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5

Conspiracy Against

the guranic

Text.

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(1G:38).

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"""'do'"",y""",'/Iof<>rg<dU?Sajj,'BrlnGIhon"S"",IIk<r"""'U,or<»llr",,,,,,,,dJdJ

""!I""""""

""',be.>ies

God. ifa be!l'"''''''

""lIifuL"

Certalnaape<:taoflheron.pIraNesagalIJllttheQUJande"orlbed

In the

p"'VI<>US

pago" ",quire

further

eluoldatlon

In

the

light

of the

gUl'QnLc teachings.

One

such

conspiracy,

as

slated

earlkr.

was

about

the

very

word.

of the.Quran.

Tht.

wa.

an

attempt

to shake

the

Musllm

beJlefthal

 

the

W«ds

of the

guran

and

tbelrsequenee

remained unchanged .tnee lbey"",rereveaJed.

to the

last

IMSlienger

of God.

Thus a

propaganda was let loose to the eJTeN that Muhammad did nol Ie""" the guran With

his roUC>Wt:rt>tn its pr""enl

during

In the guran

fmm and

thai

that

the worm

of Ihe Qunn

verse'

have been

changing

!be first centmy

a

A.H., and

some orlbe

which we

o:r:IgtnaUypresent

In Ihe

no rnore 1here;and

Ihat

someoflheverse.

Ihat are nOW p""'"flt

Cansp/TQCyAgainstrheQuranlc:Te>:r

89

~

guranlo

readingandwnUng.UlanotoertalI1lCtheOl:rtbe towhomhedk:lated,tooknol<!s

oo=ctIy. The baalo of the [sIamIc.oc:lalO1'der, 10 the conviction lhat the cookofl1fe we receIVed thtOUgh Muhammad~and which was meant to channellse the human acUvlUe8 In the rtght direction, hi from Qod and Cod alone, A olIght devlaUon fmm this beltef

a1ao

nw:.

belJeye thar

I>io""

to bumanity In the form ofl'orah and Bible. But In aplte of that-do not bene , that todaytheaebookoarelntheIrOl1g1na1lOm1lnwhk:htbeoe"""",~dt<>Mgo ,and Je.u.C_trespecUvely.ltzJamatteroffac:l~usarUra.r!m>.havebeenbrought

aboutlntheoebookaoinoetheywerereveaiedandnlBverydlfIkulttooaywtth

oertaInty how far they are orlgtnol. 0

remalnsabeoluldyunal"'red,FrombeJl!nnlngtoend,UlBexaoUythesam.ulrwas

.~.

mDSIns tho buls ot'Deea' (the Is\amJc oocIaIoroeo With 1Ltm.'Ibua the con.ptracy to

Cft8.te donJbIB about the gurantc \I/CIt11aand thetrsequenoewu I1IOIStpernieJoUa. Let us

~

~ma"'r:IaIsuperl""tycould""tstandaga1nsttheArablanMus1lmglnthe

af

hlklnbuttn foot they used thI!Ir conversion as a meano ta shake the MusUme<>nvlcUOn

batUe-1leid. dec:ldedtochan,ge their strategy. 'IbeyapparenUycame

tat,

have been abregated:

and that

because

Muhammad

hlmoeU dtd not know

the wholo! .tructure

tly

breught

of the

I&IamIc ooeJaI order

to the ground.

the =oengo",

We Muellmll.

ofOod.

JaUOn eame

the aame

to Moses and Je8U.

meoaage

ulo

Chrlllt.

which

given In the QuI'lU1; and

which

was presented

the

has

otheThand,

the

sllghtesl

the

non.Arab

we belIeYe thaI

doubt

about

It,

who

In.plte

Into

the

It

no

of

the

guran

more

their

fuld

.Ied

to

our

Muhalnmad."

earlter

If any-body

thai

s"''''moat

naUons.

tatl>eQuranlctruth.Ttnuolheys""r:eededlnlntJ'oduc:lnSabelleflhat'Deen'(IsJam1c

IOClalorderj 10 oontalned not only tnslde the QUI'lU1but aJso outsJde It. SoUbecame nay to chanCe the enUre concept otthe bask: teaohlnp otthe guran. 'Ibey took

advantageotthsM\I8l!m'o low and cIovoUon to their RuooI'and Lntroduoedthe Idea

thattbeAhad1&attr1buWltohJmareatparwlththeQuran.Havtngdonethat,1hey

basood the InfurmaUon reiSJdlng the oequence and the modeotaaoembl8ge otthe QtuantcveroesonAhIOdts. 'Ib18 paved the way to forge otalemenlo abo\It theguranlc wcrdaandthe!roequenoe, allhough.AI1ah took upon Hlntsetfthesafetyottheguran.

 

Now let

us

examine

dlop".''''''''teJy

IC It

Is

possible

to

hold

such

AhadIo

as

genuine. Weahall

Rrst describe

Ihe rtlevantAhadis

and then

o:xamJneln

Quran

how far theae

are

true.

'Ibere

lsaboolrentll1ed

""'pw

Ih

the lighr otthe Cr', wrtUenby

HaOzAbuBakrAbduJ1ahJbno-AblDaUdSulemanIbn-.o-AshatSaJlsbnl,lnwhlChall

tradlUonadeal!ngwith thecompll8.tlonottheguran'are co1W:ted.1hbIBU8edasa standard book ofreferenoe In thts respec:l. 'IbeAhadls quoted below are takenfmmthls book.

,

Th<IttI>eQunlnwaswmp/ledrwrbyIheRnsoolIUmse!fburbyZatdBlnSnbtt

W\derJ""tnJctIomsfromH=I.AbuBakrSIddIq-

'ntrdrtWn (I) Imam

Ibn AbI Daood rela"'.

from ZoLd Bin S'abLt. on his

own. Bakr Slddlq (lot

authorlty - When AhI~Yamama caliph) sent fa,- me (ZaIdi. Hauat

'g'lIree>I' (those who learn Quran by heart) ha

number and ills

Quranbe oompJIed early. I,

were murdered In large aumberaAbu

Omar waa also there, Abu Bakr SJddlque oa1d that

been murdered In an enormotlsty large

advloe that the

beoomeextInot.

