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Jammu and Kashmir’s Monthly Magazine RNI : JKENG/2007/26070 ISSN 0974-5653

Now
Epilogue
because there is more to know
Telling
The J&K Stories
Jammu, September 1, 2009 / Vol 3 / Issue 9 || Price Rs. 30 || Postal Registration No. JK-350/2009-11 || www.epilogue.in

UNDERSTANDING
J&K ECONOMY
THROUGH

BUDGET
2009-10 INTERVIEW
ABDUL RAHIM RATHER
Finance Minister

Jammu V/s Kashmir


A Year After
AMARNATH LAND ROW
Politics Behind Central University
“Yes, I am in Isolation”
Interview : Leela Karan Sharma
MOHINDER SINGH, CHAIRMAN ANGREZU RAM SHARMA, VICE CHAIRMAN

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Epilogue
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F O R
33
T H E
Volume : 3, Number : 9
ISSN : 0974-5653
RNI : JKENG/2007/26070
www.epilogue.in

M O N T H O F S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 9

For being a zone of conflict, the politics of


Jammu and Kashmir is a well reported subject
but little has been written on the economy.
Taking advantage of the state's annual budget
and economic survey, the present issue
discusses the economic profile of Jammu and
Kashmir. An essential guide for beginners and
experts alike. A recall of J&K's Amarnath land
row agitation of 2008 also makes an
interesting reading

Epilogue Ø

September 2009
CONNECTING J&K

C onnectivity is a major issue in J&K and people in many areas taunt the
government saying that roads were laid in remote areas only because
they close to borders. Our March issue looked at the connectivity via roads,
rail and air to bring to the fore the missing links.

Mar. 2009
TREADING FAILURE

A s world watches keenly the new unfolding developments in Pakistan, our


Consulting Editor D Suba Chandran travelled to the troubled country to
bring fresh perspectives for our readers in April Issue.

Apr. 2009

J&K MOVING FORWARD

M ay issue was one of the rare collections of ideas where 12 natives from
both sides of Jammu and Kashmir poured their ideas out of the heart on
how boundaries can be blurred and relations can be strengthened.

A limited number of unbound back volumes is available in our stocks.


May 2009
A R E Y O U M I S S I N G O U R PA S T S T O R I E S

LOK SABHA POLLS 2009

W ith Prof Rekha Chowdhary looking into various aspects, the May issue
offered a complete view of the Lok Sabha elections in Jammu and
Kashmir. An interview with Finance Minister Abdul Rahim Rather explained
most critical questions on the state's economy

For booking your copies call us at 9797599365


June 2009
THE FUTURE OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR

J uly 2009 issue offered a rare insight into the whole gamut of Kashmir
issue. An ACDIS, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign sponsored
study, which was the cover feature, examined Kashmir issue from different
perspectives.

July 2009
UNFOLDING THE LAND OF MOON

A ugust 2009 issue was one of the path-breaking in the life of Epilogue
magazine. The cover story explored many aspects of life in Ladakh and
carried a first hand of research on the state of media in the Himalayan cold
desert.

August 2009
Epilogue
because there is more to know

www.epilogue.in CONTENTS

Editor In Verbatim 6
Zafar Iqbal Choudhary Prologue 7
Letters 8
Publisher
Yogesh Pandoh
Note Book
Consulting Editor 7 Essential Entries 9
D. Suba Chandran
Jammu V/s Kashmir
Associate Editors Jammu & Kashmir 44
Irm Amin Baig A Year After Amarnath Land Row
Tsewang Rigzin Epilogue Correspondent
Volume 3, Issue 9, September 2009
Recalling ‘Gandhi of Jammu’ 46
General Manager
Kartavya Pandoh Opinion 50
Needed Soul Searching Life
Manager IN FOCUS After Sangarsh 2008
Adarsh Rattan Bali Budget 2009-10 Kapil Sharma
(Marketing & Advertisement) Kashmir’s Democratic Catharsis 51
Riyaz Wani
Art Editor 15 Opinion
Game is lost for now as 55
Keshav Sharma Ensure Taxpayers’ Money Goes to
‘Divided we always fall’
Programme that Work
Bilal Hussain
Zafar Choudhary
Research Officer Opinion 58
Raman Sharma 17 Budget 2009-10
CUAS and the Stillborn Wannables
Phones & email 19 Ten Challenges Anmol Sharma

Office : +91 191 2493136 40 New Taxes


Features
subscriptions : +91 99060 27136
Editorial: +91 94191 80762 42 Interview Changpa Tribe’s Identity, 61
Administration: +91 94191 82518 ‘There are no quick fixes; we are Way of Live Under Threat
editor@epilogue.in working on a workable Tashi Morup
subscription@epilogue.in employment policy’ The Fur Traders and 63
Abdul Rahim Rather
The Lost Avenues
Printed and Published by Binish Gulzar & Syed Rakshanda Suman
Yogesh Pandoh for Epilogue
NewsCraft from Ibadat House, Column
Madrasa Lane, Near Graveyard, Kashmir Ki Kali... 65
Bathindi Top, Jammu, J&K - 180012 bruished and shattered
and Printed at : DEE DEE Manisha Sobhrajani
Reprographix, 3 Aikta Ashram, New History of Forts in Jammu Hills 67
Rehari Jammu (J&K) Prof. Jigar Mohammad

Disputes, if any, subject to jurisdiction


of courts and competitive tribunals in
Jammu only.

RNI : JKENJ/2007/26070
ISN : 00974-5653
Price : Rs 30
Epilogue Ø

September 2009
H E A R & H E A R
Who Said What

“Where is the angry young man…he has not been seen in the
House (Legislative Assembly) for last 12 days”
Panthers Party leader Harsh Dev asks Speaker about prolonged
absence of Chief Minister Omar Abdullah from the assembly
which was session across August

“You can check the past records also…Chief Ministers don't sit
in the Assembly for whole day…I have to attend other
important government business outside Assembly”
Chief Minister Omar Abdullah responding to opposition
criticism on his prolonged absence from Assembly as he returns
to House after 14 days

“She is continuously indulging in contempt of the House. She


thinks that assembly is a room of her home and she can dictate
any terms”
Legislative Assembly Speaker Mohammad Akbar Lone on
opposition PDP leader Mehbooba Mufti

“There have two elections in Jammu and Kashmir since I


addressed you on last Independence Day. The first one was for
state Legislative Assembly and second for Lok Sabha. Peoples of
all areas of state have participated vigorously in these elections.
This is a proof that there is no space for separatist thought in
Jammu and Kashmir”
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in his Independence Day address
to the nation from ramparts of Red Fort in New Delhi on Aug 15

“Whom was (Justice) Muzaffar Jan (the Commissioner of Inquiry


who probed Shopian rape and murder case) seeking to please and
whose purpose did he try to serve? Never in the annals of
commissions of inquiry such irrelevant and disgraceful remarks
been made. Even a magistrate knows that rape is rape even if the
victims be of mad moral”
Constitutional expert and celebrated columnist AG Noorani in his
column in Frontline Magazine

Epilogue Ø

September 2009
P R O L O G U E
From the Editor

Invest some vision

Zafar Choudhary

A
state like Jammu and were ever made to harness the hydro-
Kashmir with vast electric potential. Only less than 10%
farmland, rich biodiversity, of the total potential has so far been
mineral reserves and water exploited allowing the electricity
resources should ideally be import bill to become biggest culprit
the exporter of food grains, vegetables, of state's financial disorder. Between
mutton, poultry and milk products, 2006 and 2008, the Finance Ministers
minerals and electricity. The scenario, conceived an innovative way of
however, is contradictory. Take small separating the power budget from
examples: A state like Jammu and state's general annual budget in a bid
Kashmir with no sound industrial base to paint rosy picture of finances. The
or corporate sector is expected to be a annual budget for the year 2009-10
major producer of agriculture, presented by the Finance Minister
horticulture and animal husbandry Abdul Rahim Rather in Legislative
products owing to agrarian character Assembly on August 10 has,
of its economy. Official statistics incidentally, done some justice to the
reveal that annual mutton import bill people of Jammu and Kashmir by
FEBRUARY 2008
alone stand around Rs 1300 Crores. In putting things across as they exist. The
government needs to take some big
case of food grains the gap between Finance Minister, in his budget speech,
leaps by going full throttle in
demand and supply is nearly of the clearly reflected the loopholes in
harnessing the hydro-electric
order of 40 per cent. While there is a management of our economy and
potential and making state self
huge cry across the state for talked freely about the weaknesses
sufficient on food grain production.
phenomenal shortage of milk and its which he proposed to plug in. after
Far more than the monetary
products, state has to import nearly explaining the spending proposals,
investment both these sectors need an
one crore eggs to meet its annual when the Finance Minister came to
investment of vision and long term
demand of three crores. There is self some revenue mobilization areas, the
policy. We have long been arguing in
sufficiency in none. J&K is producer of measures were again ad hoc and
these columns that economic
good quality of fresh fruits, mainly temporary to have some order of
empowerment of Jammu and Kashmir
apple, pear and apricot but domestic semblance for the time being. Some
can be a viable solution to many
demand is met only after importing fresh taxes were imposed on daily use
conflicts, if not all. Therefore, along
fruits around four times higher in products like petrol, diesel, liquor,
with political measures the
quantity than the local produce. mutton and poultry etc to mobilize
government must think pure business as
Another sector which should have some additional revenue of some 69
well.
made Jammu and Kashmir rich enough crores. These small step measures are
to take care of weak areas is a not going to bring any turnaround in Feedback :
perpetual sad story. No honest efforts state's economic outlook. The zafarchoudhary@epilogue.in

Epilogue Ø

September 2009
L E T T E R S
Readers Write

Life Without Media, Unimaginable Move beyond


Dear Editor the few places in the world being Kashmir,
No words can be too high to appreciate completely blacked out by the media is
the Rinchen Domla's work (Epilogue, also not out of place. In India, the
Ladakh also
August 2009) on state of print media in television channels and newspapers Dear Editor
Ladakh. The argument made in the have become an essential part of the We have been hearing and reading
editorial that Ladakh is perhaps one of daily life of an ordinary Indian. Given about Charkha Development and
the present media scenario in country, Communication Network's work in
it is really difficult to imagine life in Kashmir and Ladakh. While greeting
place like Ladakh, which your editorial Epilogue and Charkha for the marvelous
has described in many ways. In your work (Epilogue, August 2009) on
prologue, we see a commitment of Ladakh, I take this opportunity to make
serving the people of Ladakh through a humble complaint to the both. Why
Epilogue and I am sure you live by most of the media activities and
commitment even in the face of research works are confined in
adverse circumstances. Keep it up! Kashmir Valley and Ladakh alone.
Does anyone know why Rajouri
MANOJ KHATTAR
district has lowest literacy rate in
Department of Civics
Bombay University, Mumbai Jammu and Kashmir, why banks don't
offer loan to the
local entrepreneurs,
Leh Town is not Ladakh why local traditional
Dear Editor, forms of art and craft
After reading the August issue with keen interest, I must are being completely
tell you that your title (Unfolding the Land of Moon) was shunned by the
quite misrepresentative is not fully misleading. The focus artisans, why tribal
(Ladakh asks) too was out of place. The point here I want population has been
to make is that media has a wrong notion of understanding Ladakh with Leh district headquarters. This forced to abandon its
is completely wrong and often appears hurting to many in Kargil. Ladakh comprises of two districts of culture, why tourists
Leh and Kargil. Go the place like Nubra (in Leh) and Zanskar (in Kargil) to explore real Ladakh and don't come to this
understand hardships people face there. I would again say that your work on the state of media area? There are many
(Epilogue, August 2009) is also completely restricted to Leh district headquarters which is well questions like these
connected by air with Srinagar, Jammu, Chandigarh and Delhi. There is no question of doubting your and many hopes that
intentions but what I mean to suggest you is that there is a need to think beyond Leh township while NGOs and media will
talking about Ladakh. someday offer some
GHULAM ALI answers as we have
Kargil failed to get answers
from the government
EDITOR REPLIES:
We deeply appreciate the point raised by you and are well aware of the various contours of SHAHZAD KHAN
geographical, political and ethnic identities of Ladakh. As your read our introduction of August Rajouri
issue, we have clearly said that this is a small beginning and in the coming months we intend to do
more work in Ladakh. Since Epilogue is not a large organization to move or have stationed its
editorial staff in a place like Kargil, our coverage of ground realities in remote areas like yours
mainly depends on the local input and quality of research work. While thanking you for your
feedback, we invite you to contribute your efforts in telling the untold stories of the 'real Ladakh'
as you put.

Epilogue Ø

September 2009
NO T E BOOK
7 Essential Stories

DIPLOMACY
Not negotiating Kashmir: Holbrooke
U nited States Special Envoy for Pakistan and
Afghanistan, Richard Holbrooke, who was on a
visit to Pakistan, said on August 20 that his visit has
Pakistan, Holbrooke said Islamabad needed more
help to overcome its problems, but highlighted that
such decisions cannot be taken independently by
nothing to do with the Indo-Pak problem, and that the US president.
he is not in Pakistan to negotiate on the Kashmir “Pakistan should remember one thing that the
issue. In an interview to a private President of the United States cannot take
television channel, Holbrooke said it decisions himself, but we can make the request to
was upto India and Pakistan to the Congress,” the Online news network quoted
resolve the issue bilaterally. “Any Holbrooke, as saying. Terming the energy crisis in
improvement in Pak-India relations Pakistan as that country's biggest problem,
is also good for the world,” Holbrooke said America is ready to in this regard,
Holbrooke said. but Islamabad should try to fix the 'tremendous
In response to a question, Holbrooke amount of leakage' that exists in the whole
said he had never blamed the Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) system. “US would help in this regard but the government and
for helping the Taliban. When enquired about US assistance to people of Pakistan have to take lead,” he said.

