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Painting

Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium[1] to a surface (support base). The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with

a brush but other objects can be used. In art the term describes both the act and the result which is called a painting. Paintings may have for their support such surfaces

as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, copper or concrete, and may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, gold leaf as well as objects.

Painting is a mode of expression and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition or abstraction and other aesthetics may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual

intention of the practitioner. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, be loaded with narrative

content, symbolism, emotion or be political in nature.

A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by spiritual motifs and ideas; examples of this kind of painting range from artwork

depicting mythological figures on pottery to Biblical scenes rendered on the interior walls and ceiling of The Sistine Chapel, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other scenes

of eastern religious origin.

Elements

Intensity

What enables painting is the perception and representation of intensity. Every point in space has different intensity, which can be

represented in painting by black and white and all the gray shades between. In practice, painters can articulate shapes by

juxtaposing surfaces of different intensity; by using just color (of the same intensity) one can only represent symbolic shapes.

Thus, the basic means of painting are distinct from ideological means, such as geometrical figures, various points of view and

organization (perspective), and symbols. For example, a painter perceives that a particular white wall has different intensity at

each point, due to shades and reflections from nearby objects, but ideally, a white wall is still a white wall in pitch darkness. In

technical drawing, thickness of line is also ideal, demarcating ideal outlines of an object within a perceptual frame different from

the one used by painters.

Chen Hongshou (1598–1652),Leaf album painting (Ming Dynasty).

Color and tone

Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are of music. Color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ

from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, white is. Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists,

including Goethe, Kandinsky, and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover the use of language is only a generalization for a color equivalent. The word "red", for

example, can cover a wide range of variations on the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is

agreement on different notes in music, such as C or C♯ in music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic and derived (complementary or mixed) colors (like red,

blue, green, brown, etc.).

Painters deal practically with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phtalocyan, Paris blue, indigo, cobalt, ultramarine, and so on. Psychological, symbolical

meanings of color are not strictly speaking means of painting. Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this the perception of a painting is

highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music (like "C") is analogous to light in painting, "shades" to dynamics, and coloration is to painting as

specific timbre of musical instruments to music—though these do not necessarily form a melody, but can add different contexts to it.
Rhythm

Rhythm is important in painting as well as in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into

a sequence", then there can be rhythm in paintings. These pauses allow creative force to intervene

and add new creations—form, melody, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is

of crucial importance in the given work of art and it directly affects the esthetical value of that work.

This is because the esthetical value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom (of movement) of

perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne",

directly contributes to the esthetical value.

Georges Seurat (1859–91), Circus Sideshow (1887–88)

Non-traditional elements

Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, for example, collage, which began with Cubismand is not painting in the strict sense. Some

modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, cement, straw orwood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer.

There is a growing community of artists who use computers to paint color onto a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others.

These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required.

History

Cave painting of aurochs, (Bos primigenius primigenius), Lascaux, France,prehistoric art

The oldest known paintings are at the Grotte Chauvet in France, claimed by some historians to be about 32,000 years

old. They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment and show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo,

mammoth or humans often hunting. However the earliest evidence of painting has been discovered in two rock-

shelters in Arnhem Land, in northern Australia. In the lowest layer of material at these sites there are used pieces of

ochre estimated to be 60,000 years old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock painting preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of North-

Western Australia, that is dated 40 000 years old. [1] There are examples of cave paintings all over the world—in India, France, Spain, Portugal, China, Australia, etc.

In Western cultures oil painting and watercolor painting have rich and complex traditions in style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink historically predominated the

choice of media with equally rich and complex traditions.

The invention of photography had a major impact on painting. In 1829, the first photograph was produced. From the mid to late 19th century,photographic processes improved

and, as it became more widespread, painting lost much of its historic purpose to provide an accurate record of the observable world. There began a series of art movements

into the 20th century where the Renaissance view of the world was steadily eroded, through Impressionism, Post-

Impressionism, Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism and Dadaism. Eastern and African painting, however, continued a long history of stylization and did not undergo an

equivalent transformation at the same time.

