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98 QUESTO VOLUME, SPROVVISTO DI TALLONCINO A FRONTE (O OPPOR-

GH
TUNATAMENTE PUNZONATO O ALTRIMENTI CONTRASSEGNATO), È DA

ER
CONSIDERARSI COPIA DI SAGGIO - CAMPIONE GRATUITO, FUORI COMMER-

Paola Gherardelli
AR
CIO (VENDITA E ALTRI ATTI DI DISPOSIZIONE VIETATI: ART. 17, C.2 L. 633/1941).

In copertina: © Gears in action. © Shutterstock.com


EL
ESENTE DA IVA (DPR 26.10.1972, N.633, ART. 2, LETT D). ESENTE DA DOCUMENTO

IM L
DI TRASPORTO (DPR 26.10.1972, N. 633, ART. 74).
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ECH

0898
Mechanics
AN
IC
Espansioni online per docenti e studenti
S
IN
ACT
IO
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CD+
UD A

Mechanics in Action
IO

in Action

Gherardelli
Mechanics in Action è un corso di lingua di specialità scritto per i programmi dei nuovi indirizzi
dell’istruzione tecnica e professionale con indirizzo meccanica, meccatronica ed energia che ha
l’obiettivo di sviluppare al tempo stesso le competenze linguistiche e quelle professionali.

Elementi caratterizzanti di questA LETTERATURA English for Mechanical Engineering


Un testo
completamente
Il corso tiene conto non soltanto delle nuove indicazioni nazionali
relative ai programmi di lingua, ma anche di quelle relative alle and Thermotechnics
nuovo e aggiornato discipline tecniche dell’indirizzo a cui è riferito e a cui si affianca.

Mechanics in action
L’approccio è prevalentemente lessicale, con l’esercitazione di
tutte e quattro le abilità e la ripresa di elementi grammaticali e
Lessico,
delle principali funzioni linguistiche, con particolare attenzione
lingua e grammatica
alle abilità che gli studenti dovranno poi mettere in pratica nella
vita lavorativa.

Testo calibrato sulle Il testo nasce dall’esperienza diretta nelle scuole, sulle cui
necessità delle esigenze didattiche è calibrato. I testi, chiari e accessibili, offrono
scuole spunti di riflessione sull’uso della lingua attraverso contenuti noti.

Attenzione allo sviluppo delle abilita più rilevanti per il lavoro,


e sezione dedicata specificamente all’inserimento nel mondo
Lingua per il lavoro
professionale (scrittura di un curriculum, domande di lavoro,
risposte ad annunci, ecc.).

+ RISORSE Materiali per approfondimenti


ONLINE Materiali per insegnanti
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Mechanics in Action
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0898_Gherardelli_05.indd 1 17/02/12 11:09


Paola Gherardelli

Mechanics in Action
English for Mechanical Engineering and Thermotechnics

LOESCHER EDITORE

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© Loescher Editore - Torino - 2012

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Indice

Unit

1
Chapter 1 The design process ................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 2
What is product design? ...................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 3
Product analysis ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 5
A case study: Sony’s walkman ................................................................................................................................................................... p. 8

Grammar station Simple present ................................................................................................................................ p. 10

Chapter 2 Discovering materials ...................................................................................................................................................................... p. 12


A first look at metals ................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 16
Composites and smart materials ......................................................................................................................................................... p. 19
Take a ride around the world .......................................................................................................................................................................... p. 21

Grammar station Making comparisons .............................................................................................................. p. 23

Chapter 3 Mechanical drawing .............................................................................................................................................................................. p. 25


Preparing yourself .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 27
Use of CAD .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 29
Otero Junior College ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 31

Grammar station Present progressive ................................................................................................................. p. 34

Chapter 4 Hand tools and machine tools .................................................................................................................................. p. 35


Hand tools for metals and plastics .................................................................................................................................................... p. 37
Machine tools . ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ p. 39
Home gyms ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ p. 43

Grammar station Simple past ........................................................................................................................................... p. 46

Chapter 5 Metal processes ................................................................................................................................................................................................ p. 48


Joining metals ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 50
Safety in brazing ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 52
Contemporary sculpture: Tony Cragg ............................................................................................................................................. p. 54

Grammar station Adverbs of frequency . ......................................................................................................... p. 57

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Unit

2
Chapter 6 Working with electricity . ......................................................................................................................................................... p. 60
Electrical wiring tools ................................................................................................................................................................................................ p. 62
Electrical residential wiring ............................................................................................................................................................................ p. 64
Why do we ignore energy-saving tips? . ...................................................................................................................................... p. 66

Grammar station Prepositions of place ............................................................................................................ p. 69

Chapter 7 Electric motors .................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 71