SEPARATIST LEADER'S INCARCERATION


Apex Court asks J&K Govt:
Are you scared of a woman?
referring to a plea for shifting Dukhtran-e-Millat chief Syeda
Asia Andrabi from Jammu to Srinagar jail. The Supreme
Court refused to entertain the petition filed by Jammu and
Kashmir government regarding the shifting of Andrabi.
The state government had come in appeal against the state
High Court order quashing its decision not to shift the
founder chairperson of separatist organisation Dukhtaran-e-
Milat (daughters of faith) from Jammu to Srinagar jail.
Andrabi has been pressing for her shifting from Jammu to
Srinagar jail so that she can meet her children. Her husband
is already in jail in a murder case.
A bench comprising Chief Justice K G Balakrishnan and
Justice P Sathasivam yesterday dismissed the appeal of the
state government and rejected the contention of senior
counsel Amrindar Saran that a large number of militants are
lodged in Srinagar jail and if she has been shifted to
Srinagar jail she may have access to the jailed militants and
may resume her anti-national activities.
The judges asked the counsel, ''Is the state government

A fter twice being directed by the State High Court to


shift a woman separatist leader from a Jammu jail to
Srinagar, the state government got a reprimand from the
scared of a woman?'' The state government has also failed to
provide data regarding the number of woman prisoners
presently lodged in Srinagar jail and also regarding the
Apex court of the country: “Is the state government scared capacity of Srinagar jail for woman prisoners, the court
of a woman” the Judges of Supreme Court asked while observed.

Epilogue Ø

September 2009
NO T E BOOK
7 Essential Stories

LOST IN TURMOIL
Govt says only 3400 persons missing, rights
groups put figures twice that
E ven though the rights groups have sharply
disputed the figures but the J&K government
has told State Legislative Assembly that an
estimated 3400 persons have been missing in
custody or otherwise since the outbreak of
armed insurgency in 1989. The human
rights groups working in Kashmir,
particularly the Association of the
Parents of Disappeared Persons, have
disputed government's figures and said
that not less than 8000 persons were
missing.
Official figures released in the
State Assembly said 3,429 persons
had disappeared between 1990 and
July 2009, with only 110 persons
missing after arrest by the security
forces. Leading local and international
rights groups have suggested over 8,000
people have disappeared in the region,
with the majority having been arrested by
Indian security forces.
The government, which gave no
further detail about the missing people,
also ruled-out forming a commission of
inquiry to probe all the cases of
disappearances, a statement released
in the assembly said.
In 2007, a local group, the
Association of Parents of Disappeared
People, said it had found 940 "nameless
graves" in 18 villages in Uri district, which
neighbours the Pakistan-administered zone
of Kashmir. Amnesty International has
urged the government to determine if any
of the graves contain the bodies of those
listed as missing by local
rights groups. Indian security
officials contend many of the
missing had crossed over to
Pakistan to join the insurgents
and say the graves are those
of "unidentified" rebels killed
in action.

Epilogue Ø
10 ×
September 2009
NO T E BOOK
7 Essential Stories

SEPARATIST SPACE
PM's I-Day speech trigger debate in Kashmir
There have been two elections in Jammu
& Kashmir since I addressed you on the
last Independence Day. The first one was
for the State Legislative Assembly and
the second for the Lok Sabha. People of
all areas of the State have participated
vigorously in both the elections. This is a
proof that there is no place for separatist
thought in Jammu & Kashmir.

on board in the process of finding a solution to the


Kashmiri problem. Mufti disputed Prime Minister's
interpretation of the massive participation of the
Kashmiris in the lately held elections and claimed that a
durable and lasting solution to the Kashmir problem
could be found by involving the alienated sections into a
P atron of the mainstream Peoples Democratic Party (PDP),
Mufti Mohammad Sayeed, as also most of the Valley's
separatist political parties---including both factions of the
dialogue process and strengthening their belief in the
country's democratic processes and institutions. He asserted
Hurriyat Conference, JLKF and Jamaat-e-Islami---have that the separatist leaders had an important role to play.
strongly disputed Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh's latest Mufti emphasized on demilitarization and withdrawal of
interpretation of the massive participation of the Kashmiris in J&K Armed Forces Special Powers as also PDP's exclusive
recently held Assembly and Lok Sabha elections and claimed concept of constituting a “Joint Council” of the Legislatures of
that the democratic process had not marginalized the Indian-controlled Jammu & Kashmir and the Pakistani-
separatist politics. controlled Jammu & Kashmir.Officiating Chairman of Hurriyat
In sharp contrast to the tone and tenure of Chief Minister Conference (Mirwaiz), Prof Abdul Gani Bhat, found it
Omar Abdullah's Independence Day speech, Prime Minister surprising that such a statement had been made by Dr
Manmohan Singh had asserted in his ceremonial address at Red Manmohan Singh who had repeatedly asserted in the
Fort in New Delhi yesterday that the reality of massive Parliament that the solution to the Kashmir problem lay in a
participation of the Kashmiris in Assembly as well as dialogue process with an all-inclusive involvement and
Parliamentary elections in recent past had left “no space for participation. “We are the masters of the state and we alone
the separatist politics in Jammu & Kashmir”. Contrary to a will determine its fate”, Prof Gani said in a statement.
many speculations---including the one of an offer of ceasefire Spokesman of Syed Ali Shah Geelani's faction of the
with the militants in the holy month of Ramzan---head of the Hurriyat, Ayaz Akbar, said that Manmohan Singh had only
Congress-led UPA Government did not only ignore the Kashmiri destroyed his own image of a mature and responsible political
separatists but also gave them an unprecedented affront. leader by making a bellicose assertion and wrong
Making a mockery of the J&K Chief Minister's olive branch interpretation of the elections. He said that Prime Minister of
to the separatists, Prime Minister said in rather an Advanian India had “like his predecessors” spoken the “language of
style that participation of large number of Kashmiris in the power” and thus harmed India's image in the world of
Assembly and Lok Sabha elections had left no room for the diplomacy and statesmanship. According to him, Dr Singh had
separatist politics in the state. It was significantly different “abused the Kashmiris” by taunting them as being
from Dr Singh's speeches in the last over five years as he had “separatists”.
repeatedly stated that his UPA Government believed in talking Identical statements of resistance poured in from Jammu
to all sections of opinion, including the separatists. He had & Kashmir Liberation Front, Jamaat-e-Islami, Jamiat-e-Ahli
invariably suggested the Kashmiri separatists would be taken Hadith and Democratic Freedom Party.

Epilogue Ø
11 ×
September 2009
NO T E BOOK
7 Essential Stories

REPEALING AFSPA Militancy /


Merely a battle between NC, PDP Disturbing
I n recent months the demand of repeal of Armed Forces Special Powers Act has seen a complete
decentralization –traveling from political headquarters. However, the political leadership is still O wing to a slow
peace process
and a variety of
locked in a quagmire and they are making the issue more of a battle of one-upmanship between ruling
National Conference and the opposition Peoples Democratic Party. other reasons
Witnessing the discussion over the issue in Legislative Assembly recently, it clearly looked like a battle militancy in
for political survival between the two key players in Kashmir. Jammu and
Kashmir has been
Concluding his exhaustive reply to the discussion on the grants sought for his departments, Law
on constant
Minister Ali Mohammad Sagar dismissed PDP's campaign for withdrawal of AFSPA as “deceitful politics”
decline over the
and claimed that Mufti Mohammad Sayeed's party had never taken an initiative during six-year-long
years but the
PDP-Congress coalition regime in 2002-08 for revoking the special powers granted to security forces in
trends are now
1990. Even as Mehbooba Mufti confronted Sagar and blamed the NC Government for pioneering the
fast changing. In
imposition of Public Safety Act (PSA), Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act (TADA),
Prevention of Terrorist Activities Act (POTA) as well as AFSPA in J&K, Sagar asserted that “misleading the recent past
the people and Assembly with lies” was characteristic of the PDP. there have been
numerous
Sagar fiercely retaliated to Ms Mufti's charge that Omar Abdullah-led coalition government had
incidents of
slapped the PSA on many people from a 14-year-old boy to 80-year-old separatist leader, Syed Ali Shah
infiltration of
Geelani, and claimed that his government had used minimum possible force to restore peace in
militants through
Kashmir valley in the last eight months. “You will have to accept Mehboobaji that it was none other
Line of Control
than your father who got Jagmohan as Governor in 1990 and imposed AFSPA on Jammu & Kashmir”,
and International
Sagar shouted on the PDP chief. “When your father was Home Minister of India, he made it a point of
Border and a
his ego to bring Jagmohan as Governor, issued an Ordinance and got the legislation done in Parliament
marked step up in
within six months”, Sagar referred to the embryonic days of Kashmir insurgency in 1990.
violence in the
“Total number of militants in 1989 was just 72. Dr (Farooq Abdullah) Sahab got them all arrested and
interiors. Top
later set them free for rehabilitation. Today, most of the leaders in this country are referring to
intelligence
militants as our children. On using the same phrase, a country-wide campaign of hatred was triggered
officials in Jammu
off against Dr Sahab. He refused to yield on Jagmohan's appointment and resigned in protest
and Kashmir feel
alongwith 29 Ministers and MLAs. We sacrificed our Government for the people of this state. Even an
that a large
orderly remains stuck to his chair”, Sagar grumbled on Ms Mufti and reminded her that it was her
number of
father, Mufti Mohammad Sayeed, and his protégé, Jagmohan, who had given special powers to armed
militants were
forces in J&K in 1990.
waiting to sneak in
“Did you take a single initiative for withdrawing AFSPA during the six years of your Government? across the border
Listen, Ms Mufti. I have checked all records and found that you people have never submitted a even as warnings
suggestion of revoking Armed Forces Special Powers Act to the Centre in the last six years of your of a “disturbing”
Government. There has been not a single meeting on this subject for six years”, Sagar shouted on
surge echoed far
Mehbooba and her colleagues on the Opposition benches and claimed that Chief Minister Omar
away from the
Abdullah had made sincere efforts from day one of his government for withdrawing the special powers
troubled Valley. At
enjoyed by the armed forces in the state notified as “disturbed area” nearly 19 years back.
a Conference of
“We don't believe in politics of deceit and double standards”, he said and claimed that even the Indus
Water Treaty of 1960 had been signed with Pakistan when Mufti Mohammad Sayeed was a leader in
Congress party and the NC founder, Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah, was in jail. He said he was indebted DEPLETING
to Mufti Sayeed who had publicly confirmed this reality and asked Ms Mufti to be correct on the facts.
As leader of the 21 MLA-strong PDP, Ms Mufti, kept on her protestation and Speaker continued asking Forests
her not to disrupt the Minister's reply, she led a walk-out of nearly a dozen of her MLAs while casting
the aspersion of being prejudiced and partisan against Mr Lone. It enraged the Speaker who warned
her against her assertions and contended that it was a “contempt to the House”. He directed
O ut of total
20,230 sq km
of forest in Jammu
Secretary Assembly, Mohammad Ramzan, to issue a notice of “contempt to the House” against Ms and Kashmir, about
Mufti. 144 sq km is

Epilogue Ø
12 ×
September 2009
NO T E BOOK
7 Essential Stories

infiltration
Trends: 194 crossed over in 4 months
Chief Ministers on Internal Security in New Delhi on August 17, the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh remarked: “the levels
of infiltration that had come down very substantially had seen a surge this year”. “The infiltrators are more battle-
hardened, better equipped and in possession of sophisticated” communication systems, he said at the conference.
In Kashmir, top intelligence sources said hundreds of militants had gathered at 42 training camps across the Line of
Control and were waiting to cross over. “We fear escalation of
violence during Ramazan, which is just days away,” said an official.
The United Jihad Council (UJC), an umbrella body of 13 militant
outfits based in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir, has already ruled out a
unilateral cease-fire in Jammu and Kashmir during the Muslim holy
month. “If the Government of India takes a positive step in this
direction, the UJC will sit and think over it,” UJC chairman and Hizb-
ul Mujahideen supreme commander Syed Salahuddin told a local
news agency on Saturday.
The infiltration alerts, from Delhi and Kashmir, have come at a time
the LoC has seen a spurt in militant activity. Sources said there had
been at least 13 infiltration bids in the Kashmir valley alone that left
dozens of militants and several jawans dead. The Border Security
Force on August 16 foiled a major attempt when a group of militants
tried to cross a river flowing close to the international border in
Jammu's Samba sector.
Defence spokesman Lt Colonel J.S. Brar said the security forces had
strengthened the counter-infiltration mechanism on the LoC that had
suffered damage during the winter because of snowfall. “That is
why most of the militants are being gunned down near the LoC and
they do not succeed in crossing into the hinterland,” he said.
But it is learnt from sources that many militants had already entered
the Valley. “Around 195 militants have managed to infiltrate into
the Valley in the past seven months against the 84 in the
corresponding period last year. Some of them have been killed or
arrested but most are active,” an official said. He said 370 militants
were active in Kashmir and that more than 40 per cent of them were
foreigners. “This is in addition to 70 unlisted militants (unidentified
but accounted for),” he added.
Although militant violence has come down substantially over the
years, officials said a year of unrest that began with the Amarnath land row had helped the rebels, who were now back in
a position to carry out attacks with ease. “Our counter-insurgency grid has been disturbed as our focus has been to quell
street protests. In the process, the militants have regrouped and consolidated their position,” an official said.

GREEN COVER
substantially under occupation
reported to be under illegal occupation. Officials said the 12,066 sq km of forest was in Jammu region while in Kashmir it was
8,128 sq kms. Ladakh region has just 36 sq km of forest.
In Jammu, about 95 sq km of forests are under encroachment, while in the Kashmir valley, it is about 49 sq km. It said
encroachment on over 0.54 sq km has been removed in Jammu, while 18.65 sq km forest has been restored to department
after evicting illegal occupations.

Epilogue Ø
13 ×
September 2009
DIP/J-2881
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

OPINION
Ensure Taxpayers' Money Goes
to Programmes that Work
BILAL HUSSAIN

The state of Jammu and Kashmir is mired in fiscal problems that cannot be covered up with the usual
state budget fixes. The state has entered an unprecedented epoch of permanent fiscal crisis that
demands real leadership and decisive action, which unfortunately current budget to larger extent is
not endowed with. Nothing less than the solvency of the state is at stake.

