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PARAGONE

Rivista mensile di arte figurativa e letteratura


fondata da Roberto Longhi
ARTE
Anno LXIX - Terza serie - Numero 138 (817)
Marzo 2018

SOMMARIO

M arcello C alogero : Alfonso Lombardi a Santa Maria della Vita:


per una rilettura stilistica

ANTOLOGIA DI ARTISTI
Intorno a un polittico di Tommaso Garelli: qualche precisazione e una nuova ag-
giunta (Giacomo A. Calogero) - Per Mirabello Cavalori disegnatore e pittore (Mar-
ta Privitera) - A new Giambologna relief after a drawing by Andrea Boscoli (Di-
mitrios Zikos) - Giuseppe Maria Soli in palazzo Barberini a Roma (Giulia Conte)

RICERCHE D’ARCHIVIO
Ancora il Cigoli a Figline (con una data per Tommaso Gherardini)
(Alessandro Grassi)

Mandragora
Redattori
M aria C ristina B andera , D aniele B enati , C arlo B ertelli ,
P ier P aolo D onati , E lena F umagalli , M ina G regori ,
M ichel L aclotte , A ntonio P aolucci , B runo T oscano MARCELLO CALOGERO

Segreteria di redazione
ALFONSO LOMBARDI
N ovella B arbolani di M ontauto
A lice T urchi
A SANTA MARIA DELLA VITA:
PER UNA RILETTURA STILISTICA
Traduzione dei riassunti a cura di
F rank D abell

P aragone A rte is a peer - reviewed journal


Recenti scoperte documentarie hanno permesso di collo-
care con sicurezza la prima attività dello scultore Alfonso Cit-
tadella alias Lombardi (1497 circa-1537) nel cuore dei cantieri
Direzione artistici promossi dal duca di Ferrara nel secondo decennio del
via Capo di Mondo, 61 - 50136 Firenze Cinquecento1. Dal maggio 1517 il nome del giovane ferrarese
Tel. +39 055 2654384 - Fax +39 055 2655120 compare nei registri contabili relativi al Belvedere, la residenza
E-mail: redazione.arte@paragone.it estense sul fiume a sud-ovest della città in costruzione a partire
dal 1513: Alfonso viene pagato per realizzare il fusto in bron-
Amministrazione zo (“fatto et sculpito in foza de uno arbore”) per una fontana
da collocarsi nella parte anteriore dell’isola2. Nel 1518 risulta
Mandragora coinvolto nei lavori per la ‘via coperta’, la straordinaria sequen-
via Capo di Mondo, 61 - 50136 Firenze
za di ambienti a cui Alfonso I d’Este destinò i celebri dipinti
Tel. +39 055 2654384 - Fax +39 055 2655120
E-mail: info@paragone.it di Giovanni Bellini, Tiziano e Dosso Dossi: lo scultore è chia-
www.paragone.it mato a restaurare alcune “teste”, opere antiche a cui restituire
integrità e lustro prima della collocazione all’interno di nicchie
con funzione di sovrapporte3. Infine, tra la primavera e l’estate
dell’anno successivo, Alfonso è all’opera su un grande modello
in terra “da bochalaro” per una seconda fontana nel giardino
del Belvedere4.
L’ultimo pagamento relativo a questa impresa risale all’11
giugno 1519: il 3 luglio successivo il gigantesco ‘Ercole’ per
Grafiche Martinelli, Bagno a Ripoli la sala degli Anziani del Palazzo Comunale di Bologna risul-
Finito di stampare nel mese di aprile 2018 ta completato5: difficilmente la commissione e l’esecuzione
42 ANTOLOGIA DI ARTISTI ANTOLOGIA DI ARTISTI 43