A look at electric motors . ..................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 74
Motors, motors, motors... ................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 76
Electric vehicles ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. p. 78

Grammar station The article (a/an and the) ............................................................................................... p. 81

Chapter 8 The automobile engine ............................................................................................................................................................... p. 83


A look at car engines . ................................................................................................................................................................................................. p. 86
Mida Cars: reliable car servicing in Richmond . ............................................................................................................... p. 88
An interview with Lewis Hamilton ......................................................................................................................................................... p. 90

Grammar station Questions with what, when, why,


who, where and how ............................................................................................................... p. 93

Unit

3
Chapter 9 Heating and air conditioning ....................................................................................................................................... p. 96
Heating systems ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 99
Central air conditioning ......................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 101
Go greener by degrees ............................................................................................................................................................................................ p. 103

Grammar station Future tense . ....................................................................................................................................... p. 105

Chapter 10 Social and environmental care ............................................................................................................................... p. 107


Blowing a gale ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ p. 109
Catching a few rays ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 111

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Designing environmentally friendly products ................................................................................................................. p. 113

Grammar station Modal verbs (can, could, must, have to etc.) ..................................... p. 116

Chapter 11 Recycling and waste management .............................................................................................................. p. 118


Why recycling? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 120
How aluminium is recycled ............................................................................................................................................................................. p. 121
Case study: What a load of rubbish! ................................................................................................................................................. p. 125

Grammar station Phrasal verbs with in/out, on/off and up/down .......................... p. 127

Unit

4
Chapter 12 Use of computers in industry ...................................................................................................................................... p. 130
CAD, CAM and CIM in industry ...................................................................................................................................................................... p. 132
CNC machinery and robots ............................................................................................................................................................................... p. 133
Useful robots ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 137

Grammar station Relative pronouns ...................................................................................................................... p. 139

Chapter 13 Controlling the quality ................................................................................................................................................................. p. 141


Quality control in production ........................................................................................................................................................................ p. 143
BSI Product services: polimeric testing ..................................................................................................................................... p. 145
Can you imagine... . ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 148

Grammar station Passive form ........................................................................................................................................ p. 150

Chapter 14 Safety in the workplace . ............................................................................................................................................................ p. 152


Health and safety ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ p. 154
Design safe products: think about the consumer ..................................................................................................... p. 155
Want a siesta? ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 158

Grammar station Imperative . ............................................................................................................................................. p. 160

Chapter 15 Careers ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 162


Job ads .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. p. 164
A job interview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 167
Careers for right now .................................................................................................................................................................................................. p. 168

Grammar station Present perfect ............................................................................................................................... p. 172

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A look at literature

Frankenstein by Mary Shelley . .................................................................................................................................................................... p. 174


The Time Machine by H.G. Wells ................................................................................................................................................................. p. 176
The Fun They Had by Isaac Asimov........................................................................................................................................................ p. 178
Murder on the Orient Express by Agatha Christie ........................................................................................................ p. 181
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury ............................................................................................................................................................ p. 185
The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde ....................................................................................................... p. 187
Waiting for Godot by Samuel Beckett ............................................................................................................................................... p. 189
Travels with Charley in Search of America by John Steinbeck.................................................................. p. 192
Round Ireland with a Fridge by Tony Hawks ......................................................................................................................... p. 194
The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost ................................................................................................................................................... p. 196
The Bronx Masquerade by Nikki Grimes ....................................................................................................................................... p. 198
Common Ground by Nikki Grimes . .......................................................................................................................................................... p. 199
What My Mother Doesn’t Know by Sonia Sones .............................................................................................................. p. 200

How-to appendix

Skimming . ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 202


Scanning ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 205
How to write an enquiry ......................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 206
How to use a dictionary ......................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 207
How to make an oral presentation . ..................................................................................................................................................... p. 209
How to take notes ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ p. 211
How to write a summary ....................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 213
How to write a report .................................................................................................................................................................................................. p. 214
How to translate ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. p. 215
How to write an application letter . ....................................................................................................................................................... p. 216
How to write a CV ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 218
How to speak on the phone ............................................................................................................................................................................. p. 221
How to ask for information on the phone ................................................................................................................................. p. 222

Glossary
. ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 225

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Unit

This unit deals with


Chapter 01 Chapter 02 Chapter 03 Chapter 04 Chapter 05
• what is product • metals, • drawing • hand tools • joining metals
design composites instruments and machine • brazing safety
• how to carry out and smart and CAD tools
materials • terms and verbs
a product • terms and verbs • terms and verbs related to metal
analysis • terms and verbs related to related to processes
• terms and verbs related to drawing, drawing hand tools (joining,
related to materials instruments, use and machine soldering etc.)
the design • how to present of CAD, courses tools
and degrees • how to describe
process a project • how to describe a process
in mechanical a machine tool
• how to describe • characteristics drawing • how to write
an object and applications • how to place an enquiry
on the basis of metals • how to translate an order
of what it is and materials an enquiry on the phone • how to ask for
made of, market, information
• how to ask for on the phone
manufacturing, information
aesthetic, about a product
ergonomic in a shop
and safety issues
• how to write
an enquiry

