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EE 357 : SWITCHGEAR & PROTECTION

CREDITS : 6 ( L = 4, P = 2 )
(Prerequisite : EE 256 : Electrical Engineering II)
1. Circuit Breaking : Classification of circuit breakers, Arc formation, quenching of d.c. and a.c.
arcs, arc interruption theories. Rating of C.B., Specification of C.B. RRRV and factors affecting
RRRV, evolved faults and kilometric faults. Resistance switching, antipumping, damping
phenomenon, velocity and travel curves, Contact dynamics, Simulation of circuit breaking
Phenomenon using Software Package.
2. Circuit Breakers : Principle, operation, construction and operating mechanisms of different
types of
(a) Air circuit breakers
(b) Bulk oil circuit breakers
(c) Minimum oil circuit breakers
(d) Air blast circuit breakers
(e) Sulphur hexaflauride circuit breakers
(f) Vacuum circuit breakers
(g) Moulded Case circuit breakers
Their relative merits and demerits, applications. Arc control devices.
3. Generator Protection : Class A and class B protection. Various types of protection such as
differential, overcurrent, inter- turn, stator and rotor earth-fault, negative phase sequence, field
failure, over-load, overvoltage, reverse power, pole-slipping, back-up impedance, and under-
frequency Protection. Relay settings.
4. Transformer Protection : Gas operated relays. Overcurrent, earth-fault, restricted earth-fault and
overfluxing protection; differential protection; magnetising inrush and other problems and their
remedies. Overall generator-transformer protection. Relay settings.
5. Transmission Line Protection : Radial feeder protection by definite time, instantaneous, normal
inverse, very inverse, extremely inverse and IDMT type overcurrent relays. Protection of parallel
and ring-main feeders using overcurrent plus directional overcurrent relays (IS3842). Relay settings.
Distance Protection : Stepped distance characteristics; quantities to be fed to distance relays;
commonly employed distance relays. Problems in distance measurement and their remedies. Relay
settings.
6. Bus Zone Protection : Directional inter-locking system; circulating current differential protection;
high impedance differential relay; breaker back-up protection.
7. Induction Motor Protection : Protection of small motors. Protection of large motors against
thermal overload, short-circuit, unbalanced loading, stalling, earth-fault and under-voltage.
Comprehensive motor protection relay. Relay settings.
8 Technical Visit is suggested to Switchgear Manufacturing Company.
REFERENCE BOOKS :
1. Date, Oza & Nair
Power System Protection
Bharti Prakashan
2. Y.G.Paithankar, S.R.Bhide
Fundamentals of Power System Protection
Prentice- Hall of India
3. J.B.Gupta
A Course in Power Systems
S.K.Kataria & Sons.
4 R.T. Lythall
J & P Switchgear Book
List of Experiments:
Sr. No. Name of Experiment
1 Practical Evaluation of Ground Constant of a Circuit Breaker

2 Simulation of Circuit Breaking Transients using simulation software package

3 Simulation of Radial Feeder Protection using Normal Inverse Relays

4 Simulation of Radial Feeder Protection using Very Inverse relays

5 Simulation of Parallel Feeder Protection

6 Simulation of Transient Over-reach of Overcurrent Relay

7 Simulation of Reverse Power Protection

8 Simulation of Generator Differential Protection

9 Simulation of Transformer Differential Protection

10 Interpretation of Schematics as per International Convention for various


professional protection schemes