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 "Are cell phones safe?"
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We have researched pro and con arguments, facts, and studies that we could find about cell phone safety, and our
findings below should help readers think critically, educate themselves, and make informed decisions on cell phone
use. [Click here for expanded J  ]
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 "Are cell phones safe?"

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1. According to some studies, the use of a cell 1. c


   

   
phone can slightly decrease the risk of    
  

developing the brain tumors glioma and # 
   

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meningioma. [1]

  

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3. Cell phone radiation levels are tested and   $(1&
certified by the manufacturer to meet the safe
levels established by the Federal 4.  
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Communications Commission (FCC).   

 
 
Random tests of phones on the market by  
 
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FCC scientists further ensure that radiation
levels meet FCC guidelines. [3] 5. !



   
 


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4. Cell phones do not cause cancer or other 
 
 

  
health problems. The Federal      5560$(7&
Communications Commission (FCC), US
Government Accountability Office (GAO), 6. 


     
and numerous other agencies have concluded    

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that there is no evidence in the scientific
  


  


 
literature proving that cell phones cause brain   
   
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tumors or other health problems. [4] [5]
5. If cell phones were causing cancer we could 7.  
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expect a rise in the rate of brain and other  !"#
    
 
related cancers. However, according to the   
   



  


 
National Cancer Institute, there has been no # 
    

 
increase in the incidence of brain or other 3  


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nervous system cancers between the years 

  
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1987 and 2005 despite the fact that cell
phone use has dramatically increased during 8. ?   
 

 
those same years. [6] 
 

 


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6. Many activities that distract drivers are much
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more dangerous than talking on a phone. # 
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Research shows that cell phone use is a factor #


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in less than 1% of accidents and that   

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adjusting the radio or CD player, talking with  
  

   
 
 
   
    
passengers, or eating, and drinking while
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driving are all responsible for more accidents
than cell phones. [7] [8] 10.?




   
    
    
7. Studies correlating head tumors and cell  
  
 
phone use show inconsistent results, may  
 
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have been tainted by recall bias (participants
not remembering how often and for how long
they have used their cell phones), and have
not been replicated. Most studies have not
found any association between cell phone use
and the development of head tumors. [9]

8. Cell phones increase personal safety by


providing an easy means of contacting
others during an emergency. According to an
American Association of Retired Persons
(AARP) poll, 56% of people over the age of
65 cite safety as a reason they have a cell
phone. [10]

9. Despite popular belief, it is safe for persons


with a pacemaker to use a cell phone.
According to the American Heart
Association, the radiofrequency emissions
(RF) of cell phones available in the United
States do not affect pacemaker functioning
during normal use. [11]

Sources: click here



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1. Cordless home phones, television, radio, laptops, and palm held computers all produce radiofrequency (RF) radiation, the same
type of radiation that is produced by cell phones.

2. The radiation emitted by a cell phone can penetrate 4 - 6 cm (1.6 - 2.4 in) into the human brain (215 KB) . The amount of RF
absorbed into the head can be reduced by using a wired ear-piece (not a Bluetooth) rather than placing the phone against the ear.

3. A 2002 report by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (8 MB) (released in 2009 under a
Freedom of Information Act request) concluded that using a hands free device (Bluetooth, headset,
etc.) does not reduce distraction or make cell phone use safer while driving. As of Sep. 2009, six states had
passed laws requiring the use of a hands free device while driving.

4. On July 24, 2008, a warning was issued (1 MB) by the Director of the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute to faculty and
staff to decrease cell phone exposure due to a possible connection between cell phone radiation and brain tumors. The warning
prompted a congressional hearing on cell phone use and tumors (19 KB) .


   "Are cell phones safe?" 

On Apr. 3, 1973, the world's first portable cell phone, the DynaTAC (also known as "the brick"), was introduced in
the US by Dr. Martin Cooper at Motorola. The phone was a foot long, weighed two pounds, and cost $4,000. It
was not until 1983 that the first commercial cell phone system was launched in Chicago by Ameritech Mobile
Communications.