Grammar revision

• simple present
• making comparisons
• present progressive
• simple past
• adverbs of frequency

1
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Chapter

01 The design process


The process of designing and making something is called ‘the design process’.
The whole process can take a while – so it’s usually broken down into smaller parts.
The design process is not only used in school but also by designers and engineers working on ‘real’ projects in
industry.

Warm-up
1. Here are some of the main stages of the design process. Translate them and then put them in
the correct order. When you have finished compare your answers with those of your classmates.

1. Brief: ….............…...................…...................….........................
2. Product analysis: ….............…...................…...................….........................
3. Questionnaires: ….............…...................…...................….........................
4. Interviews: ….............…...................…...................….........................
5. Research summary: ….............…...................…...................….........................
6. Specification: ….............…...................…...................….........................

Let’s get down to work!


2. Product analysis is probably the most useful research you can undertake. It involves looking
carefully at a product and investigating its various aspects.
In groups of two or three analyse one of your helmets. Draw the picture in the middle of the page and
then fill in the various sections with the appropriate information.
For further information have a look at the text Product analysis at page 5.

Name and brand of product Materials used


.......................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................... ......................

........................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................... ......................

Environmental issues Function


.......................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................

Manufacturing Aesthetic, ergonomic and safety Market


..........................................................................................................................
features ..........................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................

2
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Chapter 01 The design process

3. When you have finished show and describe your work to your classmates. You may find some
useful sentences in these pages.
A committee will decide whether it’s:
• excellent
• good
• so so

t01 What is product design?


Products are designed to meet human needs and wants.
Some are new ideas which create totally new markets. However, the
majority of new products have evolved from existing products.
It is unlikely that you will be designing and making products which are totally
new: this very rarely happens.
One of the skills of a product designer is to make a product which appeals to a particular group of
people at the right price.

The designer needs to understand the manufacturing process to be used, as well as the materials
and associated technologies.
Designing products nowadays is a complex process and often needs teams of specialists.

Manufacturing processes can be very expensive. And you have to add to these the
cost of packaging, advertising, storage, retailers’ profit etc.
While you are at it, don’t forget the cost of research and development which had to
be paid long before the product was made.

GlossarY
majority: greater part
evolve: to develop gradually
it is unlikely: it is improbable
skill: ability
appeal: to attract
advertising: the business of trying to persuade
people to buy products or services
storage: the putting and keeping of things in a
special place for use in the future
retailer: a person, shop or business that sells goods
to the public

4. reading/writing Read the text and write down the required information.

1. What should a product designer be aware of:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2. The factors that affect the cost of a product:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3
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Unit 1

5. reading/writing There are several kinds of word associations. Some are made up of a verb and
a noun, like make a product, others are made by combining an adjective and a noun, such as human
needs, or by a noun and another noun, such as product analysis.
Can you place the following expressions in the right column?

product design meet the needs create a market appeal to a group


new ideas existing product complex process manufacturing
process
design a product product designer affect the price

Verb + noun Adjective + noun Noun + noun

........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................

6. writing Now answer the following questions using some of the expressions of the previous
exercise.

1. What are products designed for?


...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2. What do new products evolve from?


...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3. Who is mainly in charge of designing new products?


...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4. Why does designing products need a team of specialists?


...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Did you know that…


There are some institutions that control and
inspire product design.
One of them is the Design Council,
established in 1960. The aim of the Design
Council is to inspire the best use of design
by the UK, in the world context, to improve
prosperity and well being. The Council
achieves this by encouraging business,
education and government to work together
productively and to communicate more
effectively. It provides resources for schools
and colleges as well as design and marketing
advice to professionals.

4
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Chapter 01 The design process

Product analysis
Product analysis is where existing products are studied to gather
information about their purpose, design and methods of manufacture.
Designs are rarely totally new. Most designs are adaptations,
modifications and updates of existing products. Changes to a product
might include using new materials, having a different style, making it
more efficient and keeping in line with new safety standards.
It is, therefore, useful to study a range of existing products in the initial
stages of a project work.