T he budget 2009-10 estimates the the budget in paying salary-bill of the interest payments and servicing of debt
fiscal deficit for the current year state. At present the state has over 3.32 (budget estimate) compared to 2007-
at Rs 2081 crore. Looking back lakh employees on its rolls. On the main 08. For the fiscal 2008-09 J&K was
past year figures provide a grim picture items of expenditure, the current year's expected to spend a sum of Rs 160,055
for the state's fiscal position. The fiscal non-plan salary provision is Rs 6,594 lakh (budgeted estimates) on interest
deficit for the year 2006-07 (Pre-actual) crore in comparison to Rs 4,973 crore of payments and servicing of debt, while
[RE] was Rs 1509 crores, the same figure past year. Additional provision of Rs 121 as in 2007-08 the state had actually
for 2007-08 was Rs 2666 crore and for crore has been kept for salaries of spent a huge amount of Rs 203,236 lakh
the year 2008-09 (BE) it stood at Rs 2330 migrant employees. (revised estimates) for the same. While
crore. Power sector is another major con- this year the present coalition govern-
To further worsen the state's fiscal cern for J&K, wherein the state has ment has kept the provision for pay-
position this year the government has failed miserably in bringing deficit due ment of interest at Rs 1,729 crore in
already reached an agreement with the to it down. Previous government man- comparison to last year's figure of Rs
employee representatives for the aged a zero deficit budget by taking out 1,602 crore. There was an immediate
implementation of 6th Pay Commission. power bill and put it separately as need to restructure the debt of the
The move is expected to put further 'power budget', which hardly helped the state as it adversely affects the state
strain on the already scares resources of state to bring down its electrical energy expenditure, and the current budget in
state exchequer which would require Rs bill but could be termed as 'good win- this regard has not done much.
4200 crore for meeting the expenses of dow dressing'. The state has already the Every day the state spends crores
the pay commission. Finance Minister gap between expenditure incurred on of rupees more than it receives in reve-
(FM), Abdul Rahim Rather, too ascer- purchase of electrical energy and reve- nue. Red ink is projected at Rs 1,729
tains this by saying, “The state has nue collected has nearly doubled from crore for this year alone. Not only for
fewer resources available at present Rs 767 crore during the year 2003-04 to the current budget cycle but for years
and the financial position of the state Rs 1,406 crore during last year. to come, J&K must come to grips with
has been meticulously presented before The interest payments and servic- budget gaps and bring the present debt
the 13th Finance Commission. We are ing of debt figures of J&K has gone up by level to a sustainable level to expect
hopeful that very soon the state would an alarming amount in the fiscal 2008- least.
be given adequate funds so that other 09. Rising interest costs and debt have Present government has put some
demands of the employees could be ful- cast a shadow on the financial health of Additional Resources Mobilization
filled.” the state. According to a report by the (ARM) in form of increasing taxes in cer-
To mention for the fiscal 2008-09 Reserve Bank of India for the fiscal tain sectors while leaving others. The
the state spends about 60 per cent of 2008-09 J&K figures show an increase on current level of consumption of petrol

Epilogue Ø
15 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

in J&K is over 14 crore litres. The Rs 1.60 crore annually.


increase of cess to Rs 3 per litre is From all the above raise of
Every day the state spends crores
likely to yield additional revenue of taxes none of the sector yields more
Rs 28 crore per annum and about Rs of rupees more than it receives in than Rs 50 crore. But the sectors left
18 crore in the current financial year. revenue. Red ink is projected at out by the state government that
FM proposed an employment takes away huge capital from the
cess of Rs 1 per litre on diesel. The Rs 1,729 crore for this year state are exempted, what for? All
current level of consumption of this alone. Not only for the current these tax raises has ultimately to
commodity is about 46 crore litres come from poor denizens of the
per annum. Therefore, the proposed
budget cycle but for years to state.
measure is likely to yield annual reve- come, J&K must come to grips Why are sectors that make huge
nue of Rs 46 crore per annum and profits from the state are left out
additional revenue of Rs 30 crore in
with budget gaps and bring the like telecom sector (mobile
the current financial year. present debt level to a sustainable companies), which at current takes
In case of liquor the rate of GST away huge sum of Rs 1000 crore
level to expect least.
on liquor is currently 20%. FM pro- annually from the state, a tax rate of
posed to increase the same to 25%. *********** 10% would earn Rs 100 crore for
As such, estimates of expected addi- state. This sector hardly makes a
J&K spends about 60 per cent of mention in the current budget.
tional revenue on this account are
placed at Rs 21.50 crore per annum the budget in paying salary-bill Outside private banks that
and Rs.15 crore in the current finan- of the state. At present the state hardly manage the required credit
cial years. deposit ratio in the state, scarcely
Nearly 1.32 crore poultry table has over 3.32 lakh employees on lend to priority sector, and even they
birds are being brought from outside its rolls. On the main items of shy away in lending to productive
the state annually. As adequate num- purposes (Business lending). Why
bers of day old chicks are not avail-
expenditure, the current year's can't state think of putting penalties
able within the state, the poultry non-plan salary provision is Rs in form huge sums, which again
rearing units are also importing could provide the state huge sums?
6,594 crore in comparison to Rs What about the insurance sec-
around 2.38 crore day old chicks
which are subjected to toll tax at Rs 4,973 crore of past year. tor operational here why can state
1 per chick. FM proposed to exempt put some tax on them too who have a
Additional provision of Rs 121 market base of over Rs 1500 crore in
import of day old chicks from pay-
ment of toll tax and increase the crore has been kept for salaries of the state.
rate of toll tax on poultry birds from Why left the automobile sector,
migrant employees
existing Rs 2 per bird to Rs 5 per kg. put heavy import duty on them too
The net additional revenue on this ********* this also could prove a good annual
account is expected to be around Rs resource for state. And many other
The current level of consumption
4 crore per annum which will be uti- sectors wherein the state gets lesser
lized for development of poultry sec- of petrol in J&K is over 14 crore benefits compared to outside states.
tor within the state. litres. The increase of cess to Rs 3 As of now, I think it is time to
Nearly 16 lakh sheep & goats reform government at all levels and
are being imported from outside the
per litre is likely to yield make it more accountable. What we
state annually to meet the local mut- additional revenue of Rs 28 crore need is different approach to bud-
ton requirement. FM proposed geting, turning from what we cut to
per annum and about Rs 18 what we keep. In short, making sure
enhancement of toll tax on sheep
and goats from the existing rate of crore in the current financial year taxpayers' money goes to programs
Rs 25 per head to Rs 35 per head. that work, that taxpayers can afford
This may yield additional revenue of and people need.

Epilogue Ø
16 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

BUDGET 2009-10

B
reaking a six-year
long precedence,
the Finance
Minister Abdul
Rahim Rather
reflected in his budget
proposals for 2009-10 the
way things existed. His two
predecessors between
2002 and 2008 –Muzaffar
Hussain Baig and Tariq
Hameed Qarra –brought in
a unique concept of Zero
Deficit Budget which would
always come for severe
criticism from Rather as
leader of Opposition. As he
returns to present ninth
Budget of his career,
Rather has clearly shown
the deficit which, of
course, is on declining
trend. A vast majority
across Jammu and Kashmir
has largely given their
word for Rather's budget
but there are some
exceptions also,
particularly coming from
industry and trade sector
and also from millions of
employment seekers. A
reading into Rather's
budget speech in the
Legislative Assembly on
August 10 gives a
reflection of ideas that
remained at the back of his
mind since January 2009
when he took over as the
Finance Minister and
sought more time (state
Budget is normally
presented in the month of
March) to touch upon the
ground realities. Excerpts
from the speech make it
simple for everyone to
understand as how rupee is
coming and where is it
going:

Epilogue Ø
17 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

suneerbhat@gmail.com

Fully Funded Plan

T
th
he state needed a liberal annual outlay to make up the erosions in At the beginning of 11 Five
resource base. To the advantage of state, the Planning Commission have
Year Plan, the growth rate for
formulated a massive plan of action which may enable J&K to access
development expenditure upto Rs.10,000 crore under various programmes. the current financial year 2009-
The State Plan outlay has been fixed at Rs.5500 crore in comparison to Rs.4500 10 for the state was targeted at
crore of last year indicating a 22.22% jump in money terms. In real terms, the
increase is much more if the transfers made from plan to non-plan are taken 8%. However, the growth rate
into account. The State plan outlay has been topped by a provision of Rs.1200 achieved during the first two
crore under PMRP. For the first time, the government have proposed the th
highest ever allocation of Rs.643 crore to meet 100% requirements of the State
financial years of 11 FYP
share for various centrally sponsored schemes which will enable the state to indicates that the stiff target of
access about Rs.1800 to 1900 crore of the central share. A sum of Rs.220 crore 8% for 2009-10 appears
provided under PMRP as counter part state share will enable us to raise
matching World Bank loans under Economic Reconstruction Agency (ERA). The difficult to be achieved. It is
flow of funds under various Central mega flagship schemes like JNNURM, expected that the state economy
NRHM, NREGA, SSY, RGVY etc shall be over and above the figures mentioned
will clock growth around 7% in
above. “What is more important”, says the Finance Minister “is the fact that
the resources for funding the state plan outlay, Centrally Sponsored Schemes 2009-10.
and other programmes have been fully tied up and thus the current year's plan
is fully funded”.

Growth Rate of GSDP at current prices was higher at 16.28% in 1996-97 as compared to 10.89% from 2002 onwards
Growth rate of GSDP at constant prices was 20.93% in 1996-97 as compared to 5.64% from 2002 onwards
Year GSDP at current price GSDP at constant price
2001-02 Rs. 18039.35 crore Rs. 16530.81 crore
2007-08 Rs. 31793.04 crore Rs. 23060.48 crore
Annual Growth Rate 10.89% p.a 5.64% p.a.
1996-97 Rs. 9124.34 crore Rs. 7327.40 crore
2001-02 Rs. 18039.35 crore Rs. 16530.81 crore
Annual Growth Rate 16.28% p.a 20.93% p.a

Epilogue Ø
18 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

TEN CHALLENGES
As seen by Finance Minister
The rate of growth of During the 4-year

1
CHALLENGE
our GSDP and our per
capita income which
used to be ahead of all
India average, six to
eight years ago, have
fallen behind and consistently
5
CHALLENGE
period given by the
Twelfth Finance
Commission, the
government did not
meet the FRBM targets
by the prescribed dead line,
The target growth rates set
Ä
for the state's economy at the
th
beginning of the 11 FYP
were 7% for 2007-08 and
7.5% for the year 2008-09.
remained below the national which was 31 March 2009.
The growth rate for the state
average afterwards. Therefore, we have been denied
debt relief estimated at Rs.473 is increasing surely but
crore recommended under the slowly over the years and

2
The gap between Twelfth Finance Commission still lags behind the national
expenditure incurred on Award. We also lost an amount of
level growth rate.
purchase of electrical Rs.229 crore as the government
energy and revenue did not hold Panchayat elections.
Further, the revenue gap grants
The Gross State Domestic
Ä
C H A L L E N G E collected has nearly
doubled from Rs.767 for the current financial year Product (GSDP) at factor
crore during the year 2003-04 to available under the Award are cost works out for J&K to be
Rs.1,406 crore during last year. about Rs.100 crore lower than the Rs 24471.31 crores,
revenue gap grant received last
year.
indicative of a growth of
6.12% in 2008-09 as

3
The fiscal deficit
touched a high of Rs. compared to the growth of

6
2,666 crore, during the Plan revenue 6.28% in 2007-08
year 2007-08. expenditure of nearly
(Advance estimates).
CHALLENGE Rs.1200 crore was
shifted to non-plan
during a three-year
The Per Capita Income for
Ä
CHALLENGE
the state during 2007-08 at

4
In a normal situation we period commencing
should have received with 2006-07. For this purpose plan constant (1999-00) prices
Rs.200 to Rs.250 crore resources were also transferred to works out to be Rs. 20604/-
more in the current non-plan. These transfers now
only as against the Per
C H A L L E N G E year on account of our
form part of the non-plan gap as
share in the central no additional resources were Capita Income of Rs
taxes. It has been, instead reduced mobilized during these years 27442/- at all India level
by about Rs.105 crore in the current specifically to take care of this for the same period.
year due to economic slow down. additional burden.

Epilogue Ø
19 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

7
A huge amount of Rs.917 crore due for payment to National
Small Savings Fund (NSSF) on account of loans taken by the State District Srinagar, Jammu
Ä
Government was not provided for in the relevant financial years. and Kathua are among the
The Government then borrowed from the market to clear the
top three ranked districts in
CHALLENGE liability. The burden of this additional borrowing has fallen on
the subsequent years including the current one. terms of Gross Per Capita
Income of Rs. 30052/-, Rs.
28712/- and Rs. 27696/-
respectively whileas Kargil is

8 9
Sixth Funds received from various
Central Pay Ministries in Government of the lowest ranked district
Commission India under Centrally Sponsored
with Rs. 11922/- precedted
report has Schemes were not authorized in
by Kupwara and Leh
C H A L L E N G E also fallen CHALLENGE
time and got temporarily re-
in our way appropriated towards meeting districts with Gross Per
in the current financial non-development expenses. We have Capita Income of Rs.
year. The Government identified, authorised and revalidated
16360/- and Rs. 20237/-
has to bear an additional about Rs.550 crore in the current financial
burden of Rs.1067 crore year to make up for the previous short falls respectively at Current Prices
for the 8 months of the and thus restored our credibility before the of 2005-06
current financial year on concerned Ministries. Obviously, it has
account of increased resulted into additional strain on our Contribution of Primary
Ä
salaries and pension. current year's budgetary resources. Sectors, Secondary and
tertiary sectors to the GSDP
for 2008-09 (pre) has been
25.82%, 28.29% and

10
The three-year life of Power Reform Grant amounting to
Rs.1300 crore per annum given by the Centre to the 45.89% respectively while
previous government came to an end on 31 March 2009. as at all India level, the
No such grant is now available in the current financial contribution of these sectors
year.
C H A L L E N G E to GDP was 20.55%,
24.71% and 54.74%
respectively as per figures of
Biggest Challenge 2006-07.
The biggest challenge before Jammu and Kashmir is to boost the economic The Per Capita Plan
Ä
activities to catch up with national growth rate and per capita income. There
expenditure during 2007-08
is an urgent need to control large scale flight of capital for mass procurement
of a wide variety of consumption goods such as food grains, pulses, spices, and 2008-09 works out to
oils, mutton, poultry, eggs, processed food, clothing, energy, building be Rs. 3613/- and Rs.
materials and other utility items. For this purpose, it is important to focus 3815/- respectively as
energies and resources on increasing local production and thus expanding the
compared to the Per Capita
employment base by improving our productivity, profitability and
competitiveness. Therefore, the Finance Minister says, “we intend to adopt a Plan outlay of Rs. 3254/- at
cluster approach in order to concentrate our resources on such clusters and national level for 2007-08
obtain quicker results. In all-important fields, private participation shall not (RE
only be encouraged but also pro-actively promoted”.