Per D4890/20B; il ‘Giovane che cammina impugnando un bastone’ si trova negli Stati Cavalori a Coccapani?, in ‘Commentari d’Arte’, XVIII, 52-53, 2012, pp. 86-93; il Per
Mirabello Uniti, collezione Alfred Taubman (L.J. Feinberg, op. cit., figg. 1 e 7). dipinto mi pare invece che vada restituito a Jacopo da Empoli nel momento in cui Mirabello
Cavalori 5
Questo foglio mi è stato segnalato da Anna Forlani Tempesti, che ringrazio. dipingeva le ‘Nozze di Maria de’ Medici’ oggi agli Uffizi. Cavalori
È il numero 15656F del Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe degli Uffizi (d’ora in poi
G.D.S.U.) tradizionalmente attribuito a Santi di Tito, poi al Passignano da Anna-
maria Petrioli Tofani con un’iscrizione sulla montatura del 1985. Il foglio, a matita
nera e gessetto su carta cerulea, misura mm 245 x 370. S U M M A RY
6
L.J. Feinberg, op. cit., fig. 8.
7
G.D.S.U., nn.1099F e 1098F, si veda M. Privitera, op. cit., 1996, p. 155, nn. The article presents an addition to the few securely-attributed
57, 58.
8
Saint Louis Art Museum, inv. 415.1943, olio su tavola, cm 102 x 82,5. Per drawings by Mirabello Cavalori, a Figure study for the Lanificio (Wool
l’attribuzione al Salviati da parte di Philippe Costamagna e la bibliografia prece- factory), painted in about 1570 for the Studiolo of Francesco de’ Med-
dente si veda Ph. Costamagna, in Francesco Salviati o la Bella Maniera, catalogo ici (Florence, Palazzo Vecchio). The sheet is housed in the Gabinetto
della mostra a cura di C. Monbeig Goguel (Roma-Parigi), Milano, 1998, p. 240, Disegni e Stampe degli Uffizi (inv. no. 15656F), currently attributed
n. 92. Il ritratto è stato recentemente citato come opera di Salviati caratterizzata
da “una luce limpida e quasi bronzinesca” da Carlo Falciani, Il ritratto di Carlo to Passignano. The handling of the male figure on this sheet suggests
Rimbotti, un committente fiorentino di Francesco Salviati, in ‘Paragone, 137 (815), contact with the graphic style of Cavalori’s colleague Girolamo Macchi-
2018, p. 56. etti, but also shows a different way of analysing light at the expense of
9
Anche la bimba nel commovente ‘Ritratto di bambina con un cagnolino’, con- form. As well as attributing the drawing in the Uffizi, the author also
servato alla Ca’ d’Oro di Venezia con attribuzione a Michele di Ridolfo, tiene
nello stesso modo la mano sul fianco e abbraccia un cagnolino del tutto simile a proposes Cavalori’s authorship for the Portrait of a Young Man in the
quello che dorme ai piedi della ‘Benedizione’, pertanto credo ne vada valutato il Saint Louis Art Museum, formerly ascribed to Michele Tosini and then
riferimento a Cavalori. to Francesco Salviati.
10
M. Privitera, op. cit., 1996, p. 96, n. 8.
11
Per la discussione sulla datazione della tavola tra il 1566 e il 1568 si veda M.
Privitera, op. cit., 1996, p. 44, nota 38.
12
Si confronti anche con altri ritratti riferiti a Cavalori in M. Privitera, op. cit.,
1996, p. 58, fig. 42 e p.190, n. E4.
13
L’adesione alla poetica del Pontormo è dichiarata dalla tavola con la ‘Madon-
na col Bambino tra San Francesco e San Gerolamo’ degli Uffizi, riferita a Cavalori
da A. Natali, Altro da Pontormo e Bronzino?, in ‘Antichità viva’, XXVIII, 2-3,
A new Giambologna relief after a drawing by Andrea Boscoli
1989, pp. 35-37.
14
Al Museo Puskin di Mosca si conserva un dipinto con una ‘Natività di Maria’, This essay examines a terracotta tondo in the Quentin Foun- Un nuovo
riferito a Giovanni Balducci, per il quale esiste il disegno preparatorio all’Alber- dation /tavola 42/1, which was modelled by Giambologna (c. 1529- rilievo di
tina di Vienna (Inv. 589, penna, inchiostro acquerellato, biacca su carta cerulea),
anch’esso riferito a Balducci, dove appare un figura di donna di spalle uguale a
1608) after a drawing by his contemporary Andrea Boscoli (c. 1560- Giambologna
quella del rame qui presentato. Nel dipinto moscovita e nel disegno relativo si 1607) / tavola 43/2. Although not documented during the sculptor’s
nota una figura di uomo dormiente, uguale e quella che appare nella ‘Carità di San lifetime, the tondo relates closely to Giambologna’s bronze reliefs,
Nicola’ conservato a Londra, alla National Gallery, con attribuzione a Macchietti, in particular the three that adorn the pedestal of the equestrian mo-
a mio parere opera ancora immatura, vicina a Macchietti e a Cavalori, ma da valu-
tare nell’ambito della nutrita bottega di Michele Tosini: per i nomi si veda la lettera
nument to Cosimo I. The year of their completion, 1598, therefore
di Raffaello Borghini a Cosimo I del 1565, in G. Bottari, Raccolta di lettere sulla suggests an approximate date for the tondo. Stylistic analogies leave
pittura scultura e architettura, scritte da’ più celebri personaggi dei secoli XV, XVI e no doubt as to its author, but the attribution also receives support
XVII, Roma, 1754-1773, ed. cons. Milano, 1822-1825, I, 1822, p. 195. from its subject. It appears to have been taken from the history of
15
A. Natali, op. cit.
16
L’‘Elemosina del Beato Tommaso da Villanova’ non è invece di Cavalori, e
the Crusades – an enterprise whose celebration was dear to Giam-
nemmeno di Coccapani, come è stato proposto da Alessandro Nesi, Sull’Elemo- bologna’s last important patron, Grand Duke Ferdinando I, and to
sina del Beato Tommaso da Villanova della Propositura di Scarperia (Firenze): da his wife, Christine de Lorraine, who descended from Godefroy de
44 ANTOLOGIA DI ARTISTI ANTOLOGIA DI ARTISTI 45

