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History of Architecture

- Renaissance
- 18th – 19th Century Revival
- 20th Century Modern
Introduction

The Historical
Timeline of Architecture

Egyptian Byzantine

Pre-Historic Greek Roman Early Christian Romanesque Gothic Renaissance 18th-19th C: 20th C:
PRE-HISTORIC Revival Modern
NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN
GREEK
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN Near East Islamic
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN
Indian Chinese & Japanese
ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO
Renaissance

The Historical
Timeline of Architecture

Egyptian Byzantine

Pre-Historic Greek Roman Early Christian Romanesque Gothic Renaissance


PRE-HISTORIC
NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN
GREEK
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN Near East Islamic
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO
NORWAY

SWEDEN Renaissance
GREAT RUSSIA
BRITAIN DENMARK • Printing by Movable Types
DUTCH
• Led to the mass production of books
REP. POLAND • Contributed to the circulation of ideas and knowledge
HOLY ROMAN
EMPIRE LITHUANIA
FRANCE SWISS
CONF.
OTTOMAN
SAVOY EMPIRE

SPAIN PAPAL
PORTUGAL STATES

AFRICA

• Several Christian thinkers challenged and attacked the


beliefs, customs, power and wealth of the Catholic Church
• Protestants in Germany, Scandinavia and England
• Martin Luther and John Calvin
• Religious and intellectual unity of Christendom had
PRE-HISTORIC
begun to crumble
NEAR EAST
INFLUENCES
EGYPTIAN
GREEK
HISTORY
ROMAN
• Previous trade routes to the east had now been blocked
EARLY CHRISTIAN
by the Ottoman Turks in Constantinople
BYZANTINE • 1450, series of voyages and explorations by sea led by
ROMANESQUE Spain and Portugal
GOTHIC • For trade mostly but also for the discovery of more lands
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
• Increased understanding of Science and the Arts
INDIAN • Medicine and Astronomy
CHINESE & JAPANESE • Human Anatomy by Andreas Vesalius
FILIPINO
• Attempt to understand the ancient world, its values,
• Warfare was changed by the invention of gunpowder literary, artistic forms and architectural forms
• This brought about the need for a new building type • "Treatise on Architecture" by Vitruvius in 1486
Renaissance
ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER ROCOCO
• Style which is primarily French in origin
DESCRIPTION • Rock-like forms, fantastic scrolls, and crimped shells
• The Renaissance movement created a break in the • Profuse, often semi-abstract ornamentation
evolution of European church architecture • Light in color and weight
• Departure from Gothic, with the employment of Classic
Roman “Orders of Architecture”
• Byzantine structural and decorative practices, instead of
Gothic, were interwoven with those from Roman and
Romanesque succession

PERIODS

EARLY RENAISSANCE IN SUMMARY:


• Period of learning
• Designers were intent on the accurate transcription of • Palladian Architecture was logical, staid and serene
Roman elements
• Proto-Baroque Architecture was vivid, virile and intense
HIGH RENAISSANCE or PROTO-BAROQUE
• Renaissance became an individual style in its own right • Baroque Architecture was dramatic, rich, grand and alive
PRE-HISTORIC
• Purist or Palladian, where Roman tradition was held in
NEAR EAST high respect (represented by Andrea Palladio) • Rococo Architecture was a profusion and confusion of
EGYPTIAN • Proto-Baroque, where there was more confidence in detail, presenting a lavish display of decoration
GREEK using the acquired vocabulary freely (represented by
ROMAN Michelangelo)
EARLY CHRISTIAN • Mannerist, where practices which had no Roman
BYZANTINE precedent were interspersed with the usual buildings, or
ROMANESQUE entire buildings were conceived in a non-Roman way
GOTHIC • Mannerists used architectural elements in a free,
RENAISSANCE decorative and illogical way, unsanctioned by antique
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL precedent
20TH C MODERN
BAROQUE
ISLAMIC
• Architects worked with freedom and firmly-acquired
INDIAN knowledge
CHINESE & JAPANESE • The true nature of Renaissance as a distinctive style
FILIPINO began to emerge
• Baroque saw architecture, painting, sculpture and the
minor arts being used in harmony to produce the unified
whole
Renaissance
FLORENCE ROME
• Cities of Florence, Genoa, Milan - central, chief powers • Splendidly presented examples of High Renaissance and
of Italy Proto-baroque
• Medici family - founded by Giovanni de Medici, who was • Famous architect is Donato Bramante
a commercial and political power
• Vitality of social life at every level Tempietto in S. Pietro, Montorio
• Artists, who excelled in several arts, achieve high status • Resembling small Roman circular temple with Doric
in society columns
• Craft guilds, with both religious and lay connotations, • 4.5 m internal diameter
directed activities of studios and workshops
• Renaissance had its birth in Florence