Modern and Contemporary Art has moved away from the historic value of craft and documentation in favour of concept; this led some to say in the 1960s that painting, as a

serious art form, is dead. This has not deterred the majority of living painters from continuing to practice painting either as whole or part of their work. The vitality and versatility

of painting in the 21st century belies the premature declarations of its demise. In an epoch characterized by the idea of pluralism, there is no consensus as to a representative

style of the age. Important works of art continue to be made in a wide variety of styles and aesthetic temperaments, the marketplace being left to judge merit.
Among the continuing and current directions in painting at the beginning of the 21st century are Monochrome painting, Hard-edge painting, Geometric

abstraction, Appropriation,Hyperrealism, Photorealism, Expressionism, Minimalism, Lyrical Abstraction, Pop Art, Op Art, Abstract Expressionism, Color Field painting, Neo-

expressionism, Collage, Intermediapainting, Assemblage painting, Computer art painting, Postmodern painting, Neo-Dada painting, Shaped canvas painting,

environmental mural painting, traditional figure painting,Landscape painting, Portrait painting, and paint-on-glass animation.

Aesthetics and theory

Apelles or the Art of painting (detail), relief of theGiotto's Bell Tower inFlorence, Italy, Nino Pisano, 1334–1336

Aesthetics is the study of art and beauty; it was an important issue for such 18th and 19th century philosophers as Kant or Hegel.

Classical philosophers like Plato and Aristotle also theorized about art and painting in particular; Plato disregarded painters (as well as

sculptors) in his philosophical system; he maintained that painting cannot depict the truth—it is a copy of reality (a shadow of the world

of ideas) and is nothing but a craft, similar to shoemaking or iron casting. By the time of Leonardo painting had become a closer

representation of the truth than painting was in Ancient Greece. Leonardo da Vinci, on the contrary, said that "Pittura est cousa

mentale" (painting is a thing of the mind). Kant distinguished between Beauty and the Sublime, in terms that clearly gave priority to the

former. Although he did not refer particularly to painting, this concept was taken up by painters such as Turner and Caspar David Friedrich.

Hegel recognized the failure of attaining a universal concept of beauty and in his aesthetic essay wrote that Painting is one of the three "romantic" arts, along

with Poetry and Music for its symbolic, highly intellectual purpose.[2][3] Painters who have written theoretical works on painting include Kandinskyand Paul Klee.[4][5] Kandinsky in

his essay maintains that painting has a spiritual value, and he attaches primary colors to essential feelings or concepts, something that Goethe and other writers had already

tried to do.

Iconography is the study of the content of paintings, rather than their style. Erwin Panofsky and other art historians first seek to understand the things depicted, then their

meaning for the viewer at the time, and then analyze their wider cultural, religious, and social meaning.

In 1890, the Parisian painter Maurice Denis famously asserted: "Remember that a painting—before being a warhorse, a naked woman or some story or other—is essentially a

flat surface covered with colors assembled in a certain order."[6] Thus, many 20th-century developments in painting, such asCubism, were reflections on the means of painting

rather than on the external world, nature, which had previously been its core subject. Recent contributions to thinking about painting has been offered by the painter and

writer Julian Bell. In his book What is Painting?, Bell discusses the development, through history, of the notion that paintings can express feelings and ideas.[7] In Mirror of The

World Bell writes:

‘A work of art seeks to hold your attention and keep it fixed: a history of art urges it onwards, bulldozing a highway through the homes of the imagination.’[8]

Painting media

Different types of paint are usually identified by the medium that the pigment is suspended or embedded in, which determines the general working characteristics of the paint,

such as viscosity, miscibility, solubility, drying time, etc.

Oil

Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil—especially in early modern Europe,linseed oil. Often an oil such as linseed

was boiled with a resin such as pine resin or even frankincense; these were called 'varnishes' and were prized for their body and gloss. Oil paint eventually became the

principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in northern Europe, and by the

height of theRenaissance oil painting techniques had almost completely replaced tempera paints in the majority of Europe.]Pastel
Pastel is a painting medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder.[9] The pigments used in pastels are the same as those used to produce

all colored art media, including oil paints; the binder is of a neutral hue and low saturation. The color effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of any other

process.[10] Because the surface of a pastel painting is fragile and easily smudged, its preservation requires protective measures such as framing under glass; it may also be

sprayed with a fixative. Nonetheless, when made with permanent pigments and properly cared for, a pastel painting may endure unchanged for centuries. Pastels are not

susceptible, as are paintings made with a fluid medium, to the cracking and discoloration that result from changes in the color, opacity, or dimensions of the medium as it

dries.