Epilogue Ø
20 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

Annual Plan
I
n the current year's plan of Rs.5,500 crore, the Revenue expenditure is estimated at Rs.653 crore and capital expenditure at
Rs.4,847 crore. The government have decided to give special thrust to the Sectors of Agriculture & Allied Activity, Irrigation,
Transport, Social Services including Health & Education and General Services including World Bank funded development
programmes of ERA. The exact increases in various Sectors shall get crystallized after tie up with the concerned Ministries in the
Government of India in respect of Centrally Sponsored Schemes & with the funding agencies in case of tied up allocations. To that
extent, the increases reflected in the sectoral outlays are to be taken as tentative. The allocation for agriculture and allied
activities has been proposed about 30% higher from previous year's level of Rs.151.96 crore to Rs.197.30 crore in current year. The
allocation in the Irrigation and Flood Control Sector has been kept 122% higher from the last year's level of Rs.208.85 crore to
Rs.464.33 crore in the current year. The allocation in the Transport Sector is proposed to be tentatively enhanced by 90% from the
previous level of Rs.486.20 crore to Rs.923.99 crore in the current year. The allocation in the Social Services Sector is proposed to
be increased by 42.87% from the level of Rs.1089.17 crore to Rs.1556 crore. The General Services are proposed to get enhanced
allocation of Rs.638 crore representing an increase of 36.62% over the previous year's level of Rs.467 crore.

Broad Parameters
Ä
The current year's total receipts have been estimated at passengers are expected to reach Rs.316 crore in
Rs. 22,739 crore in comparison to last year's figure of comparison to Rs.297 crore of last year.
Rs.19,077 crore. In the current fiscal, Rs.19,462 crore Ä
The non-tax revenue has been estimated at Rs.1219 crore
are expected as revenue receipts and Rs.3,277 crore as as against the corresponding budgeted figure of Rs.1127
capital receipts. The current year's total revenue crore of last year.
expenditure is estimated at Rs.14,949 crore, indicating a Ä
Market borrowings for the current year have been kept at
revenue-surplus of Rs.4,513 crore. The total capital Rs.818 crore in comparison to Rs.1264 crore of last year.
expenditure is estimated at Rs.7,790 crore. The fiscal Institutional loans for funding capital expenditure and
deficit is estimated to come down to Rs.2,081 crore share in National Small Savings have been assumed at
representing 5.4% of our current year's estimated GSDP last year's levels of Rs.700 crore and Rs.453 crore
in comparison to 6.9% of last year. respectively.
Ä
The total tax revenue of the State is estimated at Ä
On the main items of expenditure, the current year's non-
Rs.3,111 crore for the current financial year as against plan salary provision is Rs.6,594 crore in comparison to
Rs.2,693 crore of last year. The tax GSDP ratio is Rs.4,973 crore of last year. Additional provision of Rs.121
expected to improve to 11.2% in comparison to 11.0% of crore has been kept for salaries of migrant employees. The
last year. The VAT collections are estimated at Rs.2,066 provision for payment of interest has been kept at
crore as against Rs.1,853 crore of last year indicating an Rs.1,729 crore in comparison to last year's figure of
increase of 15%. The State Excise is expected to yield Rs.1,602 crore. Provision for purchase of electrical energy
Rs.260 crore in the current year as against the budgeted is Rs.1,996 crore. Rs.1,412 crore have been provided to
figure of Rs.250 crore of last year. Taxes on goods and meet expenditure on pension and retirement benefits.

Growth Rate of Per Capita Income at constant prices during 1996-97


to 2001-02 at 16.25% as compared to 3.95% from 2002 onwards

2001-02 Rs. 13784.00 crore


2007-08 Rs. 17590.00 crore
Growth Rate 3.95% p.a
1996-97 Rs. 6978.00 crore
2001-02 Rs. 13784.00 crore
Growth Rate 16.25% p.a

Epilogue Ø
21 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

KEY SECTORS Plan Size of Rs.


Ä
25833.98 crore agreed
for 11th FYP period is
Importance and allocations 78.16% higher than
plan size of Rs.
14500.00 crore of 10th
Agriculture & Allied Sectors: FYP. Energy with Rs.
8196.95 crore is the
priority sector for
development followed
by Social Services sector
with an outlay of Rs.
6501.40 crore and
General Economic
Services and Transport
with outlays of
2740.98 crore and Rs.
2660.81 crore
respectively.

Budget estimates of the


Ä
state for 2008-09 stood
at Rs. 18466.00 crore

T hough the Primary Sector's


contribution in the GSDP has
slipped down to 26%, its importance
Kashmir has developed varieties of
wheat seed to suit such climate and
introduced a new 'rice-wheat rotation'
which is 15.81% more
than 2007-08 figures.
cannot be over-emphasized as it technique. For the forthcoming Rabi
sustains 75% of our rural population and season, the government shall focus on Estimated
Ä
50 % of our work force. The main areas popularizing this programme. disbursements for the
of concern are low Seed Replacement Availability of manpower and pressure
Rate, inadequate double cropping and on time of successive agricultural year 2008-09 were
sub-optimal use of other inputs. operations prove to be important placed at Rs. 12428.00
A large part of agricultural areas of the constraints against double cropping. crore under non-plan
state including Kashmir Valley have Accordingly, the government has
proposed 25% subsidy on the cost of
budget and Rs.
been traditionally presumed to be
single crop areas. Even crops like power thrashers and paddy 6038.00 crore under
mustards, oilseeds and fodders have transplanters under Agriculture Farm plan budget.
not drawn 100% attention of the Mechanization Scheme to effectively
farmers in double cropping. SKUAST, deal with these twin problems.

Epilogue Ø
22 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

Horticulture: The State Government


Ä
For Horticulture sector, the current year's proposed outlay is Rs.13.82 crore in
comparison to Rs.12.65 crore allocated last year. The department will substantially resorted to an overdraft
increase the availability of high-density plantation material over its present level of (OD) of Rs. 2299.53
nearly 2 lakh saplings per annum by crore from J&K Bank
involving private sector and ensuring
as ways and means
Current year's allocation quality control. Production of apricots in
Kargil & Leh, cherries, strawberries, (WAM) facility to meet
for horticulture sector is Rs.
plums in Kashmir Valley and other regions temporary mismatches
13.82 crore against Rs. with similar agro climatic conditions, olive in liquidity during
12.65 crore last fiscal. in Uri and Ramban areas, pears in the
Districts of Poonch and Rajouri and other
2008-09.
areas having similar agro climatical
conditions, sub-tropical fruits in the areas With the successful
Ä
of Jammu Division and cultivation of minor fruit crops in the wastelands and Kandi
introduction of the VAT
areas shall be given priority. Production of saffron, siyah zeera, aromatic plants and
herbs shall be given the much needed boost. Agriculture Production Department and in the state, the tax
Planning Department shall arrange to carry out economic analysis of various revenue has increased by
commercial operations to determine their sustainability and to identify the areas 42.25% from Rs.
where additional government support is required. A cluster approach shall be
adopted for expanding production and improving productivity.
1799.00 crore in 2006-
07 to Rs. 2559.00 crore
as per actuals for 2007-
Commercial Floriculture 08. For the year 2008-
Over 840 growers have been registered Airport Authority of India has
by the Floriculture Department, each conveyed no objection to the transfer 09, the tax revenue has
having green house facilities of at of land to the Directorate of been estimated to be Rs.
least 2 kanals. These registered Floriculture for setting up of cooling
2693.00 crore which
growers have made a good beginning chambers. Request has been made to
by selling flowers in the markets APEDA to provide necessary financial indicates 5.24%
outside the state. The government support to start work on this project, increase over 2007-08
shall actively and financially help which will help in exports of actuals.
them to explore the export market in perishable commodities like cut
the Middle East by taking advantage of flowers, delicate fresh fruits and trout
international airport at Srinagar. The fish etc. 59.72%, 31.42%,
Ä
8.68% and 0.18%
Growth rate of Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) at constant price during disbursements were
1996-97 to 2001-02 at 20.74% as compared to 5.54% from 2002 onwards
meant for revenue
account, capital
2001-02 Rs. 14184.90 crore
account, interest
2007-08 Rs. 19687.08 crore
payments and loan
Growth Rate 5.54% p.a
disbursements
1996-97 Rs. 6320.65 crore
respectively during
2001-02 Rs. 14184.90 crore 2008-09.
Growth Rate 20.74% p.a

Epilogue Ø
23 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

Sericulture Industry: As on December 2008,


Ä
Kashmir Silk was always rated as of the only 25 to 30% of the total production 944 bank branches of
best quality but immediately after de- and the rest of the cocoons are sold
monopolisation of the industry around outside the state. A corpus fund is in all Scheduled
the year 1988-89, it was severely operation for market intervention, Commercial Banks
were functioning in
J&K's annual cocoon production is J&K, constituting
estimated at 8 lakh kgs valued at Rs. 7 1.21% of total banking
crore. Cocoon rearing sustains livelihood network of 77750
of 22000 rural families in 2150
banks in the country.
villages. The consumption in local silk
units in only upto 30%, therefore, rest of it
Against deposits of Rs.
Ä
has to be sold outside state.
25885.00 crore, the
Scheduled Commercial
damaged during the period of running silk exchange and cocoon bank.
militancy. After its partial revival, the The Finance Minister has announced Banks have made
industry still sustains about 22000 rural formation of a Multi Task Force comprising advances of Rs.
families in 2150 villages producing 8 of experts from all the relevant fields to look
lakh kgs of cocoons valued at nearly into various aspects of mulberriculture, 12846.00 crore as on
Rs.7 crore. The local silk units consume sericulture, weaving and silk industry. December 2008 with
CDR of 49.63% in the
Animal Husbandry Sector state as against the
CDr of 74.76% in the
country during the same
Annual mutton consumption in
J&K is of the order of around period.
Rs. 1300 crore. Around 3.5
million sheep and goat are 80.38 of the reporting
Ä
slaughtered a year and half of area constituted the net
them are imported, mainly from area sown of the state
Gujarat. during 2007-08,
41.97% and 40.85% of
The state is woefully short in developing our animal and sheep the net area sown and
meeting its requirements of mutton, husbandry sectors. An embryo gross area sown
poultry meat, eggs and woolens. transfer technology is on
Presently we are importing nearly 16 experimental stage to develop a respectively was
lakh sheep annually for meeting the muttonous breed of sheep named irrigated for 2007-08.
shortage of mutton. We intend to Dorper. Results are expected towards
a d op t a h ol i sti c a p p roa c h i n the end of August, 2009.

Epilogue Ø
24 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

Poultry Credit Deposit ratio


Ä
The import of poultry birds is estimated (CDR) in the state is
at 1.30 Crores annually. The quantity of
eggs imported annually is estimated at improving over the
50 Crore. The consumption potential is years but its dispersal
estimated between 200 to 300 Crore.
among the districts is
The Government intends to adopt a
multi pronged strategy for increasing not encouraging.
the production of poultry meat and Ending December
eggs. Rearing capacity of day old chicks
in the government farms shall be fully 2008, the highest
utilized and establishment of hatcheries Credit Deposit Ratio
in the private sector shall be
encouraged. Import of day old chicks
was observed for
shall be facilitated so long as local Srinagar district with
production capacity of day old chicks is 84.65% followed by
Annual consumption of
improved to meet full requirement of
eggs in J&K is estimated poultry farms. The poultry department Shopian with 59.62%.
between 200 to 300 crore. shall also work out the feasibility of promoting Lowest credit deposit
50 crore are imported. large-scale hatcheries for breeding of
improved parent stock equipped with R&D
ratio of 15.12% was
facilities, in PPP mode. observed for Kargil
district, the next two
Infrastructure low ranking districts in
Emphasis is on completion of the ongoing road programmes in the current and the the credit-deposit ratio
next financial years. The progress of works under PMGSY so far has been very slow
and the government vows to provide special attention and full funding for completion
are Kishtwar (15.98%)
of all on going projects in the plan. Power is prime infrastructural requirement. and Ramban (19.06%)
Depending upon the progress of various Hydel Projects, namely Baglihar II, Sawalakot,
Ganderbal, Parnai and those in other places allocated to JKSPDC, full funding shall be
ensured in the plan of current year. Effort shall also be made to complete detailed
Cropping intensity for
Ä
project reports, clearances from various Ministries & organizations, and complete 2005-06 in the state
other formalities in respect of other approved projects. was 150.05% as
against 135.88%
Revenue realized during 1997-98 to 2001-02 at 34.48%
as compared to 23.54% from 2002 onwards intensity in country for
the same period. The
2001-02 Rs. 460.84 crore cropping intensity has
2007-08 Rs. 1328.45 crore further increased in the
Growth Rate 23.54% p.a state to 154.49%
1996-97 Rs. 169.18 crore during 2007-08.
2001-02 Rs. 460.84 crore
Growth Rate 34.48% p.a

Epilogue Ø
25 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

Social Sector On an average one


Ä
SCHOOLS WITHOUT BUILDINGS bank is available per
Rajouri 580 Plan allocation for 107.40 Sq Km and
Baramulla 538 elementary education has
13000 people. These
Anantnag 508 been hiked to Rs. 358
figures for the country
Kupwara 498 crore against Rs. 169 crore
last fiscal. work out to be 40.73
Badgam 488
Sq Km and 15000
Kathua 452
people.
Kishtwar 341 Health and Education sectors are
Kulgam 314 centric to human development policy.
Primary education for all children with 68% bank advances are
Ä
Srinagar 285 focus on female literacy and 100% received by Jammu
Ramban 280 adult literacy in a short time frame
are government's avowed goals. The
(24%) and Srinagar
Bandipora 268
plan allocations for elementary (44%) districts leaving
Pulwama 240 education are proposed to be thereby only 32%
Ganderbal 147 increased to Rs.358 crore from last
year's level of Rs.169 crore. Higher advances to be shared
Shopian 105
Kargil 104
and Technical Education sector is by the remaining 20
also being given similar treatment.
Poonch 84 Primary Health care is basic to
districts of the state.
Jammu 71 human development and secondary
and tertiary sectors meet critical Jammu and Kashmir
Ä
Doda 61 needs of the families. The Primary
economy continues to be
Reasi 18 Health Services Sector is proposed to
Udhampur 18 receive enhanced plan allocation of predominantly agrarian
Rs.164 crore in current year in although the
Leh 10 comparison to Rs.105 crore of last
Samba 2 year. Meanwhile, Rs.40 crore are contribution of
being exclusively earmarked under agriculture and its
State plan for Dal development during
the current year. Forestry sector is
allied sectors towards
proposed to be given Rs.27.50 crore in GSDP has decreased
comparison to Rs.24.50 crore of last from 51.05% in 1980-
year.
81 to 31% in 1999-00
and then 27% in 2007-
Plan allocation for
08. Individual share of
Primary Health Services
has been hiked to Rs. 164 agriculture in GDSP is
crore against Rs. 105 estimated to be 8 to
Crore last fiscal. 9%.

