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Unit 1, Activity 2, Specific Assessment Rubric

Chemistry

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 1, Activity 2, Specific Assessment Rubric

3 2 0
Measurements
are to the correct All measurements 2 or 3 measurements Less than 2
number of measurements
significant
figures
Units included All measurements 2 or 3 measurements Less than 2
measurements
Answers are
within the range All measurements 2 or 3 measurements Less than 2
of acceptable measurements
error

Measurements Less than 2


finished within All measurements 2 or 3 measurements measurements
the prescribed
time limit

All safety rules


followed
Questions Answered Answered incorrectly Answered incorrectly.
Answered correctly but supported by No supporting
evidence evidence.

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 1, Activity 3, Accuracy and Precision Worksheet

Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

1. Determine the accuracy and precision represented by each group of darts in the figures
above. Explain your choices using complete sentences.

Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Precision?

Accuracy?

2. A basketball player throws 100 free-throws; 95 of these balls go through the goal; 5 miss
the goal entirely. Describe the precision and accuracy of the free-throws.

3. The same player is having an off day; 5 balls go through the goal; the other 95 balls
bounce off of the rim. Describe the precision and accuracy of the throws.

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 1, Activity 3, Accuracy and Precision Worksheet Answers

Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3


1. Determine the accuracy and precision represented by each group of darts in the figures
above. Explain your choices using complete sentences.

Figure 1 Picture 2 Picture 3


Good Poor Good
All of the darts are None of the darts All of the darts are
Precision?
grouped in the same are grouped in the grouped in the
area. same area. same area.
Poor Poor Good
None of the darts Few of the darts are All of the darts are
Accuracy?
are grouped in the grouped in the grouped in the
bull’s-eye. bull’s-eye. bull’s-eye.

2. A basketball player throws 100 free-throws; 95 of these balls go through the goal;
5 miss the goal entirely. Describe the precision and accuracy of the free-throws.

The player has good precision and good accuracy because so many of the balls
go through the goal.

3. The same player is having an off day; 5 balls go through the goal; the other 95
balls bounce off of the rim. Describe the precision and accuracy of the throws.

The player has good precision because so many balls bounce off the rim but poor
accuracy because so few balls make it through the goal.

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 2, Activity 1, Card Sort Template 1

Matter Homogeneous

Pure Substance Heterogeneous

Element Mixture

Compound

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 2, Activity 1, Card Sort Template 2

Muddy Water Na

Solution As

salt water Cl

Metal NaCl

nonmetal Metalloid

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 2, Activity 1, Sample Concept Map

Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Concept Map

MATTER

Can be either

MIXTURE

PURE
SUBSTANCE
Is

Is Can be

Chemically
ELEMENT combine to form COMPOUND HOMOGENEOUS HETEROGENEOUS

Is either
Example Is called Example

METAL METALLOID NONMETAL NaCl SOLUTION MUDDY WATER

Example Example Example Example

Na As Cl SALT WATER

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 2, Activity 2, Sample Word Grid

The properties of
the individual
Can be separated
Sample: components are
Homogeneous Heterogeneous into individual
the same as
components
properties of the
sample
Salt

Water

Copper

Salt and water

Copper and
water

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 2, Activity 2, Sample Word Grid Answers

The properties of
the individual
Can be separated
Sample: components are
Homogeneous Heterogeneous into individual
the same as
components
properties of the
sample
Salt
X X
Water
X X
Copper
X X
Salt and water
X X X
Copper and
water X X X

Conclusions:
1. Salt (NaCl) is a homogeneous material that can be decomposed into individual elements
(sodium and chlorine). The properties of the salt differ from the properties of the
elements. Salt is a compound.
2. Water (H2O) is a homogeneous material that can be decomposed into elements (hydrogen
and oxygen). Water is a compound.
3. Copper is a homogeneous material that cannot be separated into components. Copper is
an element.
4. Salt and water combine to form a homogeneous material that can be separated into
parts. When the salt and water are mixed, their properties do not change. Salt water is a
homogeneous mixture called a solution.
5. Copper shot and water not homogeneous because the copper and water are easily seen
as individual parts. These parts can be separated easily. When the copper and water are
mixed, their individual properties do not change. This is a heterogeneous mixture.

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 2, Activity 4, Three Worlds of Chemistry

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 2, Activity 5, Density

Each box has the same volume. If each


ball has the same mass, which box would
weigh more? Why?

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 2, Activity 6, Split-Page Notes

Physical and Chemical Changes

Effervescent tablet in water


Observations
1. numerous bubbles formed as soon as tablet
touched the water
2. bubbles rose to top of water and burst
3. tablet disappeared
4. bubbles stopped forming
5. looks like nothing else is happening

Conclusion The bubbles contained a gas that escaped into the air. The
tablet was a solid that underwent a chemical change with
the water to produce the gas bubbles. Once the tablet
(reactant) was used up, no more gas bubbles (products)
were formed, and the reaction stopped. There has been a
change in the identity of the material. It is no longer an
effervescent tablet. The production of a gas is evidence of
a chemical change (reaction) taking place.

Cutting a piece of paper

Observations
1. smaller pieces of paper are formed
Conclusion
The smaller pieces of paper are exactly like the original
piece of paper (reactant). There has been no change in the
identity of the material. It is still paper (product).

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 3, Activity 3, Exploring the Periodic Table

1.01 4.00
H He

6.94 9.01 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18


Li Be B C N O F Ne

22.99 24.30 26.98 28.08 30.97 32.07 35.45 39.95


Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar

39.10 40.08 69.72 72.61 74.92 78.96 79.90 83.80


K Ca Ga Ge As Se Br Kr

85.47 87.62 114.82 118.71 121.75 127.60 126.90 131.29


Rb Sr In Sn Sb Te I Xe

132.90 137.33 204.38 207.2 208.98 (209) (210) (222)


Cs Ba Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 3, Activity 4, GISTing

GISTing

The individual Gists are limited to 15 words.

