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Lecture Notes in

Control and
Information Sciences
Edited by M.Thoma

72

A. Isidori

Nonlinear Control Systems:


An Introduction

Springer-Verlag
Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo
Series Editor
M. Thoma

Advisory Board
A.V. Balakrishnan • L. D. Davisson • A. G. J. MacFarlane
H. Kwakernaak • .1. L. Massey • Ya Z. Tsypkin • A. J. Viterbi

Author
Prof. Alberto Isidori
Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica
Universit& di Roma ,,La Sapienza-
18 Via Eudossiana
00184 Rome (Italy)

ISBN 3-540-15595-3 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo


ISBN 0-38?-15595-3 Springer-Verlag NewYork Heidelberg Berlin Tokyo

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data


Isidor[, Alberto:
Nonlinear control systems: an introduction/A. Isidori.
Berlin; Heidelberg; New York; Tokyo: Springer 1985.
(Lecture notes in control and information sciences; Vol. 72)
NE: GT
This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material
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payabte to "VerwertungsgeseHschaft Wort =, Munich.
© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1985
Pdnted in Germany
Offsetprinting: Mercedes-Druck, Berlin
Binding: L~deritz und Bauer, Berlin
2161/3020-543210
PREFACE

This volume was p l a n n e d as a textbook for a graduate course on


nonlinear multivariable feedback systems. Most of it was p r e p a r e d
while the author was t e a c h i n g a s i m i l a r course at the D e p a r t m e n t of
Systems S c i e n c e s and M a t h e m a t i c s of the W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y in
St. Louis, in the 1983 fall semester. The purpose of -the volume is to
p r e s e n t a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the fundamentals of the theory
of n o n l i n e a r feedback control systems, with special e m p h a s i s on the
differential-geometric approach.
In the last decade, differential g e o m e t r y has p r o v e n to be as
s u c c e s s f u l to the study of n o n l i n e a r systems as Laplace t r a n s f o r m and
c o m p l e x functions theory were in the '50s to the study of s i n g l e - i n p u t
s i n g l e - o u t p u t linear systems and linear algebra in the '60s to the
study of m u l t i v a r i a b l e linear systems. Typical "synthesis" problems
like d i s t u r b a n c e isolation, noninteraction, shaping of the i n p u t - o u t p u t
response via feedback, can be d e a l t with relative ease, w i t h tools that
are w e l l w i t h i n the reach of a ( m a t h e m a t i c a l l y oriented) control
engineer. The purpose of this volume is to make the reader a q u a i n t e d
with m a j o r methods and results, and to make h i m able to e x p l o r e the
c o n s t a n t l y g r o w i n g literature.
The book is o r g a n i z e d as follows. C h a p t e r I introduces invariant
distributions, a fundamental tool in the analysis of the internal struc-
ture of n o n l i n e a r systems. W i t h the aid of this concept, it is shown
that a n o n l i n e a r s y s t e m locally e x h i b i t s K a l m a n - l i k e decompositions
into " r e a c h a b l e / u n r e a c h a b l e " parts and/or " o b s e r v a b l e / u n o b s e r v a b l e "
parts. C h a p t e r II e x p l a i n s to what extent there may exist global de-
compositions, c o r r e s p o n d i n g to a p a r t i t i o n of the whole state space
into "lower dimensional" r e a c h a b i l i t y and/or i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b i l i t y sub-
sets. C h a p t e r III d e s c r i b e s various "formats" in w h i c h the i n p u t - o u t p u t
map of a n o n l i n e a r system may be represented, and p r o v i d e s a short de-
s c r i p t i o n of the f u n d a m e n t a l s of r e a l i z a t i o n theory. C h a p t e r s IV and V
deal with the s y n t h e s i s of f e e d b a c k control laws. In the first of these,
d i s t u r b a n c e d e c o u p l i n g and n o n i n t e r a c t i n g control are d e a l t w i t h , a l o n g
the s o - c a l l e d "geometric approach", that p r o v e d to be quite successful
for the s o l u t i o n of s i m i l a r s y n t h e s i s p r o b l e m s in l i n e a r m u l t i v a r i a b l e
systems. In C h a p t e r V it is shown that n o n l i n e a r s t a t e - f e e d b a c k may be
used in o r d e r to make a given system to behave, i n t e r n a l l y and/or ex-
IV