Product analysis checklist


Materials List of the materials used for a
product and reasons for their choice.
Function Briefly describe the intended use of the
product (e.g. protection, transportation, communications etc.).
Market Specify the type of person the product is aimed at. People are
often classified into different groups on the basis of age, gender (male,
female), living standards, geographical location etc.
Aesthetic, ergonomic and safety features Say whether the product
is aesthetically appealing, if it’s fit for its users. You should also state if it’s
easy to lift and carry and if it’s safe to use.
Manufacturing If possible, say how the product was made.
Environmental issues Say if parts of the product
can be recycled and if there are any parts made from GlossarY
biodegradable materials. to gather: to collect
range: a set of things of the same general type
Where possible, disassemble the product to gain an initial stages: first parts of an activity
understanding of how it works and how the parts fit aimed at: addressed to, targeted
together. Taking the product apart can help determine state: to say or write something
which materials and manufacturing processes have environmental issues: problems relating to the
been used. natural world and the impact of human activity on
its condition
take apart: to disassemble

7. matching Match each of the following terms (1-5) with its translation (a-e).

1. Purpose a. Aggiornamento
2. Manufacture b. Fase
3. Update c. Scelta
4. Stage d. Fabbricazione
5. Choice e. Scopo

1 ................ 2 ................ 3 ................ 4 ................ 5 ................

5
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Unit 1

8. reading Choose the right meaning.

1. ‘Gather information’ 2. ‘Make more efficient’ 3. ‘Keep in line’ means: 4. ‘Gain an understand-
means: means: a. disagree with ing’ means:
a. collect data a. improve b. start something a. appreciate
b. delete information b. modify c. be in accordance b. comprehend
c. review facts c. review with c. misunderstand

9. writing Complete the following sentences using the expressions of the previous exercise.

1. In order to ….......…......................................................................................................... of how a product is made, a careful analysis has to be carried out.
2. The main goal of product analysis is ….......…......................................................................................................... about materials, processes, economic and
aesthetic decisions which are required before any product can be manufactured.
3. All products have ….......…......................................................................................................... with a series of requirements.
4. One of the main purposes when creating a new product is to ….......…......................................................................................................... and appealing.

10. writing Can you place the correct term in the space provided at the beginning of each
sentence? Choose from the following. The first one has been done as an example.

function market environmental aesthetic, manufacturing materials


issues ergonomic and
safety features

1. Materials
….......….......................................................................................................... : it is made of steel and plastics.
2. ….......….......................................................................................................... : it is used for sitting outdoors.

3. ….......….......................................................................................................... : it is aimed at people who own a garden and/or like to spend time outdoors.

4. ….......….......................................................................................................... : the product is modern, pleasing to the eye, comfortable, easy to carry and safe.

5. ….......….......................................................................................................... : forging, welding.

6. ….......….......................................................................................................... : no parts of this product can be recycled.

11. speaking In pairs review the answers given to exercise 10 and guess what the product is.
Choose among the following.

a bookcase a kitchen table a garden chair a floor lamp

6
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Chapter 01 The design process

Listen up!
Spencer and Magnum SpA, a company that manufactures tools and equipment, has commissioned a new welding
helmet. Mrs Doodle, the production manager, talks about the design brief to Martin Bold, who has been
commissioned to design it.

12. matching Before listening match each of the following words (1-6) with its translation (a-f).

1. Company a. Descrizione particolareggiata


2. Goal b. Peso
3. Weight c. Obiettivo
4. Shell d. Ditta
5. Deadline e. Scadenza
6. Specification f. Rivestimento esterno

1 ................ 2 ................ 3 ................ 4 ................ 5 ................ 6 ................

t02 13. listening/writing Listen to the phone call and complete the design brief below with
the correct information.

Design brief

• Our company has set itself an ambitious goal – to create a new


welding helmet that will be
........................................................ and .........................................................

• ........................................................ of the project is to reduce helmet


weight and permit welders to work more efficiently
and comfortably.

• ........................................................ is more important than aesthetics.

• The shell has to be made of a ........................................................,


.........................................................

• Costs should be kept .........................................................

• The design specification has to be


ready .........................................................

7
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Unit 1

Reading corner
14. writing/speaking Before reading answer the following questions.

1. Do you have a portable music player? ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................


2. What functions does it perform? .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3. Do you know who produced the first portable music player? ...............................................................................................................................................................................................

A case study.. Sony’s walkman


Most successful products are developed over time. Portable
audio players are a good example of product development.
In the late 1970s Sony launched on the market the first portable
music system, the Walkman cassette player. The product was
designed to meet the needs of people on the move.
The casing of a Sony Walkman was made from blue and silver
metal.
But its most striking feature was its size – it
was slightly larger than a cassette tape
itself.
Later on came the CD Walkman. It featured the same basic concept: a
portable audio player that instead of audio cassettes used CDs.
Just slightly larger than a CD case, the player offered all the great audio
quality that digital recordings had to offer.
From the first MP3 players to today’s iPods and iPhones, portable music players have
come a long way.
Only time will tell how portable
music players will evolve. GlossarY
develop: to change into a more advanced form
on the move: physically active
casing: a covering that protects something
striking: attracting a lot of attention
slightly: a little
feature: to have a prominent aspect

15. matching Match each of the following sentences (1-5) with the one with a similar meaning
(a-e).