Sample paragraph from notes:

Atomic radii

The atomic radius is ½ the distance between the centers of neighboring atoms. It is the size
of the atom due to the size of the electron cloud.

Group trends

The atomic radii of the main group elements (s & p sublevels) generally increases down a
group. The outermost electrons occupy energy levels that are farther from the nucleus.

Period trends

Atomic radius generally decreases across a period. This is caused by the increasing nuclear
charge of the nucleus as you go across a period. More protons are in the nucleus and more
electrons are in the same energy level. The increasing nuclear charge attracts the electrons
and pulls them closer to the nucleus.

Class gist statements for each sentence of the paragraphs

1. Atomic radius means how big an atom is. _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____
2. Atoms get bigger down a group because there are more energy levels. _____ _____ _____
3. Atoms get smaller across a period because more protons attract the electrons pulling them
closer.

Summary: Atomic radius (size of the atom) increases down a group because of more energy
levels and across a period because of a greater attraction between the larger number of protons
and the outer electrons.

After several gisting activities, you will be able to construct summaries. Gisting is a mental
process and not necessarily a written one.

Blackline Masters, Chemistry


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 4, Activity 1, Vocabulary Self-Awareness

Term + 9 - Definition Example

Chemical bond

Ionic bond

Covalent bond

Metallic bond

Electronegativity

Polar covalent
bond

Nonpolar
covalent bond

Formula unit

Molecule

Molecular
formula

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 4, Activity 2, Ion Cards

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 4, Activity 2, Ion Cards

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 4, Activity 2, Ion Cards

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 4, Activity 2, Ion Cards

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 4, Activity 3, Chemical Formulas and Nomenclature I

Write formulas for the following compounds:


1. copper (I) oxide _______________
2. aluminum hydroxide _______________
3. triphosphorus decasulfide _______________
4. zinc nitrate _______________
5. hydrobromic acid _______________
6. mercury (I) bromide _______________
7. boron tribromide _______________
8. sodium hydride _______________
9. barium perchlorate _______________
10. tetraphosphorus hexasulfide _______________
11. sulfuric acid _______________
12. calcium hypochlorite _______________
13. ammonium phosphite _______________
14. chromium (III) acetate _______________
15. hydrosulfic acid _______________
16. carbonic acid _______________
17. phosphorus pentafluoride _______________
18. cobalt (II) nitrate _______________
19. magnesium sulfate _______________
20. strontium phosphate _______________
21. dichlorine monoxide _______________
22. phosphorous acid _______________
23. disulfur dichloride _______________
24. iron (III) carbonate _______________
25. perchloric acid _______________

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 4, Activity 3, Chemical Formulas and Nomenclature I Answers

Write formulas for the following compounds:


1. copper (I) oxide __Cu2O_______
2. aluminum hydroxide __Al(OH)3_____
3. triphosphorus decasulfide __P3S10_______
4. zinc nitrate __Zn(NO3)2____
5. hydrobromic acid __HBr(aq)_____
6. mercury (II) bromide __HgBr2_______
7. boron tribromide __BBr3________
8. sodium hydride __NaH________
9. barium perchlorate __Ba(ClO4)2____
10. tetraphosphorus hexasulfide __P4S6________
11. sulfuric acid __H2SO4(aq)___
12. calcium hypochlorite __Ca(ClO)2____
13. ammonium phosphite __(NH4)3PO3___
14. chromium (III) acetate __Cr(C2H3O2)3_
15. hydrosulfic acid __H2S(aq)_____
16. carbonic acid __H2CO3(aq)___
17. phosphorus pentafluoride __PF5_________
18. cobalt (II) nitrate __Co(NO3)2____
19. magnesium sulfate __MgSO4______
20. strontium phosphate __Sr3(PO4)2____
21. dichlorine monoxide __Cl2O________
22. phosphorous acid __H3PO4(aq)___
23. disulfur dichloride __S2Cl2_______
24. iron (III) carbonate __Fe2(CO3)3___
25. perchloric acid __HClO4(aq)___

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 4, Activity 3, Chemical Formulas and Nomenclature II

Name the following compounds.

1. K2SO4 ______________________________
2. N2O4 ______________________________
3. BaClO4 ______________________________
4. HNO2(aq) ______________________________
5. FE2(SO4)3 ______________________________
6. NH4F ______________________________
7. BaI2 ______________________________
8. CrO3 ______________________________
9. Cu(C2H3O2)2 ______________________________
10. Ag2CO3 ______________________________
11. NaOH ______________________________
12. Ca3(PO4)2 ______________________________
13. ClF3 ______________________________
14. K2SO3 ______________________________
15. AlBr3 ______________________________
16. MgCl2 ______________________________
17. HC2H3O2(aq) ______________________________
18. P2O5 ______________________________
19. FePO4 ______________________________
20. SrBr2 ______________________________
21. Al2S3 ______________________________
22. LiBr ______________________________
23. NH3 ______________________________
24. PbO2 ______________________________
25. MgO ______________________________

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 4, Activity 3, Chemical Formulas and Nomenclature II Answers

Name the following compounds.