ternally, like a l i n e a r one. In particular, feedback may be used in


orde r to shape the input-output behavior in some p r e s c r i b e d way.
The r e a d e r is s u p p o s e d to be familiar with the b a s i c concepts
of l i n e a r systems theory. Moreover, some k n o w l e d g e of the fundamentals
of d i f f e r e n t i a l geometry is required. There are several excellent text-
books available to this end, and some of them are q u o t e d a m o n g the refer-
ences. However, in o r d e r to make the volume as much as p o s s i b l e self-
contained, and p a r t i c u l a r l y to u n i f y the notations, the m o s t important
notions and r e s u l t s of f r e q u e n t u s a g e are c o l l e c t e d - without proof -
in the A p p e n d i x .
The a u t h o r of this book is p a r t i c u l a r l y grateful to P r o f e s s o r
A. Ruberti, for his c o n s t a n t encouragement, to P r o f e s s o r s J. Zaborszky
and T.J. Tarn for their interest and g en e r o u s support, to P r o f e s s o r
A.J. Krener who, especially in the c o u r s e a joint research venture,
was a source of i n s p i r a t i o n for m a n y of the ideas developed in this
volume. The author w o u l d also like to thank Professor M. T h o m a for his
encouragement during the p r e p a r a t i o n of this w o r k and P r o f e s s o r s C.
Byrnes, M. Fliess, P. K o k o t o v i c and S. M o n a c o for m a n y stimulating
discussions.

Rome, March 1985


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter I - LOCAL DECOMPOSITIONS OF CONTROL SYSTEMS ........ I

I. Introduction .......................................... I
2. Distributions on a Manifold ........................... 5
3. Frobenius Theorem ..................................... 12
4. Invariant Distributions ............................... 24
5. Local Decompositions of Control Systems ............... 28
6. Local Reachability .................................... 33
7. Local Observability ................................ ... 47

Chapter II - GLOBAL DECOMPOSITIONS OF CONTROL SYSTEMS ...... 55

I. Sussmann Theorem and Global Decompositions ............ 55


2. The Control Lie Algebra ............................... 61
3. The Observation Space ................................. 67
4. Linear Systems, Bilinear Systems and Some Examples .... 72

Chapter III- INPUT-OUTPUT MAPS AND REALIZATION THEORY ..... 83

I. Fliess Functional Expansions .......................... 83


2. Volterra Series Expansions ............................ 92
3. Output Invariance ..................................... 96
4. Left-Invertibility .................................... 102
5. Realization Theory .................................... 106
6. Uniqueness of Minimal Realizations .................... 120

Chapter IV - DISTURBANCE DECOUPLING AND NONINTERACTING


CONTROL ....................................... 124

I. Nonlinear Feedback and Controlled Invariant


Distributions ......................................... 124
2. The Disturbance Decoupling Problem .................... 134
3. Some Useful Algorithms ................................ 141
4. Noninteracting Control ................................ 152
5. Controllability Distributions ......................... 159
6. More on Noninteracting Control ........................ 165

Chapter V - EXACT LINEARIZATION METHODS .................... 178"

• I. Linearization of the Input-Output Response ............ 178


2. The Internal Structure of the Linearized System ....... 191
- 3. Some Algebraic Properties ............................. 200
4. Linear Model Matching ................................. 206
"5. More on Linear Model Matching, Output Reproducibility
and Noninteraction .................................... 215
6. State-Space Linearization ............................. 222
-7. Observer with Linear Error Dynamics ................... 244
VI

Appendix - BACKGROUND MATERIAL FROM DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY ... 254

I. Some Facts from Advanced Calculus ...................... 254


2. Some Elementary Notions of Topology .................... 256
3. Smooth Manifolds ....................................... 258
4. Submanifolds ........................................... 264
5. Tangent Vectors ........................................ 268
6. Vector Fields .......................................... 277

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ....................................... 289

REFERENCES .................................................. 292