Un nuovo Bouillon, Duke of Lower Lorraine, leader of the First Crusade and John of Jerusalem or of the Tuscan Order of Saint Stephen Martyr. A Un nuovo
rilievo di the first sovereign of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. cross potent also appears on one of the banners of the army whereas rilievo di
Giambologna
The relatively large size of the tondo, 59 by 62 cm, indicates that another banner bears a single lily. This lily has no stamens and cannot Giambologna
it is a proper modello and not a bozzetto, or working sketch. A much therefore be that of Florence, which Giambologna correctly repre-
smaller terracotta version /tavola 44/ of the same composition, meas- sented in the lily held by the reclining allegorical figure of Florence
uring 17 cm in diameter and known to me only from a photograph, in his relief of the ‘Entry of Cosimo I into Siena’ on the pedestal of
appears to be a cursory reduction3. Nevertheless, this version is of the equestrian monument in the Piazza della Signoria. It therefore
some importance as it preserves two heads that have been replaced appears likely that the single lily is an abbreviation of a banner with
in the original terracotta, and because there is a break in the centre several lilies, and that this shorthand must also be true for the cross
of the larger tondo, which hinders the immediate perception of the potent. There is no banner with a cross potent nor are any attributes
narrative’s culmination: the consignment of a boy to the commander given to the soldiers in Boscoli’s drawing but one banner has a single
of an army4. lily as in the terracotta.
The setting is a plain to the right of a walled city. A procession A pupil of Santi di Tito and a distinguished draughtsman, Bo-
has exited one of the city gates and heads towards the middle of the scoli belongs to the same late Cinquecento Florentine artistic milieu
composition where the consignment takes place. The boy is dressed as Giambologna. There are often parallels in the conception of Bo-
all’antica. The outfit of the dignitary who leads the procession and scoli’s pictures and the sculptor’s reliefs. In her monograph, Nadia
presents the youth to the head of the army is elaborate. In his reliefs Bastogi identified the subject of the drawing as ‘The 1585 Surrender
Giambologna “always tries to make what he thinks is an historical of Antwerp to Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma’8. A lost painting
reconstruction of scene and clothing”5, and there is no reason he by Boscoli of this episode was indeed included in the 1600 apparato
would not have done the same here. Immediately behind this digni- for the entry into Macerata of Margherita Aldobrandini, a niece of
tary there stands a man wearing a chain which resembles that worn Pope Clement VIII, on her way to Parma where she was to mar-
by the knights of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Because he has ry Duke Ranuccio Farnese, Alessandro’s son. A description of this
placed his hand over the pendant, it is impossible to identify it as that painting is included in Catenato Alessandro Centio’s relatione of the
of a specific chivalric order. This cannot have been accidental, so this apparato. According to Bastogi, Boscoli depicted the ambassadors of
chain should be understood as a generic reference to high rank. In the city of Antwerp surrendering to Alessandro Farnese and handing
the smaller version, the head of this man (which has been replaced in over the city’s keys9. To support her hypothesis, she identified the
the larger tondo) turns back and to the right in an effort to listen to banner bearing the single lily with the standard of the Farnese Duchy
what the next in line whispers to him – a recurrent motif in Giambo- of Parma and Piacenza, which comprises a total of six lilies10. Al-
logna’s reliefs6. As the next, bearded, man in the procession wears a though the use of one rather than multiple symbols could have been
turban, the inhabitants of the city would seem to be Easterners, and dictated by the small scale of the drawing (as we also assume to be
this is confirmed by Boscoli’s drawing where the leader of the pro- the case in the tondo), Antwerp surrendered to a Spanish army, and
cession also wears a turban (and over it a crown7), as do two men in one would expect Boscoli to show the banner of Spain. Moreover,
his retinue. The scene in both the drawing and relief is thus set in the Centio does not mention the child nor are the keys of the city offered
East, which confirms that the two works represent the same subject, to the commander. Most important, Bastogi’s interpretation does not
notwithstanding minor differences. account for the turbans worn by the members of the procession, in-
If we now turn our attention to the commander of the army in cluding the crowned man who presents the child to the commander.
the tondo, we notice that the skirt of his armour is decorated with For contemporary visual evidence to help understand the histor-
crosses potent whereas the warrior to the right wears a cuirass with an ical context of the crosses potent and the lily, we can turn to a major
eight-pointed cross, which could be either that of the Order of Saint commission in late-sixteenth-century Florence: the decorations for
46 ANTOLOGIA DI ARTISTI ANTOLOGIA DI ARTISTI 47