Epilogue Ø
26 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

Industries th
As per 4 advance
Ä
Parks in the private sector are coming
up at Ghatti and Govindsar in Kathua
estimates, foodgrains
Two private sector Textile
Parks are coming up in
district over 240 kanals of land with production in the state
investment of Rs.337 crore, for 56
Kathua district with number of units expected to generate
during 2008-09 is
investment of Rs. 337 direct employment for 4000 persons to projected to increase to
crore. 56 upcoming units be engaged in spinning, weaving,
16275 thousand
processing, garmenting and ancillary
are expected to activities as also indirect employment quintals which will
direct/indirect employment to another 4000 persons. Two clusters
record 3.62% increase
for 8000 persons. of cricket bat units and wood based
industry are being promoted at Sangam over foodgrains
and Bagh-i-Ali Mardan khan production of 15707
The present contribution of trade and respectively. A silkcum-textile park is
industry to GSDP is 28.29%. The being promoted at Zakoora. thousand quintals for
government intends to exploit raw Re j u v e n a t i n g t h e e x i s t i n g 2007-08.
materials located in the backward Industrial units is as necessary as
regions by promoting local industry creation of new units. In this behalf,
through clusters of industrial units in the government proposes to create two Average holding size of
Ä
identified thrust areas like food special rehabilitation task forces for 0.67 hectare for the
processing, textiles, leather revival of sick units on fast track basis.
processing, handicrafts, handlooms, The Industrial Estates lying closed shall state and 1.32 hectares
minerals, Information Technology and be reactivated and their dilapidated for the country has been
many others. A new shelf of techno- infrastructure shall be upgraded.
economic feasibility reports shall be Efforts are being made to spot
recorded by 2000-01
prepared for this purpose and Special additional 20,000 kanals of wasteland Agriculture Census.
Purpose Vehicles shall be created to for creation of a land bank for new
implement such cluster schemes. Land industrial units, particularly in the
measuring 500 kanals has been backward areas. Efforts are also being
Contribution of
Ä
earmarked for Leather Zone in made to locate a big chunk of agriculture and allied
Industrial Growth Centre, Lassipora. A wasteland where a special industrial
Common Effluent Treatment Plant zone can be created.
sectors to GSDP is
(CETP) is under construction under the The Directorate of Geology and estimated to be 27% for
guidance of Central Leather Research Mining, which has become defunct is
Institute (CLRI) at a cost of Rs.642 lacs
2007-08 as against the
being re-activated to prospect, explore
with 50% funding by Government of and identify new mineral deposits of all India average of
India. The CETP is expected to be the State. The viable economic units of
about 21% for 2006-
completed by March, 2010. Two Textile the public sector undertakings shall be
revived. The uneconomic units shall be 07. Horticulture
closed down and the staff given another accounts for nearly
Present contribution of opportunity to avail of Golden
J&K's trade and industry Handshake Scheme. 45% returns of
The trade and industry have been agriculture sector in the
to state's GSDP is
highlighting their problems connected
28.29% with compliance of various procedures, state.
processes and regulations. In order to

Epilogue Ø
27 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

attend to such issues on a continuous the mandatory inspections, filing of


basis, the Finance Minister has returns and other connected matters
proposed to create a standing forum in faced by them under various laws,
ÄFruit production of
the form of an inter-ministerial group including barrriers in free movement of state for 2008-09 was
of officers in association with all Stake rawmaterials and trade goods. The 16.91 lakh tones
holders. The Forum will look into the Forum shall devise procedural and IT
desirability of dispensing with some of Solutions to such problems.
posting an increase of
3.36% over 2007-08
Urban Local Bodies fruit production.
With the democratic decentralization,
the Urban Local Bodies have been
ÄDuring 2008-09,
empowered to take charge of local self
State is looking for 20,000 11.17 lakh tones of fruit
government. Their performance and kanals of wasteland in were exported outside
initiative in some areas of public rural areas for creation of
concern is indeed being appreciated.
the state of which
industrial estates.
However, voices are also being raised 98.57% was of fresh
by some quarters alleging delays in or fruits. Foreign exchange
denial of building permission in some arise if the Local Bodies adopt
cases, condonation of violation of absolutely transparent systems,
earnings on export of
building bylaws in some other cases, simplify the procedures, go for dry fruit for 2007-08
lack of sanitation and cleanliness complete automation in a time bound were Rs. 161.44 crore.
within the municipal areas, in- manner and create an efficient
sufficient system of redressal of mechanism of redressal of public
grievances, etc. In respect of one Municipal grievances. Therefore, the Finance ÄThere was 23908
Committee, the industrial units have Minister has offered to extend functional SSI units in
alleged harassment in the name of government support including financial
charging of lorry adda fee from them the State providing
help for making visible improvements
even if they claim to be not connected in these areas. I hope that our local employment to around
with the use of such lorry adda. bodies shall respond to this gesture one lakh persons ending
It is for the concerned local well in time so that IT based better and
municipal bodies to investigate as to smoother systems of e-Governance are
March 2009 as against
what extent such allegations are in place before the Award of the 22937 units ending
correct and to provide remedies as may Thirteenth Finance Commission for March 2008.
be required. We in the government feel Urban Local Bodies becomes operative
that many of such grievances would not w.e.f. 1st April, 2010. th
ÄAs per the 5 Economic
Growth Rate of Interest Payment on Borrowings during 1997-98 to 2001-02 Census-2005, there
at 2.28% p.a as compared to 8.75% p.a from 2002 onwards
were 324908
2002-03 Rs. 142.17 crore establishments in the
2008-09 Rs. 229.26 crore state as against
Growth Rate 8.75% p.a 41826989
1997-98 Rs. 117.47 crore establishments in the
2001-02 Rs. 130.88 crore country.
Growth Rate 2.28% p.a

Epilogue Ø
28 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

NREGS ÄThe number of workers


This important rural employment scheme started in 2005 has been widely welcomed
at the national level. The implementation of this scheme in Jammu and Kashmir has in the establishments
potential for further improvement. So far the government have registered 4.98 lakh
rural households and employment equivalent to 80 lakh person-days has been
was 751532 as
generated last year under this scheme for 2 compared to
l a k h r u r a l Setting a new trend, the households. One 1.7 lakh
Bank Accounts have been opened so far
100904121 workers in
so that payments
daily wage of workers of wages are made the country.
through Banks. A under NREG scheme sum of Rs. 87 crore has
been utilized has been hiked from Rs. during last year. The
19.95% of the
Ä
government now intends to generate 5
70 to Rs. 110.
crore person-days in near future under this geographical area
Scheme and take the utilization of funds to
(Jammu region
ten times at the level of Rs 800 crore. Enhancement of the existing wage rate under
NREGS from Rs.70 per day to Rs.110 per day has been proposed with immediate effect 45.89%, Kashmir
for which necessary notification shall be issued under the Minimum Wages Act. region 50.97% and
Ladakh region 0.06%)
Tourism on this side of the
The government is proceeding ahead with its
plan to prepare a vision document and a Master control line is under
Plan for sustainable tourism in the long terms
forest. This ratio for the
perspective. Offers stand already invited from
the prospective consultants for the purpose and country is 24.47%.
the same are under examination by a Committee However, the prescribed
constituted in this behalf. In the meanwhile, the
policy of private Sector investment in all fields of ratio of forest area for
Tourism, including promotion of guest-house the Hill states is 67%.
facilities, with the government playing the role
of promoter and facilitator, shall continue. The
Hotel industry has already been given tax relief on hotel tariff. ÄWhile establishments
grew at the rate of
Tax Management,Modernization 6.03% (Jammu and
J&K has already earned accolades from of information of inter and intrastate
Kashmir) and 4.69%
Empowered Committee of State level are expected to be in place by
Finance Ministers for efficient December, 2009. (India) per annum
implementation of VAT regime. The To give a push to the long pending during 1998-2005, the
successful implementation of this complete computerization of treasury
regime depends on gathering of accounts in the first phase and all corresponding rate of
information from other sources and by government accounts subsequently in a growth in the
cross verification of interstate and time bound manner is essential for good
intrastate transactions. Therefore, governance, the work has been employment was 6.85%
complete automation of the assigned to J&K e-Governance (Jammu and Kashmir)
Department has been taken in hand at a Authority which has initiated similar
cost of Rs.20 crore. The major aspect of projects for Transport and Election
and 2.78% (India).
processing of returns and cross linking Departments as well.

Epilogue Ø
29 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

VAT Measures As per the data made


Ä
The traders have been confronting a law abiding dealers. “I accordingly available by the
genuine problem of penal action by the accept this demand. The rule shall be
authorities for non compliance of rules modified accordingly”, said the FM.
Department of
which were notified much after the Rule 77 dealing with registration CA&PDS, 5.88 Lakh
date of commencement of the VAT Act of appeals requires that report of BPL and 3.71 APL
in the State. Unfortunately, this assessing authority shall be obtained
problem has not been addressed so before proceeding with any appeal. A
families are still
far. Obviously, the traders cannot be demand has been made that in case of without household
penalized for violation of rules which delay in supplying this information, latrines. By ending
did not exist but were later on given the appellate authority should
retrospective effect. The Finance proceed without such report, on the December 2008, 93295
Minister has announced a scheme of basis of information furnished by the individual household
general amnesty for all such cases appellant. The demand is justified.
latrines have been
which shall be notified shortly H o w e v e r, t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f
A m e n d m e n t s : Re g i s t e r i n g Commercial Taxes is computerizing its constructed against the
authority can demand, at its system very soon and all the record total target of 598614.
discretion, additional security from shall become available on line. The
the dealers, on eventualities of the need to obtain a report from the
existing dealer adding more assessing authority shall The sex ratio in the
Ä
commodities to its approved list etc. A automatically vanish. In order to take state as per Census
representation has been made that no care of the present concern, the 2001 stood at 892
such additional security should be Finance Minister has issued strict
demanded in cases where the existing instructions to the department that females per 1000 males.
dealers have been regularly filing all the assessing authorities must However, the results of
their returns and depositing the VAT ensure compliance to the
the sex ratio survey
amount without any default. The requirement of rule 77(a) by
demand is rational and if accepted, submitting the requisite report conducted by the
shall amount to due recognition for within 15 days time. Directorate of
Economics and
Statistics in 2007 have
Toll Plaza at shown 925 females per
Lakhanpur thousand males. These
Rs.10 crore fund has been proposed infrastructural improvements figures are almost
for expansion and modernization of combined with the improvements in similar with the figures
Toll Plaza at Lakhanpur which makes the software of the Commercial
the single point gateway to Jammu Ta x e s D e p a r t m e n t a n d E x c i s e
of 923 females per
and Kashmir. After the construction Department shall ensure that the thousand males revealed
w o r k s a r e o v e r, a p l a n f o r ambience of the Toll Plaza shall th
by 60 round of NSSO
beautification of entire surrounding change from a chaotic, disorderly &
area shall be taken up including congested commercial place into an Survey conducted
construction of durable and clean arena of serenity, calmness and during (January to June
spaces for parking of vehicles to beauty for the commuters to have a 2004)
avoid congestion, traffic jam or few moments of relaxation before
environmental pollution. These proceeding on.

Epilogue Ø
30 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

Vanaspati in Negative List Ending March 2009,


Ä
Representations have been made to the Finance Department by Industry asking for
out of 12015
scrapping the negative list. It has come to the notice that Vanaspati which is a
product of some of the local industrial units cannot be easily distinguished from habitations in J&K
Vegetable Oil which is also product of some local industrial units. Vegetable Oil is state, 8761 habitations
already on the negative list. Besides the situation has changed when Vanaspati was have been provided
accorded exemption from GST/VAT treating it as a priority industry. Therefore, the
production of Vanaspati is placed on the negative list.
water supply.

Out of the estimated


Ä
Employment Generation hydro power potential
of 20,000 MWs in the
Since January 2009, the state subordinate selection board State, 16480 MWs
made 8086 selections, PSC made 438 selections and 3835 have been identified of
youth were recruited in Police. During same period 11163 new which only 14 percent
posts have been created and 5060 referred to PSC. During this of 2318.70 MWs have
very period, 7035 posts have been referred to Police been exploited sofar.
Recruitment Board. Alongwith the previous backlog, the
vacancies available with PSC are 4,023. Similarly, the Estimated Birth Rate
Ä
vacancies available with SSSB, alongwith the backlog comes to of 19.0 per milli, Death
10,582. All the recruiting agencies have been advised to Rate of 5.8 per milli
and Infant Mortality
expedite the selection process. Therefore, nearly 22,000 more
Rate of 51 per thousand
boys & girls can hope to get a government job in the current
live births was recorded
financial year. Alongwith the appointment or selections already
in J&K for 2007
made from January, 2009 onwards, the tally of government against the all India
jobs in respect of the present government may come to 34,000. figures of 23.1, 7.4 and
55 respectively.
Representations have been made In order to adopt a well conceived
to the Finance Department by Industry strategy for alleviating the problem of With the
Ä
asking for scrapping the negative list. It unemployment in the State, there is a
has come to the notice that Vanaspati fervent requirement of a sound
commissioning of 450
which is a product of some of the local statistical base. This is more so for the MW Phase-I of
industrial units cannot be easily reason that there is a lot of Baglihar Hydroelectric
distinguished from Vegetable Oil which equivocation about the very extent and Power Project in
is also product of some local industrial nature of unemployment in the State.
units. Vegetable Oil is already on the For this purpose, it has become
December 2008, the
negative list. Besides the situation has imperative to build a sound and installed capacity of the
changed when Vanaspati was accorded dependable data base so that plausible state sector power
exemption from GST/VAT treating it as remedial measures are adopted.
projects has reached
a priority industry. Therefore, the For operationalizing this
production of Vanaspati is placed on arrangement at the ground level, the
758.70 MWs.
the negative list. Government intends to revamp the