[would

Ldoa thing which the Rasool'hlmself

fea«!<!thaI the Quranshalt

,plled thathowoould

Q()

Corupln:ldeS<rgaInsttMQuran

dldnotdo.ButtheyconUnuedl""laUngupontttillTagrced.ThusTb<:gana~hlOc

ofdale-paTm

and also sear<:hedfa.-those people who had !earnt tt by heart, until only one verse,

whtch the RasooI'often u".,d to ",ctte, was Tefland that wa. aJso found Jater.

\he Qumnlc ver.oeaW1itlen an plecosofpap''''

on stones.

on dlied

"'a"".

TrodtI(on

('lJ Imam

IhnAbt

[)aood

relates

from

UIWa !hn

ZubaJr,

on

his

own

authortly,thatwhenalargenuIDbecofQ'a weremucdoTed,AbuBakrStddiqfeared

the!"""<>ftIieQumn.Hethu'aBkedOmarandZald8ln~'ab1t(osllatthedoorofthe

mosque

each

!bn Abt Daood

that

Quranlcverses,

and

coUeellhe

Qumnlc

verse.

from any_y

",lates

blessed

who could

prodUCt

two Wltne.se.

In.upporl

their b<:lng genujne,

saying

thai

TradU(on (31 Imam

he heard

HurnlAII

from Abd Khair. be Abu BakrStddlq

on his own autholily.

who "",,"mbled

the

71vQurnn

wnsnssembWdbyAbuBokrSlddlqhunselfnndZatdBlnSabtthnd rear;itng on a-

orIIy a.second

Ti'adU(on (4) Imam

lbU Abl Daood,

Iate.

from S'alam

and

KharJa,

on

his own

authortty, thai Abu Bakr~lddtqhadasaembTed the gurnn on ""pera hln>""lfand had

reque.tedZaJdBln~'abUtoha""aoecondn:adlngontt.Zald

the 1n.lslence <>fOmar. 'The ""lipIU"'s thu. complkd ",malned WIth Hazmt Abu BaT<r

Slddk] till his death, the JK>SS""sIonb<:lng succeeded

Hafsa !wife of the Ras<:o>I"and daughter or Omarl.

for the scrtpturesbutHafsaflrat refused

that they shall b<:",lurned 10 her. Thus Osmann:tumed the sertptures aner he got

fusedbulheagn:edon

tW he died,

and again

lie b<:came Caliph,

agreed

by Omar

o

man.

with

bul

when

later

by

sent

to part

on thepromJoe

them ""pled. The.e ",malned WIth Hafsa untn Marwan,

In his "me,

got them burnt.

The rompdnUon

qf the Qwnn

slnrled

by Hazrat

Omar

(not by Hazrat

Abu 8akr

SW!qlnndcnmpl<'ledbvOstnnn(lnCaliphJ-

 

TrodItton

ES) Imam

Ibn

Abl Paood

",late.

from

Yahya

bin

Abdur

Rahman

bin

Hatab that Omar III Caliph), determined 10 a.sembk

\he guran.

ordered

all those

who

kept

Rasoolfto

WIth them

the

gumntc

such

v.""",,

before

which him ba.edon ~'"

earlier

collected

by them

or two Wltne plalesand

prodUCt

evidence

wooden

Thus

he g.>thered all those

""""'"

pletesofpap"",Siones,

from

lhe

es

each.

date-paTm

on which

the Quran

Omar

(efl the

task

of compnallon

or the guran

taken

over by Osman

(III Caliph) wbo followed

wc'"

ulUrnaldy

taken

over-

the Caliphate

q[Osman-

Incomplete "'a"".

thernuuneofhl.p",dettS9OC.[}urtngthlsper1odKhazlmalbnS'abUchallengedOslnan

and ihese

that

wa.

wrttten.

when he died and

It wa.lhu.

be hacl n>lssed two""

A!l.!gmD!lf""""""sOI1

the Qw<:IntcTe.>tdwing

TrodtItM(6)

a story

""""f

Imam

that

IbnAbI

Abu Musa

Daood

Ash'an

relates

and

from Yazld bin

Abdu'lla

bin

"=,,,,»~IJ~""":;I,

~'-

MoaVIya, on

read

and

hi.

thelOlJowIng

othec

own

authortty.

QuranlC

"'adlnga.~t"

Masood

~ttT"",ntly-one

I'.tr.-ll"

~.-eadlng as

l.o

the

Abdulla

qftlleQurnn-

B/nMasood

dtsnQ

d wIth (lie GppOU1(mm!ofZatd!>trt Snb/t

as (lie scnbe

7'rad1Uon (7) Imam

!bn

Abl

Paood

relates

from

Ibrahim

Nakb!e,

on

his

own

authortty that Osman ordered the de.tructton ofaRgurantcverslonsexcepl

On this AbduU=>h bin Masood said, -0 peoptel hide \he ""

po68essbecause any-_ywho htde.U,shaI1brlng It along WIth ItImon the day of

Judgment."

his own.

that

you

tons

of the

Quran

Cor\$ptnIcIJAgalnstt""QwtznICTe.<f

91

1n:Id!tIon(8)lmamlbnAb!DaoodrelatosfromAbduUab1nAlbalbatAbdullabtn

Masood dloagreed with the appolnlment

ofZaJd bin S'abUaslhescrlbeoflheQumn

and

oaId. "0 beDeve",1 I am being kopl away

from the wk

of ""rlbing

Ihe guranlC

text

and

thlo re.ponslbtlily10

enimoted

loa

pen;on

who wa.

noleven

born

to blsln1!del

father

al the time of my coming

Into the fold of Islam.

 
 

Jusllmaglne

the

type of behaVlOur attrlbuled

to the

companions

of the

Raaool

whom the gur.mdescnbeoas

,p",,,,,,-'

~-"\T~

kind and a/Tecikmate

towards

one another.

