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DISCIPLINE AND

IDEAS IN
APPLIED SOCIAL
SCIENCES
Lesson 4:
Clientele and Audiences in Counseling

Part I. Learning Module Information

Content clientele and audiences in counseling


Standards
use acceptable research protocols, conduct a survey among young adults
Performance
(i.e., ages 18–21) on their counseling needs present results and
Standards
recommendation for class discussion
describe the clientele of counseling
Most Essential
Learning illustrate the different processes and methods involved in counseling
Competencies
distinguish the needs of individuals, groups, organizations, and
(MELC)
communities

Duration Q1 Week 4

Part II. Learning Explorations

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The clientele and audiences of the counseling profession come from different settings. Counselors
deal with a mixture of people with different concerns and issues.

1. People who abuse drugs – drug abuse is not just harmful to our physical health but to our mental
health as well. It cannot be denied that the drug addiction create more social problems and contribute
to social disintegration. Consequently, more youth victims cry for help and seek for counselors’
attention.

2. People who use Tobacco – slowly our population recognizes the bad effects of tobacco to our
health. However, many people still use and continue use tobacco even if it is deadly. Users find it
difficult to stop smoking. Hence, smokers who desire to quit tobacco were added to the list of the
counselor’s audiences.

3. People who abuse alcohol – alcoholism is seen as a disease alcoholic find it difficult to stop
drinking on their own. This requires help from a professional as it requires appropriate treatment.
However, an equally important paradigm is to look at alcoholism as a weakness of self – control and
self –discipline. therefore, this requires intervention other than treatment.

4. Women – most men still have less participation in household responsibilities and child care. In this
case, women’s advancement is constrained. What complicates this situation is the women’s
perception about themselves and the society’s expectations. Counselors are responsible in helping
women appreciate their own values, abilities, aptitudes, and interests and to utilize these to develop
their full potential. (Gibson and Mitchel ,2003)

5. Older Adults – a transition from a busy life to retirement stage must be instituted. This is a
challenge to the counseling profession. Other issues that require attention of counseling include loss
of a partner,decline of mental capacity and mobility, increased loneliness,decline in financial security
etc.

6. People with AIDS –acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been labeled as the most
feared disease due to its incurability. Victims of this disease are seeking help to improve their quality
of life and to handle their emotional stress and low self-esteem. Counseling’s approach requires
sensitivity and appreciation of the intricacies of the disease. Counselors may also help in assisting
and educating the victims’ support system.

7. Victims of Abuse – this population represents victims of domestic violence characterized by


spouse and child abuses. Spouse abuse is often associated with poverty, drug abuse and career
disappointments. The abuse has also become rampant and has caused psychological damage to the
victims. The counselors are increasingly utilized to help the victims.

8. Gay Men and Lesbian Women- they are usually the victims of harassment, violence,
discrimination, and isolation. Gays and lesbians, like other sectors of the society, suffer from peer
denial, family clash, health uncertainties and prejudgment. Counseling will focus on self-awareness,
self- acceptance and understanding.

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Counseling and Its Work settings

1. Counselors in Schools – has grown rapidly. According to Gibson and Mitchell (2003), counselors are
recognized especially in the preventive interventions and developmental stage. There are elementary
school counselors, junior high school counselors, secondary school counselors, counselors in
vocational schools, counselors in higher education, and counselors in community and junior colleges.
The counseling service in the schools is usually located under the student affairs program. It is under
the supervision of the Dean of Students Affairs.

2. Counselors in the Community Setting – refers to employment in community, agency, and other non-
school professional situations. Counselors can be found in community and mental health agencies,
employment and rehabilitation agencies, correctional settings, and marriage and family practice. (
Gibson and Mitchell , 2003 )

3. Counselors in the Private Sector – refers to counselors who decided to do full time work as private
practitioners or engage in part – time private practice while employed by community agencies. This is
feasible if the counselors expertise and specialization matches or relevant to an adequate client
population in the geographic area. ( Gibson and Mitchell , 2003 )

4. Counselors in the Government - counselors are also present in various agencies of government or
institutions supported by the government that are into social welfare, health, and education. Relevant
agencies or institutions include public schools, public social welfare agencies such as that for the youth,
children, and the aging.