Acrylic

Acrylic paint is fast drying paint containing pigment suspension in acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints can be diluted with water, but become water-resistant when dry.

Depending on how much the paint is diluted (with water) or modified with acrylic gels, media, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolor or an oil

painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media. The main practical difference between most acrylics and oil paints is the inherent drying time.

Oils allow for more time to blend colors and apply even glazes over underpaintings. This slow drying aspect of oil can be seen as an advantage for certain techniques, but in

other regards it impedes the artist trying to work quickly.

Watercolor

Watercolor is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water soluble vehicle. The traditional and most common support for watercolor

paintings is paper; other supports include papyrus, bark papers, plastics, vellum or leather, fabric, wood, and canvas. In East Asia, watercolor painting with inks is referred to

as brush painting or scroll painting. In Chinese, Korean, and Japanese painting it has been the dominant medium, often in monochrome black or browns. India, Ethiopia and

other countries also have long traditions. Fingerpainting with watercolor paints originated in China.

Ink

Ink paintings are done with a liquid that contains pigments and/or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing with

a pen, brush, orquill. Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, fluorescers, and

other materials. The components of inks serve many purposes; the ink’s carrier, colorants, and other additives control flow and thickness of the ink and its appearance

when dry.

Hot wax

Encaustic painting, also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added. The liquid/paste is then applied to a surface—

usually prepared wood, though canvas and other materials are often used. The simplest encaustic mixture can be made from adding pigments to beeswax, but there are

several other recipes that can be used—some containing other types of waxes, damar resin, linseed oil, or other ingredients. Pure, powdered pigments can be purchased and

used, though some mixtures use oil paints or other forms of pigment. Metal tools and special brushes can be used to shape the paint before it cools, or heated metal tools can

be used to manipulate the wax once it has cooled onto the surface. Other materials can be encased or collaged into the surface, or layered, using the encaustic medium to

adhere it to the surface.

Types

Fresco is any of several related mural painting types, done on plaster on walls or ceilings. The word fresco comes from

the Italian word affresco [afˈfresːko] which derives from the Latin word for "fresh". Frescoes were often made during the

Renaissance and other early time periods. Buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a

thin layer of wet, fresh, lime mortar or plaster, for which the Italian word for plaster, intonaco, is used. A secco painting, in

contrast, is done on dry plaster (secco is "dry" in Italian). The pigments thus require a binding medium, such

as egg (tempera), glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall.

Fresco by Dionisius representingSaint Nicholas in a Ferapontov Monastery


Gouache

Gouache is a type of paint consisting of pigment suspended in water. Gouache differs from watercolor in that the particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to water is much

higher, and an additional, inert, white pigment such as chalk is also present. Like all watermedia, it is diluted with water. This makes gouache heavier and more opaque, with

greater reflective qualities.[11]

Enamel

Enamels are made by painting a substate, typically metal, with frit, a type of powdered glass. Minerals called color oxides provide coloration. After firing at a temperature of

750–850 degrees Celsius (1380–1560 degrees Fahrenheit), the result is a fused lamination of glass and metal. Enamels have traditionally been used for decoration of

precious objects,[12] but have also been used for other purposes. In the 18th century, enamel painting enjoyed a vogue in Europe, especially as a medium for portrait

miniatures.[13] In the late 20th century, the technique of porcelain enamel on metal has been used as a durable medium for outdoor murals.[14]

Spray paint

Aerosol paint (also called spray paint) is a type of paint that comes in a sealed pressurized container and is released in a fine spray mist when depressing a valve button. A

form of spray painting, aerosol paint leaves a smooth, evenly coated surface. Standard sized cans are portable, inexpensive and easy to store. Aerosol primer can be applied

directly to bare metal and many plastics.

Speed, portability and permanence also make aerosol paint a common graffiti medium. In the late 1970s, street graffiti writers' signatures and murals became more elaborate

and a unique style developed as a factor of the aerosol medium and the speed required for illicit work. Many now recognize graffiti and street art as a unique art form and

specifically manufactured aerosol paints are made for the graffiti artist. A stencilcan be used to protect a surface except the specific shape that is to be painted. Stencils can

be purchased as movable letters, ordered as professionally cut logos, or hand-cut by artists.