1. K2SO4 __potassium sulfate______________


2. N2O4 __dinitrogen tetroxide____________
3. BaClO4 __barium perchlorate_____________
4. HNO2(aq) __nitrous acid__________________
5. Fe2(SO4)3 __iron (III) sulfate_______________
6. NH4F __ammonium fluoride____________
7. BaI2 __barium iodide_________________
8. CrO3 __chromium (IV) oxide___________
9. Cu(C2H3O2)2 __copper (II) acetate_____________
10. Ag2CO3 __silver carbonate_______________
11. NaOH __sodium hydroxide______________
12. Ca3(PO4)2 __calcium phosphate_____________
13. ClF3 __chlorine trifluoride_____________
14. K2SO3 __potassium sulfite_______________
15. AlBr3 __aluminum bromide_____________
16. MgCl2 __magnesium chloride____________
17. HC2H3O2(aq) __acetic acid___________________
18. P2O5 __diphosphorous pentoxide________
19. FePO4 __iron (III) phosphate____________
20. SrBr2 __strontium bromide_____________
21. Al2S3 __aluminum sulfide______________
22. LiBr __lithium bromide_______________
23. NH3 __ammonia____________________
24. PbO2 __lead (IV) oxide_______________
25. MgO __magnesium oxide_____________

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 4, Activity 3, Molecular Geometry of Simple Molecules Student Sheet 1

Note: A represents the central atom in the molecule. B represents atoms bonded to the central
atom. B can be identical atoms or different atoms.
Directions:
1. Find the other students who have the same color balloons as you. Have someone inflate a
balloon as much as possible without popping it. Inflate your balloon(s) to the same size.
2. Using the patterns below, tie the appropriate number and color balloons together. For
example, for the AB2E model, tie 2 blue balloons and a white balloon together. For
groups of 4 balloons, it is easier to tie 2 balloons together and then the other 2 balloons
together, then twist the two groups together. For five-balloon groups, make sets of 2 and
3 balloons and twist. For six balloons, use 3 sets of 2 balloons twisted together.
3. Attach a piece of string to hang the finished model from the ceiling.

Type of Number of Balloons One colored


Molecule Atoms Needed for balloon models
Attached to Model for electron
the Central pair geometries
Atom
AB2 2 2 pink *
AB3 3 3 blue *
AB2E 3 2 blue, 1 white
AB4 4 4 red *
AB3E 3 3 red, 1 white
AB2E2 3 2 red, 2 white
AB5 5 5 green *
AB4E 4 4 green, 1 white
AB3E2 3 3 green, 2 white
AB2E3 2 2 green, 3 white
AB6 6 6 yellow *
AB5E 5 5 yellow, 1
white
AB4E2 4 4 yellow, 2
white

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 4, Activity 3, Molecular Geometry of Simple Molecules Student Sheet 2

Number
Number of
of atoms Bond Molecular
lone pairs Electron
attached angle of Type of Geometry
around the Pair Example
to the electron Molecule (Shape of the
Central Geometry
Central pairs molecule)
Atom
Atom

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 4, Activity 3, Molecular Geometry of Simple Molecules Answer Sheet

Number Number
of lone of atoms Bond
pairs on Example
attached Electron Pair angle of Type of Molecular
the of
to the Geometry Electron Molecule Shape
Central Molecule
Central pairs
Atom Atom
0 2 Linear 180° AB2 Linear CO2
Trigonal Trigonal
0 3 120° AB3 BF3
planar planar
0 4 Tetrahedral 109.5° AB4 Tetrahedral CH4
Trigonal
1 3 Tetrahedral <109.5° AB3E NH3
Pyramidal
2 2 Tetrahedral <109.5° AB2E2 Bent H2O

Trigonal 90°, Trigonal


0 5 AB5 PCl5
Bipyramidal 120°,180° Bipyramidal

Trigonal 90°,
1 4 AB4E *See-Saw SF4
Bipyramidal 120°,180°
Trigonal
2 3 90°, 180° AB3E2 *T- structure IBr3
Bipyramidal
Trigonal
3 2 180° AB2E3 * Linear XeF2
Bipyramidal
0 6 Octahedral 90°, 180° AB6 Octahedral SCl6
*Pyramidal
1 5 Octahedral 90°, 180° AB5E IF5
Planar
*Square
2 4 Octahedral 90°, 180° AB4E2 XeF4
Planar

Note: Molecular Shapes marked * may be omitted if time is a factor.

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 25


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 4, Activity 4, Chemical Bond Type Lab

Purpose: To observe characteristics of ionic and covalent bonds and to classify compounds as
ionic or covalent based on those observations.
Modified from http://www.hse.k12.in.us/staff/ebutzin/Documents/ICP/Bonding/bond%20types%20lab.doc

Safety:
• Wear goggles.
• Do not taste or touch any chemicals.
• Follow guidelines pertaining to an open flame.

Materials
• Test tubes • Small foil pie pan • Sodium chloride
• Thin stem pipettes • Calcium chloride • Sucrose
• Iron ring and stand • Citric acid • Conductivity probe
• Candle with foil • Phenyl salicylate • Safety goggles
holder • Potassium iodide

Procedure:
1. Place a few crystals of sucrose, sodium chloride, phenyl salicylate, calcium chloride,
citric acid and potassium iodide in separate locations around the pie pan as shown in
Figure B. Make sure all of the samples are approximately the same size. Do not allow
the crystals to touch.
• Write a brief description of each of the 6 substances in a data table.
2. Testing melting point
• Place the pie pan on the iron ring. Position the ring so it is just above the tip of a
candle flame, as shown in Figure A. Light the candle to check that you have the
correct height.
• Place the candle under the middle of the pan and heat. Record the order in which
the substances melt. If a compound doesn’t melt record N/A.

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 4, Activity 4, Chemical Bond Type Lab

3. Testing the solubility in water


• Place a few crystals of each substance in separate test tubes. Add about 1 mL of
distilled water and agitate each.
• Record the solubility in the data table (Yes – if it dissolves, No – if it does not
dissolve).
4. Testing the conductivity in water
• Use the conductivity probe for each of the substances that WERE SOLUBLE in water
to determine if they conduct electricity or not. If the compound didn’t dissolve, do
NOT try to measure the conductivity.
• Rinse and dry the probe after each test.

Cleanup
• Rinse all test tubes with water and scrub with a test tube brush.
• Rinse off the pie pan and scrub with a test tube brush. Dry with a clean cloth.
• Wash hands and put away goggles.