1. The company launched the new product on the a. This product has greatly evolved/undergone great
market in… changes
2. The product was designed to meet the needs… b. The company released the new product in…
3. The product’s most striking feature was… c. The most remarkable aspect was…
4. The product featured the same basic concept d. This product was designed for…
5. This product has come a long way e. The product was based on the same principle

1 ................ 2 ................ 3 ................ 4 ................ 5 ................

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Chapter 01 The design process

16. writing/speaking Group work. Write down four questions about the previous text. Use the
lexicon given.

When was…? Why did…? What/Which was…?

1. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

When finished the groups exchange the questions they have written. Each group has five minutes to
answer the questions.

17. matching Today portable devices can perform a number of functions. Discover some of them
by matching the verbs (1-5) with the terms (a-b).

1. Listen a. Video games


2. Play b. The web
3. Surf c. Movies
4. Take d. Pictures
5. Watch e. To music

1 ................ 2 ................ 3 ................ 4 ................ 5 ................

18. writing Group work. Portable media players have greatly changed in the last decades. Can
you imagine what will they look like in ten years’ time? Draw a sketch of the device of the future and
list its functions.

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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Unit 1

Grammar station

Welcome to the Grammar station!


Today we are going to talk about the simple present.
Do you know what the simple present is used for?
The simple present is used:
• for repeated or regular actions in the present time period

He works long hours.

• for facts

Standards provide guidance on safety.

• for habits

I get up early every day.

• for things that are generally true

Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc.

The simple present is not difficult to learn. You have just to remember to add an ‘s’ to the third person singular!

I work we work
you work you work
he/she/it works they work

If you want to ask questions or form negative sentences you must use ‘do’ or ‘does’.

Do you work? No, I do not (or don’t) work.


Does he work? No, he does not (or doesn’t) work.

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Chapter 01 The design process

1 Can you find at least four sentences in this chapter that contain the simple present?
1 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2 Complete the following sentences using the correct form of the simple present of the
verbs below.

give carry out require work

1 You .................................................................. a product analysis.


2 The client .................................................................. an innovative product.
3 Unfortunately this product .................................................................. properly.
4 Research .................................................................. you lots of ideas.

3 Group work. Using the verbs, terms and expressions given, write at least four sentences in
the simple present.
Verbs Terms and expressions
analyse analysis
check brief
do functions
list manufacturing processes
provide interview
work product
write questionnaire

1 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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4 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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Chapter

02 Discovering materials
Today there is an almost endless number of materials available on the market. These materials are used in many
different ways and can be found in a large variety of objects from household appliances to space technology.

Warm-up
1. Think of the objects around you (desks, chairs, mobile phones, MP3 players etc.). Can you say
what materials are they made from? If you don’t know the terms in English ask your teacher for help.

Name of object What it is made from

........................................................................................................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................................................................................................

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Chapter 02 Discovering materials

Let’s get down to work!


Chuck Bicycles, a company that manufactures bicycles, wants to launch a new product on the market. You have
been asked to do the project for the new bicycle.
2. Draw a sketch of your bicycle specifying the materials you would use for the various bicycle
parts. You can make use of the materials mentioned in the following pages or materials of your own
choice. You will find a list of the bicycle parts in the box below.

Bicycle parts
manubrio: handlebar ruota: wheel gomma: tire/tyre pedali: pedals
forcella frontale: front fork mozzo: hub cerchio metallico: metal rim catena:chain
telaio: frame raggi: spokes sellino: seat marce: gears

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Unit 1

3. When you have finished, write down a list of the materials you plan to use for your bicycle (for
example, aluminium, steel etc.). Specify the characteristics of each of the materials you have chosen
(for example, strong, malleable, ductile etc.).

Bicycle part Material Characteristics

.......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................

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.......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................

4. Match each of the sentences (1-6) with its translation (a-f).

1. Good morning, my name is… a. I principali vantaggi della mia bicicletta sono…
2. The name of my company is… b. Il costo stimato di questa bicletta è di circa…
3. I am here to present the project for (a mountain/ c. Il nome della mia ditta è…
race/roadbike; tandem etc.)… d. Il/la (telaio, manubrio, forcella frontale ecc.) è
4. The (frame/handlebar/front fork etc.) is made of/ fatto/a di…
from… e. Sono qui per presentare il progetto per un/una
5. The main advantages of my bicycle are*… (mountain bike, bicicletta da corsa, da strada;
6. The estimated cost of this bicycle is about… tandem ecc.)…
f. Buongiorno, mi chiamo…

1 ................ 2 ................ 3 ................ 4 ................ 5 ................ 6 ................