Un nuovo the 1589 entry of Christine de Lorraine, the bride of Ferdinando I, commercial purposes. Ferdinando’s nomination in 1584, while still Un nuovo
rilievo di into Florence – decorations to which Giambologna contributed two a cardinal, as Protector of the Patriarchates of Antioch and Alessan- rilievo di
Giambologna
lost statues for the triumphal arch at the Ponte alla Carraia11. A visual dria and of the Kingdom of Ethiopia, is important to mention in this Giambologna
record of this spectacular event is preserved in the engravings that context. Pietro Angeli da Barga, a humanist in the cardinal’s Roman
accompany Raffaello Gualterotti’s description, published the same court (and author of the 1589 apparato’s Latin inscriptions), claimed
year as the event12. The engravings, based on drawings by Boscoli, that it was Ferdinando who inspired him to compose the Syrias, a
show the triumphal arches as well as the individual paintings and Latin epos on the First Crusade, which was written in Rome during
sculptures, that were part of the decorations13. the 1580s17. And in 1588, Ferdinando (still a cardinal but now Grand
The third triumphal arch of the 1589 apparato, located at the Duke) commissioned the Ornamento for the Stone of the Unction in
Canto de’ Carnesecchi (where Giambologna’s ‘Hercules Slaying the the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem18. Cast by fra Dome-
Centaur’ was later placed), included paintings representing episodes nico Portigiani, a founder who worked mainly for Giambologna, the
from the history of the House of Lorraine, starting with the First Cru- Ornamento includes two reliefs by the sculptor and may have been
sade led by Godefroy de Bouillon. The subject of one of these paint- designed by him. Ferdinando is even said to have planned to transfer
ings, by Valerio Titi, was ‘Godefroy de Bouillon’s Refusal to Accept the Holy Sepulchre itself to Florence19. His marriage to a descendent
the Crown of the Kingdom of Jerusalem’14. Godefroy had refused the of the liberator of Jerusalem conferred legitimacy to his Ostpolitik
crown of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, founded by the Crusaders and a new impetus to the Order of Saint Stephen (of which he was
after the conquest of the Holy City in 1099. Instead, he styled himself Grand Master) that was founded by his father, Cosimo I, to fight the
simply Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri, although he was the de facto first Turks. In view of this background, it is not surprising that the First
sovereign of the state and the founder of its ruling dynasty. The paint- Crusade was celebrated in the Canto de’ Carnesecchi triumphal arch
ing representing the episode is lost, but the engraving /tavola 45a/ af- of the 1589 apparato. Christine adhered to her husband’s cult of her
ter it, based on a drawing by Boscoli, records the composition. Here ancestors by commissioning for the Villa La Petraia a series of fres-
Godefroy wears a skirt decorated with crosses, which appear to be coes by Cosimo Daddi, Ludovico Cigoli and workshop with episodes
crosses potent. The analogy with the skirt of the commander /tavola from the First Crusade20. She is also said to have planned a sepulchral
45b/ to whom the youth is delivered is striking. A large cross potent monument in the Cathedral of Florence for her ancestor Pope Ste-
surrounded by four smaller Greek crosses is the so-called Jerusalem phen IX (a paternal uncle of Godefroy de Bouillon’s mother), who
Cross, the arms of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, but this complex had died in Florence in 105821.
symbol could sometimes be replaced by a single cross potent as seen, A 1517 manuscript copy of the main literary source for the histo-
for example, in a thirteenth-century manuscript illustration repre- ry of the First Crusade, Albert of Aachen’s Historia Hierosolymitana,
senting ‘Godefroy de Bouillon and his Men Embarking on the First is preserved in the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana22. In addition,
Crusade’ where Godefroy holds a banner with a single cross potent Reiner Reineck’s Chronicon Hierosolymitanum, id est, de bello sacro
similar to that in the tondo15. This corroborates our assumption and historia (which is based on Albert of Aachen and published 1584 in
explains the single crosses potent on Godefroy’s skirt in the engrav- Helmstadt) could have been available and consulted. A significant
ing16. It also corroborates the location of the episode represented by episode in the Historia Hierosolymitana, which is reminiscent of the
Giambologna in the East, suggesting that it is related to the history narrative depicted in the tondo, is the consignment as hostage of
of the Crusades. It is likely then the banner with the single lily is an John Comnenos, son of Byzantine Emperor Alexios I, to the Cru-
abbreviated version of the banner of France. saders when they were camped outside the walls of Constantinople.
The descent of the new Grand Duchess of Tuscany from the According to Albert of Aachen, Alexios I promised his son as a hos-
Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri was welcome to her husband, who had a tage to Godefroy de Bouillon in order to secure the withdrawal of the
strong interest in the East, for both personal religious devotion and Crusaders from the outskirts of the imperial capital and to encourage
48 ANTOLOGIA DI ARTISTI ANTOLOGIA DI ARTISTI 49

Un nuovo them to continue their march eastwards. John Comnenos was re- In the first scenes from the Passion series, the foreground figures Un nuovo
rilievo di ceived by Conon de Montaigu and Baldwin de Bourcq23. If this is the stand at the two sides and in a sense act as mediators between the rilievo di
Giambologna
scene represented in the terracotta, the procession would be of Byz- frame and the protagonists of the scene who occupy the centre of Giambologna
antine Greeks and the commander of the army must be Godefroy, the composition and are modelled in lower relief. Secondary figures,
although he was not actually present at the consignment. But who which compositionally link between the two groups, are generally
would commission such a relief from the greatest living sculptor of less plastic than the foreground figures but more plastic than those
the time, and for what reason? This is a question I have not been able in the centre. Therefore, a step-by-step transition from three to two
to answer. However, the bold sketchiness of the tondo – so close to dimensions is achieved. In all of these reliefs, the arrangement of the
the bronze reliefs of the pedestal of Cosimo’s equestrian monument – figures tends to be symmetrical, as also seen in the tondo.
implies that it was made to serve as a model to be cast in metal24. All of these elements appear again in Giambologna’s last reliefs
In sketchiness and general compositional structure, the tondo for the pedestal of the monument to Cosimo I, in particular, the two
has striking parallels with Giambologna’s bronze reliefs on the eques- wide format reliefs. In these, however, the relative projection of the
trian monument: ‘The Entry of Cosimo I into Siena’ and the ‘Coro- figures is less than in the Passion series, as can be seen in the ‘Corona-
nation of Cosimo I as Grand Duke of Tuscany’. It is relevant to our tion’ /tavola 46/, where the halberd bearer who frames the scene on
discussion that two of the reliefs have pictorial prototypes, as does the right is in lower relief than his similarly placed companions in the
the terracotta tondo. Moreover, these two scenes were included in early Passion bronzes. In addition, the tondo exhibits a graduated re-
the 1589 apparato. Indeed, the ‘Proclamation of Cosimo as Duke’ is cession /tavola 47/ from three-dimensional foreground figures to less
based on a painting by Jacopo da Empoli, known from an engraving projected ones, while the void between the heads and upper parts of
in Gualterotti25. A painting, by Bernardino Poccetti of the ‘Corona- those who project more and the relief plane is filled with exquisitely
tion of Cosimo I as Grand Duke of Tuscany’, which Giambologna and rapidly sketched heads – a device the sculptor had first employed
represented in the north side of the pedestal, was likewise part of the in his Passion series.
1589 apparato and is also known only from the print in Gualterroti26. The choice of a different format resulted in the placement of
After an occasional early essay27, Giambologna turned seriously the more plastic figures in the centre, with flatter figures positioned
to relief sculpture when around 1580 he was commissioned to make to either side. This coup de génie made it possible to maintain both
two series of religious reliefs, which he completed towards the end the system of graduated transition he had developed and to keep the
of the decade. These series comprised six bronze panels with scenes centre of action in the middle of the tondo – as is the case with most
from the Passion of Christ for the chapel of Luca Grimaldi in the de- of the artist’s other reliefs. This sculptural format had a noble history
stroyed Genoese church of San Francesco di Castelletto (today in the in Florence: besides Donatello and the marble tondi of Michelangelo
University of Genoa28); and six episodes from the life of Saint Anton- in Florence and London, one should mention the bronze roundels
inus for the Salviati Chapel in San Marco, Florence, which were also planned by Michelangelo for the façade of San Lorenzo30.
cast in bronze. In between, in 1583, he made the bronze ‘Rape of the The closest analogy to the tondo is ‘Cosimo’s Triumphal Entry
Sabine Women’ for the pedestal of his famous marble three-figure into Siena’, where we find not only the same compositional structure
group and the bronze ‘Lamentation’ and ‘Entombment’ for the Jeru- but also the same disposition of the figures and their relationship
salem Ornamento29. These reliefs are rectangular, but like the tondo to space. In this relief even the setting is comparable to that of the
they include three-dimensional foreground figures which resemble terracotta, the scene taking place to the right of a walled city. Then
independent bronze statuettes. These figures stand on a steeply tilted there are those single figures or groups in low relief which enliven the
ground plane, which can be found in the terracotta and indeed in all background: the rapidly sketched spectators who stand before the
of Giambologna’s reliefs, with the exception of the square panels in city walls /tavola 48/ and those to the right of the trees in ‘Cosimo’s
Jerusalem, the sculptor’s only proper rilievi stiacciati, or low reliefs. Triumphal Entry into Siena’ /tavola 49/ – to cite only one example
50 ANTOLOGIA DI ARTISTI ANTOLOGIA DI ARTISTI 51