On Feb. 26, 1985, the first safety guidelines (127 KB) for radio frequency (RF) radiation - the type of radiation used
by cell phones, cordless phones, radio, television, microwaves and wi-fi to transmit their signals - were enacted by
the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to ensure that people were not exposed to dangerous "thermal
effects" - levels of RF that could heat human flesh to harmful levels.

RF wavelengths, unlike sound waves and the waves in the ocean, are part of the electromagnetic spectrum -
meaning they move via interaction between their electric and magnetic fields. RF waves move at the speed of light
(186,282 miles/second) and can penetrate solid objects such as buildings.

The RF radiation from cell phones is contained in the low end (non-ionizing portion) of the broader electromagnetic
spectrum just above radio and television RF and just below microwave RF. At high exposure levels non-ionizing
radiation can produce a thermal or heating effect (this is how microwaves heat food). Exposure to the high end
(ionizing) radiation of X-rays and Gamma rays is known to cause cancer. Whether or not exposure to the low end
(non-ionizing) spectrum causes cancer remains debated.

In 1993 concern over a possible link between brain tumors and cell phone use became a major public
issue when CNN's V V show reported on a husband who had sued a cell phone manufacturer in a
Florida US District Court for causing his wife's brain tumor (the case was dismissed in 1995).

On Aug. 7, 1996, the FCC exanded its guidelines on RF exposure (90 KB) with input from the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institute for Occupational Safety
and Health (NIOSH), and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The guidelines created a
measure of the rate that body tissue absorbs RF energy during cell phone use called the specific absorption rate
(SAR). The SAR for cell phone radiation was set at a maximum of 1.6 watts of energy absorbed per kilogram of
body weight per cell phone call that averages 30 minutes and the cell phone is held at the ear. SAR levels for cell
phones sold in the US range from a low of .109 watts to the maximum of 1.6 watts. Holding a cell phone away from
the body while using a wired earpiece or speaker phone lowers the amount of radiation absorbed, and text
messaging, rather than talking, further lowers that amount.

The FDA and the International Association for the Wireless Telecommunications Industry (CTIA) signed a
research agreement in 2000 to further investigate the health effects of cell phones. They concluded that "no
association was found between exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation from cell phones and adverse health
effects."

The safety concerns over cell phone radiation continued into 2001 when the US Government Accountability Office
(GAO) was commissioned by Senators Joseph Lieberman (D-CT) and Rep. Edward Markey (D-MA) to compile a
report on the safety of cell phones. The final GAO report, "Research and Regulatory Efforts on Mobile Phone
Health Issues (2.5 MB) ," issued in May of 2001 concluded that there is no scientific evidence proving that cell
phone radiation has any "adverse health effects" but that more research on the topic was needed.

The $24 million multi-national study known as INTERPHONE (19 KB) was initiated by the International Agency
for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2001, and its results are expected to be released "relatively quick" according to a
May 2009 press release (as of Sep. 23, 2009 the results have not been released). It is expected to provide the most
definitive answer to date as to whether or not cell phones cause brain tumors.

Six states have taken legislative action to lessen the possible safety hazards of talking on a cell phone while
driving. New York(96 KB) was first in 2001. Five other states (Connecticut [2005] (66 KB) , California [2007] (146
KB) , New Jersey [2007] (12 KB) , Washington [2007] (112 KB) and Oregon [2009] (27 KB) ) have since passed
laws prohibitingdriversfrom talking on handheld cell phones.

In July of 2008 Dr. Ronald Herberman, Director of the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, issued a warning to hospital faculty and
staff (1 MB) to decrease direct cell phone exposure to the head and body due to a possible connection between cell phone radiation and
brain tumors. Due to this warning, the House Subcommittee on Domestic Policy held a hearing on the possible link between cell phone
use and tumors (19 KB) in Sep. 2008 to learn more about the possible risks.

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In 2009, the debate surrounding the safety of cell phone use while driving was re-ignited when a Freedom of
Information Act request, filed by the Center for Auto Safety and Public Citizen, revealed a 2002 report by the
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (8 MB) that concluded that using a hands free device does not
lessen "cognitive distraction" or make cell phone use safer while driving. The report had not been previously
released.
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