PALAZZI
• With the development of gunpowder, palace-type building
evolved, taking the place of fortified castles
• Built around a cortile or interior court, like medieval
cloister • Site where S. Peter was martyred
• Ground floor and piano nobile • Designed by Donato Bramante
• Façade of massive, rugged, fortress-like character due to • Dome on drum pierced with alternating windows and
use of rusticated masonry and wall angles called quoins shell-headed niches
PRE-HISTORIC
• Large windows unnecessary and unsuitable
NEAR EAST • Low pitched roof covered by a balustrade, parapet or
EGYPTIAN boldly protruding roof cornices
GREEK
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN Palazzo Strozzi
CHINESE & JAPANESE • By Benedetto da Majano
FILIPINO • Representative of the Florentine palace of that period
• Open cortile and piano nobile
• Astylar exterior of uniform rustication
• Cornice of 1/13 the height, 2.1 m projection
Renaissance
6. Antonio da Sangallo
• Slightly altered plan - extended vestibule and campanile,
and elaborated the central dome
• Died

7. Michelangelo
• Undertook the project at 72 years old - present building
owes most of its outstanding features to him
• Greek-cross plan, strengthened dome, redesigned
surrounding chapels
S. Peter, Rome
• Most important Renaissance building in Italy 8. Giacomo della Porta
• With cathedral, piazza and the Vatican, forms a world-
famous group 9. Domenico Fontana
• Completed dome in 1590
• 120 years, outcome of the works of many architects
under the direction of the pope 10. Vignola
• Added sided cupolas
12 Architects:
11. Carlo Maderna
PRE-HISTORIC
1. Bramante • Lengthened nave to form Latin cross and built the
NEAR EAST • His design was selected from several entries in a gigantic facade
EGYPTIAN competition
GREEK • He proposed a Greek cross plan and a dome similar to 12. Bernini
ROMAN the Pantheon in Rome • Erected noble entrance piazza 198 m wide with Tuscan
EARLY CHRISTIAN • Foundation stone laid in 1506 colonnade
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE 2. Giuliano da Sangallo
GOTHIC • Upon death of Julius II in 1513
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL 3. Fra Giocondo
20TH C MODERN
4. Raphael
ISLAMIC
• Proposed a Latin cross plan
INDIAN • Died
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO 5. Baldassare Peruzzi • Completed plan is a Latin cross with an internal length of
• Reverted to Greek cross 183 m, width of 137 m
• Died • At crossing, majestic dome of 41.9 m internal diameter
• Largest church in the world
Renaissance
FRANCE

COUNTRY HOUSES
• Country houses took the place of fortified castles

Some examples:
Chateau de Justice, Rouen
Chateau d'O, Mortree
Chateau de Josselin Chateau de Maisons
Chateau de Blois • One of the most harmonious of all chateaux
Chateau d'Azay-Rideau • Designed by Francois Mansart on a symmetrical E-plan
Chateau de Chenonceaux