Un nuovo for a type of small sketch that inhabits the background of the Giam- historical background also explains the exceptional survival of the Un nuovo
rilievo di bologna’s panels. tondo which is a new and eminent addition to this unique and largely rilievo di
Giambologna Giambologna
Not only do the general structure and representational conven- unstudied corpus.
tions of the tondo correspond to Giambologna’s reliefs but precise Dimitrios Zikos
comparisons of motives corroborate the attribution. Typical of Giam-
bologna are the splayed fingers of the left hand of one of the figures in
the procession exiting the city gates /tavola 50/ – here compared with NOTE
those of the man standing on the far left of the ‘Ecce Homo’ relief
/ tavola 51/; and the way in which an old man in the same procession This work was included in the recent exhibition on the 16th century Florentine
grasps his beard /tavola 52/, which corresponds, for example, to the art in the Palazzo Strozzi (21 September 2017-21 January 2018) and was briefly
similar gesture of a seated figure in ‘The Scourging of Christ’ /tavola discussed by the author in the relevant catalogue entry: Il Cinquecento a Firenze.
53/. Moreover, the child /tavola 54/ that precedes the same proces- “Maniera moderna” e controriforma, exhibition catalogue ed. by C. Falciani and A.
Natali, Firenze, 2017, pp. 248-249, no. V.23.
sion is of the same type as Giambologna’s children – for example,
the standing putto /tavola 55/ in the large bronze group of ‘Charity’ Photo credits: Arrigo Coppitz, Florence (plates 46, 49); Bastian Krack, Bayer-
which was also made for the Grimaldi Chapel, and is similar to the isches Nationalmuseum, Munich (plates 51, 53); Mauro Magliani, Padua (plate
Passion reliefs from that space now preserved in the University of 55); Magie Nimkin, New York (plates 42, 45b, 47, 48, 50, 52, 54).
Genoa. 1
Purchased by Patricia Wengraf Ltd. in an auction at Nogent-sur-Marne, Chris-
These congruencies are confirmed by the prowess of the model- tophe Lucien commissaire-priseur, 21 July 2005, Important ensemble de Sculptures
ler, for which this tondo offers new testimony. Indeed, Giambologna et Tableaux de la Collection d’un Grand Marchand Parisien, lot 2 (“Florence, fin du
was celebrated as a modeller in his lifetime. In 1568 Giorgio Vasari XVIème, début du XVIIème siècle. Scène historique”). This collection was that of
the art dealer François Heim (1925-2005).
cites the praise contemporaries bestowed on the sculptor’s models in 2
London, British Museum, inv. 1946.0713.552, 173 x 156 mm, pen and brown
wax and clay, as did Raffaello Borghini in 158431. Certainly, Giam- ink, with brown wash, over black chalk.
bologna preferred to model rather than draw, and only a couple of 3
London, Christie’s, 4 July 1989, lot 140, described as “16th-century Italian”.
sheets attributed to him have survived, as opposed to a large num- It could of course also have been based on a prima idea for the tondo. There ap-
pear to be casting lines on its surface, which suggests that it is a cast either after a
ber of autograph three-dimensional bozzetti and modelli.32 They were smaller preparatory bozzetto or after a smaller replica of the original. I would like
preserved in Giambologna’s workshop in Borgo Pinti, not only when to thank Meghan Callahan for pointing this version out to me.
Pietro Tacca took over the studio on his master’s death in 1608, but 4
The modern replacements are the heads of the dignitary wearing a chain and
also because Pietro’s son Ferdinando was granted use of the studio of the commander to whom the child is presented.
5
J. Holderbaum, The Sculptor Giovanni Bologna, Ph. D. dissertation (Harvard
in 1640 by Grand Duke Ferdinando II. After Ferdinando Tacca’s University, 1959), New York-London, 1983, p. 232
death in 1686, his heirs sold Giambologna’s bozzetti and modelli to 6
For instance his ‘Christ Before Pilate’ of which three versions exist. For a detail
Lorenzo Maria Weber – a medal-maker and bronze sculptor who image showing this motif in the Munich version, see Bella Figura. Europäische
had studied with Massimiliano Soldani Benzi33. Another reason so Bronzekunst in Süddeutschland um 1600, exhibition catalogue ed. by R. Eikel-
mann, München, 2015, p. 251.
many Giambologna models have survived is because of their early 7
He is identified as a king in the relevant entry on the website of the British Museum.
appreciation by discriminating art collectors – an appreciation that 8
N. Bastogi, Andrea Boscoli, Firenze, 2008, p. 165 and p. 325, no. 244.
had already began when the master was alive. Bernardo Vecchietti, 9
Ivi, p. 165.
Jacopo Tintoretto, and Benedetto Gondi are among those known to
10
Taddeo Zuccari’s fresco showing ‘Pier Luigi Farnese being invested as Cap-
tain of the Church’ in the Sala dei Fasti Farnesiani in the Palazzo Farnese at Ca-
have owned models made by the Giambologna, whose wax and clay prarola proves that the standard of the Farnese Duchy of Parma and Piacenza
preparatory sculptures constitute what appears to be the largest sur- had six lilies; C. Acidini Luchinat, Taddeo e Federico Zuccari fratelli pittori del
viving body of works of this type by any Renaissance sculptor.34 This Cinquecento, Milano-Roma, 1998-1999, I, 1998, p. 186, fig. 49.
52 ANTOLOGIA DI ARTISTI ANTOLOGIA DI ARTISTI 53