Th>dIIlort(9Jlmam!bnDaooclrelatesfromlbnSbahobZohrltnconJunctJonwtlh

Ans Ibn Malik An.arI Utat when SyrIan and Iraq! Muslims

of AzarbalJa" and Armenia. dur ,nces arose In the respectrveverslonaoflheQumnlc

them,

HazIfa IbnAllrnan Informed Caliph Osman that he heard thaldurerence. are JJkeJyto

arIge amongst lqe Muslim

the Jews

text that the twD peopJo rehearsed

met each

"ther

In the batUe

and

Utere was a danger

the

gumntc

of confilcl

between

regarding

text. Jtke the ones

Osmangol

present

perturbed

amongsl

""er

U

and

Christiano

regart!ing

Utelr own scrlplures.

and senl for the script which waa wrltlen byZaldblnS'ahttunderlnslrucUonat'rom

Abu Bakr Slddlq and

when Marwanbeaunelhechief of Madlna.he nt(orthe""me,cl1ptfromRafsawLth

the Intentton of burning tt SO as to avoid

refused k>hand"",rbul thetO$kofbllmlngwaocompleled after the death ofHaf!l3

got j[ copied

for ctrculatlon

dure

In ",,110"" parts

e",:e.

amongsl

of the

the

countly.

Bul

MusliItll>. Hafsa

How ",as

Trad/!!on (10) lmam]OO

Ihe Quran """"Plied during the days

AbI [)aood

reJales.

olCal/ph

asman-

on his own alllllOrlly,

from A,yub who

related

from Abu

galaba.

thai

during

the

period

of mlLphato

of Osman

leachers

of

guron

durered

from

each

other

In the

QuranLc

lexl.

and

lhe

dLIJeren"".

were

thus

carr1ed

10 the

pupils,

so much

so that

Musl]ma

bc:gan 10 call each

otber)nfide]son

 

accounl

ofth

, dLIJerences,

Osman

warned

them

agoJnal

this

pmctice

and adVIsed

them

acert8.lnpersonwho,here""'mbered,hadeo!kCledlhedispuledversefromtheRa;""J~

In unLle On one version,

ThllS on very dltrerence

that

arose.

Osman

ofien ""nt

for

d1rec1Iy. And onoceosiOns,

when

allch a person

was away at oome far offplaee.

Osrnan

noted

the

p,

,,,,,dlngand

thefoUowingverses.

leovlngblank

spo.ce for the

dJapultd

verse.

which

was fil]ed up on hla arrlv:>!. Aller the wk

wao completed.

Osmon

ordered

thedestruellonof31lothervcrslonscxceptlheonecompUedbyhlmse1f.

the

ousplclonolhalarehelngcreated,oneafler\heolher.

own

authorlly.

leJdonlyafterI3yearsofthedeathoftheRasool.'"Heth""oroeredthemlnhrtngto

him 311thaI they possessed regarding the Qumn. TbeybrollgllL piece. ofpapera and Wdes on whtch the guranwas wrLtton. Aller Ihe Jot was collected. Osman ""I Inalde InVltlngmenindLvLdually.each.taUngonoaththatthemalerialproducedbyhtmwas

the one co11ected bybtmfrom the Ra;ooJ'"dlreclly. AfterlhecompleUonoflhlot""k. he

The

rea<leno may

please

keep

an

[)aood

eye on

relates

the

contradlClory

regarding

Mas""b

slate,nents

and

texl.

on

his

on theguran]c

the Quranic

IbnSaad.

'l"mdIllon(lJ)

that

Imam

IbnAh!

from

Osman

fell concerned

on Ihe peopleexpresslngdoubl5

enquired

k> who waa

the

besl

scribe

kn

,

the

"" AmbLc language

best?

They

among.t

them

and

who was

the

person

who

named

ZaLd bin

S'abU

and

Saeed

bin

'Aaa

92

Consp!r<lCU'Sagainsl/hegunm

pect1Yely, Osman.

thUB, onIered

Saeed

10 d1ctate

and

Zald

to Wl:lte It down.

11118

completed

vemton

of the guran

waa circulated

amongst

the peop!e-

n

sequenceqftheQurank:uerseswassetbyOsman--

Th:IdII/<InU2!lmamlbn

Daood rolatea

from 11mAbbas.

on hta ownauthonty

thai

I1ep>lntedouttoOs.man

 

towlly

did he place Sura'fJaraaj"

with Sura

'Anfal',O$tJ\an

repllod that

he Ihouglll

Sura

'Baraal'

was a partofSura'Anfal'.

and

thaI 1a why he Obn

AbbaaJdldllOtpotnl1loutdurlngtheUfettmeoftheRasaol"thalilwasnotapaztof

Sura

"Anfal'.

MlslaJceswere/JdtfrlIheQurarUc~

qftETlhe<X>Uec/lallbyo man--

Trod/tI<Jn(13)Imam tbn AbI Daood relatea from JlbdulA'alablllJlbdulla bill 'AamJr

011bla own authority, thai after the """,pt w"" completed Osman complem<!nted

g,

htapeop!eby""ylng,''Youhavedonewelibuttheroare:!OJnellllgulsUcmtataltealcll

but thcoc thcAraba

mlstaMswerelefLwluchOomanlgnored.

own

authortty, lhat when the scrtpt, after compllaUon. was broughl before Daman. be

noUced certain mistakes In It and remarked

HanztJ Irtbe and the &crtbewao rmm Banu Saqlf tribe, Ih mistakes would not haw

occurred.

Th:IdItWnU5!1I1a related fmm Saeed ThnJabeer an! not correct In theguranu

,bL,

can correct th"""",lves." Howfanlaotlc

Thn Abl Daood relal

from

that even afterlhlsoomc

'Akrama Tal,

on

hta

TradIttotI (14) Imam

that If the one who d1ctated waa from Banu

Ihat there are four words which

(4:62)

(20:131

,

q~q\

0:)-:' . ~. II.,

,.

"

.

{

I.A~!

'. I

(2)

(5:691

(4)163:1O)

~

,

~I~~,.,,,,

'- "r:

i/},~.'\

"'I.::"~~ :o.\i

(1)

(3)

Tmd/tIan(I6J

u.-

aaId that when he poJnted out to HazralAlsha

(wlIeofthe

Ra800I

~

Jaboutlhefourmlslakespotntedoulabav<:.

aI1ereplled,

"Mynephewlltla

the

"""'''''''whomad.thcaemlstakea,"

'

Tn><UI!on(l71 ZubalrlbnKhaJldaskedAhan

II bad been wrongly wrtltcn

IbnOsman by Ihe ocrlhea.

he repllodthal

about

a certain""

and

1tGldi!!on(18J

KhaI1d IbnAyas

bin

SakhraAbIAIJaham

relales

that

he read

the

script

complied

by Osman

and

potnled

out

to

him

that

It d!lI"ers from

the

scrtpta

po

"j

by the

people

of MadLna al

12 different

points.