PRE-HISTORIC
Palaise du Louvre, Paris
NEAR EAST • Built from Francis I to Napoleon III
EGYPTIAN • Together with Tuilleries, 45 acres constituting one of the
GREEK most imposing palaces in Europe
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO Chateau de Chambord
• Designed by an Italian, Domenico da Cortona
• Semi-fortified palace, most famous in Loire district
Renaissance
Petit Trianon, Versailles CHURCHES
• Designed by JA Gabriel for Louis XV
• One of most superb pieces of domestic architecture of
the century

Church of the Val de Grace, Paris


• Projecting portal by Francois Mansart, dome by
Lemercier

PRE-HISTORIC
NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN
GREEK
ROMAN St. Gervais, Paris
EARLY CHRISTIAN • earliest wholly-classical church facade
BYZANTINE • by Salomon de Brosse
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO

St. Etienne du Mont, Paris


Renaissance
ENGLAND STUART BUILDINGS

PERIODS

ELIZABETHAN (1558 to 1603 AD)


• During the reign of Queen Elizabeth
• Establishment of Renaissance style in England, followed
Tudor architecture Banqueting House, Whitehall, London
• Transition style with Gothic features and Renaissance • Designed by Inigo Jones
detail

JACOBEAN (1603 to 1625 AD)

STUART (1625 to 1702 AD)


• 1st Phase: Inigo Jones was influenced by Italian Queen's House
Renaissance • Influenced by Palladian architecture
• 2nd Phase: Christopher Wren was influenced by French
Renaissance

GEORGIAN (1702 to 1830 AD)


PRE-HISTORIC
NEAR EAST ELIZABETHAN MANSIONS
EGYPTIAN • Statesmen, merchants and gentry built mansions in the
GREEK countryside to suit their positions
ROMAN • E-shaped plan or H-shaped plan
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire
ROMANESQUE • Great hall, kitchen and office, living rooms, grand St. Paul's Cathedral, London
GOTHIC staircase, long gallery, withdrawing room or solar, towers, • Designed by Christopher Wren
RENAISSANCE gables, parapets, balustrades, chimney stacks, oriel and • Area of 6000 sq.m and a large central space under dome
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL bay windows for big congregations
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE GEORGIAN HOUSES
FILIPINO
Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire
• Most monumental mansion in England
• Example of central block with wings
Renaissance
SPAIN & PORTUGAL

EARLY PERIOD (1492 to 1556 AD)


• Grafting Renaissance details unto Gothic forms

In Spain:
• Plateresque, rich and poetic style, so named for its
similarity to silversmiths' work – plateria
• Influenced by Moorish art - extremely florid and
decorative, from the minuteness of detail

in Portugal:
• Manueline Style (from King Manuel I, 1495 to 1521 AD)
• Decorative rather than structural in character, inspired by
the voyages of discoverers

CLASSICAL PERIOD (1556 to 1690 AD)


• Close adherence to Italian Renaissance art The Escorial, Madrid
• Austere group of buildings, composed of the monastery,
BAROQUE PERIOD (1650 to 1750 AD) college, church and palace with state apartments
PRE-HISTORIC
• Classical rules disregarded
NEAR EAST • Churrigueresque, fantastically extravagant expression,
EGYPTIAN by Jose de Churriguera, (1650 to 1723 AD)
GREEK
ROMAN ANTIQUARIAN PERIOD (1750 to 1830 AD)
EARLY CHRISTIAN • Returned to ancient classical models
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO
The University, Salamanca
• The facade is a Plateresque design masterpiece
• Admirable craftsmanship
Renaissance
GERMANY

Heidelberg Castle
• Exemplifies progressive developments of the Early
Renaissance on the castle
• Saalbau, Heinrichsbau, Friedrichsbau
• Great watchtower and irregular court

PRE-HISTORIC
NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN
GREEK
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO
Monastery, Melk
• One of most striking Baroque monuments
18th-19th C: Revival

The Historical
Timeline of Architecture

Egyptian Byzantine

Pre-Historic Greek Roman Early Christian Romanesque Gothic Renaissance 18th-19th C:


PRE-HISTORIC Revival
NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN
GREEK
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN Near East
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO
18th-19th C: Revival
• Home-based cottage industries were rendered obsolete
by the invention of the steam engine by Watt in 1785
• Goods could be made more cheaply
• Factories sprouted all over Britain where coal was
available to fuel the engines, other countries followed suit

Social and Political changes:


• Centuries-old monarchies gave way to democratic
institutions – American Declaration of Independence
(1776) and French Revolution (1789)
• Urbanization and rise in population
• Growth of the bourgeoisie or middle class
• Professionals and businessmen

PRE-HISTORIC
NEAR EAST
INFLUENCES
EGYPTIAN
GREEK
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC Technological innovations:
RENAISSANCE • Railways to easily transport people and goods
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL HISTORY • Improved drainage and sanitation
20TH C MODERN • Coal-gas and gas lamps, later electricity
• Revolutionary changes affecting every aspect of life • Lift or elevator
ISLAMIC
• Growth of communications
INDIAN • Ship-building and the Suez Canal
• The Industrial Revolution started in Britain - new
CHINESE & JAPANESE
machines and innovative processes helped change • International exhibitions of science and industry
FILIPINO
nations from agricultural to industrial ones
• Spread to continental Europe and to North America
• Created a new type of worker – the wage laborer or
proletarian
18th-19th C: Revival
ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER Periods in Britain:

• The need to create an imposing effect – research into old EARLY VICTORIAN (1830 to 1850 AD)
styles HIGH VICTORIAN (1850 to 1870 AD)
• Conservation of historic relics or monuments had begun LATE VICTORIAN & EDWARDIAN (1870 to 1914 AD)
• Interest in Classicism, in the Romanesque, the Gothic, AFTERMATH (after World War I)
the Renaissance, the Baroque
• “age of revivals” - eclecticism, taste for exotic forms,
combining native and foreign styles

• “age of innovation” - use of newly available materials


• Form follows Function (Louis Sullivan)

Due to inventions in metallurgy and construction, new


materials became available for building:
• structural iron and cast-iron
• iron and glass
• zinc The Clifton Suspension Bridge, Bristol
• steel • Designed by Isambard Brunel
• reinforced concrete – first used by Auguste Perret • Pylons of Egyptian character
PRE-HISTORIC
NEAR EAST New building types:
EGYPTIAN • Industrial Buildings and Warehouses
GREEK • Houses of Parliament
ROMAN • Railways and Transport Stations – spread all over
EARLY CHRISTIAN Europe
BYZANTINE • Museums – took the place of aristocratic private
ROMANESQUE collections of art
GOTHIC • Department Stores – in Paris, London, Brussels, other St. George's Hall, Liverpool
RENAISSANCE commercial areas • Designed by Harvey Lonsdale Elmes
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL • Hospitals, Public Banks, Fire and Police Stations, • Most magnificent Neo-Classical monument in Britain
20TH C MODERN Exhibition Halls

ISLAMIC
New emerging style:
INDIAN • The Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain
CHINESE & JAPANESE • in the tradition of craft guilds in the Middle Ages
FILIPINO • led by artist-craftsman William Morris, architect Philip
Webb and writer John Ruskin
• furniture, glassware, fabrics, wallpaper, etc – decorated City Hall, Swansea
with repeating stylized floral patterns • Designed by Sir Percy Thomas
18th-19th C: Revival

Westminster New Palace (Houses of Parliament), London The Conservatory, Carlton House, London
• Designed by Sir Charles Barry • Cast-iron for structural and decorative purpose
• Non-classical design: Gothic detail by Pugin
• Victoria tower, Clock tower “Big Ben”
• First major public building of Gothic revival

PRE-HISTORIC
St. Giles, Cheadle, Staffs
NEAR EAST • Designed by Pugin Palm House, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
EGYPTIAN • Designed by Decimus Burton and Richard Turner
GREEK
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC The University Museum, Oxford
RENAISSANCE • Designed by Benjamin Woodward
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL • landmark of High Victorian Gothic
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN Crystal Palace, London
CHINESE & JAPANESE • Designed by Sir Joseph Paxton
FILIPINO • One of the most remarkable buildings in 19th century
Britain – free of any traditional precedent
The Cathedral, Guilford • Housed the Great Exhibition of 1851, erected in Hyde
• Designed by Sir Edward Maufe Park, moved to Sydenham in 1852 to 1854
18th-19th C: Revival
Periods in Continental Europe:

1850 to 1870 AD
• Comparable to High Victorian in Britain
• Renaissance and Gothic revival
• Structural use of iron

1870 to 1914 AD
• Use of metals was intensified, especially in exhibitions
• Antique forms instead of Renaissance

ART NOVEAU (1893 to 1906 AD)


• Derived from the “Arts and Crafts Movement” in Britain
• An art free of any historical style

The Votivkirche, Vienna


• Neo-Gothic by Heinrich von Ferstel
PRE-HISTORIC
NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN
GREEK
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE • Deliberate simplification of structural elements in
ROMANESQUE buildings and interiors, handmade objects and furniture
GOTHIC • Forms of nature for ornamentation in the facade
RENAISSANCE • Floral style, freely-shaped writhing vegetal forms
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN Versions:
• France – Le Modern Style
ISLAMIC
• Germany – Jugendstil
INDIAN • Austria – Sezessione
CHINESE & JAPANESE • Italy – Stile Liberty
FILIPINO • Spain - Modernismo
The Church of Sacre-Coeur, Paris
• Neo-Byzantine by Paul Abadie
18th-19th C: Revival

The Schauspielhaus, Berlin


• Greek-revival style by KF von Schinkel

The Opera House, Paris


• Neo-Baroque by Charles Garnier

PRE-HISTORIC
NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN The Library of St. Genevieve, Paris
GREEK • Neo-Renaissance by Henri Labrouste
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE The Victor Emanuel II Monument, Rome
ROMANESQUE • Neo-Classical by Giuseppe Sacconi
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE Others:
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL Reighstag, Berlin – Paul Wallot
20TH C MODERN Parliament, Budapest – Imre Steindl
Dresden Opera - neo-Renaissance by Gottfried Semper
ISLAMIC
The Altes Museum, Berlin - Greek-revival style
INDIAN Thorwaldsen Museum, Copenhagen - Greek-revival
CHINESE & JAPANESE The Opera House, Cologne - French Neo-Baroque
FILIPINO The Post Savings Bank, Vienna - Art Noveau by Otto
The Stock Exchange, Amsterdam Wagner
• Neo-Romanesque by HP Berlage
18th-19th C: Revival
Art Noveau Architects:
• Victor Horta in Brussels
• Antoni Gaudi in Barcelona
• Raimondo D’Aronco in Constantinople and Turin
• Joseph Hoffman in Vienna
• Charles Rennie Mackintosh in Glasgow

The Palau Guell, Barcelona


• Designed by Antoni Gaudi
PRE-HISTORIC
• Seems to presage Art Noveau in its forms
NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN
GREEK
ROMAN The Entrance Pavilion, Exposition Universelle 1889
EARLY CHRISTIAN • Designed by Gustav Eiffel and maurice koechlin
BYZANTINE • Extensive use of iron, 300m high
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN Casa Mila, Barcelona
• Designed by Antoni Gaudi
ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO

The Galerie des Machines, Exposition Universelle 1889 Sagrada Familia, Barcelona
• By Victor Contamin, engineer, and CLF Dutert, architect • Art Noveau by Antoni Gaudi
18th-19th C: Revival
Periods in America: The White House, Washington DC
• President’s official residence
POST-COLONIAL (1790 to 1820 AD) • Designed by James Hoban, Irish architect
• Neo-Classic elements • English Palladian style

FIRST ECLECTIC PHASE (1820 to 1860 AD)


• Greek-revival style, also Gothic and Egyptian styles

SECOND ECLECTIC PHASE (1860 to 1930 AD)

1st Stream:
• Romanesque and Gothic inspiration
• Influenced by Arts and Crafts movement in England
• HH Richardson, Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright

2nd Stream:
• Italian and French Renaissance, ancient Greek and Monticello, near Charlottesville, Virginia
Roman, late Gothic inspiration • Designed by Thomas Jefferson, 3rd American president
• Influenced by the Ecole des Beaux-Artes • Palladian style

PRE-HISTORIC
• Structural experiment and achievement: metal frame
NEAR EAST construction, non-load-bearing curtain wall, elevators
EGYPTIAN • Produced the skyscraper - America's single greatest
GREEK contribution to architecture
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN
Robie House, Chicago
ISLAMIC
• Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE Winslow House, River Forest, Illinois (aka Prairie House)
FILIPINO • First important work of Frank Lloyd Wright

Taliesin East, Spring Green, Wisconsin


• Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright
18th-19th C: Revival

Unity Temple, Oak Park, Illinois The State Capitol, Richmond, Virginia
• by Frank Lloyd Wright • Designed by Thomas Jefferson
• First neo-classical monument in America, based on
Maison Caree, Nimes
• Ionic order
PRE-HISTORIC
NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN
GREEK
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN
The United States Capitol, Washington DC
ISLAMIC
• First designed by Dr. William Thorton along Palladian
INDIAN lines
CHINESE & JAPANESE • Numerous modifications after the war
FILIPINO • Crowning dome Lincoln Memorial, Washington DC
• One of the world's best known buildings • Designed by Henry Bacon
• Greek Doric style
18th-19th C: Revival
Merchants Exchange, Philadelphia
• Designed by William Strickland
• Greek-revival

The Marshall Field Wholesale Warehouse, Chicago,


Illinois
• Designed by HH Richardson

The Auditorium Building, Chicago, Illinois


• Designed by Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan
• Neo-Byzantine interior

The Reliance Building, Chicago


• Designed by Burnham and Root
The Monadnock Building, Chicago
• Designed by Daniel Burnham

The Second Leiter Building, Chicago


• Metal-framed building

PRE-HISTORIC
The Gace Building, Chicago
NEAR EAST • Designed by Louis Sullivan and Holabird and Roche
EGYPTIAN
GREEK The Schlesinger-Mayer Store
ROMAN • Designed by Louis Sullivan
EARLY CHRISTIAN • Suggestion of Art Noveau style
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE The Larkin Soap Co. Building, Buffalo, NY
GOTHIC • Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL The Woolworth Building, NY
20TH C MODERN • Designed by Cass Gilbert
• Gothic style
ISLAMIC
INDIAN The Wainwright Building, St. Louis
CHINESE & JAPANESE • Designed by Adler and Sullivan
FILIPINO
Empire State Building
• Designed by Shreve, Lamb and Harmon
• 85 storeys
20th C: Modern

The Historical
Timeline of Architecture

Egyptian Byzantine

Pre-Historic Greek Roman Early Christian Romanesque Gothic Renaissance 18th-19th C: 20th C:
PRE-HISTORIC Revival Modern
NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN
GREEK
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN Near East
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO
20th C: Modern
FAMOUS ARCHITECTS

Marcel Breuer
• Architect and designer
• Best known for the design of tubular steel Wassily Chair
• Studied at the Bauhaus - become director of the school's
furniture department in 1924
• Designed a series of noted structures including
innovative houses and the Whitney Museum of Art

UNESCO Secretariat Building, Paris

PRE-HISTORIC
NEAR EAST
INFLUENCES
EGYPTIAN Eero Saarinen
GREEK Works include:
HISTORY
ROMAN - Dulles International Airport Building, near Washington
EARLY CHRISTIAN - The General Motors Technical Center, Warren, Michigan
More innovations:
BYZANTINE • Curtain wall
ROMANESQUE • Steel and plate-glass
GOTHIC • Folded slab by Eugene Freyssinet
RENAISSANCE • Flat slab by Robert Maillart
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL • Laminated timber
20TH C MODERN
• Functionalism in design
ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE TWA Terminal, JFKennedy Airport
FILIPINO • Undulating shape was meant to evoke the excitement of
high speed flight
• Even interior details: lounges, chairs, signs, and
telephone booths harmonized with the curving “gull
winged” shell
20th C: Modern
Oscar Niemeyer Frank Lloyd Wright
• Worked with city planner Lucio Costa to conceive and
build Brasilia, Brazil's capital in a record time of just four Johnson Wax Co. Building
years
• Functionality and the use of pre-stressed concrete
dominate his designs
• Also designed the cathedral, the national theater and the
presidential palace