Data Table

Melting
Point Solubility in
Compound Description Conductivity
(1, 2, 3, 4, Water (Y/N)
N/A)
Calcium
chloride

Citric acid

Phenyl
salicylate
Potassium
iodide
Sodium
chloride

Sucrose

Write and defend a conclusion based on a logical analysis of your experimental data.

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 27


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 4, Activity 6, RAFTing

R – Role (role of the writer)

A – Audience (to whom or what the RAFT is being written)

F – Form (the form the writing will take, as in letter, song, etc.)

T – Topic (the subject focus of the writing)

R – H2O

A – Oil

F – Letter

T – Intermolecular Forces between molecules

Dear Oil,
I know you would really like for us to get together. Unfortunately, my intermolecular
forces are too strong and will always keep us apart.
I am a polar molecule. I am attracted to other polar molecules much more than I am
attracted to your nonpolar structure. I also have hydrogen bonding which really makes me
extremely attractive to other like molecules. I guess you could say that the only thing we really
have in common is a really weak dispersion force. Unfortunately, this will not be strong enough
for us to base any lasting relationship.
Please feel free to look for another molecule with whom to combine. Perhaps you should
look for a nonpolar molecule with no tendency to hydrogen bond.

Sincerely,
Water

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 5, Activity 1, How Large Is a Mole?

Materials:
1. Samples of 5 different types of beans
2. Container for measuring the mass of the beans
3. Balance
4. Calculator

Procedure:
1. Measure the mass of each type of bean.
2. Using a ratio, students are to calculate the relative masses of the other beans by dividing
the mass of the beans by the mass of the smallest bean of the five types used.

3. Count how many whole beans are needed to get the mass in grams equal to the relative
mass calculated in step 2 for each type of bean.
4. Using the data in the relative mass column, place the empty container on the balance and
zero (tare) the balance. Add beans one at a time to count how many whole beans are
needed to get a mass in grams equal to the relative mass for each type of bean. (Mass of
container in this example is 25.6g.)

Mass of Relative Number of


Name of Mass of the container and the
beans mass beans
bean beans (g)
(g) (g) from step 3

Average of
Last Column

• Calculate the average number of whole beans in a container by adding the number of beans in 1
container for each type of bean and dividing by 5.

Note: Use the number from the average of the last column box for all calculations.

The following ratios can be derived from the data:


beans relative mass of beans
container container

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 5, Activity 1, How Large Is a Mole?

Use the data and the ratios to solve the following problems:

1. Calculate the number of containers given 350 beans of each type of bean.

2. Calculate the number of beans given 5.5 containers of each type of bean.

3. Calculate the mass of 350 containers of each type of bean.

4. Calculate the number of containers given 400 g. of each type of bean.

5. Calculate the number of beans given 400 g of each type of bean.

Write and defend a conclusion based on logical analysis of the data obtained from this activity.

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 30


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 5, Activity 1, How Large Is a Mole? Answer Sheet

This activity is designed to help students understand the concept of the mole as a definite number
of particles. Using five varieties of different type beans, students will determine the relative mass
of each type of bean and express the relative masses in grams.
• Have students work in groups and provide each group with five sets of 40 beans, a container,
and a balance.
• Have students determine the total mass of each type of bean. Enter the data into the table
provided.
• Using a ratio, students are to calculate the relative masses of the other beans by dividing the
mass of the beans by the mass of the smallest bean of the five types used.
• Using the data in the relative mass column, place an empty container on the balance and zero.
Add beans one at a time to count how many whole beans are needed to get a mass in grams
equal to the relative mass for each type of beans. (Mass of container in this example is
25.6g.)

Number
Mass of the
Mass of beans Relative mass of beans
Name of bean container and the
(g) (g) from step
beans (g)
3
211.
Red beans 46.7 21.1 = 10.0 19
2.1
Large lima 52.3
77.9 52.3 = 24.9 19
beans 2.1
Chick peas 44.5 18.9 9.0 20
Lentils 27.7 2.1 1.0 19
Black eyes peas 35.3 9.7 4.6 20
Average of last column 19

• Calculate the average number of whole beans in a container.


(19 + 19 + 20 + 19 + 20)
= 19.4 = 19 whole beans
5
Note: Use the number from the average of the last column box for all calculations.

The following ratios can be derived from the data:


beans relative mass of beans
container container

Note: Use the average number of beans for the beans/container ratio and the relative mass of each type
of bean for the mass/container ratio.

Use the data to solve the problems as you would solve mole problems.

1. Calculate the number of containers given 350. beans of each type of bean.

2. Calculate the number of beans given 5.5 containers of each type of bean.

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Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 5, Activity 1, How Large Is a Mole? Answer Sheet

3. Calculate the mass of 350. containers of each type of bean.

4. Calculate the number of containers given 400.g. of each type of bean.

5. Calculate the number of beans given 400.g of each type of bean.

Sample Calculations:

For these calculations, the container was a cup.

1 cup
1. 350. beans X = 18.4 cups
19 beans

19 beans
2. 5.5 cups X = 104.5 beans
1 cup

1cup 21.1g
3. 350 red beans x × = 388.7 g
19 red beans 1cup

1cup 24.9 g
350 lima beans× × = 458.68g
19 lima beans 1cup

1 cup
4. 400. g X = 19.0 cups
21.1 g

1 cup 19 red beans


5. 400. g X X = 360.2 red beans
21.1 g 1 cup

Write and defend a conclusion based on logical analysis of the data obtained from this activity.
Regardless of the type of bean used, the number of beans per cup is consistent (within an
acceptable margin of error). Although the mass of each bean is different, the average number of
beans per cup is also consistent. The data supports the idea that a cup of beans contains 19
whole beans regardless of the type of bean used or its relative mass.