Un nuovo 11
For the 1589 apparato, see J.M. Saslow, The Medici Wedding of 1589, New 22
Ms. Pluteo 66.33. Un nuovo
rilievo di Haven, 1996, and the essays and entries referring to this wedding in Ferdinando 23
Albert of Aachen, Historia Hierosolymitana, in Recueil des Historiens des rilievo di
Giambologna de’ Medici 1549-1609. Maiestate Tantum, exhibition catalogue ed. by M. Bietti and Croisades, Historiens Occidentaux, Paris, 1.2.4, 1879, pp. 309-311. Giambologna
A. Giusti (Firenze), Livorno, 2009, pp. 50-123 (section: Le nozze di Ferdinando I e 24
The most recent discussion of these is D. Erben, Die Reiterdenkmäler der
Cristina di Lorena), as well as A. Iacona, Gli apparati per le nozze di Ferdinando I e Medici in Florenz und ihre politische Bedeutung, in ‘Mitteilungen des Kunsthistori-
Cristina di Lorena, in ‘Medicea’, 4, 2009, pp. 50-81 schen Institutes in Florenz’, XL, 1996, 3, pp. 287-360: pp. 304-318.
12
R. Gualterotti, Della descrizione del regale apparato fatto nella nobile città di 25
R. Gualterotti, op. cit., p. 159; D. Erben, op. cit., pp. 304-309.
Firenze per la venuta, e per le nozze della Serenissima Madama Cristina di Loreno 26
R. Gualterotti, op. cit., p. 173. For other pictorial prototypes, see D. Erben,
moglie del Serenissimo Don Ferdinando Medici Terzo Gran Duca di Toscana. Libro op. cit., pp. 312-316.
secondo, In Firenze, Appresso Antonio Padovani, 1589. Due to the large number 27
J. Holderbaum, op. cit., pp. 215-305, remains the most in-depth analysis of
of engravings, this is a remarkable example among the books of the type; S. Ca- Giambologna’s relief sculpture.
stelli, A.M. Testaverde, Un’affascinante vicenda: l’insuccesso editoriale di Raffaello 28
Ivi, pp. 225-240. These reliefs, made between 1579 and 1590, were repro-
Gualterotti, in Ferdinando de’ Medici 1549-1609. Maiestate Tantum, cit., pp. 60-62. duced twice: between 1595 and 1598 for Giambologna’s own funerary chapel
13
For Boscoli’s preparatory drawings, see N. Bastogi, op. cit., pp. 71 and 73. in the Santissima Annunziata and for the Augsburg patrician Markus Zäch who
14
R. Gualterotti, op. cit., p. 94. The subjects of the other paintings referring to claimed – in a letter to Philipp Hainhofer – that he had commissioned them for his
the First Crusade are: ‘Godefroy de Bouillon at Constantinople’ by Santi di Tito, epitaph. Today the Zäch Passion reliefs are in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum,
Boscoli’s teacher; ‘The Siege of Nicea’ by Antonio Boschi; ‘Corbana, General of the Munich. For these and the other two series of Giambologna’s Passion reliefs, see
Persians, Defeated by Godefroy at Antioch’ by Gregorio Pagani; and ‘Godefroy D. Zikos, Sechs Passionsreliefs, in Bella Figura, cit., pp. 244-250, no. 32.
Leading the Crusaders in Battle at Jerusalem’ by Santi di Tito. None of these has sur- 29
J. Holderbaum, op. cit., pp. 240-247 (‘Rape of the Sabine Women’), and
vived. The arch also included paintings with episodes from the more recent history pp. 281-290 (Jerusalem reliefs). For the Jerusalem reliefs see also A. Ronen, Por-
of the House of Lorraine: 1. ‘The Victory of René II de Vaudemont, Duke of Lor- tigiani’s Bronze ‘Ornamento’ in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, in
raine, over Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, outside Nancy in 1477’ by Camillo ‘Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz’, XIV, 1969-1970, 4, pp.
Pagni (This conclusive battle of the Burgundian wars must be the correct episode, 415-442: pp. 423-425.
although R. Gualterotti, op. cit., p. 99, says that Charles “fu roto dal Duca di Loreno 30
Michelangelo’s model for this façade could have been known to Giambolo-
[René] sotto Morat” alluding to another episode of the same war). 2. ‘The Siege of gna. Its appearance is documented in a drawing by Giovan Battista Nelli; J.A.
Calais by François de Lorraine, Duke of Guise, in 1558’ by Agostino Ciampelli; and O’Grody, “Un semplice modello”. Michelangelo and his three-dimensional pre-
3. ‘The Battle of Dreux (1562)’ by Boscoli. See J.M. Saslow, op. cit., pp. 191-193. paratory works, Ph. D. dissertation, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland
15
Jerusalem 1000-1400. Every People Under Heaven, exhibition catalogue ed. by (Ohio), Ann Arbor (Michigan), 1999, pp. 86-87, and fig. 16.
B.D. Boehm, New York, 2016, p. 102, no. 46. 31
G. Vasari, Le vite de’ più eccellenti pittori, scultori, e architettori, Firenze,
16
This cross was represented also in R. Gualterotti, op. cit., p. 90. Appresso i Giunti, 1568, II, p. 876; R. Borghini, Il Riposo, Firenze, Appresso
17
M. Rossi, Raffigurazioni e riscritture della Liberata da Firenze a Venezia: un in- Giorgio Marescotti, 1584, p. 585.
tervento di Bernardo Castello recuperato, in ‘Studi veneziani’, 34, 1997, pp. 165-184: 32
The most recent survey of these is V. Krahn, I bozzetti del Giambologna, in
p. 167. No episode similar to that of the tondo is included in the text of the Syrias. Giambologna: gli dei, gli eroi, exhibition catalogue ed. by B. Paolozzi Strozzi and
18
S.B. Butters, Contrasting Priorities: Ferdinando I de’ Medici, Cardinal and Grand D. Zikos, Firenze, 2006, pp. 44-61.
Duke, in The Possessions of a Cardinal. Politics, Piety, and Art 1450-1700, ed. by M. 33
K. Lankheit, Florentinische Barockplastik. Die Kunst am Hofe der letzten Me-
Hollingsworth and C.M. Richardson, University Park (PA), 2010, pp. 185-225: p. 188. dici, 1670-1743, München, 1962, p. 244.
19
M. Rossi, Emuli di Goffredo: epica granducale e propaganda figurativa, in L’ar- 34
For Vecchietti’s and Tintoretto’s models by Giambologna, see R. Borghini,
me e gli amori. La poesia di Ariosto, Tasso e Guarini nell’arte fiorentina del Seicento, op. cit., p. 14 and p. 558. Those in Gondi’s collection are listed in a 1609 inven-
exhibition catalogue ed. by E. Fumagalli, M. Rossi and R. Spinelli (Firenze), Livor- tory published by G. Corti, Two Early Seventeenth-Century Inventories Involving
no, 2001, pp. 32-42: p. 35. Giambologna, in ‘The Burlington Magazine’, CXVIII, 882, 1976, pp. 629-634: pp.
20
R. Gerace, Fasti, amore, magia e guerra. Immagini di un poema, Roma, 2008, 633-634.
pp. 61-77; N. Bastogi, La villa della Petraia. Il cortile, in Fasto di corte. La decora-
zione murale nelle residenze dei Medici e dei Lorena. Volume I. Da Ferdinando I alle
reggenti (1587-1628), ed. by M. Gregori, Firenze, 2005, pp. 103-109. In the Villa
La Petraia frescoes the Jerusalem cross is also represented. SOMMARIO
21
M. Rossi, Corridoi sopraelevati della Toscana granducale, in ‘Italian History
& Culture, Yearbook of Georgetown University at Villa Le Balze’, 13, 2008, pp. Il tondo in terracotta della Quentin Foundation di Londra, proba-
161-170: pp. 167-168. bile modello per un rilievo in bronzo, viene messo in rapporto con un
54 ANTOLOGIA DI ARTISTI ANTOLOGIA DI ARTISTI 55