Parliament Building, Brasilia

Falling Water, Pennsylvania


PRE-HISTORIC
NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN Eric Mendelsohn
GREEK • Dynamic, sculptural quality
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN Einstein Tower, Potsdam
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO Also designed:
- Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, NY
- Imperial Hotel in Tokyo – he played a decisive role in the
renewal of Japanese architecture
20th C: Modern
le Corbusier Buckminster Fuller
• Based in Switzerland and France, he dominated • Created the Dymaxion House, the first “machine for
European scene for nearly half-a-century living” - a portable home inside from metal alloys and
• He believed that "the house is a machine to live in" - the plastics
program for building a house should be set out with the • Designed all necessary mechanical systems and devices
same precision as that for building a machine in the center of the building, with living spaces around it,
open to the arrangement tastes of the owner
Five Points of New Architecture
1. Framework structurally independent of walls The United States Pavilion at Expo 67, Montreal
2. Free-standing façade - the free facade, the corollary of
the free plan in the vertical plane
3. Roof garden - restoring, the area of ground covered by
the house Walter Gropius
4. Open planning - the free plan, achieved through the • Created prototype of modern architecture: free-standing
separation of the load-bearing columns from the walls glass sheath suspended on a structural framework - aka
subdividing the space curtain wall
5. Cube form elevated on stilts or columns - pilotises • First used this on Hallidie Building, San Francisco in
elevating the mass off the ground 1918
• Established Bauhaus, a school or training intended to
relate art and architecture to technology and the practical
PRE-HISTORIC
needs of modern life
NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN
GREEK
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE Chapel of Notre Dame, Ronchamp
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO

Villa Savoye at Poissy


• Realization of his 'five points‘ of new architecture
20th C: Modern
Frei Otto FAMOUS WORKS
• The seminal figure in the development of tensile
architecture
• Veered away from the simple geometric solutions and
built organic free forms that could respond to complex
planning and structural requirements

Munich Stadium for 1972 Olympic Games

Palazzetto dello Sport for 1960 Rome Olympics


• Designed by Pierre Luigi Nervi and Vitellozzi

PRE-HISTORIC
NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN
GREEK
ROMAN Other Personalities:
EARLY CHRISTIAN • Otto Wagner, Austria
BYZANTINE • Richard Neutra, Austria
ROMANESQUE • Rudolf Schindler, Austria
GOTHIC • Peter Behrens, Germany
RENAISSANCE • August Perret, France
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL • Hendrik Berlage, The Netherlands
20TH C MODERN • JJP Oud, The Netherlands
• Victor Horta, Belgium
ISLAMIC
• Charles Rennie Mackintosh, UK
INDIAN • CFA Voysey, UK
CHINESE & JAPANESE • Louis Sullivan, USA
FILIPINO • Adolf Meyer Sports Hall for 1964 Tokyo Olympics
• Tony Garnier • Designed by Kenzo Tange
• Max Berg
• Mies van der Rohe
20th C: Modern

Sydney Opera House


• Designed by Jorn Utzon of Denmark
• He won the project in a competition for the design of a
performing arts complex in Sydney, Australia

World Trade Center


PRE-HISTORIC
• Originally designed by Minoru Yamasaki
NEAR EAST • Structural steel framing
EGYPTIAN • Destroyed by the September 11 terrorist attacks
GREEK • Redesigned by Daniel Libeskind - 541 m tall
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO The Chrysler Building, NY
• Designed by William van Alen
• Art Deco style