* possible advantages are: low-cost, low weight, comfort, aerodynamic efficiency, resistance etc.

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Chapter 02 Discovering materials

5. Using the sentences in the previous exercise write down a short presentation of your project.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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6. Divide the class into groups. Each group represents the committee which has to evaluate
the projects proposed. Write the names of all the students on some pieces of paper and choose
three names with their projects. The three students chosen will present the project to the appointed
committees. The committees have to fill in the form below.

Form to be filled in by the Committee

Date: .......................................................
Committee members: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Candidate Evaluation
Project and company Materials used Advantages Cost (acceptable, cool,
name terrific)

1. ............................................................. .................................................................. .................................................................. .................................................................. ................. ..................................................................

.................................................................. .................................................................. .................................................................. .................................................................. ................. ..................................................................

.................................................................. .................................................................. .................................................................. .................................................................. ................. ..................................................................

.................................................................. .................................................................. .................................................................. .................................................................. ................. ..................................................................

.................................................................. .................................................................. .................................................................. .................................................................. ................. ..................................................................

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2. ............................................................ .................................................................. .................................................................. .................................................................. ................. ..................................................................

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3. ............................................................ .................................................................. .................................................................. .................................................................. ................. ..................................................................

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Unit 1

A FiRST look at metals


Types of metals
Metals are classified as either ferrous or non-ferrous.
Ferrous metals consist mostly of iron and small quantities of other elements and metals. Non-ferrous metals do
not contain iron.
In general ferrous metals tend to corrode and consequently need some form of protection against corrosion.
Non-ferrous metals do not tend to corrode in the same way.

Metals and alloys


Metals are available in pure or alloy form.
Pure metals contain only one type of metal. They are not mixed with
another metal. Pure metals include aluminium, copper, tin, zinc, lead and
pure iron.
Alloys are mixtures of one or more pure metals.
Alloys and pure metals often have special physical properties.
For example, pure copper is used where electrical conductivity is required;
tin and copper alloy is used for making bronze objects.

Material Uses Aspect Notes

Hard surface. Strong under


Vices, lathe beds,
Cast iron compression. Cannot be bent
kitchen pots
or forged

Tough, ductile and malleable.


Easily joined but with poor
Nuts and bolts,
Mild steel resistance to corrosion.
screws, car bodies
Cannot be hardened
or tempered

Very hard, but less ductile,


tough and malleable. Difficult
High carbon steel Tools
to cut. Can be hardened and
tempered

Hard and tough. Resists wear


Stainless steel Kettles, sink
and corrosion. Quite difficult
surrounds, cutlery
to cut or file

Hard and tough. Can be used


as a cutting tool even when
High-speed steel Drill bits
red-hot. Can only be shaped
by grinding

High strength/weight ratio.


Difficult to join. Good
Saucepans,
Aluminium conductor of heat
window frames
and electricity. Corrosion
resistant. Polishes well

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Chapter 02 Discovering materials

Material Uses Aspect  Notes

Malleable and ductile.


Good conductor of heat
Copper Wire, piping
and electricity. Easily joined.
Polishes well. Expensive
Very heavy, soft, malleable
and ductile. Corrosion
Lead Car batteries resistant. Low melting
point. Difficult to work and
expensive
Soft and weak. Ductile and
malleable. High corrosion
Food cans,
Tin resistance. Low melting point.
biscuit tins
Used to coat steel to produce
‘tin plate’

GlossarY
to corrode: to wear or be worn away slowly by chemical action
available: able to be obtained, easily found
vice: a metal tool used to hold an object firmly in place while work
is done on it
bend: to give a curved or angled shape
forge: to make or shape (a metal object) by heating and hammering
the metal
nut: a small flat piece of metal or other material, typically square or
hexagonal, with a hole through it
bolt: a long metal pin with a head that screws into a nut, used to
fasten things together
harden: to make hard
temper: to heat and then cool a metal in order to make it hard
saucepan: a round pan for cooking things over heat
piping: pipes in general or a particular system of pipes

7. writing Find words that mean much the same as the following.

1. Ferro: ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2. Lega: ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3. Rame: ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
4. Acciaio: ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5. Ghisa: ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
6. Piombo: ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7. Latta: ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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Unit 1

8. writing Answer the following questions.


1. Name three pure metals: 3. What two metals make up bronze?
a. ........................................................................................................................................................................................ ...................................................................................................................................................................................................

b. ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4. Give some uses of:


c. ........................................................................................................................................................................................ a. cast iron: ....................................................................................................................................................
2. What is one of the main advantages of alloys? b. stainless steel: .................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................................................... c. aluminium: .............................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................................................... d. copper: .........................................................................................................................................................