There are six stages of the counseling process, namely, relationship building, assessment and diagnosis,
formulation of the counseling goals, intervention and problem solving, termination and follow –up, and research
and evaluation.

1. Stage One: Relationship Building

 This is the heart of counselling process because it provides the force and foundation for the
counselling to succeed.
 This stage involves establishing rapport,
 promote acceptance of the client as a person with worth,
 establishing genuine interaction,
 promote direct mutual communication
 helping clients understand themselves,
 helping client focus and
 Slowly promote counselling relevant communication, from the client.
2. Stage Two: Assessment and Diagnosis

 One of the most crucial stages.


 This serves as the window for the counsellor to have a thorough appreciation of the client’s condition.
 It entails analysis of the root causes of problems.
 The data that will be gathered in diagnosis will be utilized in the formulation of goals.
3. Stage Three: Formulation of Counseling Goals

 Goals are important as it sets the direction of the counselling process.


 It shall serve as the parameter of work and the client-counsellor relationship.
 Counselling goals may be treated as a process goal or outcome goal.
 The client and counsellor must agree on the counselling goals.

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4. Stage Four: Intervention and Problem Solving

 Guidelines:

 A. The counselor has to provide a mapping of the different approaches offered.


 B. Describe the role of the counselor and client for each procedure.
 C. Identify possible risks and benefits that may come.
 D. Estimate the time and cost of each procedure.
5. Stage Five: Termination and Follow –up

 The essential goal in counselling is to witness a client progress on his/her own without the assistance of
the counselor.
 There are four components of termination which were identified by Quintan and Holahan:
 1. Discussion of the end of counselling
 2. Review of the course of counselling
 3. Closure of the counsellor-client relationship
 4. Discussion of the client’s future and post-counselling plan
6. Stage Six: Research and Evaluation

 This stage can be undertaken at any point in the counselling stage.


 Research and evaluation are fundamental part of the evaluation.
 Results of the research provide a scientific appreciation of the counselling situation.

What did you learn?

1. Who are the clientele and audiences of counselor?


2. What is the importance to know where the counselors work?
3. If you are going to become a counselor what particular work setting are you going to and why?

Part IIII. Assessment Task

Activity #1: Respecting Others

Directions: Watch a video clip about “RESPECTING OTHERS” on Youtube


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nJJa9f0I8XQ . Answer the following questions below.

1. What is the message of the video clip?


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

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2. How do we relate our topic to this video clip?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

3. As a counselor how is it important to respect others?


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

Activity #2: Locating the Counselors

Instructions:

1. Imagine that you are an agent.


2. Your role is to locate the work settings of the counselors.
3. Map out and draw their work setting.
4. Use the notes box below for your drawing.

Notes Box

Guide Questions:
1. How can you describe the work setting of a counselor?
2. What would be the surroundings of the counselor work place?
3. What would be your expectations about the work setting of a counselor?

Activity #3: Matching Type

Directions: Match the items in column A with items in column B.

A B

Relationship Building This serves as the window for the counselor to have a
thorough appreciation of the client’s condition.

Assessment and Diagnosis It shall serve as the parameter of work and the client –
counselor relationship.

Formulation of Counseling Goals The essential goal in counseling to witness a client progress
on his/her own without the assistance of the counselor.

Research and Evaluation This stage can be undertaken at any point in counseling
stage.
Termination and Follow –up
The guidelines include the following:(a) the counselor has to
provide a mapping of the different approaches offered, (b)
Intervention and Problem solving describe the role of the counselor and client for each
procedure, (c) identify possible risks and benefits that may
come and (d) estimate the time and cost of each procedure.
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This is the heart of the counseling process because it
provides the force and foundation for the counseling to
succeed.

Part IV. Internet Links

Gibson , Robert L. and Mitchell ,Marriane H. Introduction to Counseling and guidance. (Sixth edition). NJ: Merill
Prentice Hall, 2003.

Gladding, Samuel T. Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession. ( Fourth Edition) .NJ and Ohio :Merill Prentice
Hall,2000.

Mcleod, John. An introduction to Counseling. (Third Edition). Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University
Press ,2003.
Nystul , Michael. Introduction to Counseling : An Art and Science Perspective.( Second Edition ). USA: Allyn
and Bacon, 2003.

Santrock, John W. Psychology. ( Seventh Edition) .USA: Mc Graw Hill,2003

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