When using this activity as an introduction to mole problems, the container will be used as an
analogy to a mole.

For example:

Calculate the number of containers when given 350 beans of each type of bean.

Calculate the number of moles when given 350 atoms of any element.

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 32


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 5, Activity 3, Observing Chemical Reactions

Lab Station 1: Copper wire and silver nitrate solution

Materials: small piece of copper wire, pipettes of 0.2 M silver nitrate


solution, test tube, test tube rack, waste container

Procedure:

1. Record a description of all reactants and products.

2. Make a hook on one end of the copper wire.

3. Hang the wire by the hook in a test tube.

4. Pour enough silver nitrate solution into the tube to cover most of the
wire.

5. Place the test tube into the test tube rack and observe for one
minute.

6. Record observations.

7. Empty the test tube contents into the large beaker (waste
container).

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 33


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 5, Activity 3, Observing Chemical Reactions

Station 2: zinc + hydrochloric acid

Materials: mossy zinc, 0.1M hydrochloric acid, microplate, pipette,


waste container

1. Record a description of all reactants and products.

2. Place a piece of mossy zinc a well of a microplate.


3. Add 10 drops of hydrochloric acid to the well.
4. Record observations.
5. Empty the contents of the microplate into the large beaker (waste
container).

Station 3: sodium chloride + silver nitrate


Materials: sodium chloride solution, 0.2 M silver nitrate solution, small
test tube, pipette, large beaker

1. Record a description of all reactants and products.

2. Fill a small test tube halfway with sodium chloride solution.

3. Add 3 to 5 drops of the silver nitrate solution.

4. Record observations.

5. Empty the contents of the microplate into the large beaker (waste
container).

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 34


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 5, Activity 3, Observing Chemical Reactions

Station 4: Acetic acid + sodium hydrogen carbonate

Materials: Acetic acid (vinegar), sodium hydrogen carbonate


(baking soda), 250 ml beaker, waste container

1. Record a description of all reactants and products.


2. Place one teaspoon of sodium hydrogen carbonate into a
small beaker.

3. Add three teaspoons of Acetic acid.


4. Record observations.
5. Empty the beaker contents into the large beaker (waste
container).

Station 5: Acetic acid + sodium hydrogen carbonate +


phenolphthalein

Materials: Acetic acid (vinegar), sodium hydrogen carbonate


(baking soda), phenolphthalein, 250 ml beaker, waste container

1. Record a description of all reactants and products.


2. Place one teaspoon of sodium hydrogen carbonate into a
small beaker.

3. Add three teaspoons of Acetic acid.


4. Record observations.
5. Empty the beaker contents into the large beaker (waste
container).

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 35


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 5, Activity 4, Split-Page Notetaking

Patterns for the types of chemical reactions


1. Composition 2 reactants form one product:
(Synthesis) element + element → one compound
2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl
A + X → AX
compound + compound → one compound
CO2 + H2O → H2CO3
2. Decomposition one compound → two or more products
2NaCl →2Na + Cl2
AX → A + X
H2CO3→ CO2 + H2O
Single Replacement element + compound → different element + different
Reaction:
compound
A + BX → B + AX Use the activity series of the elements to predict the products.
Generally elements will replace any element below it on the
or chart.
metals replace less active metals or hydrogen from a
Y + BX → X + BY
compound
Cu + AgNO3→ Ag + Cu(NO3)2 (reverse reaction will
not occur)
nonmetals replace less active nonmetals from a compound
I2 + NaCl → Cl2 + NaI (reverse reaction will not
occur)
Double Replacement compound + compound → different compound + different
Reaction: compound
Use a solubility table to predict precipitates (solids)
AX + BY → AY + BX
NaCl + AgNO3 → NaNO3 + AgCl(s) (reverse reaction will
not occur)
Neutralization:
acid + base → salt + water
HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O
Neutralization is a type of double replacement reaction. An
ionic salt is formed from the cation of the base and the anion
of the acid. Neutralization is the reaction of the hydronium
ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules.

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 36


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 5, Activity 6, Can You Make Two Grams?

Possible combinations that form precipitates:

Reaction Number

1. MgSO4• 7H2O + Ca(C2H3O2)2 • H2O → CaSO4(s) + Mg(C2H3O2)2 + 7H2O


246.50 g/mol 176.19 g/mol 136.15 g/mol 142.38g/mol 18.02g
3.62 g 2.59 g 2.00 g 2.09 g 2.12 g

2. MgSO4• 7H2O + Na2CO3 → MgCO3(s) + Na2SO4 + 7H2O


246.50 g/mol 105.99 g/mol 84.31 g/mol 142.02 g/mol 18.02g/mol
5.85 g 2.51 g 2.00g 3.37 g 2.99 g

3. MgSO4• 7H2O + K2CO3 → MgCO3(s) + K2SO4 + 7H2O


246.50 g/mol 138.21 g/mol 84.31 g/mol 174.27 g/mol 18.02 g/mol
5.85 g 3.28 g 2.00g 4.13 2.99g

4. ZnSO4 • 7H2O + Ca(C2H3O2)2 • H2O → CaSO4(s) + Zn(C2H3O2)2 + 8 H2O


287.56 g/mol 176.19 g/mol 136.15 g/mol 183.48 g/mol 18.02 g/mol
4.22 g 2.59g 2.00 g 2.70 g 2.12g

5. ZnSO4 • 7H2O + Na2CO3 → ZnCO3(s) + Na2SO4 + 7 H2O


287.56 g/mol 105.99 g/mol 125.38g/mol 142.02 g/mol 18.02g/mol
4.59 g 1.69g 2.00g 2.27g 2.01g

6. ZnSO4 • 7H2O + K2CO3 → ZnCO3(s) + K2SO4 + 7 H2O


287.56 g/mol 138.21 g/mol 125.38g/mol 174.27 g/mol 18.02 g/mol
4.59 g 2.20g 2.00g 2.78g 2.01g