In onIer

w

remove

thta

dlOlc-uJtyOsman got "",pw-ed oop~sofhl.sown""rslonfordtatr!bulton.butthtaa!llo eould nol serve thc plirJlO8<' bccall8<' as Imam lbo AbL Daood has mentioned. on hta ownaulhol1ty. that"""" the scrtplswb!ch were cop1ed for d.spatchtng to dill"erenl cities were different from c.aclt other al several hundred po1n"', Note""n tha~ Imam Ibn

/lbtDaoodpoln18outthalthcocd1ITerence.werep""",ntnolon!ydurlngihellfeUmeof

theRasooI~butevenafLuthat and thattbe

tInaUy """,,cled by I-iaJaJ lbn YouMf who made amcndmen'"

"",""nl

scrtptofihegur.ul16

In Osman's

iheone

scrlpl

al

ConsplracyAyalnsllheQurorucTh«!

93

~Ievenpl"""".

1n8hort,

theae

tradllJo

teU ua that

tho

p",aent"""'lOnoflheQuran

that

we

~todaywasnelthe<compUedbylhoRaaootnorbyhisoompanli>nsbutLtlath<:

one IlnaUy arn~nded

Thlawas

lathatth~co

par wtth each

other,

by HaJaJ Ibn y"usa(

about

a centwy

ucordod.

and

the death

The O1"UXofth~whole

text and

finall.oaUon isconc~rne<I,

after

oCth~ RasooL"

matter

af" both

at

and

about

If

text \!I not

th~ period wh~1I tradltlonat>egan

piracywanla

10 assort

that

toho

the Quranlo

theAhad!:l

a.o far as th~1r care. recording

th~ purtly

and

auth~nticUy

of the

traditions

10 doublful,

the Quranto

text. The conspiracy

wants

to Impl""'s

that

the the p",aent """'"

may ho said

Quranlc

theonedictatodbytheR3s001"hlm,",lfbut.rather,!lbth~onenn&Uy=todby

HajaJlbnYousaf,

This

Is only

a Iniefextrac1

Crom the

book

~,""",I

(;twrtltell

by Abu

BaItr

Abdullah Ibn Abi Daood DCBaghdad

thetradltlonlsts. the peop1eand the Oovemment of Baghdad. How !itrthe traditlOna quoted above v&lYand contradict each other Ia appm-ent. That the Quran waa compiled

byZaId b!nS'abU under lnstrucUona from Abu BakrSlddlq (iat Caliph): IhatAbuBakr

Slddlq

asaemblago of th~ Quran was .tarted by Omar (II Callphl and Caliph); that It waa asaembled durtng the caliphate of Osman

(230.316

bin

S'abit

AH.)

had

who was

held

In great

over

it;

esteem

by

the

till

assembled

himself

and

Zald

a

,",oond

look

that

completod

by Osman

only. by Zak! bin

S'abU;

that

the s"'luene<:

of tbe Quranlc

verses

was arranged

by Osman

hlmoelfand

00 on. All

these

aeJf-contradJoIo<y

tradJUons

a",

attrtbuted

10 the companion.

of the Raoool"wbo.

according to the Quran.we",themosttrothrulpeop1e.One

agaIn.t

much.usplolontheyoanrataeagaJns!ltspurttyandlntegrlty,lfsuchtradIUonsano

reltedupon

Torah

Jesus

and

forms

th

can weUtmagI

and

the

the potson

how

""cstonsof

etradJUons

and

oan

InJect tnto the

mtnds

of the

readers

theQuranand

p<esent

there

Is no dUTerence left between

we believe

are

On

the Quran

original

these

BibJ~ which

Chr\$t

not In their

the

basis

of

as revea1ed to Mo8es

the

non-Muslim

respectively.

tradtUolls,

Ortentallsts

ask

us

today

to explain

as

to how couJd

theQuran

be caUed

a safe

and

unaJtered

book.

Thus

a 1earnedorientaJistArthurJatI"c<yha.

collectedaDsuchdtve

and contradlcto<y traditions regarding thc oompJlatJon of the guran

enUlled, Malelial]or the HJs!<lrJjoJ!he Text oJ!he "">"On. He has particularly menltoned

that

Theauthortlyfo<U.hesald.isnoJessthanther""'ousbook

has

thatw""

bt.

In

his

book

it may not be taken

trted

to challenge

",,,,,alod

This

in Ulesplrtt

our claim

that

that

the

agaln.t

book. has been compJledbyanon-Mu.l!III.

 

.:

t

-l'

we poasesstoday

1.3exactly

Qu<.n

by

the

non.Ara""

wit.ne

~1h"she

the same

18

""<y

,.m.tIt

Quran

the

to Muharnrru;od.t

conspIracy

but

fortunately

particular

unfortunateinde.d

the g_itseUstanoh

1s sumcl

,t

by

Itself

to

ezplode

unfortunate

Is

the

lact

that

our

Mulla

the

yth

of

Is holding

the""

this

oonsplraOJ".

Still

more

lradltlons

a

sacred

trust.

WhenitissatdthatsuchtradlttonscannotfOJ'IJlpartofth.baslaoCour

because

book. the reply co"",s

Ahadisand theQtJranar.atparw!th.&ch

concerned-

hand,

t

10(.> 'Deen' .lnth~fonnofasafeJycomplled

.

80 that

the

Integrttyis

lheywere

Bul.

notgt""n

on the

to Muslim.

by the Rasool

the samo

other""rar""

"","es

or the

Crom M\Jlla that

othec

the

i. the case with theQuran,

their safety

Qurnn

a",

and

00 expUett. SO !ogtcal

94

Conspir-aciesagal""I!IvQuran

and oodynamlc

that

no argwnent

by Mulla Or any body e"'" can atand

against

11.

11-

let

WI ~:o:amln~ how

far th~

gun.:a

lbelf

thro1n

JJaht

on

the

eub.lect

underdlac

tc".-

 

TheQur<mha.slaldyrealstrf!ss""writing.

