Sei sulla pagina 1di 12

Preface

Assalamualikum wr. wb.

Praised thank heavens we said upper the presence of Almighty God,


because with the blessing and his gift we was still being given by the
opportunity to complete this paper. Did not forget we said the English
teacher and friends who gave the support in completing this paper.

The writer realised that in the writing of this paper still many lacks,
therefore the writer really hoped for criticism and the constructive
suggestion. And hopefully with the end of this paper could be useful for the
reader and friends. Amin.

Wassalamualaikum wr. wb.

The writer
CONTENT

Preface 1

Content 2

Complex Sentences
3

Exercise 9

Conclusion 10

Bibliography
11

Page
2
COMPLEX SENTENCES

Definition

A complex sentence is a sentence which includes

• at least one main clause, and


• at least one subordinate clause.

Detail

A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since,


after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. In
the following complex sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green,
and the subordinators and their commas (when required) are in red.

A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the


last page.

B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error.

C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow.

D. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies.

E. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.

When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator such as


sentences A and D, a comma is required at the end of the dependent clause.
When the independent clause begins the sentence with subordinators in the
middle as in sentences B, C, and E, no comma is required. If a comma is
placed before the subordinators in sentences B, C, and E, it is wrong.

Page
3
Note that sentences D and E are the same except sentence D begins
with the dependent clause which is followed by a comma, and sentence E
begins with the independent clause which contains no comma. The comma
after the dependent clause in sentence D is required, and experienced
listeners of English will often hear a slight pause there. In sentence E,
however, there will be no pause when the independent clause begins the
sentence.

Complex Sentences and Subordinating Conjunctions

A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and


indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and
the dependent clause(s).

The most common subordinating conjunctions are "after," "although,"


"as," "because," "before," "how," "if," "once," "since," "than," "that,"
"though," "till," "until," "when," "where," "whether," and "while."

Using Clauses as Nouns, Adjectives, and Adverbs

Independent Clauses: If a clause can stand alone as a sentence, it is an


independent clause, as in the following example:

 Independent

….the Prime Minister is in Ottawa

Some clauses, however, cannot stand alone as sentences:


in this case, they are dependent clauses or subordinate clauses.
Consider the same clause with the subordinating conjunction
"because" added to the beginning.

 Dependent

….because the Prime Minister is in Ottawa

Page
4
In this case, the clause could not be a sentence by itself,
since the conjunction "because" suggests that the clause is providing
an explanation for something else. Dependent clauses.

Dependent clauses can stand not only for adverbs, but also for nouns
and for adjectives.

♦ Dependent Noun Clauses

A noun clause is an entire clause, which takes the place of


a noun in another clause or phrase. Like a noun, a noun clause acts as
the subject or object of a verb or the object of a preposition, answering
the questions "who(m)?" or "what?".

Consider the following examples:

• noun

I know Latin.

• noun clause

I know that Latin is no longer spoken as a native language.

In the first example, the noun "Latin" acts as the direct


object of the verb "know." In the second example, the entire clause
"that Latin ..." is the direct object.

In fact, many noun clauses are indirect questions:

• noun

Their destination is unknown.

• noun clause

Where they are going is unknown.

The question "Where are they going?," with a slight change


in word order, becomes a noun clause when used as part of a larger

Page
5
unit -- like the noun "destination," the clause is the subject of the verb
"is."

♦ Dependent Adjective Clauses

An adjective clause is a dependent clause, which takes the


place of an adjective in another clause or phrase. Like an adjective, an
adjective clause modifies a noun or pronoun, answering questions like
"which?" or "what kind of?"

Consider the following examples:

• Adjective

…the red coat.

• Adjective clause

…the coat which I bought yesterday.

Hint: Like the word "red" in the first example, the


dependent clause "which I bought yesterday" in the second example
modifies the noun "coat." Note that an adjective clause usually comes
after what it modifies, while an adjective usually comes before.