Epilogue Ø
31 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

Employment Exchanges and enhance Finance Minister has proposed to make


their role, both quantitatively and a beginning with two districts in the The installed capacity
Ä
qualitatively. They will be renamed as current year-one in Kashmir and one in
District Employment and Counselling Jammu division.
of Central Sector power
Centres. The District Centres shall Concurrently, the Government projects from three
develop a reliable statistical base intends to put in place a well conceived commissioned projects is
including skill inventory and skill 'State Policy on Employment' to address
1560 MWs. The
deficiency mapping. The number of all issues relating to the problem of
such District Employment and unemployment in the State. The demand of Power in
Counselling Centres shall be increased Planning and Development Department J&K state for 2008-
has been directed to initiate the 09, as per the 16th
process and the policy document, “I am
confident, shall be ready to be
Power Survey conducted
All district employment
launched on the 5th December, 2009, by Ministry of Energy,
centers are being renamed the 105th birthday of the great GoI is around 2120
as employment and visionary of our State, Janab Sheikh
Mws.
conselling centers. To be re- Mohammed Abdullah Sahib”. The
launched an October 2, document shall serve as a road map
ahead and I solicit valuable suggestions Against the total road
Ä
they will have skill from the Hon'ble members of this length of 18809 kms
inventory and skill august House in arriving at a well
maintained by State
deficiency mapping to help considered policy initiative. “I propose
to name this initiative as the Sher-e- R&B Department,
aspirants find jobs.
Kashmir Employment and Welfare 9559 kms are black
Programme for the Youth (SKEWPY)”, topped, 4832 kms
from 14 to 22 so that all the districts said the Finance Minister.
In the recent past (February, 2009)
metalled, 1315 kms
have a well placed institutional
arrangement for information a number of initiatives have been shingled, 3000 kms fair
generation on the subject. It shall be undertaken at the national level to weather and 102 kms
made mandatory for all the enhance the skill endowment base in
jeepable making the
unemployed youth to get themselves the country. Jammu and Kashmir State
while taking its share has to create road density to be 18.55
registered with the District
Employment and Counselling Centre for about 50 lakh skilled persons by 2022 km per 100 Sq km of
which the necessary formats shall be with emphasis on exclusivity. The aver- are ending 03/2009.
prepared by the Department of age annual target works out to be 3.85
Economics and Statistics in a digital lakhs which indeed is a huge task. In
mode. A notification to this effect with order to address ourselves to this chal- The revenue realization
Ä
all the relevant details shall be issued lenge, the Government intends to for- of Rs. 737.83 crore
by 30th of September, 2009 and the new m u l a t e ' S t a t e Po l i c y o n S k i l l under Power Sector
Centres shall be launched Development' with an objective to cre-
ate 'workforce empowered with
during 2008-09 has
simultaneously in all districts of the
State from the 2nd of October, 2009 to improved skills, knowledge and inter- increased by 6.43% as
coincide with the 140th birth day of nationally recognized qualifications to compared to the revenue
Mahatma Gandhi, the Apostle of Peace. gain access to decent employment'. At
realization of Rs.
Buildings and other infrastructure the operational level the Government
commits itself to initiate and expedite 693.24 crore for 2007-
for the District Employment and
Counselling Centres shall have to be the process of establishing 22 district 08.
provided for all the districts. The level 'Rural Self Employment Training

Epilogue Ø
32 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

Institutes (RSETIs)' in cooperation with employment ventures. A host of Central


the Ministry of Rural Development, Schemes presently in place for the pro- As against the national
Ä
Government of India and motion of self employment ought to be
Public/Private Sector Banks. This insti- amplified with innovative self employ-
level road density of
tutional arrangement shall be in place ment projects under various sectors. 104.6 kms per 100
by the end of the current financial year. The Government proposes to empha- sq.kms of area, the state
The geo-climatic extremities in size on mass awareness programmes to
has 18.12 kms per 100
the State cause a high incidence of sea- apprise youth of the State about the
sonal unemployment particularly in the bright prospects in self employment sq. kms with 24.37 kms
countryside snowballing into out- privileges through J&K for Jammu division and
migration of labour force. In order to Entrepreneurship Development 15.93 for Kashmir
address this phenomenon and ensure Institute.
livelihood security to the rural people, It should be borne in mind that all
division for 2007-08.
Government intends to strengthen the the centrally sponsored self The lowest road density
premier Wage Employment Scheme employment schemes are credit linked is in the districts of
under 'National Rural Employment and the financial institutions generally Leh, Kargil, Doda
Guarantee Act' by extending its scope seem reluctant to extend credit facility
and enhancing wages. For this purpose to the first generation entrepreneurs in
(erstwhile) and Rajouri
'State Employment Guarantee Council' view of their risk perception. This has with 3.33 Kms, 6.84
has been advised to take up the matter negative implications on the kms, 7.77 kms and
with the Ministry of Rural development of entrepreneurship.
16.31 kms respectively
Development, Government of India for Such an equivocation warrants an
extending the scope of the scheme by immediate State intervention to ensure per 100 sq. km of area
incorporating relevant activities in the that the motivated and trained (The state road density
list of already available 'Permissible prospective entrants to the field of is for roads maintained
Works'. entrepreneurship/self employment are
Conventionally, government has nurtured and insulated from frustration
by PWD only)
been perceived as the sole employer and mental agony. To address this
and remedy has unfortunately been problem, the State Entrepreneurship The number of
Ä
invented in over-sizing the administra- Development Institute (JKEDI) is being
registered vehicles in
tive machinery. Even when this conve- asked to offer 'Entrepreneurship
nient option has been over exhausted, Development Programme/s (EDPs)' as a March 2009 stood at
the problem of unemployment has actu- package which apart from 668427 as compared to
ally proliferated. This conventional sensitization, training and consultancy 299104 numbers of
approach has, in fact, proved counter inputs shall include an incentive in the
form of non-refundable Seed Money to
registered vehicles in
productive. This mindset needs to be
changed and new entrants to the labour enable prospective entrepreneurs to March 2000. The
market motivated to adopt self kick start their ventures and make their number of vehicles
projects bankable. For this purpose, available per lakh of
government intends to create an
As a part of national 'Entrepreneurship Development Fund'
population in the state
mission, J&K is required with an initial corpus of Rs.25 crore. stood at 5342 (March
to create 50 lakh skilled The corpus shall be utilized under a 2009) as against the
well conceived State Scheme for the
persons by 2022. The figure of 6739 at all
prospective motivated, trained and
average annual target is provisionally registered first India level of March
3.85 lakhs. generation entrepreneurs to start their 2004.
ventures relating to the core areas

Epilogue Ø
33 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

The total BPL


Ä
estimated population
ratio of J&K has
arrived at 21.63%
(24.21 lakh persons)
with a dispersion of
26.14% (22.00 lakh
persons) for rural areas
and 7.96% (2.21 lakh
persons) for urban areas
as per the survey
conducted in 2008 by
the Directorate of
Economics and
Statistics. Poverty ratio
at all India level for the
year 2004-05 was
found to be 27.50%
An estimated 5600 employees of J&K Government are working with 28.30% in Rural
either on contractual, Adhoc or on consolidated salary bases. and 25.70% in Urban
Government has decided to regularize these who have rendered areas as per NSSO
seven years of service and are educationally eligible for the posts. Survey.

On the basis of BPL


Ä
which inter-alia include agriculture, provides loan/credit facilities to the
horticulture, floriculture, medicinal first generation entrepreneurs Head Count Ratio, the
and aromatic plant cultivation and food belonging to the minorities on very low seven poorest districts in
processing. This scheme too shall be (3-6 per cent ) interest rates. The said the State are Reasi,
launched on 5th December,2009. Corporation has, for the purpose,
Ramban, Kishtwar,
The Government intends to build nominated Jammu and Kashmir Women
complete synergy in different Self Development Corporation (JKWDC) and Poonch, Kupwara,
Employment Schemes presently in Jammu and Kashmir Scheduled Kargil and Bandipora
vogue and ensure that the first castes/Scheduled Tribes (J&K SC/ST) which have more than
generation entrepreneurs are actually Corporation as the Channelizing
benefited by these Schemes. Agencies in the State. However, the
30 percent estimated
Reference, in this regard may be made latter has not been able to lift any BPL population
to the initiatives already taken by the money from NMDFC for the last five ranging between 31.09
national Minorities Development & years limiting the opportunities
percent to 37.93
Finance Corporation (NMDFC), a available for the prospective
Government of India undertaking under entrepreneurs. In order therefore to percent.
the Ministry of Minority affairs which ensure that the benefits actually reach

Epilogue Ø
34 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

the identified clientele group, the Horticulture, Floriculture, Fisheries,


Government proposes to nominate JK Health and Sericulture etc where skills The BPL Survey
Ä
EDI an additional State Channelizing rather than education are in greater
Agency of NMDFC for providing demand. conducted by the
loans/credit facility to the Training of youth who may not be Directorate of
entrepreneurs motivated, trained and highly qualified but would be suitable Economics and
promoted by the Institute. for jobs in these sectors, shall be
The Government proposes to organized by the proposed Agency. All Statistics in 2008
revamp the Employment Department the trainees shall be provided suitable reveal that the highest
and place it under an Employment stipend during the period of training.
percentage of Urban
Facilitating Agency which shall be The Agency shall facilitate setting
created and placed under the charge of up of Polyclinics and Consultancies by poverty is in district
a very senior officer. The officers shall un-employed and retired doctors and Kulgam with 15.83%
be hand-picked to take-up the engineers. The government and the
followed by district
challenge at the district, divisional and financing institutions shall provide
state level and deliver with a package of assistance and loans in a Pulwama with 14%
missionary zeal. There will be a system manner similar to that available for and district Ganderbal
of award and punishment for good and industrial units, suitably modified to
bad performance of officers. meet specific requirements of such
with 13.87%.
An Overseas Employment polyclinics and consultancies.
Corporation shall be created to liaise Lot of potential exist for The government has
Ä
with the placement agencies, foreign meaningful utilization of knowledge, ordered for
embassies, Ministry of Labour and skill and talent of our educated
Department of Overseas Employment unemployed youth under NREGS. Last reverification of BPL
etc. The proposed Corporation shall year 350 persons were engaged as lists maintained by the
create a knowledge bank for aspirers of supporting staff to work as Computer
various departments in
overseas employment, particularly on Operators, Accounts Assistants,
matters of legal requirements for Technical Assistants, Rozgar Sevikas as the State. The Deputy
migration, work environment in various well as Block level Programme Officers. Commissioners and
foreign lands, mandatory formalities With the targeted increase in person-
and formats etc. The proposed
Tehsildars have been
days of employment taking it to 5
Corporation shall also handle matters crore, we shall be generating potential appointed as Nodal
of employment opportunities within for absorption of nearly 3000 persons in authorities for carrying
the Country. We hope that its role shall such jobs.
grow further after global recession The government also proposes to
out the reverification
starts receding. simultaneously adopt a pro active with their respective
The proposed Employment approach for creating service related jurisdictions. The report
Facilitating Agency shall have a self employment units which may be
Governing Body headed by the Chief utilized to meet the requirements of
has to be submitted to
Secretary to deal with all matters government departments to start with. the State Planning and
connected with employment of youth. Some of the areas coming to mind Development
It will also oversee the functioning of all immediately are plumbing, electricals,
Employment related organizations and repairing of motors, gadgets,
Department within
monitor progress of implementation of electronic items etc which are in three months from the
all employment schemes and demand in most of government offices. date of the issue of the
programmes. The Agency shall also The service units promoted by
identify and create opportunities of technically trained and qualified youth order i.e. 25-06-2009.
employment in sectors like Tourism, can be recognized to provide such

Epilogue Ø
35 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

services to government departments on government departments against clear


charges per visit basis, actual cost of vacancies. Their present number is Unemployment rate in
Ä
replaced parts plus wages at notified reported as 5,656. These appointees
rates. It is hoped that in due course of have been continuing in service for respect of J&K State,
time, private sector and the general considerably long time. As per the latest has been worked out to
population shall come forward to Apex Court rulings available on this
utilize their services. The requisite subject, a one time regularization of
be 5.2% (5.4% for
support for setting up of such service service can be resorted to by the males and 3.5% for
units as also a transitional support government to deal with such situations.
females) which is on
mechanism for sustaining them during The government has accordingly decided
the initial years shall be worked out by to regularize all such persons who have higher side when
the government very soon. already completed 7 years of service compared to All India
A large number of contractual, and who are academically qualified to
a d h oc a n d c on soli d a te d - sa la ry hold their respective jobs as prescribed
figures of 3.1% (3.1%
appointments have been made in various under rules. for males and 3.0% for
females) as per Usual
Gender Care Principal Status as per
The society which does not take care of its women folk starts degrading. Amongst
various welfare measures which the government intends to initiate for socio
findings of 62nd round
economic upliftment of women, a special scheme has been devised for their of NSS (July 2005-
economic empowerment. Under this scheme, 100 women entrepreneurs shall be
June 2006) report.
selected from each district taking the total to 2,200 in the first phase. They will be
granted direct loans upto Rs.3 lakh at a very low rate of 6% interest through the
State Women Development Corporation. The scope of the scheme shall be later In J&K inflation rate
Ä
extended to tehsil level. For this purpose, the government shall provide a revolving on all the series i.e.
fund of Rs.10 crore to the State Women Development Corporation, in suitable
installments depending upon the progress of the proposed scheme. The State Consumer Index of
Women Development Corporation shall be advised to ensure the techno economic Industrial Workers,
viability and profitability of the enterprises and develop a scientific monitoring
mechanism for timely interventions to ensure success of the assisted units. The
Agricultural Labourers
fields identified for this purpose include health care and pharmaceuticals; and Rural Labourers
restaurants, computers and information technology, agro based industries, was less as compared to
floriculture, cosmetics, perfumery and parlors; hosiery, ceramics, tailoring, leather
and food products etc. relative rate of inflation
in the country during
Agri Technos To Get 2008-09
More If They Work
Nearly 3300 agricultural graduates incentive of Rs.1500 per month payable Aggregate Technical and
Ä
have been engaged as Rehbar-e-Zirat. through the DRDA or Panchayat, to such of
Commercial (AT&C)
However, it is learnt that the services of the Rehbar-e-Zirats who would move
this technical human resource have not down to the panchayat level and work in losses in power are very
been properly utilized. One of the factors the field alongside the farmers, to serve as high in the state and
responsible for this is the reluctance of the a meaningful link between them and the
appointees to move to the field on one concerned departments for popularizing, have been put around
pretext or the other. In order to implementing and monitoring the 72%.
meaningfully utilize the services of the progress of various agricultural related
Rehbar-e-Zirats, I offer an additional schemes.