7. Ca(C2H3O2)2 • H2O + Na2CO3 → CaCO3(s) + 2NaC2H3O2 + H2O


176.19 g/mol 105.99 g/mol 100.09 g/mol 82.03 g/mol 18.02 g/mol
3.52g 2.12g 2.00g 3.28g 036g

8. Ca(C2H3O2)2 • H2O + K2CO3 → CaCO3(s) + 2KC2H3O2 + H2O


176.19 g/mol 138.21 g/mol 100.09 g/mol 98.15 g/mol 18.02g/mol
3.52g 2.76g 2.00g 3.92g 0.36g

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 37


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 5, Activity 7, Vocabulary Self-Awareness

Term + 9 - Definition Example

Oxidation

Reduction

Redox reaction

Oxidizing agent

Reducing agent

Skeleton
equation

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 38


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 5, Activity 7, Introduction to Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Half- fill each well in the column with the indicated solution.
Column 1: Zn(NO3)2
Column 2: Pb(NO3)2
Column 3: Cu(NO3)2
1. Place one piece of zinc shot in each filled well in row 1.
2. Place one piece of lead shot in each filled well in row 2.
3. Place one piece of copper shot in each filled well in row 3.
Column
1 2 3
Row
1

4. Watch for two minutes, then record observations.


5. Make a list of the elements in order of reactivity.
6. Write the redox equation for each chemical change.

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 39


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 5, Activity 7, Introduction to Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Answer Sheet

1. Half- fill each well in the column with the indicated solution.
Column 1: Zn(NO3)2
Column 2: Pb(NO3)2
Column 3: Cu(NO3)2
2. Place one piece of zinc shot in each filled well in row 1.
3. Place one piece of lead shot in each filled well in row 2.
4. Place one piece of copper shot in each filled well in row 3.
Column
1 2 3
Row
1

5. Watch for two minutes, then record observations.


6. Make a list of the elements in order of reactivity.
7. Write the redox equation for each chemical change.
8. Write a conclusion based on your observations.

Elements in order of reactivity:


Zn, Pb, Cu

LEO the lion says GER (loss of electrons is oxidation, gaining electrons is reduction)
Redox equations:
Zn + Pb(NO3)2 → Pb + Zn(NO3)2

Zn0 → Zn 2+ + 2e- (oxidation)


Pb 2+ + 2e- → Pb0 (reduction)

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 40


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 5, Activity 7, Introduction to Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Answer Sheet

Zn + Cu(NO3)2 → Cu + Zn(NO3)2

Zn0 → + Zn 2+ 2e- (oxidation)


Cu2++ 2e- → Cu0 (reduction)

Pb + Zn(NO3)2 → NR (no reaction)

Pb + Cu(NO3)2 → Cu + Pb(NO3)2

Pb0 → Pb2+ +2e- (oxidation)


Cu2++2e- → Cu0 (reduction)

Cu + Zn(NO3)2 → NR

Cu + Pb(NO3)2 → NR

Conclusion: Oxidation is the process by which electrons are removed from atoms or ions.
Zn is oxidized by the other two ions. Pb is only oxidized by the Cu2+ ion. Cu is not
oxidized by either ion. Zn gives up its electrons more easily than the other ions.The
element that is oxidized is the reducing agent therefore Zn is the strongest reducing
agent, followed by Pb and lastly, by Cu.

Reduction is the process by which electrons are added to atoms or ions. The element that
is reduced is the oxidizing agent. Cu is the strongest oxidizing agent, followed by Pb and
then Zn.

Oxidation and reduction must take place at the same time because the number of
electrons lost must equal the number of electrons gained.

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 41


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 5, Activity 7, Introduction to Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Answer Sheet

Answers to ionic equations:

Molecular equation: Zn + Pb(NO3)2 → Pb + Zn(NO3)2


Ionic Equation: Zn0 + Pb2+ + 2NO3-1 → Pb0 + Zn 2+ + 2NO3-1
Net Ionic Equation: Zn0 + Pb 2+→ Pb0 + Zn 2+

Molecular equation: Zn + Cu(NO3)2 → Cu + Zn(NO3)2


Ionic equation: Zn0 + Cu2+ + 2NO3-1 → Cu0+ Zn 2+ + 2NO3-1
Net Ionic equation: Zn0 + Cu2+ → Cu0+ Zn 2+

Molecular equation: Pb + Zn(NO3)2 → NR (no reaction)

Molecular equation: Pb + Cu(NO3)2 → Cu + Pb(NO3)2


Ionic equation: Pb0 + Cu2+ +2NO3-1 → Cu0 + Pb2+ + 2NO3-1
Net Ionic equation: Pb0 + Cu2+ → Cu0 + Pb2+

Molecular equation: Cu + Zn(NO3)2 → NR

Molecular equation: Cu + Pb(NO3)2 → NR

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 42


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 6, Activity 4, Heating Curve

Gas State
Cp (g)

Boiling
Point (Hv)

Liquid State Cp (l)

Melting
Point (Hf)
Solid State Cp(s)

Heat is added to a substance in the solid state. The energy added will increase the temperature of
the substance to its specific melting point. The amount of energy required to raise the
temperature depends on the specific heat (Cp) and the state of the substance. Specific heat is the
amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree
Celsius.

At the melting point, the temperature stops rising and the substance starts to melt. The energy
supplied is used to weaken the intermolecular forces of attraction and the temperature remains
constant. The amount of energy needed to melt a substance depends on its heat of fusion (Hf).
The molar heat of fusion is the amount of energy required to melt one mole of a substance at its
melting point.

After the phase change is complete, the temperature rise will follow a different rate than that of
the solid because the liquid state has a different heat capacity.