The pennanen[",conbofsp""ch

can

be kept only IJ>a wrlt~n form becau"" the s~n

words

wh~n nltered

a",

!",,[ for ever

like the b",alh

thl'OUgII tlme and

apeech

records ofrevelallon messengers of aod!ong

wrlUen

which

carrted

and

them,

As the dMne

"""'not

meso.age waa to spread

far and

Wide

ap''':t.

themtssage

can1ed

to tndlvlduaJ

human

beings.

of human

knowledge.

That

Ia why

the

by Muhanunad"'and

even

by oth~

emphasis

the

QUIan laid 00 wrtting

was

p

Is

In

fonned

the nuc1eus for tb<: spread

we",

""pi

before

In written

form

him. How much

apparent from the facl that lhe very first revelation that came to Muh.amroad

th~ IOllowlngwords:

(96;3.5)

O;.!~~;JL:~c.~\:1:o~~~:t:

~~\o"d;\

"PI'Ocl<UmIha' y<>ur.u.Wnc'

I. the be."'W<'c<>fg"""n""o: Ii<>Who ta"ght

pen:taugh''''''''thotwhlcbhckncwno'.''.

AgalnUls""W:

(66:1)

6';~~I;;~ i\;~

~

.

~~~'!)l

the u of

-We br!ng Into cvlden«

How much

'ho pcns.nd ,Iu>'whlchthoywrttc."

the

gu"'n

gave to wrIting

Impcl1ance

documenls

fol!oWlngverse:

Was In practice

during

the pertod

ofguran!c

and

how freely

the

revelation

I. apparent

(2:282)

~

;.-.!)U:"'"~ '.0

.

.r'

r:- '~'I

"1

"",Y'~.

.

':;""'~''-I~\~\i>~'I,Ji!\(:!:'(: ~

.

,."

- -""'"

¥'

wrttlng

of

from the

~

-oyouwhobdl<;vcJwhonyoudcalwtth

<>bUgolfonolnafixc<!pcrlod<>ftlmo.roduoethemlowrttlng,'

II Is fmther ""W In the samevcrse:

chQ'hcrtn

lcan,,",Uonolnvolvlngfuture

,,,-, ~"~"'_V".,~",, ~,-

",I~"'~~\\';""""':>~-, .

,

,~

=

,.

(2;282)

"

,J: ,.'

\Lj.\1

,~~

"D'odotnnot lo rcdu«tnwc!ung(Yourcon'mcOlora.ptt1no

.mall or big."

[loan

"",dtJybeJnrerred

from the

above

that

when

period.

wl>ether

Itk

It Is nol allowed

10 leavo In

doubt the matters re!ated to ordinary-mutual transaeUons. how couJd the wrttlngofthe guran. lbe final mes""ge lor the guidance of manlllnd. he Ignored. That Is why the IIrst

""",lation

that came toMuhamm3d"lmpre

ed

upon

him the

Importance

of reduCing

the verbal menage

Into writing.

About the non.believer.

lhe Quran

say

:

Conspll'UCyAgGlnstfheguror1lcThxl

9&

!68;411

",.n.

OC\;;:;.s;-.;~I

,-

~"""

-v.:

::

.,.,;"

,

\

-or"",ha"heu"""",,

The

lnthelrhMd.,00

oul thaI Ihe un"""n

havewrttlen

tM'thcy<:a"wrtl<Kdmon-"

the knowledge

",",

polnta

is not within

oInon-bel"",,,,,, for the guidance

otherwise they""uld

othenl,as

II down for their own guiclanoeor

was being done In the oas<:ofguran.

of

Secondly

111. far from ex]>C:etaUonlhal Muhammad

~

dId nol learn

wrlUng after the

ftrstt=eIaUon

In.trueted

him 10 do 00. In fuel It !s c1earfrom

the ""rse

that

foUows Ihat

he remaJned

unlelleredonlys.longasthe

revelallon

did not come 10 him:

(29:48)

"'

Ol:!

.:,t,;i

""

,

, \,-,I;.J~I~I~~~j '" ,~

.,

"

"',,,

j;,S'cT'.u

i.:r.~ ""

'~

,

,

,

',

.;,

'

'

"--~'''<

"'~

-Andyou""''''''no'ab'''Ior«lto~bookb<!orc!hI.I,"",!a''o''l.no'~eyouoblelo

I"",scrlbe

one wi!h your rI~h, hnno;I,

havedoub,ecI."

In tha'

cas< indeed

thOS<.'"wbofollow !a!=hood

1beword

J

S

Inlhlsvene

slgnillcani

which "",an.

'"before thla revelaUon

 

.

 

came." Thus lhe Ouran has put the record slralghllbat wrtleafierlhest.artofreveIaUon,

Muhammad

could read and

Ne>:1 comes

the

Quran!c

evidence

reuealedl>eT$<1swhlchlwfherod!cwtedtoo'h

\hat

s.Thus

Muhammadf

II Is""ld:

hlmsclf

used

to write

the

!25:5)

O~~

,'"

;:p.u.;~'

."'-

~

.'

\,-r-~ ~~(;bCi\11f'

-

J

-,

-And

,hey

the

(non-bd!<=",)

wr:[tlCfI

~

oay

down

(these

and

IMuhammad1 h

"""otng,"

Here

word

15 significant

second per.oonls dlctaUng:

"'40""

a n"",

Mor.,.,,,,,r

IIw pm<lice

oj keeping

lhe guran

tb/ng tostw1

tOOS,,""'aled.

willi.

1b rmuce

are)

the

~e.

of

which are dlc",,,,d

!he

"","ento

wblob

before him moml"g

which

mean.

"10

lake

note.

especially

he

""d

when

a

wri1ten records

oj

""uclalion

slarted

"""tunes

1M !>!'r'baldivine message

Ittlo wrtJlng was

=1

ThuslheQuran

~Jjj\;~

ys:

,

~"~;&

"

'; ;~;;r~:\\~\;.~;~~ ~~i3l:\

.,

;.fu\

Qr'

!2:213)

>.>c\j';J:,tII"H

~

~u:

GJ\.~':~~.::':"'\

""'_-:

~'

~ <-r"".,.

"Ma"lUru:I"""one.lng1n

warolngsand

thcydllfercd."

na<lon and

God """'",,

In ""th.

"""n 'hem He scnt theboo~

,'W'rs

""'th glod tidtngs and

lojudb"'\>etwcCfl people Inma",,,.

(57;25)

'.

.

"'

~'-'''''::'''''\

.,

~ ' ",,,,,,,. p-o\':''\jO\",~I "''''''''

\.;J '-" -.

'" ,

,

-'~'.

)u

~,

:.J\.;J.1

~

"Wooc"'ourmc ,'ngorswhho1ear.lg".""doeo'downwlth'nemthebooka

J'hn

g.a

bola.nce:

Consptrades

against

the Quron

~~;i~~\::r:~.f:.;::~q~;~~\-H~-a;:.;;:';"C;.\~J;

12:1011

oiS;~:.:~::;'';

~-);t1o~I';;~\~. 1.(

"And when the

~,

baeM, !f"hadb=n"""''''hlngt!lqdid,.,'know."

to lhem ~me_,fromGodam!lrm'''iwha'-''''u.

of the ponple """'" of the book. u

rty

aw.y Ihe book or God ,,,.,,

0)

khlnd

<han,

tboIr

Th.

holy

Quran

has

usod

ScatteredWliUen

sheeta

of paper

tho word

are neverca1led

yCs"'book'

at

a book. A book la a tnoatlae "" Wlitten on

for itself

many

place

a

cbapter.th.guranictexlbeglnawtththefoUowlng-

ownber