Epilogue Ø
36 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

Inclusive Development The number of registered


Ä
The over all allocation of the social enhance availability of doctors and
illiterate unemployed
welfare schemes is proposed to be other paramedical persons in far-off
increased to Rs.138 crore in areas of state, the State Government youths has increased to
comparison to Rs.110 crore provided has decided to enhance the wages of 4167 in 2008 from 4030
last year. Amounts available from the the doctors and paramedics working in
during 2007, thereby
Centre shall be over and above this these far off areas. This will attract
figure. Special provisions have been qualified medical talent in rural areas showing an increase of
made in the budget for development of with adequate incentives. The doctors 3.40 percent in the state.
Gujjar and Bakerwals, Schedule Castes employed in NRHM presently get wage
The number of educated
and Schedule Tribes, Women and Child of Rs.8000 per month. Their monthly
Welfare. An allocation of Rs.20.77 crore wage would be enhanced to Rs.16000. unemployed had increased
has been proposed under Tribal Sub The paramedics under NRHM are to 89796 in 2008 from
Plan. The allocations for the two presently employed on monthly wage 82619 during 2007
autonomous Hill Development Councils of Rs.4000 They would now get a
in Ladakh shall be given due step up monthly wage of Rs.9000. showing an increase of
alongwith other district plans which are State Government has also 8.69 percent
being finalized shortly. concurrently decided to sanction
National Rural Health Mission is a special incentive for the doctors
mega national effort at ensuring serving in remote and far flung areas
FM proposed an
Ä
healthcare through a range of popularly known as difficult areas. For employment cess of Rs 1
interventions at individual, household, this purpose, the difficult areas would per litre on diesel. The
community and most critically at the be classified into two categories-
health system levels. The Central category-A (denoting more difficult
current level of
Government is using it as an essential areas) and category B (denoting consumption of this
instrument for achieving its goal of difficult areas). The doctors serving in commodity is about 46
health care in the rural landscape. Category-A areas would get additional
Under NRHM, the Central Government Rs. 8000 as special incentive while as
crore litres per annum.
provides 85% of the financial assistance those serving in Category-B areas would Therefore, the proposed
leaving 15% to be raised from out of the get additional Rs.4000. This financial measure is likely to yield
State's own resources. dispensation will surely attract more
annual revenue of Rs 46
State Government is committed to and more qualified medics to serve in
make the most of the financial rural areas and lead to tangible crore per annum and
handholding provided by the Central improvement in a rural healthcare additional revenue of Rs
Government under NRHM and system. The aggregate financial
30 crore in the current
supplement its health effort in the rural implication involved in the provision of the
areas. In order to provide better health above financial dispensation would be of financial year.
care for our rural population and the order of Rs.4.30 crore per annum.

Rehabilitation of Kashmiri Pandit migrants


Rehabilitation of our Kashmiri Pandit brothers and sisters and bringing them back to the social mosaic of Kashmir continues to be
of prime importance for the coalition government. That would be like a dream fulfilled for all of us. The package of 15000 jobs in
the State and private sector has been approved for them. Kashmiri Pandits who have been leading the life as migrants in various
parts of Jammu Division have been facing many hardships even though the government has taken various initiatives to ameliorate
their conditions from time to time. One of such hardship is the medical care needed in critical illness cases. The registered
migrants whose family heads are in State Government employment, are eligible to benefits under the medical scheme applicable

Epilogue Ø
37 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

to the state government employees. Those not falling in this


category have been hard pressed for want of any
comprehensive, regular and satisfactory mechanism. For such
category of registered migrants, who are in receipt of cash
relief, announce 50% grant from the government subject to a
ceiling of Rs.5000 per family, for meeting cost of premium for a
year, if they enlist themselves under the mediclaim policy of any
recognized Insurer. The exact requirement for such financial
assistance shall be assessed in due course of time. To start with,
I announce a budgetary allocation of Rs.10 crore for this
purpose. A budgetary allocation of Rs. 130 crore for
construction/completion of 5242 tenements for Kashmiri
migrants under the Prime Ministers Reconstruction Plan has
been proposed so that the difficulties faced by the families of
our brothers in distress are mitigated at the earliest possible. A sum of Rs. 3 crore is being additionally allocated to complete the
road to village Jagti near Nagrota where new tenements are under constructions.

Awards for Innovation


The government is extremely keen that the state as well as private sector join hands in discovering hidden talent of our society
engaged in solving local problems without any outside help. It will not only encourage creativity and innovations but will also
generate tremendous economic activity and increase our productivity. The Finance Minister has proposed to institute an award to
recognize five best innovations every year in identified fields with a prize of Rs. one lakh each. The state will also take every
possible step to get these innovations patented and popularized for the common benefit of the Society.

Rehabilitation of Victims of Militancy


The militancy of last two decades has deprived a large number of families of their bread earners. Rehabilitation of widows and
orphans is a big challenge. The government has provided 825 jobs during the last 6 months to a member of the effected family
wherever feasible. To take care of the cases where cash relief of Rs. 4 lakh in lieu of a job has been preferred, about Rs.50 crore
have been spent so far to rehabilitate 1233 families.

Employees and Pensioners


All our development programmes and 2009 in the new pay scales. Sanction of the moving employees. A demand has
regulatory functions are being DA in the new pay bands has also been been made to the government by our
preformed by the government agreed in principle and the rates of DA lower grade employees to increase the
employees and, as such, their welfare effective from various dates starting same. I find the demand is genuine. I
too is a legitimate concern of the from 1.1.2006 have already been announce a new rate of temporary Move
government. Against serious constraints announced. I further announce increase Allowance at Rs.650 PM which shall be
on our resources, the government has in the rate of DA w.e.f. 1st. effective from August, 2009. This
announced adoption of the pay scales January,2009 to 22%. The increased measure will involve additional
recommended by the Sixth Central Pay amount of DA at 22% shall be paid in cash expenditure of about Rs.50 lakh per
Commission retrospectively from Ist from the first of July,2009. annum.
January, 2006. We have also authorised Temporary Move Allowance was 116. Serious misgivings appear to
them drawal of enhanced pay of July, fixed at Rs.550 PM a few years back for have unnecessarily arisen on account of

Epilogue Ø
38 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

payment of arrears of pay and


pension revision and
implementation of the Sixth Central
Pay Commission Award. As the
Hon'ble members already know, the
requirement on this account is over
Rs.4000 crore. The demand for
allocation of this amount has been
already projected to the Thirteenth
Finance Commission who have to
take a view on this demand, for all
States, before finalizing their
Award. If this amount is made
available in one go, I would be the
happiest person to release 100%
arrears in cash. I appeal to the good
sense of State government
employees to maintain their
patience on this issue for a little
more time till the picture become
clear with the Thirteenth Finance
Commission Award.

New Pension Scheme


One of the causes of growing concern in of increase DA rates as well as post this account. The Central Government
budgetary management lies in the ever retirement benefits payable at the and several states have introduced a
increasing expenditure on time of superannuation. Keeping in New Pension Scheme where under, the
disbursement of pensions in respect of view the exponential rate of growth in government as employer and the
government as well as autonomous annual pensionary outgo, it is not concerned employees make monthly
bodies, statutory organizations difficult to see that an off budget contributions to a pension fund. The
operating on the Grant-in-aid of the solution to the problem is essential as incidence of payment of pensions will
government. The annual increase on after some years, may be a couple of get shifted to this pension fund. The
this expenditure is not within the decades, it will become absolutely scheme becomes mandatory for all new
control of the government. Unlike impossible to meet such expenditure recruits after it is notified. The new
gradual increase in the salary bills, out of budgetary provisions. As this is a pension scheme can be created under a
usually on account of increase in DA universal phenomena, the matter has proper statute. I propose to bring a bill
rates and normal annual increments in been discussed time and again at before this House accordingly so as to
basic pay, the increase in pension bills national level with a view to protect the enforce the New Pension Scheme from
takes place simultaneously on account posterity from a financial calamity on 1st January, 2010.

Legislators get more to spend


There has been a long pending demand from Hon'ble Members of the Legislature increasing Constituency Development Fund from
the existing level of Rs. 35 lakh with the approval of Hon'ble Chief Minister, I announce increase in Constituency Development Fund
from existing level of Rs.35 lakh to Rs.50 lakh. Modified guidelines in this connection shall be issued very soon.

Epilogue Ø
39 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

NEW TAXES
The misunderstood mothers-in-law

A nnouncement of taxes always sounds harsh. The Finance Minister, however, had a collection of sayings to soothe the
effect. He said, “I am reminded of several quotes about taxation. One of them says that, “taxes, like Mothers-in- law, are
often misunderstood”. The other quote says “taxes are your contribution for living in a civilized society”. Be that as it may,
no budgetary exercise can be completed without resorting to some taxation measures. However, with a few exceptions in
mind, I do not intend to indulge in any substantial tax revenue raising venture for the time being”. The proposed taxation
measures are expected to yield additional revenue of Rs.69 crore in the current year. An ARM, figure of Rs.100 crore has
been kept in the budgetary document. “I propose to attain this target by making improvements in recovery of arrears or by
improved collection of current dues”, said the Finance Minister.

Petrol Diesel Liquor


Petrol is a commodity Similarly, the rate of tax on Liquor is an area which automatically comes to mind both on
which is used generally diesel is 12% in our State some account of the principles of State policy enshrined in the
by economically better of the other states have gone constitution as well as a measure to raise additional revenue. The
off people in our society. to the extent of charging rate of GST on liquor is currently 20%. I propose to increase the
The rate of tax on this more than 20% tax on this com- same to 25%. I will be happy in case the consumption of liquor
commodity in our state modity. I am conscious of the goes down somewhat because of my proposed measure.
is 20% with a cess of Rs.1 fact that this item involves a However, it is more likely that lovers of this commodity may take
per litre which was fixed larger number of persons from the proposed measure sportingly and willingly contribute a little
many years ago. The the public who could be more to the state exchequer. As such, estimates of expected
rate of taxation on this directly and indirectly
additional revenue on this account are placed at Rs.21.50 crore
item in respect of some affected by any increase in
per annum and Rs.15 crore in the current financial years.
the rate of taxation. There is
states goes as high as
35%. The current level of
no cess on diesel. I propose to Poultry
charge an employment cess of Nearly 1.32 crore poultry table birds are being brought from
consumption in our State
only Re. 1 per litre on diesel, outside the state annually. They are subjected to a toll tax at
is over 14 crore litres. I
which will make a marginal
propose to increase the Lakhanpur @ Rs.2 per bird. If the poultry bird is reared within the
difference in the cost of ser-
cess to Rs. 3 per litre and state, many people shall get employed in poultry farms under self
vices being made available to
name it as employment employment programme and also in cooperative sector. As adequate
the beneficiaries who would
cess. I am sure this numbers of day old chicks are not available within the state, the
be ultimately bearing the inci-
increase is not likely to poultry rearing units are also importing around 2.38 crore day old
dence of the proposed mea-
burn a hole in the pock- chicks which are again subjected to toll tax at Lakhnapur @ Rs.1 per
sure. The current level of con-
ets of those who are con- sumption of this commodity is chick. I have already explained that the government intends to
suming this commodity. about 46 crore litres per support local production of eggs, day old chicks and poultry. As a part
This measure is likely to annum. Therefore, the pro- of the strategy, I propose to exempt import of day old chicks from
yield additional revenue posed measure is likely yield payment of toll tax and increase the rate of toll tax on poultry birds
of Rs.28 crore per annum annual revenue of Rs.46 crore from existing Rs.2 per bird to Rs.5 per kg. The net additional revenue
and about Rs.18 crore in per annum and additional rev- on this account is expected to be around Rs.4 crore per annum
the current financial enue of Rs. 30 crore in the cur- which will be utilized for development of poultry sector within the
year. rent financial year. state.

Epilogue Ø
40 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10


All of us who are present in this August House shall be no
doubt having a vision of their own about the future of
Jammu And Kashmir State. I too have a vision of an ideal
society which will consist of magnificent human beings
who are equal to the glory of this beautiful land,…… who
will be filled with spiritual endowment and in which the
skilled and the intelligent citizens will earn their
livelihood by honest means. Whatever be the way to
describe our individual vision, the fact remains that the
socioeconomic and spiritual upliftment of all men and
women, belonging to all castes, creeds, religions and
regions is our common goal. We can jointly turn our
vision into reality by pulling our heads together, plan
for the welfare of the people objectively and
implement all the agreed programmes in a transparent,
unbiased and judicious manner in due regard to
economy in cost, speed in time and optimizing the
peoples' satisfaction as our ultimate and joint goal. All
of us have to work in that spirit. Today we have a
golden opportunity to prove that given the financial
resources, we are collectively capable of delivering and


turn our state into a model state during the coming years.
This golden opportunity should never, never be lost.