Note: In formal writing, an adjective clause begins with the


relative pronouns "who(m)," "that," or "which."

In informal writing or speech, you may leave out the


relative pronoun when it is not the subject of the adjective clause, but
you should usually include the relative pronoun in formal, academic
writing:

• Informal Writing - example:

The books people read were mainly religious.

• Formal Writing - example

The books that people read were mainly religious.

• Informal Writing - example

Page
6
Some firefighters never meet the people they save.

• Formal Writing - example

Some firefighters never meet the people whom they save.

♦ Dependent Adverb Clause

If a dependent clause answers the question "when," just


like an adverb, then it is called a dependent adverb clause (or simply
an adverb clause, since adverb clauses are always dependent clauses).
An adverb clause answers questions such as "when?", "where?",
"why?", "with what goal/result?", and "under what conditions?".

Note how an adverb clause can replace an adverb in the


following example:

• Adverb – example

The premier gave a speech here.

• Adverb clause - example

The premier gave a speech where the workers were


striking.

Usually, a subordinating conjunction like "because,"


"when(ever)," "where(ever)," "since," "after," and "so that," will
introduce an adverb clause.

Note that a dependent adverb clause can never stand


alone as a complete sentence:

• Independent clause - example

…they left the locker room

• Dependent adverb clause - example

…after they left the locker room

Page
7
The first example can easily stand alone as a sentence, but
the second cannot -- the reader will ask what happened "after they left
the locker room".

Here are some more examples of adverb clauses


expressing the relationships of cause, effect, space, time, and
condition:

• cause

I want to eat lunch, because I am hungry.

The adverb clause answers the question "why?".

• effect

I will eat a balanced diet, so that I will stay healthy.

The adverb clause answers the question "with what


goal/result?".

• time

After I finish exercising, I will eat a healthy meal.

The adverb clause answers the question "when?". Note the


change in word order -- an adverb clause can often appear either
before or after the main part of the sentence.

• place

I will go to the kitchen, where I will prepare my lunch.

The adverb clause answers the question "where?".

• condition

If I go for a brisk walk every day, I have a better chance of


preventing heart disease.

The adverb clause answers the question "under what


conditions?".

Page
8
Exercise

Arrange these sentences into correct complex sentences.

1.felt into though been as century. He he had another plunged

HE FELT AS THOUGH HE HAD BEEN PLUNGED INTO ANOTHER CENTURY.

2. even listening if he I knew didn't he look me. was at

I KNEW HE WAS LISTENING EVEN IF HE DIDN'T LOOK AT ME.

Page
9
3. not say, 'Do I do'. I as as

'DO AS I SAY, NOT AS I DO'.

4. me lunch. buy money so I My mum gave my that some would

MY MUM GAVE ME SOME MONEY SO THAT I WOULD BUY MY LUNCH.

5. though. wasn't rich married he him, She

SHE MARRIED HIM, HE WASN'T RICH THOUGH.

6. boring lecture was we asleep. nearly so that The fell

THE LECTURE WAS SO BORING THAT WE NEARLY FELL ASLEEP.

7. lying loves my an early I girlfriend am whereas riser in.

I AM AN EARLY RISER WHEREAS MY GIRLFRIEND LOVES LYING IN.

8. was difficult more the all lecture since in was The German. It

THE LECTURE WAS ALL THE MORE DIFFICULT SINCE IT WAS IN GERMAN.

9. a I in to the attend bought concert. ticket order

I BOUGHT A TICKET IN ORDER TO ATTEND THE CONCERT.

10. I working like watching while TV.

I LIKE WORKING WHILE WATCHING TV.

Conclusion

A complex sentence is a simple sentence (independent clause) to which a


part of a sentence (dependent clause) has been added.

Page
10
Because I like to study grammar, I love this class.

I love this class because I like to study grammar.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Page
11
http://www.eslbee.com/sentences.htm

http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAComplexSentence.h
tm

http://grammar.about.com/od/c/g/complexsentence.htm

Page
12