Tempera

Tempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually a

glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size). Tempera also refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera paintings are very long lasting, and examples

from the first centuries AD still exist. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the invention of oil painting. A paint which is

commonly called tempera (although it is not) consisting of pigment and glue size is commonly used and referred to by some manufacturers in America as poster paint.

Water miscible oil paint

Water miscible oil paints (also called "water soluble" or "water-mixable") is a modern variety of oil paint which is engineered to be thinned and cleaned up with water, rather

than having to use chemicals such as turpentine. It can be mixed and applied using the same techniques as traditional oil-based paint, but while still wet it can be

effectively removed from brushes, palettes, and rags with ordinary soap and water. Its water solubility comes from the use of an oil medium in which one end of

the molecule has been altered to bind loosely to water molecules, as in a solution.

Philippine Painting

Overview

Painting and sculpture were strongly influenced by the Roman Catholic Church until the 19th century. Abstract or secular themes are seen more often in recent paintings.

John Luna and Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo are noted painters whose works evoke romantic and impressionist styles. Fernando Amorsolo, is known for his landscapes while
Carlos Francisco and Vicente Manansala are both known for their murals. Fabian de la Rosa was an artist whose specialty was portraiture.

In the last half of the 19th century, Filipino painters showed enough maturity of concept and technique to merit critical acclaim. Damian Domingo got recognition as the “father
of Filipino painting.” Towards the end of the Spanish regime, two Filipino painters won recognition in Europe – Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo and Juan Luna.
Hidalgo’s Antigone and Luna’s Spolarium were both acclaimed in Europe as masterpieces of Filipino painting. In 1884, Luna won the first Gold Medal at the Exposicion
Nacional de Bellas Artes for his Spolarium. This monumental painting shows fallen gladiators being dragged to an unseen pile of corpses in a chamber beneath the Roman
arena.
Spoliarium,Art Manila

After World War II, the Neo-Realist school of painting emerged, with such notable members as Vicente
Manansala, Hernando R. Ocampo, Victor Edades, Arturo Rogerio Luz, Jose T. Joya, and others.

The name of Jose Joya (1931 - 1995) is synonymous to the best in Philippine abstract expressionist art.
He produced an excellent body of bold and lyrical works.

Joey Joey Velasco is a Filipino artist who gave so much hope to the lives of those street children he painted in his famous Hapag ng Pag-asa….

Why Hapag ng Pag-asa?….Joey Velasco was moved by his work that he made great efforts to help those street children he used as models in his painting….At

first he just used them as his models , but God knocked on his heart and he searched for them, fed, and clothed them …Now they have been sheltered by Gawad

Kalinga….an organization helping people suffering from poverty….Here is an excerpt from the book….”They Have Jesus” written by Joey Velasco….

They Have Jesus

Tell us that some meals have become so private and solitary that no one asks a question? What do we eat? Where’s the patis? Who’s coming to dinner? The art of

conversation and

telling stories has already

been lost at many dining tables.

More than enjoying a repast,

a diner has need to reveal

other wants.

Every child diner at the

hapag reveals a story of more

hunger than a plate of rice

could satisfy. Onse, a nine year old lad, for example sits at the hapag ng pag-asa, his plate cleaned to the last crumb, but he listens still to feed his other hungers as a cart-

pushing scavenger whose father is a drug addict and the mama is a club strip dancer.At the table of the Master, Itok, the eleven-year old bread winner, another cart pushing

scavenger, whispers that he has gone number of times to jail after having been caught in a number of thieveries. What hunger and desires did this talented scavenger bring to

the feet of Jesus and those who believe in Jesus? A Christian community is fittingly disturbed as it watches the masqueraded struggle between good and evil, between wealth

and poverty, between greed and compassion, power and weakness as played in the lives of these children robbed of innocence and security of an ordinary growing

youth.Around the table were young people, including one whose hurt dug deep into her heart and completely erased whatever dignity a young girl had. Much misery is hidden

behind the faces of the hapag children whose lives are further shrouded in the destitution of cemetery shack-dwellers and pushcart lodgers.