ofsheels

whloh

are

fastened

"'gether,

Me,

'Sur,!.

Fateha'

the

opening

{2:11

0

~

0<i:?tT ., ,\$

,J.::.f'.~"::":''j

-

;-,

:)

,

~"','

~\~:."

~

.,

,.

,

;.I\

,

.-'"

"He

Agu_""hooewho""""u",msclv<sfromu",oono«Ju"""".ofgoIn8AgA1n8tIhe

Dlvlnela"",."

I.'hebook,lnUthore1.noamblgulty,unce u.lntyorpsychologica!oomp'e-<.1<1a

At

hundreds

ofotber

plao

the

guran

has

oalled

1(",,1f a

book

In d(ffen.ot

contexto. The guran

10 a book wh10h Is a ool1«:lIon ofvaliou.

in-

ohapt"",.

Thus

In

suppon

of

th.

uuth

comalned

,therein,

the

guran

challenge.

the

valn-gIorlGu.

opponem.

of Muhammad

who doubted

th.

reve'atlon

of the guran

and

said

that

he

(M~composedth.verse8h,,,,,,,,!f;lnth.foUowtngwords:

UO:381

,~

.h,

~ ".

'w

'"'~.J~l.>\;Ji ~\~

,,".

"

-

w'~""""

\

"Or do Ihey say, "l1e fo<g<d In

AgaIn

{ll:13)

11IssaJd:

('':~~ "'':;''''''''''''''~.J''''~ ~ . .

5<.y: "llrlngthen

,.":-:,-,

-

~

"

.~

'

a S.""

like unto1t."

\ '!:,'\f~'"

"'''''-'"'tlwft

'::' \ ">:'1:';';'''

~J

r:c""

"Or th<y may ""-y. "Heb,8'-<!""'Say.

AgaJnll1s~pealed:

"II,;ngyou

theo

LonSurasforgcdUkeuo""t:

\

~d;t.g~~\\~~i;.t'di~~~:;'~I'-';~I~J; ,. ':. -, ,", - " -"""'- (17:BB) O\1J,.:.:':.~~0~;; -,

"-""y' "lfi.hewholcof""'nIOod

produeo'holl!reoflh

borltodupcaohothe',""lhhclp""d.upport-"

bothctv111aodand unejvjlloed were to !/01h

lheyoouldnotprndu,,",

"'go:the,to

guran,

1I,,,Ukeli='ooc,,,,,,ntfth<y

Thll.

\he

whole

byAllah

world

and

ohalknged

10 produce

IOwhom

"book

,. beonablelOproduoeone.ltsbeauly tandardandpurttylsaproofbyl(Se!fthat1tlsa

11was

bookrevo:aled

oompiled

by one

Uk< thl.

"""a1ed.

and

11 haal10i

TheQtm:IrIlsCibookwhlchwClsnolonlywr-/tt""btdCllsorehEa.-sedsltkbys!de

Consp/m<'Io'A,gaInottJ,.,QwunICTh><t

97

with its9mduatdes«nl.1bU.

(29:45)

It I. 1OaId:

,~

, ~1~.:.w\U'"",\1.J,:'1 "''''''

,"

"

,.-,~~H

Quran.

-1~c"efromlhc:book""'thaob.=~loyoU"

(18:27)

f'

~

,"'"

~lJoJ-o~~

,

,,"

".

;

i;S"~

;

!tJIa;,\",J;\, ",,,

,

,.

'" '.Jl-!>~''''

" .And""''''(a'''''''''''''lwhalh bccfJ~o1,,"lothc:<orlhc:booItofthyRa.bb:No

"""""""I1<]] a.'

But In aplte ofa1l thlll. when the

."

non.beUeve",

pe"'lBted

In theLr op(X>!llUtmto the

they we",

queot1Dnedln

the foUowingworns:

\29:51)

.,

.n~~

!1~

,,-

1

'-'''~'''':'

""

-"

~\~blji!U\~~,\

""!;":> -~

,,-".

,.-""

-1°" ""trno

ro.-lh<m thol We ba""oentd-

lothem?'"

AgaIn It Isoa1d:

(68:37)

,.,J""~

O~""',)wcl

"

10Ihoe the book whicb la,

ob

/?!.<?,t","'"

"

.:.u.".\

,""""'-d

"Or ha

U clearly

,you

a book Ihr=gb

hI<b

you Icoonr

wbether

then

",ttca

theQuran Is a book whlclt was Wtit"'n Bnd compllod side

by side WIth lto revelaUon and that Muhammad~Bnd hla companions u!led to d the

book.

whether

t:Otttpank>na,"l1tIaa1solnd[catC!ltha~the"_otthcboo1:had.refUluord

Indica""that

The

non-beltcvuo

wmo asMd it down and

they

ala<>get a

,

n:vcIaUon

1tkc thta

and

and

his

d

they also. write

III done by Muhammad'"

so

that theycoukl be",hcar>l<:>dby the RaoooJand hlBfoI1owera.

TheQurnnwascamposedtn lheJormoJabookwhlc/twosabsoluh>lysaJ"from

~andtn'-""1t!an:

O,j';<'$\~~l

IY:'

O~~:~;:~:."f}~"::

~,

I~);

0

"

0 ~;;:~.iJ\~~~"S1

O~9;0;~~

(56:75-80)

;~\~\::.:.~

r.~"'-,,,,,

.~:\~

O\f;s:.t}~~

'

m!«h'YwltnuolfyoubulknowIhBltblo1o!Rdoodlhc:gu",n,wb"'lIbrncfltobumon!1y

bynol.!O(!to.laturewltbuutlowe"OJ:ltodW>11y, abcol<weIIg "-d"dwh!choo",, .l>al!louch[orbrbrn<Otrdlbullhm,< J,o""'d""nUnbo/!y.mInd,lhoughtond .ttentjon):arevcl&<!onkcmIhoSuotai oC\houn!veno.,"

"thc:>mo"'Ica1ltowjt""

thc:locationoftl1<,""""",lybodl""aodthallo<!<<>;\1oB

Thcsoclologlcallawag1vcn

 

to mankind

through

Ih< messengera

of God arc

Ute

","e<:Uons

or the

fundamental

Jawa that

govern

the

organtoatlon

oral]

mat"'rat

all

levela whleh

Indltal<a

that

the

Jaw-giving

authortly

1&One.

Thc

stara

foUo

cou

,

~ctlycomputed.whleharcrontroltedbyJawathat"","""'uJablo.50"",thc:]aW8

contalnedl"lh<hoJyQuranbrtheg"~or"""'klndlntmuJab1e.and1ffo]Jowed.

98

ConsplradesogainsttheQuran

produ"ere.ull.whlrhn"""rchange.Thu.lheguranlspre""~!nthetO""arabook

,""lchl!,,"abooJu(elysaresln"eUwasr~ed.1!utan!yth""epeop!ecanbebenelUed

by II who have a cloan and

Material

Thegu",,, with the conlroned

C<lmpanlon"nolan ptece,'of.tane bul an parchmenl paper,

unbtased

mind.

r

e

from prejudice

and IIxed noticn

.

u:;ed by Muhammod

ft>r wri!!<1gthe Quran-

stars,

polnl5aullhalthebaok,the

movemenl

of the

exactne.sofwhlrh

Was rerorded

is <:ompan<l above

~ and

iUs

by Muhammad

norandatc-pa!m

ltaves.

nor on Plere.orbone.

!ruth

th

e

In the""r"".

that

Ilve thing.

gIVen below

Ilve thmgs

are

produced".

a witness

the way of life followed by non-believers

Is theguran

written

shaU brlngde.INcUan.

Thu.

II I. said:

on parthmenl.croll.

10 supportlhe

and

one of

O:! ~, {iI, ~~;:::!~CL.>~;-J~,p':.i\j . ,- 0;':" ,

(52:1-71

06'tl9"I~';';;\;j;.t\

~-:.j;~b.)~'

."

O;~~\::;

~:.~;G'~

'

-

~\;

"Byorn,""'onlloffu-vcIa"onJ.by""'_iI\s<r1bo>:I""p=hn"""wifolded,b~lho

