights, upper & lower


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• Model asperities as spheres

r1

z1
h do
z2

r2

• Relate contact quantities to surface heights z = z1 + z2


(random variable)

• Expected values ⇒ Macroscopic Contact Parameters


"

E[H(z)] = N # H (z)F(z)dz
d

N: total number asperities


H(z): physical quantity, dependent on heights z
Lower limit: heights z ≥ d for asperities to touch

• Microscopic understanding ⇒ Important


practical engineering parameters
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Contact force (elastic) on ith asperity


3/2 3/2
Asperity force: Pi(z) = C α = C (z - d) (Hertz)

Total force: H(z) = Pi(z)


"

P = E[Pi(z)] = N # P (z)F( z)dz


i
d

• Real contact area


Asperity area: H(z) = Ai(z) = π a2

From Hertz: a = C1 " 1/ 2


= C1 (z " d )1/ 2

• Contact conductance
Asperity conductance: Gi(z) = ρ/2a (Holm)