.
Carlos V. Francisco (1914-1969)

In 1973, Carlos “Botong” Francisco was the second Filipino to receive the title of National Artist in Painting, after Fernando C. Amorsolo. Also known as the Poet of Angono,

he single-handedly brought back the art of mural painting in the Philippines and was its most distinguished painter in his time. He was on the forefront of modernist art in the

country, and with Victorio C. Edades and Galo B. Ocampo became part of “The Triumvirate” of modern art. His is best known for his historical epics, and one of his favorite

subjects is fisherfolk. His images of women came from mythology, history, legend, customs and contemporary life.

On November 4, 1914, Francisco was born to Felipe Francisco and Maria Villaluz in Angono, Rizal. He went to college at the University of the Philippines School of Fine Arts,

and before the Second World War did illustrations for The Tribune and La Vanguardia. Although he came from the same school of arts as Amorsolo, he veered away from the

style of the traditional artist and developed a modernist style. Together with Victorio Edades and Fermin Sanchez, he painted for the Manila Grand Opera House and the

Clover Theater. He and Edades started mural-painting, and together they formed the Thirteen Moderns, a group of modernists, in 1938.

After The Day's Toil

The Masterpiece Found At Last!

70 years after it left Philippine shores, the famous first-prize-winning painting “After the Day’s Toil” is finally located! The masterpiece was bought in 1980 by
Dr. Rogelio Pine, a Filipino cardiologist who is based in New Jersey. He bought it from Mr. Daniel Grossman of Grossman Gallery who previously bought it when
IBM New York unloaded several paintings in the late 70’s. For several decades, the Dizon family tried to locate the painting which last visited the Philippines in
1952 at the Philippine International Fair. That was the last time the family saw the painting and came to know the painting’s whereabouts only recently.

This masterpiece was painted in 1936 as the graduation thesis of the late Professor Vicente Alvarez Dizon (of the U.P. College of Fine Arts) during his post-
graduate scholarship studies at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
After Professor Dizon came home, he settled in Malate, Manila and and continued to teach as a full professor of Art at the Mapua Institute of Technology (1937-
41) and continued to lecture at the University of the Philippines School of Fine Arts. When he came back to the Philippines, he introduced the Art of Finger
Painting and he was invited to lecture and demonstrate the new medium and technique in Manila and around Central Luzon.

In 1939, Mr. Thomas Watson, founder of International Business Machines (IBM) thought of holding an International Art Competition at the Golden Gate
Exposition. He sent his representative, Mr. Kevin Mallen, to 79 countries all over the world. Mr. Mallen went to see Vicente at their residence in 1111 A. Mabini St.,
Manila. He came to take a look at Vicente’s painting “After the Day’s Toil” and after seeing it, he right-away purchased it for IBM. It was framed and shipped to the
U.S.A. and included in the International Competition on Contemporary Art of 79 Nations at the Golden Gate Exposition in San Francisco, California. In this historic
competition, “After the Day’s Toil” won First Place by popular vote. The entry of Spain by Salvador Dali won Second Place, and the entry of the United States won
Third Place. The French Impressionist Maurice Utrillo also had an entry here but did not win.

The Golden Gate International Exposition was held in order to celebrate the city’s two new bridges. The San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge was dedicated on
November 12, 1936; the Golden Gate Bridge was dedicated on May 27, 1937; and on August 26, 1937, dredging for Treasure Island, the site of the Fair, was
complete. Treasure Island, an island which is completely flat was in the middle of the Bay Bridge near Yerba Buena Island. The Fair ran from February 18 through
October 29 in 1939, and from May 25 through September 29 in 1940.

“Unity of the Pacific nations is America's concern and responsibility. San Francisco stands at the doorway to the sea that roars upon the shores of all these
nations; and so to the Golden Gate International Exposition I gladly entrust a solemn duty. May this, America's world's fair on the Pacific in 1939, truly serve all
nations”. - President Franklin D. Roosevelt

Born on April 5, 1905 in Malate, Manila, Vicente’s parents were Jose Sampedro Dizon, a native of Bacolor, Pampanga and Rosa Carlos Alvarez, of Concepcion,
Tarlac. His father (University of Santo Tomas 1897) was a landscape artist, and botanist-agronomist for the Bureau of Agriculture. As an agronomist and
agricultural inspector, Mr. Jose S. Dizon was assigned to several towns like Capas, Tarlac, Magalang, Pampanga, San Isidro, Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija. Vicente
had his early schooling at Malate Primary School, then continued his intermediate studies in the towns where his father was assigned.