Un nuovo disegno di Andrea Boscoli e attribuito a Giambologna sulla base di un È noto4 come la storia dell’appartamento sia legata all’ultima G.M. Soli
rilievo di serrato confronto stilistico con i rilievi dello scultore e in particolare con discendente dei Barberini, Cornelia Costanza (1716-1797) e al suo in palazzo
Giambologna
quelli del monumento equestre di Cosimo I (1598), di cui sarebbe coevo. coniuge, Giulio Cesare Colonna di Sciarra (1705-1787), sposatisi il Barberini
Alla luce dell’interesse di Ferdinando I per il Santo Sepolcro e del 12 maggio 1728 con la mediazione del cardinale Francesco Juniore
fatto che sua moglie Cristina di Lorena discende da Goffredo di Buglio- Barberini. Da qui, la proposta di Lorenza Mochi Onori5, secondo la
ne, primo re latino di Gerusalemme, il soggetto è letto in relazione alla quale la commissione della decorazione spetta al cardinale, che, in
storia delle Crociate anche sulla base delle incisioni, ritraenti le gesta concomitanza con le nozze, volle fornire ai principi una nuova dimo-
dei Crociati ed eseguite su disegni del Boscoli, che Raffaele Gualterotti ra all’interno del palazzo. Tale ricostruzione si basa su tre pagamenti
pubblicava nel 1589 a corredo della nota descrizione degli apparati per del 1729 per pitture su stoffa6, identificabili, a parere della studiosa,
le nozze tra Ferdinando I e Cristina. La scena corrisponde alla descri- con le sete dipinte che rivestono le pareti del cosiddetto Camerino
zione di un momento della prima Crociata narrato da alcune cronache, delle sete. Altri due pagamenti, rispettivamente del 1730 e del 17317,
come la Historia Hierosolymitana di Alberto di Aquisgrana. Tuttavia, fanno capire, in realtà, che le stoffe dipinte del 1729 erano desti-
non esistendo ulteriori indizi per una simile commissione, questa pro- nate ad un appartamento situato al piano terreno dell’ala nord del
posta rimane ipotetica. palazzo, che fu la prima dimora dei principi successiva alle nozze8.
D’altronde, come è già stato messo in luce9, le pitture delle sete del
Camerino, ritraenti scene di vita quotidiana degli indiani d’America,
sono un riferimento alla visione del buon selvaggio di Jean-Jacques
Rousseau diffusasi dagli anni cinquanta del secolo, ed è quindi diffi-
cile ascriverle al 1729.
Giuseppe Maria Soli in palazzo Barberini a Roma L’appartamento fu costruito ex novo e decorato nella secon-
da metà del Settecento, come conferma l’analisi di altre due stanze.
G.M. Soli Nei mezzanini dell’ala sud dello storico palazzo Barberini a Roma Nella sala dell’alcova, il cui arredo è caratterizzato dalla commistio-
in palazzo è situato un appartamento rinnovato nella seconda metà del Settecen- ne di pezzi di reimpiego propri della collezione di antichità Barbe-
Barberini
to: una successione di ambienti la cui concezione spaziale e il cui gusto rini10 insieme ad altri derivati dall’antico, si trova la citazione di un
decorativo si distinguono rispetto al monumentale edificio seicentesco. elemento decorativo rintracciabile nel salone del Parnaso della villa
Oggetto di pochi studi specifici1, tanto per il livello qualitativo della Albani (1761)11. Il Gabinetto dei ritratti, situato nella zona riservata
decorazione, non altissimo, quanto per i pochi dati di cui si dispone alle stanze del principe, è decorato sul modello delle Logge raffael-
per ricostruirne la storia, questi ambienti meritano nuove riflessioni di lesche. Alle pareti, ventitré ovati che ritraggono i membri delle fa-
ordine cronologico e attributivo. Il carattere eterogeneo dell’apparato miglie Barberini e Colonna di Sciarra sono intervallati verticalmente
decorativo è stato risolto dagli studi con riferimento a un momento da finte lesene dipinte a grottesche e, orizzontalmente, da storie mo-
della cultura artistica romana, circoscritto tra il 1760 e il 1770, in cui è nocrome dell’Antico e del Nuovo Testamento / tavola 64/12: un ac-
leggibile il passaggio da un rococò maturo a un precoce neoclassico2. costamento del tema biblico con l’ornamentazione profana che trae
La coesistenza di questa doppia matrice fa dell’appartamento Barberi- ispirazione dal sistema decorativo delle Logge, dalle quali è ripresa
ni un caso senza dubbio unico nel contesto dei rinnovamenti di interni anche la disposizione spaziale delle grottesche. Per questo ambien-
romani dell’epoca, ma tale commistione è dovuta in realtà a un più am- te si può proporre una datazione nell’ottavo decennio del secolo,
pio arco cronologico. La decorazione si protrasse almeno fino al 1780, contestualmente a quell’orientamento del gusto che promuoveva la
come si deduce dalla scoperta dell’intervento di Giuseppe Maria Soli ripresa dell’antico e di Raffaello e che portò anche alla pubblicazio-
(1747-1822)3, architetto e pittore di Vignola, formatosi presso l’Acca- ne dei sei volumi di incisioni tratte dalle Logge di Giovanni Volpato
demia Clementina a Bologna e giunto a Roma nel 1770. (1772-1777)13.
T AV O L E
42 - Giambologna: ‘Consegna di un ragazzo a un comandante’
Londra, The Quentin Foundation Collection