At the boiling point, the temperature stops rising and the substance starts to boil. The energy
supplied is used to break the intermolecular forces of attraction and the temperature remains
constant. The amount of energy needed to boil a substance depends on its heat of vaporization
(Hv). The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of energy required to boil one mole of a
substance at its boiling point. The Hv is higher than the Hf because of breaking the forces of
attraction.

After the phase change is complete, the temperature rise will follow a different rate than that of
the liquid because the gaseous state has a different heat capacity.

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 43


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 6, Activity 4, Phase Diagrams

A phase diagram is a graph of the conditions of temperature and pressure at which the solid,
liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance exist. The lines separating the phases are called phase
boundaries. Each point on the phase boundary show the conditions under which the two phases
exist in dynamic equilibrium.

Each point along the solid/liquid phase boundary represents the temperature and pressure
combinations where the rate of the solid melting is equal to the rate of the liquid freezing. Each
point represents a melting point.

Each point along the liquid/ vapor phase boundary represents the temperature and pressure
combinations where the rate of the liquid boiling is equal to the rate of the vapor condensing.
Each point represents a boiling point.

Each point along the solid/gas phase boundary represents the temperature and pressure
combinations where the rate of the solid subliming is equal to the rate of the vapor condensing to
a solid (called deposition). Each point represents a sublimation point.

The triple point indicates the only temperature and pressure conditions where the solid, liquid,
and vapor phases are all in equilibrium.

The critical point (Pc) is the point above which a substance will always be a gas regardless of the
pressure and temperature. The critical temperature is the highest temperature a substance can
exist as a liquid. The critical pressure is the lowest pressure required for the substance to be a
liquid at the critical temperature.

Phase Diagram for H2O Phase diagram for CO2

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 44


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 6, Activity 6, Exothermic and Endothermic Energy Diagrams

Heat of reaction (ΔH) is the amount of heat released or absorbed during a chemical reaction.
ΔH = H products - H reactants

The heat content of the reactants is higher than


the heat content of the products. Energy in the
form of heat will be released when the products
form. The heat of reaction (ΔH) is negative.

Example:

2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(g) ΔH = - 483.6 kJ

The heat content of the reactants is lower than


the heat content of the products. Energy in the
form of heat must be absorbed (added) to form
the products. The heat of reaction (ΔH) is
positive.

Example:

2 H2O(g) → 2H2(g) + O2(g) ΔH = + 483.6 kJ

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 45


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 6, Activity 6, Energy Diagram (with activation energy)

For a reversible reaction, the activated complex is the same. The activated complex occurs at the
maximum-energy position along the reaction pathway. The activation energy of the forward
reaction is lower than the activation energy of the reverse reaction in this energy diagram. The
ΔH is the same amount for both reactions but the sign of ΔH is negative for the forward reaction
and is positive for the reverse reaction.

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 46


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 7, Activity 1, Vocabulary Self- Awareness

Term + 9 - Definition Example

Solution

Solute

Solvent

Soluble

Electrolyte

Nonelectrolyte

Colloid

Solubility

Saturated
solution

Unsaturated
solution

Supersaturated

Solution
equilibrium

Miscible

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 47


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 7, Activity 1, Vocabulary Self- Awareness

Immiscible

chromatography

molarity

molality

Colligative
property

Vapor pressure

Nonvolatile

Volatile

Freezing-point
depression

Boiling-point
elevation

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 48


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 7, Activity 3, Solution Concentrations

Sample Problems using factor-label method.

moles of solute
Molarity (M) =
liter of solution

Example 1:

Calculate the molarity of a 1500 ml solution that contains 45.0 g of MgCl2.

45.0 g MgCl 2 1 mol MgCl 2 1000 mL


M= X X = 0.31 M
1500 mL of solution 95.3 g MgCl 2 1L

Example 2:

Calculate the mass of solute in 750.0 mL of a 0.500 M H2SO4 solution.

750 mL 1L 0.500mol H 2SO 4 98.1g H 2SO 4


Mass of solute = X X X = 36.8g H 2SO 4
1000 mL 1L 1mol H 2SO 4

Example 3:

Calculate the volume of solution that can be made using a 6.00 M solution using 45.0 g C6H12O6.

45.0g C 6 H 12 O 6 1mol C 6 H 12 O 6 1L
Volume = X X = 0.400 L
180.0g C 6 H 12 O 6 6.00 mol C 6 H 12 O 6

moles of solute
Molality (m) =
kg of solution

Example 1:

Calculate the molality of a solution containing 50.0 g of HC2H3O2 dissolved in 500.0 g Hm=O.

50.0g HC2 H 3O 2 1mol HC 2 H 3O 2 1000g H 2 O


m= X X =1.67 m
500.0g H 2O 60.0gHC2 H 3O 2 1kg H 2O

Example 2:

Calculate the mass of solute needed to make a 0.450 m NaOH solution containing 750.0 g H2O.

750.0g H 2 O 1kg 0.450 mol NaOH 40.0 g NaOH


mass solute = X X X =13.5g NaOH
1000g 1kg 1mol NaOH

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 49


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 7, Activity 3, Solution Concentrations

Example 3:

Calculate the mass of solvent needed to make a 2.50 m H2SO4 solution containing 150.0 g of the
acid.

150.0g H 2SO 4 1mol H 2SO 4 1kg H 2O 1000g


mass H2O = X X X = 612 g H 2O
98.1g H 2SO 4 2.50 mol H 2SO 4 1kg

moles of solute (or solvent)


Mole Fraction (X) =
moles of solute + solvent

Example:

Determine the mole fraction of glucose, C6H12O6, in a solution containing 425 g glucose
dissolved in 750.0 g H2O.