His father wanted him to study Medicine and he obeyed. He attended the National University College of Medicine (1921-23). He later transferred to the
University of the Philippines School of Fine Arts and took a 5-year course and graduated with an Art Diploma in 1928. After graduation, he became the first artist-
lecturer of the Philippines. He is also distinguished as one of the first Filipinos to win important scholarships abroad, such as those awarded him by the Federal
Schools of Art, Minneapolis, Minnesota. On his own, he applied for a scholarship and was accepted at the Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, U. S. A.

In 1936, during his stay in Yale, Vicente was the first Filipino to be elected as one of the 12 members of the “Yale Phi Alpha”, a singular honor since only 12
members were elected each year from the more than 300 students. It was also during his stint in Yale that he painted his famous painting “After the Day’s Toil” as
his thesis. Because of his studiousness and enthusiasm, he was given assignments during summer, so after just one and a half years (instead of 3 years) he
graduated on June 7, 1936 with a degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts with Distinction, from Yale University. He specialized in Painting, Mural Decoration,
Composition, General Art Education, and Museum Administration.

He then went home to the Philippines and continued to teach as a full professor of Art at the Mapua Institute of Technology (1937-41). When he came back to
the Philippines, he introduced the Art of Finger Painting and he was invited to lecture and demonstrate the new medium and technique in Manila and around
Central Luzon. He also did his famous Chalk Talk lectures (where somebody from the audience was asked to draw any form or line on the black board and he
would then transform this into a recognizable object or figure).

After winning this prestigious award, Vicente continued to teach and was a faculty member of the University of the Philippines School of Fine Arts where he
lectured on History of Art (1940-47) and at the UP college of Education, where he also lectured on Art and Interior Decoration (1946-47). Likewise, he was an
associate professor in Painting and Theory of Arts. He was appointed member of the Alumni Committee for reorganization of the UP School of Fine Arts in 1938.
He was also an artist and historical consultant in the U.S. Army, 5th Air Force Command at Clark Field from February to August 1945.

During the war years, he secretly started recording life during those difficult times and finished 30 colorful and dramatic war paintings which he titled” From
Japanese Invasion to American Liberation, As My Brush Saw It”. He is also the author of 2 books one of which was published: “Art Education and Appreciation”
and “Living As An Art”, which was never published. He is considered as the pioneer of Art Education in the Philippines.

Prof. Dizon was married to Ma. Ines Lutgarda S. Henson of Angeles, Pampanga and their marriage was blessed with four children, namely Victor and Daniel
(twins), Luminoso and Josefina. Only Daniel and Josefina

became professional artists. In early 1947, while in the process of reorganizing the U.P. School of Fine Arts, Prof. Dizon fell seriously ill which led to his demise
on October 19, 1947 at the tender age of 42. His fellow-countrymen will remember him as the first Kapampangan in Philippine History to be awarded First Prize in
a global art competition. Art historians of the Philippines will also remember him as the only Filipino professional artist to record in thirty paintings the Japanese
Occupation of the Philippines and American Liberation.

Fernando Amorsolo (The Greatest Filipino Painter)

The Philippine artist Fernando Amorsolo (1892-1972) was a portraitist and painter of rural land scapes. He is best known for his craftsmanship and mastery in the use of light.
Fernando Amorsolo was born May 30, 1892, in the Paco district of Manila. At 13 he was apprenticed to the noted Philippine artist Fabian de la Rosa, his mother's first cousin.

In 1909 Amorsolo enrolled at the Liceo de Manila and then attended the fine-arts school at the University of the Philippines, graduating in 1914. After working three years as a

commercial artist and part-time instructor at the university, he studied at the Escuela de San Fernando in Madrid. For seven months he sketched at the museums and on the

streets of Madrid, experimenting with the use of light and color. That winter he went to New York and discovered the works of the postwar impressionists and cubists, who

became the major influence on his works. On his return to Manila, he set up his own studio.

During this period, Amorsolo developed the use of light - actually, backlight - which is his greatest contribution to Philippine painting. Characteristically, an Amorsolo painting

contains a glow against which the figures are outlined, and at one point of the canvas there is generally a burst of light that highlights the smallest detail.