43 - Andrea Boscoli: ‘Consegna di un ragazzo a un comandante’ Londra, British Museum


ubicazione ignota
44 - da Giambologna: ‘Consegna di un ragazzo a un comandante’

45a - Anonimo da Valerio Titi: 45b - Giambologna:


‘Goffredo di Buglione rifiuta la corona di Gerusalemme’, ‘Consegna di un ragazzo a un comandante’ (part.)
in R. Gualterotti, Della descrizione del regale apparato …, Londra, The Quentin Foundation Collection
Firenze, 1589, p. 94
46 - Giambologna: ‘Incoronazione di Cosimo I granduca’ (part.) 47 - Giambologna: ‘Consegna di un ragazzo a un comandante’ (part.)
Firenze, piazza della Signoria Londra, The Quentin Foundation Collecion
48 - Giambologna: ‘Consegna di un ragazzo a un comandante’ (part.) 49 - Giambologna: ‘Entrata di Cosimo a Siena’ (part.)
Londra, The Quentin Foundation Collection Firenze, piazza della Signoria
50 - Giambologna: ‘Consegna di un ragazzo a un comandante’ (part.) 51 - Giambologna: ‘Ecce Homo’ (part.)
Londra, The Quentin Foundation Collection Monaco, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum
52 - Giambologna: ‘Consegna di un ragazzo a un comandante’ (part.) 53 - Giambologna: ‘Flagellazione di Cristo’ (part.)
Londra, The Quentin Foundation Collecion Monaco, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum
54 - Giambologna: ‘Consegna di un ragazzo a un comandante’ (part.) 55 - Giambologna: ‘La Carità’ (part.)
Londra, The Quentin Foundation Collection Genova, Palazzo dell’Università (già Collegio dei Gesuiti)

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