Moles of glucose:

425g C6 H12 O6 1mol C6 H12 O6


X = 2.36 mol C6 H12O6
180g C6 H12O6

Moles of water:

750.0 g H 2O 1mol H 2 O
X = 41.7 mol H 2 O
18.0 g H 2 O

Total moles of solute + solvent:


2.36 mol + 41.7 mol= 44.06 mol

X = molglu cos e
Mole fraction of C6H12O6:

molC6 H12O6 2.36 mol


X C6 H12O6 = = = 0.5
mol C6 H12O6 +H2O 44.06 mol

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 50


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 7, Activity 5, Ice Cream Recipe

Recipe for 40 pint size bags of ice cream (1 bag per student):

1 gal whole milk


1 pint half & half
6 cups sugar
6 t vanilla

Additional materials needed: spoon, large pot, several boxes of ice cream salt; two rolls of duct
tape, several large bags of ice, enough newspaper for each student to have a section, plastic bags
from grocery or discount stores

Combine all ingredients in the pot to make the ice cream mixture and heat until the sugar is
dissolved. Stir the mixture often to prevent the mixture from scorching. Pour into the empty
milk container. There may some extra mixture, so have a smaller container or zip top bag handy
also.

Per student:

1 pint size freezer zip top bags


1 gallon size freezer bags
2 plastic bags
a section of newspaper
ice cream salt
ice
duct tape

Directions:

Fill the gallon bag half full of ice. Add 1/2 inch layer of ice cream salt. Put 1/2 cup of ice cream
mixture in small bag. Seal the small bag and place duct tape over the sealed end. Put the small
bag inside of large one. Add enough ice to fill the gallon bag. Seal and duct tape the sealed end
of the large bag. Wrap the large bag with several layers of newspaper. Place the wrapped bag in a
couple of plastic bags. Tie the ends of the plastic bags. Shake or rotate the bags gently for about
15 min. Have a large container such as a dish pan handy to empty the water/ salt mixture into.
The water can be evaporated and the salt reused, if desired.

Powdered drink mixes can be made according to the directions on the package and used in place
of the ice cream. A “slush” will be formed.

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 51


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 7, Activity7, pH Lab Carousels

Lab Carousel 1: At each station place: a microplate, red litmus paper, blue litmus paper,
universal indicator and phenolphthalein (and any other available indicators), and stirring rod.
Pipettes containing:
Station 1: vinegar Station 4: household ammonia solution
Station 2: distilled water Station 5: colorless soda
Station 3: KOH solution Station 6: HCl solution

Instruct students to test each solution with the indicator papers and indicators at each station and
identify each of the solutions as acids or bases. Data should be recorded in a student –generated
data table.

Lab Carousel 2: At each station place a microplate, pH paper and/ or pH meter, and stirring rod.
Pipettes containing:
Station 1: vinegar Station 4: household ammonia solution
Station 2: distilled water Station 5: colorless soda
Station 3: KOH solution Station 6: HCl solution

Instruct students to determine the pH of the solutions and rank them in order of increasing pH.
Data should be recorded in a student –generated data table.

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 52


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 8, Activity 2, Alkanes

Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons (compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen) with the
formula CnH2n+2, where “n” represents the number of carbon atoms. “Saturated” means that all
C-C bonds are single bonds.

Names of organic compounds follow the rules of IUPAC (International Union of Pure and
Applied Chemistry). Notice that each compound differs from the previous one by a –CH2 group.
A homologous series in one in which the compounds differ from each other by a specific unit.
The pattern for the first 10 alkanes is shown below.

Stem name Alkane name Formula Number


of isomers
meth- methane CH4 1
eth- ethane C2H6 1
prop- propane C3H8 1
but- butane C4H10 2
pent- pentane C5H12 3
hex- hexane C6H14 5
hept- heptane C7H16 9
oct- octane C8H18 18
non- nonane C9H20 35
dec- decane C10H22 75

Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas.

Draw the isomers for pentane and hexane.

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 53


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 8, Activity 2, Alkanes

Rules for naming alkanes:

1. Pick out the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms and name it.
2. Number the carbon atoms from the end that will give the lowest numbers possible to the
branches.
3. Name the branches by adding –yl to the stem name and adding a number to indicate the
carbon atom the branch is attached to. The number will be followed by a dash. All
branches must have a number with it. Numbers are separated by commas.
*If branches are different groups, they appear alphabetically in the name.
4. If more than one of an alkyl group appears, a number prefix is used to denote the total
number of groups.
5. Dashes between carbon atoms do not need to be shown.

Examples:

6 5 4 3 1 2 3 4 5
CH3 ⎯ CH2⎯ CH2⎯ CH⎯ CH3 CH3⎯ CH⎯ CH2⎯ CH⎯ CH3
| | |
2 CH2 CH3 CH3
|
1 CH3
Name: 3-methylhexane Name: 2,4-dimethylpentane
CH3
CH3 CH3 |
| | CH2
CH3CHCHCH2CHCH2 CH3 |
| CH3CHCHCH3
CH2 |
| CHCH2CH3
CH3 |
CH3
Name: 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylheptane Name: 3,4,5-trimethylheptane

Name the isomers for pentane and hexane that were drawn on the previous sheet.

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 54


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008
Unit 8, Activity 2, Alkanes Answer Sheet

Isomers of Pentane (formula C5H12):

1. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 n-pentane ( n means normal straight chain)

2. CH3CHCH2CH3 2- methylbutane
|
CH3

3. CH3 2,2-dimethylpropane
|
CH3CCH3
|
CH3

Isomers of hexane (formula C6H14)

1. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 n-hexane

2. CH3CHCH2CH2CH3 2-methylpentane
|
CH3

3. CH3CH2CHCH2CH3 3-methylpentane
|
CH3

4. CH3 CH CH CH3 2,3-dimethylbutane


| |
CH3 CH3

CH3
|
5. CH3 C CH2 CH3 2.3-dimethylbutane
|
CH3

Blackline Masters, Chemistry Page 55


Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008