During the 1920s and 1930s Amorsolo's output of paintings was prodigious. In 1939 his oil Afternoon Meal of the Workers won first prize at the New York World's Fair. During

World War II Amorsolo continued to paint. The Philippine collector Don Alfonso Ongpin commissioned him to execute a portrait in absentia of Gen. Douglas MacArthur, which

he did at great personal risk. He also painted Japanese occupation soldiers and self-portraits. His wartime paintings were exhibited at the Malacanang presidential palace in

1948. After the war Amorsolo served as director of the college of fine arts of the University of the Philippines, retiring in 1950. Married twice, he had 13 children, five of whom

became painters.

Amorsolo was noted for his portraits. He made oils of all the Philippine presidents, including the revolutionary leader Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, and other noted Philippine figures.

He also painted many wartime scenes, includingBataan, Corner of Hell, and One Casualty.

Amorsolo, who died in 1972, is said to have painted more than 10,000 pieces. He continued to paint even in his late 70s, despite arthritis in his hands. Even his late works

feature the classic Amorsolo tropical sunlight. He said he hated "sad and gloomy" paintings, and he executed only one painting in which rain appears.

Harvest Time

Tinikling

Vicente S. Manansala (1910-1981)

Honored as National Artist in Painting in 1981, Vicente S. Manansala is considered the country’s pioneer in Cubism. He was one of the Thirteen Moderns led by Victorio C.
Edades, and was one of the Big Three in the modernist movement, along with Cesar Legaspi and H. R. Ocampo. In addition, he formed the group of Neo-Realists together
with Romeo Tabuena and Anita Magsaysay-Ho. Manansala developed transparent cubism and his works were done mostly in the figurative mode, reflecting the society and
the local environment. He favored the styles of Picasso and Cezanne, and believed that the true beauty of art lay in the process of creating it.

Manansala was born in Macabebe, Pampanga on January 22, 1910. He was the second of the eight children of Perfecto Q. Manansala and Engracia Silva. At the age of 15,
he studied under painter Ramon Peralta while doing work painting movie posters at a shop in Manila. He entered the University of the Philippines School of Fine Arts in 1926
and graduated in 1930. He continued his studies under a UNESCO grant at the École de Beaux Arts in Banff and Montreal, Canada in 1949, and under a French government
scholarship at the École de Beaux Arts in Paris in 1950. His training did not end there. In 1960, he received a grant from the United States to study stained glass techniques in
New York. He also trained at the Otis Art Institute in 1967, and received another grant in 1970, this time from Germany, to study in Zurich.

Manansala worked as an illustrator for the Philippines Herald and Liwayway and as a layout artist for Photonews and Saturday Evening News Magazine in the 1930’s. He held
his first one-man show at the Manila Hotel in 1951, and then went on to work as a professor at the University of Santo Tomas School of Fine Arts from 1951 to 1958.

Vicente C. Manansala died in Makati in 1981.

His major works include:

• 1940 – Bangkusay Seascape


• 1948 – Banaklaot
• 1950 – Madonna of the Slums
• 1951 – Jeepneys
• 1967 – Reclining Mother and Child

He also painted several historical murals including:

• Stations of the Cross for UP Diliman Chapel


• Mural for Philippine Heart Center
• Fresco mural for the National Press Club

Achievements:

• 1941 – 1st Prize, National Art Exhibition, UST, for Pounding Rice
• 1950 – 1st Prize, Manila Grand Opera House Exhibition, for Barong-Barong #1
• 1950 – 1st Prize, Art Association of the Philippines First Annual Art Competition, for Banaklaot
• 1953 – 2nd Prize, Art Association of the Philippines, for Kahig (Scratch)
• 1955 – 2nd Prize, Art Association of the Philippines, for Fish Vendors
• 1955 – 3rd Prize, Art Association of the Philippines, for Best-Served, Well-Gained
• 1957 – Outstanding UP Alumnus
• 1962 – 2nd Prize, Art Association of the Philippines, for Give Us This Day
• 1962 – Best in Show, Art Association of the Philippines, for Give Us This Day
• 1963 – Republic Cultural Heritage Award
• 1970 – Patnubay ng Sining at Kalinangan Award, from the City of Manila

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