9. writing Place the following adjectives and expressions in the correct column.

strong under compression poor resistance to corrosion weak


tough difficult to cut polishes well
ductile resists wear and corrosion expensive
malleable high strength/weight ratio difficult to work
easily joined difficult to join good conductor of heat and electricity

Positive characteristics Negative characteristics

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Did you know that…


• The Eiffel Tower was built for the Paris exposition of 1889
to demonstrate that iron could be as strong as stone while
being infinitely lighter.
• 2,500,000 rivets and 18,038 iron parts make up the Eiffel
Tower.
• the Eiffel Tower becomes 6 inches smaller every winter and
the solar heat can cause it to expand up to 3.25 inches.

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Chapter 02 Discovering materials

t03 Composites and smart materials


New types of products have been made thanks to the flexibility of composite and smart materials.
A composite is when two or more materials are combined by bonding. The new material will have better
mechanical and other properties than the materials from which it was formed.

Composite Characteristics and applications


Carbon fibres are very strong. They are used
in many structural components ranging
Carbon fibre from propellers and rotor blades to body
armour and sports equipment
Kevlar is an extremely strong material. It is used
Kevlar in bulletproof clothing, aircraft panels, boat
hulls and lightweight bicycles
It’s a variant of kevlar. It’s widely used
Nomex in protective clothing, thermal blankets,
air bags and so on

Smart materials have been developed, which change their properties in response to
changes in their environment.

Smart material Characteristics and applications


Nitinol is a Smart Shape Memory Alloy,
meaning it remembers its shape. Nitinol
Nitinol can be used for medical purposes, like knee
replacements. It can also be used for the
frames in your glasses
Silicon is a semiconductor, meaning
its resistance decreases as its temperature
increases. It is used in a variety of applications
due to its flexibility, malleability,
and waterproof qualities. Silicon has
Silicon a number of uses. For instance, silicon wafers
are used in solar panels, integrated circuits,
microprocessors and transistors. Silicon is also
widely used in the construction
and in the automotive industry

GlossarY
body armour: a covering worn to protect the body
bulletproof: impenetrable by bullets
boat hull: the body of a ship
lightweight: not heavy
frame: structure
wafer: a thin disk
automotive: relating to road vehicles

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Unit 1

10. writing For each of the materials listed below state two possible uses.

1. Carbon fibre: ......................................................................, .......................................................................


2. Kevlar: ......................................................................, ...............................................................................................
3. Nomex: ......................................................................, .........................................................................................
4. Nitinol: ......................................................................, ...........................................................................................
5. Silicon: ......................................................................, .............................................................................................

11. writing Pair work.You have five minutes to write four sentences about the materials in the
text. Use the lexicon given and the terms of the exercise 10. The first has been done as an example.

it is (widely) used in/for… it can be used for… the applications of… … is used in a variety
include… of applications such as

1. Carbon fibres are widely used in sports equipment.


...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Listen up!
Jack and Tom are watching a quiz show, the Big Fat Quiz Show.
t04 12. listening Listen to the first question and tick the right answer.

1. Iron
2. Zinc
3. Brass
4. Bronze
5. Copper
6. Aluminium

t04 13. listening/writing Unscramble the following words, then listen to the second question
and tick the right answer.

1. SSARB: .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2. LSEET: .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3. NTI: .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

t04 14. listening/writing Listen to the third question and write down the correct answer.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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Chapter 02 Discovering materials

15. speaking Make your own quiz show! In groups decide on a name for your quiz show. One
student will represent the presenter and the others the guests. A committee will prepare the questions
and the answers. Use the following sentences.

Hi and welcome to… (name of the show) Let’s start with question number one…
I am glad to introduce today’s guests (names of students who This is question number two/three/four…
participate as guests) Thanks to all and see you next time!

Questions: .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Answers: ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Reading corner
Take a ride around the world
I am the manager of Pedal Adventures. We have been in business for over thirty years now and we are one of
the oldest bicycle tour operators in the United States.
Cycling has great number of advantages over other kinds of tours. First it allows you to see the world up
close and at your own pace. Cycling provides a unique opportunity to discover so many things along the way
– impossible with any other means of transportation, such as a bus or a train.
We offer many different kinds of tours including easy tours and family tours. So, basically, our tours suit all
pockets and requirements.
Furthermore bicycles do not pollute, are easy to operate and do not make any noise.
Our tours include first-class accommodations, custom bicycles and helmets, full van support and expert
guides.
I am delighted to announce that a new tour will take place in New Zealand next winter. It’s a unique
opportunity to explore its spectacular wilderness and get to know the friendly Kiwi people.
You can find a detailed itinerary and further information about the tours on offer on our website:
www.pedaladventures.com. GlossarY
advantage: positive aspect
requirement: need, something necessary
accommodation: a place to stay
helmet: a strong hard hat that covers and protects the head
van: a road vehicle 
wilderness: an uncultivated, uninhabited region
Kiwi people: The kiwi is a flightless bird, native to New Zealand and has
come to represent the people who live there; also the name of a fruit
detailed: precise, giving a lot of information

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Unit 1

16. writing Complete the following phone conversation between a client and an employee of
Pedal Adventures. Use the information provided in the text.