mooh-f""luented hoose(K'ahaJ, b~tbecanopyofouter.""""raI>«J hl8h, b~lh.oeeon ~1I«Iwlth.w<II, VerIly, the doomof<l1y Lon; will tndced"""'" '" pass,"

 

$0

far

we have

!earnt

from

the

verses

described

above

thai

the

gumn

was

pre""nl

with Muhammad'in

thai

!I waswrtUen

ora on a parchmentscroU,

the

form

wnllen

book,

in

a 'pecific

order

and

'equence.

and

The hOly Qumn

URile !he Qunm

in Ihe

desenhes

presence

rurther

lhed!sUncti,-",

of Muhammad

~Thus

morks

qftlle

Ills

said:

scribes

wlwusedla

~":'l.O ,~"

i'~.L-;'.L.';';;Oa::ft-;~.}O

~~>"G;;I

~.~,

(80:11.16/

~.

6 ~v~~\J bp.:

~

o

iJ.'J;(~;~ .

~

"LookiTh" gur.m ,"'"d.xod amcs'"'!J"of'ns'rueUon,

thero",,,, Idwhos<>"",11k<optt I~

"'m.mbrnn=thil'U"

In pilP''''

held Ingreol

honour.

and holy. (wntl<;nl by theh~nd.of&<r1bc5.

henon",b","

Jtis

ahundanUy

e!ear (rom Ihe above verses

thai

<xollcd«ndtgnltyJ.

k~p'pu",

pious ""dJusI.'

the gur,mwas

dlc\ated,3.$

ooon

as, U was revealed

\<>Muhammad

~Io the scribes

who were honouTabJe,

pious andJusl.

Thuslhe

question

or any addliion.

aJteTaUon or!nvenUon

does

nol arise.

This

process

of dlot.allon,

nlgbl.liow""uW

ful,,",gen~ratlon6ofmanklnd,

from

the

ortglna1

II he possible.

lext

kepi

otherwise.

by Muhammad~

fora

book

himself.

to rema!n

conilnued

a codeofJlfe

day

and

for all

The

prodJce

qf teaming

the

""",n

by

hear1

was

pretl<tlent dur1ng

guran

I",d

greal

sire

to Ihe prac\ice

I""

days

-

oj

Muhamm<zd"andst!UoonUnuesjrornthelast14ceNt<r'IeS;.

We leam

from

the

above desctipUon

thai

the Ra.sao!'andhJscompanJonswcre

look place

In the

pasl,we!earn

that

the

on wrlUng

of record log the

and

r=eaJedmessage.6utlfwecaslagJanceatthehtsloryoftheworldandlhcrevcluUons

thai

devo\ed

Iwwlhegreal

trea.ure.orknow!edge

had

been

Consp/m<:yAga/noftheQurnnlcThi<!

99

destroyed. TIIeChrIBtlanShad lheBible tn wrttten fonn.

TheJ

took pain

to keep the

Torah

wen protetted.

00 much

00 thaI

a copy oIlt

was

upt

tocked

uptn

a box which

W3.!1heldlngreathonour.BultbetnvaolonofBakbtNas-randlheoosLaughlofRDman:o

deprtved both the people of theJr sacre<! books ror

dvlUsatI<>n waS =d to the ground by the O k:o. Thus eVen tokeep the records of

l<J>owledgeIn a wrtuen

19 also

of

knnwledge,comblnedlogether

,t:t.

Sbntlarty

the

greal

Egypllan

kmn

19 not enoug!>. ft becomes

Both

still more

safe If a c<:rtatn thing

Jearnt

by heart

In au"",oslon.

theseo.afeguardsfo:rthepre.ervaUon

urethegreale.lmeasureofsafety.

~

We notkcl

above

the

meaourea

of the Qunm.

adop\ed

by the

Now Jet ua tum

Rasool

and

his <:<>mpanlon.for

!.e

the

keeptngtbewrtlten

JearnlngoftbeQuran

pertodofrevelallon,tntbefoI!owJngwordS:.

record.

otherasp"<1

tn the verybeglnnlngoftbe

to the

by heart.

TheRasool1'waa

tnsirucled.

-,~ ~".~

J,>jJ~:>rj-,\ 0 ~~va8I\~\.u

,

"

".'

'~l'

o}o~~1~\~a

'°.,

"

(73:1-4)

1C

""'~

~ '."

i'(;)\}iI\

'J"

~ ~

,

.

-'wen

Jt.j.Jlli'i.

,

-0 thc<TCtltorofho.<"",ny.O>d,'ng!.mInd«l 1nth<ot8o\l<.oIyourlolk>woon!.""'"

(Ioprayerl by nlghL but not aJl ntgh" haJfoflt OTa little l<Bo,or a Uttle moro""dTedle

the QLll'BrtIn .>law well

companion.

proportlon.r

[00 lOB!<I enoble

O,.,liIcanc<.

""""'Fd 110sO<J"""ce. dc<p "",anlng.

and

Inl""",ted

'1Op

ynur

to followcloody

beautY and

l'

Though

It was

the

Raoool

who

was

gt

,n

Utlolnotructlon

In parUcular.

In facl

It

meant

for the

whole

Muslim

community

who

faIthfully

followed

this

practice.

But

the

volume

of

for

the

the

Qurnnk:

t""'-

establishment

longer

PossIble

to,

grndu

:Jly

and

Increased

It13Intenan<:e

,ttte

Ihe whole

oflhe

and

at

the

of

')UllIIlevery

Islamic

same

time

the

SOCial

nlgbt.

Order

50

the

was

as

""sponstbtUUe&

1ntteasf:d,Hwasno

DtvtnelrlslrotUonsfortbe,",tItaUonoItheguranweremodlfied.Thusltlssa.tdlnthc

tastverses of the above-said chapter:

-''''-wd'~-,~

~I~;;'

M'

'

.~\J:,~

,

~~.,~

~

~

~=!(:

:.1i-'~JJ.,J\';"";~(J~\-",;.u

,

,M,

"'-"'''''~''''--.i-.-,--,~

!.J:,\:.r

~u~

-

"

1.: \;fj~::r{:~y8i,'~"::;J~I~~q,I\;~\~~\;"~L;:

(73:2{))

~

:"o.:>\J:8,A~~

. 1/'",i

",

"YoUtChcrtohcrandS"oUdnorknowotii'a'you8Il1ndrorthlto

 

pra~"l

nigh

thlniBof

thenlg!1t,orhaJfthe

nlghl,oralhltd

ofth<o

n!gh'and

00 docs

a

partyofynur

=mpanto

areunablc!<lkccpcountlhe"'''f.So!leh<oolurncdtoYOUltnbcncval<n=),,,,adynu, ,hen:,fore,oftheQuranasmuch mnybceosyforyou."

llutAJlahappo'n 'he"""",u","ofdayandnlglll,andHekno""'h"'-ynu

 

But hlstoIY teI1s us thaI

thepraotlce

ofretltaUon

oflhewhoie

of the Quran

In one

night

cOntinued

and

sitU conUnues

petl81ly

dunng

the

holy month

<>fRamadan.

The

,",sulllslhattheIeamlngortheQuranbyheanhasremolnedlheprncttt:earnongsltbe Muslim. for the lasl fourteen ,,"nturtea. The numberof S(a.-Haff~ th.Quranbyheart>hasbecnandlSbynamean.sma]!tnev~partoftheMu.Um pnpulallon aU over Ute worJd. Thus 11lssald:

(tho

who learn

100

ConspItocte$a,gaInstfheQuran

[29:49)

"No.y.th,.Qunon

~,~,

~uo,',.

~\1.T~\{.;.t.,~\1{.)""'"

w ac<>lIectlonof""pllctt~.-