Employee: Pedal Adventures, can I help you?


Client: Yes, I would like some information about your bike tours.
Employee: We offer ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... What are you interested in?
Client: I am a weekend cyclist: an easy tour will suit me, I think. What do your tours include?
Employee: Our tours include first-class accommodations, .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Client: Do you have any special tour on schedule for next winter?
Employee: Yes. There will be ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Client: Interesting. Where can I find further information about your tours?
Employee: You can visit our ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

17. reading Choose the right meaning.

1. ‘At your own pace’ means:


a. in an adventurous way
b. at your own speed
c. following a strict schedule

2. ‘Suit all pockets’ means:


a. available at all prices
b. just for wealthy people
c. at a discounted price

3. ‘First-class accommodations’ means:


a. cheap accommodations
b. short-term accommodations
c. high-quality accommodations

4. ‘Custom bicycles’ means:


a. comfortable bicycles
b. bicycles tailored to specific needs
c. expensive bicycles

5. ‘Further information’ means:


a. additional information
b. a piece of information
c. technical information

18. reading Each of the following sentences contains a wrong verb. Can you find it?

1. Cycling allows/permits/admits you to travel at your own pace.


2. When cycling you can see/examine/discover a lot of things.
3. The tours on offer accept/comprise/include many New Zealand cycling tours.
4. New tours will take place/be offered/come out next summer.

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Unit 1

Grammar station

Welcome to the Grammar station!


Today we are going to talk about how to make comparisons.
In your daily life and in your course of studies you may
have to compare two or more elements.
It is important that you know the specific terms you will
need to do the comparisons.

For instance, if you have two items which are exactly the
same size, you may say:

This iron bar is as long as that one.

When you have two items which are not the same size, you
say:

This iron bar is longer than that one.

When something is of the highest possible quality,


dimension or other feature, you say:

This bar is the longest in the workshop.

Short adjective of one syllable + -er/-est:


strong – stronger – strongest

Long adjective (more than two syllables) + more/the


most:
resistant – more resistant – the most resistant

Remember that there are some exceptions, such as:


good – better – the best
bad – worse – the worst

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Unit 1

Grammar station

1 Make at least three comparisons between people or objects in your class.


Example: This mobile phone is lighter than that one.

1 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2 Read the following statements, underline the comparisons and say if they are wrong W or
correct C .
1 Iron is more malleable than copper. W C

2 Kevlar is the best material for bulletproof vests. W C

3 Carbon fibres are the cheapest reinforced fibres. W C

4 New materials are stronger and lighter than traditional ones. W C

3 Group work. Each group has to make at least three sentences using the terms below.
When you have finished a committee will check to see if your sentences are correct and
grade the results:
• acceptable
• cool
• brilliant
Material Adjective
copper strong
iron hard
aluminium light
cast iron expensive
brass resistant
bronze heavy
steel soft
kevlar malleable
nomex ductile
carbon fibre cheap
weak

Example: Steel is more resistant than aluminium.

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Chapter

03 Mechanical drawing
Drawing is one of the basic skills you have to master.
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is being used more and more in coursework projects. However, designers rarely use
computers for designing in the early stages of their work; a pen or pencil is much quicker and often considered to
be more creative.

Warm-up
1. Pair work. Here are some drawing instruments. Circle those that you have used for your
working drawings.

graphite pencils brushes pastels


set of compasses rulers
felt-tip markers eraser T-square

2. AutoCad is an essential tool for 2D and 3D design and drafting. Answer the following
questions.

1. What have you used it for?


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2. What version of AutoCad have you used?


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3. Do you find it difficult to use? Why?


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Unit 1

Let’s get down to work!


3. Group work. You have to make a drawing of the piston rod that you can see in the images
below. Provide front and side views of the object in question.
Then list the drawing instruments you have used. You will find the names of some of the drawing
instruments in the text Preparing yourself at page 27.

Front view side view

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When you have finished present your work to your classmates. Use the lexicon given.

The assignment was… The second drawing shows


The first drawing shows… For these drawings I have used…

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