~~~'"#'~'

<.J,. .~;.;:~-

(i""~"(

~\,.<./'t

c<>n""-

II> tl>< hearto of tho

<;ndo

!With knowlo:!fo."

 

There

IS yet anotl1er

aspeot

of the {duran

worth

mentioning.

~

~uence

riffhe

Qurnnl<;uersesandthetrassemblage!n!hejiJrmofabook,-"lnslruCWdbyAUohby

"""",sof""",r llo",

~U~'~I

i~,l;~l}';~-:~;(I; 6to:'tJ;i!

(15:16-19)

0 ~C('t:~r~O

-'

"M<wo:onotthyloniUc(oo"""",,.,.Ih<Qunml,,,

haoteth

.-oJ~Y~,.iJ;;;

~~

sth.lI"""uou,

,)lt

wlwUolo

oJnb1< I,and

IoprnnlUlpto

It. And when Wo haye

prornulgated

n. [allow

th<>uiwrecIW{

prornulptcd).

Nay",,,,,,.

UIo"""U.\o<><p!alnltl<>od",,,I«ltclcad."

HtIeJtlslmpresoedupontheRasool

~

not

to be ImpaUent

bef"",the,

coJJcoUon. tlte cam:ot

,.".,latlon

lannnlygraapedby

reo!taI and

Itlm. bocau.oAllah

of the guran.

the explanation

!n rec!ting

took

upon

a message

HImself

the

Now let ue recount