- ABDUL RAHIM RATHER,


Finance Minister
EXCERPTED FROM FINANCE MINISTER’S BUDGET SPEECH
suneerbhat@gmail.com

Epilogue Ø
41 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

INTERVIEW

'There are no quick fixes;


we are working on a workable
employment policy’
Soon after presenting
annual budget for 2009-
10, Finance Minister
ABDUL RAHIM
RATHER tells AHMED
ALI FAYYAZ that
unemployment problem is
being addressed in a
practical manner.
Excerpts of an interview:
Between 2002 and 2008 but they (Finance Ministers) fudged the
you remained a most figures to show their budgets with Zero
vocal critic of your Deficit. Besides a slew of differences,
predecessors, how your the key feature of my budget is that
budget is different from clearly shows the financial position as it
their? You have shown a exists. We have a deficit of Rs 2600
deficit of some Rs 2600 Crore and this is clearly reflected.
Crore while in last six
years we have seen as The previous government
many budgets with Zero set a precedence of
Deficit. presenting separate
Yes, it is fact that I had serious budget for Power
reservations about budget proposals my Department and it
predecessors but that criticism was continued for three
always healthy and based on facts and years. You have reversed
figures provided by the previous the case. Any strong
government itself. My main challenge reasons?
was to their Zero Deficit budget. The In fact there was no reason at all for
documents presented by the presenting separate budget for Power
JULY 2009 government clearly reflected shortfalls Department. See, Power is just one of

Epilogue Ø
42 ×
September 2009
IN FOCUS
Budget 2009-10

the various departments like Health, realities. We are already largest Here is an example. The previous
Education etc. Do we have separate employer among all states in the government engaged more than 3000
budgets for all departments? The country. Take, for example, the case unemployed agriculture technocrats at
argument of my predecessors was based of Gujarat. They have a population of Rs 1500 per month without any actual
on the premise that separate power 5 Crore and total strength of requirement on the ground. These
budget shall streamline the financial government employees there is 4 youths did not have any work to do for
management. But that was a gimmick lakh. In Jammu and Kashmir we have months and now they are asking for
(though I should not say like this). The a population of little over 1 Crore and regularization. How can we do that
fort falls, in any case, remained. number of our government without provisions and requirement?
employees is more than 5 lakh. Well, I have proposed in my budget
You changed the We are already working on speech to enhance their honorarium by
Economic Advisor to creating employment avenues and another Rs 1500 if they associate
Government. Was that will continue to do more. In our short themselves with the field work.
done to make a span of over six months, more than
difference? 12,000 recruitments have already Look at the level of
We didn't remove the Economic Advisor been made and towards the end of injustice. You have
(Dr Haseeb Drabu, also Chairman of J&K this year the number will go up to enhanced the daily
Bank). He resigned and we accepted the around 35,000. But these measures wages of NREGS workers
resignation. will not help for long. We have from Rs 70 to 110 per
proposed innovative measures. The day, which means a
But you did not ask him to most important thing is to have a labourer takes home Rs
stay reliable database of the kind of 3300 a month but a
Why should we. If somebody does not skilled and unskilled workforce post-graduate in
want to work we can't force him to available so that a policy can be Agriculture or
work. formulated keeping in view demand- Horticulture is getting Rs
supply in different sectors for 1500 a month? These
Levying small taxes here facilitating employment of these youths have
and there is not going to youths in state, country and beyond. expectations to the
make a big difference. We are also planning to gather details government. They say
Your party (National on the nature of job market. We are Chief Minister is of their
Conference) was quite creating an employment fund to train age and he can
clear and explicit in the unemployed youth for enhancing understand their
making a promise on their employability. Other measures problems.
employment during your include exploring self employment You can't undermine the efforts of
election campaign. Your avenues. However, I can assure on NREGS workers, they participate in
election manifesto also this occasion that in next couple of nation building. At the same time we
outlines definite years we will be in a position to are seized of the plight of
measures. How far have address the unemployment problem unemployment technocrats but the
you been able to go in to a large extent. government can't go beyond a point in
fulfilling this promise? offering white collar employment. Our
Unemployment is a serious problem You had also talked resources are limited. We are heavily
in Jammu and Kashmir. People look about stipend and dependent on central funding. Our
towards the government as their allowances to present resources are not beyond Rs
natural employer. I don't say that unemployed youth. 4300 Crore (total tax and non-tax
government should not employ more What about that? revenue for current fiscal) and the
people but at the same time we We never made such commitment but present salary and pension bill is around
should be aware of the ground let me tell you that is not any solution. Rs 8800 Crore.

Epilogue Ø
43 ×
September 2009
J A MM U V/S K A S HM I R
Year After Land Row

Jammu & Kashmir


A Year After Amarnath Land Row

EPILOGUE CORRESPONDENT

These days last year, Jammu and Kashmir was caught in worst crises of 50 years. In the months of June,
July and August, the State appeared close to a collapse under troika of separatist, communal and regional
politics. Under the garb of regional sentiments, communal passions were touching an all time high and
both regions –Kashmir and Jammu –were pitted against each other in a ball game of hatred.

N
ever since 1947 was Kashmir respectively, for upcoming campaign. later, to the surprise of all, not only the
seen so far from Delhi and A year after three month long summer agitation was nullified by a
Jammu so disconnected from agitation, thousands of those who huge public participation in state
Kashmir. Politics, and unfortunately stayed put on the streets day and night assembly elections but questions also
Press too, had drawn clear lines on basis pumping their lungs out in slogans have cropped up on two-decade long of
of regions and religion was an obvious questions for their leaders. Did they separatist politics when many from the
undercurrent. The voices of sanity had really achieve what they fought for? separatist camps crossed over the fence
been completely taken over by the Unfortunately, no one is ready to to either contest elections or campaign
dominant discourse of animosity so answer any of these questions. In fact for their favourite candidates. If New
much so that Prime Minister of India Dr no one is in a position to handle these Delhi is dilly-dallying in resuming
Manmohan Singh said, “I am deeply questions. The coalitions of leaders dialogue with Kashmiri separatists, the
pained over the situation”. India have broken down. You approach one answers for this question have to be
utilized most of its energies over past leader and he will direct you to the sought from Kashmir and not New Delhi.
several decades to prevent an other. Moving round and around, the An article later in this section (Kashmir's
international reference to the Kashmir conclusion is, “the issue is over and so is democratic catharsis) explains the
issue as Pakistan would always lobby for our role”. dramatic turnaround in the Valley of
such comments. The summer fire of In Kashmir the game was played Kashmir.
2008, however, left the mandarins in well but it was lost with an equal ease. However, in Jammu, a year after
New Delhi perturbed when a spokesman Towards the middle of August, when Amarnath agitation, disillusionment
of the United Nations said, “we are lakhs took part in a symbolic march and disappointment is much deeper.
watching over the situation in Jammu towards Muzaffarabad capital of Jammu's complaint of playing second
and Kashmir with deep concern”. An all- Pakistan administered Kashmir, many fiddle to Kashmir has been there for
party panel constituted by the Prime felt that Azadi was just few days away. A last 60 years now. It was on this
Minister, comprising of leading political ringside view would show that India had pretext that hundreds and thousands
figures of country, failed to break the been completely wiped out from of people were mobilized to agitate
ice as the element of religion, the core Kashmir's 'national' map. The only and oppose a decision (withdrawal of
driving force behind Amarnath land row visible symbols of India left in the Valley ownership of land to Amarnath shrine
agitation, had spread its message across those days were the security forces and board) of the government under
the country and the election bound currency notes. The Indian pressure from Kashmir's political class.
ruling Congress (and its allies) and intelligentsia and even the Exactly the way a common Kashmiri
opposition BJP (and its allies) saw the policymakers admitted that game in foresaw Azadi just few days away, the
issue as a major spoiler or leverage, Kashmir had been lost. Two months common perception in Jammu was

Epilogue Ø
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September 2009
J A MM U V/S K A S HM I R
Year After Land Row

that agitation will settle down the Jammu are again talking about
issues of regional discrimination regional discrimination and the latest
lingering on since 1947. On the issue is about location of Central
midnight of August 30-31 2008, when University. While the Shri Amarnath
Shri Amarnath Yatra Sangharsh Samiti Yatra Sangharsh Samiti, which
–a ragtag coalition of over 70 small described itself as a historical
and big organizations –headed by its popular movement of entire Jammu
convener Leela Karan Sharma, a province is in oblivion, the grouping
Jammu based lawyer, inked an stands torn apart and its then
agreement with a four-member panel convener Leela Karan Sharma, who
of the state government, next would proudly call himself as Gandhi

EPILOGUE, JULY, 2008


they are now being led by the peoples in
whichever direction they seek to pull
them. The loss in Jammu has been much
more serious which needs good deal of
time and sustained efforts to repair.
Jammu had a unique culture of unity in
diversity which was completely divided
on the religious and sub-regional lines
by the agitation without gaining
anything substantial except for the
restoral of land to the temple trust, that
too on temporary basis.

Jammu, July 2008

morning the people in Jammu hit of Jammu, says “my inning is over”.
streets dancing to the beats of The cumulative loss to the business
drums. It was a victory celebration. and economy during three months of
But victory over what? People were agitation in Kashmir and Jammu has
told that the struggle is for the been officially put at around Rs 20,000
political rights of entire Jammu Crores and the loss of life was not less
province but the agitation was called than 80. As an observer puts it as mass
off only on the issue of so called public hysteria, aftermath of the
restoration of land to the temple agitation of 2008 pushed the separatist
trust. A year later, the issues of leadership of Kashmir to the wall so
discrimination are exactly the same much so that the leaders are no more in
as they were decades back. People in a position to lead the people and in fact EPILOGUE, SEPTEMBER, 2008

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September 2009
J A MM U V/S K A S HM I R
Year After Land Row

Recalling Gandhi
of Jammu

During the July-August 2008


agitation in Jammu, some youth
asked a commuter in Jammu
after smashing window panes of
his car “if Leela Karan can walk
on foot to oversee complete
shutdown why can't you leave
your car home”. This scene was
widely televised on the local
cable9 based channels to
personify Leela Karan Sharma,
the convener of Shri Amarnath
Yatra Sangharsh Samiti (SAYSS),
as modern day Gandhi of Jammu.
What does Leela Karan do these
days, many are not aware of. The
SAYSS –a coalition of 72
organisations –he floated to
agitate on the Amarnath land
transfer issue is now in tatters. He What motivated you to launch a realized that the government of the day
mass agitation in June 2008 and what will soon succumb to the pressure and
had espoused the cause of alleged
were the factors that helped you to revoke the land transfer order. The
regional discrimination against
sustain the stir for so long? immediate motivation in mind was a
Jammu. A year after Amarnath I can recall when allotment of a question: “is it so simple in Kashmir to
land row agitation, Jammu, piece of forest land to Shri Amarnath brandish Pakistan flags and slogan
simmering with discontent, is Shrine Board was made by the against India to send the government
again in the agitation mode but government; I was in Srinagar on a packing?” I rushed back to Jammu and
neither Leela Karan nor his holiday. In a matter of days I saw people shared my perception with friends and
SAYSS is anywhere in picture. In in hundreds and thousands spilling over other like-minded persons. I told them
an exclusive interview to the streets in Kashmir calling for that revocation of land appeared nearly
revocation of the land transfer order. imminent and we should be prepared
EPILOGUE, Leela Karan admits
They carried green flags, denoting their for a counter-agitation to show the
that he has been isolated by the sentimental inclination towards Kashmiris that we simply won't allow
leaders with vested interests. Here Pakistan and raised slogans against that to happen. Our apprehensions
are excerpts: India. I watched situation keenly and proved true. Government announced it

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September 2009
J A MM U V/S K A S HM I R
Year After Land Row

decision to revoke the


land allotment order and
'Yes I am in isolation'
within hours we
announced our schedule
of agitation.
Once the agitation
was announced then it
was purely the divide
blessings of Lord Shiva
that the force multiplied
and people joined in
unprecedented manner
to sustain the stir for over
two months. My role was
then limited to just giving
directions and reviewing
progress on daily basis. It
was basically the pent up
anger of the people of
Jammu region against
Kashmiri leadership
which drew elders,
women and even children
out of their homes to
struggle for their rights. Leela Karan Sharma

What rights?
Several times during agi-
tation you said that it
was a struggle for the
rights of the people of
entire Jammu region.
But at the same time
your agenda entirely
veered around religion.
See, religions (tem-
ple trust land transfer
issue) was a trigger. The
larger issue was, of
course, discrimination
against Jammu region.

Please explain this


logic.
It is very simple to
understand. Every deci-
sion is taken by the State

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September 2009
J A MM U V/S K A S HM I R
Year After Land Row

and Central Governments at behest of national newspapers. The agitation dishonest to their people. These
Kashmir centric political leadership educated the entire country on issues of Kashmiri leaders are chronic enemies of
and keeping in view the sentiments of Jammu region. Jammu but they still get warm
Kashmiris. People in Jammu are taken receptions because political leaders of
completely far granted and it was a You remember, during the days of different parties have their own vested
manifestation of this tendency that agitation people blocked entry of interests.
after a brief protest in Kashmir, the National Conference leader Dr Farooq
government of the day succumbed and Abdullah and Peoples Democratic But sir, you had emerged as the
rolled back the land allotment order. Party leader Mehbooba Mufti to the popular leader during agitation and
We have had enough of such discrimi- town they were under a virtual siege your supporters would often call you
natory decisions and this time we at the airport for several hours before as Gandhi of Jammu. You owe an
decided to resist. being escorted under heavy security answer for going into hibernation.
to the airport. Thousands of meters of Why do you blame other leaders when
Ok. What you got from the you emerged as the most popular
government (two-month leader yourself?
temporary use of land purely for I am not in any hibernation. You
pilgrimage days) was something must understand that I am a
offered to you at the very outset of
I have suffered huge personal professional. I am a lawyer by
agitation. What did the two-month monetary losses during agitation profession and that is how I earn my
long agitation achieve? Please see bread and butter. I have hundreds of
and later in elections. Right now I clients who trust me. They suffered
this question in the larger context
of what you call as collective rights
am busy in making up losses, during agitation. Immediately after
getting back to my clients and agitation I got back to my
of the people of Jammu region.
professional work and respond to my
Well (after a long pause), our pleasing their cases in the court. clients. That is my basic engagement
core issue was the protest against
interference in our religious affairs
But yes, let me admit that I often and I can not compromise there.

which we got settled down. Other feel isolated among the politicians
During agitation, you would
issues constitute a continuous who have their personal interests always vociferously assert that you
process and it is long way to achieve
supreme. have nothing to do with politics and
justice for Jammu region. However,
will never join active politics. But it
the major achievement (besides
did not take much long for you to
temple land issue) was that we were
cross the fence. What brought you
successful in internationalizing the
to the electoral politics that you
cause of Jammu.
cloth were burnt in the effigies of contested Lok Sabha elections on
Omar Abdullah for his speech in BJP ticket?
Internationalizing the cause of
Parliament. But just a week after I have always been of the opinion
Jammu? Please elaborate. that issues can be resolved only when
agitation was over Omar was brought
In the Indian and international they are raised at appropriate
in long procession of enthusiast
context Jammu and Kashmir is debated platforms. The leaders of Jammu mostly
supporters to his party office and
and discussed only for 'Kashmir'. Jammu watched their own interests and never
almost same was the reception
has its own history, culture and issue talked about issue of the region. I had
accorded to Mufti Mohammad Sayeed
which were never taken note of in espoused a cause that I will take Jammu
on his arrival to Jammu. They were
media and political circles. You must issues to the Parliament to seek their
welcomed in the same town of Jammu
have seen those days Jammu occupying redress. The central leadership of BJP
as heroes. How this turnaround?
the prime time on television channels also felt that I am the right choice for
See, this is the basis misfortune of
and getting banner headings in leading the job.
Jammu. Our political leaders are

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September 2009
J A MM U V/S K A S HM I R
Year After Land Row

But this decision was strongly against region. We have not heard Well, it is true that I have not been
resisted by the local leadership of anything from you. visiting the BJP office or attending
Jammu. See, on the issue of Central many of the functions because politics
Yes there were some elements University our people are agitating in is a different game. I told you earlier
with narrow approach but the central their own way. As far exclusion of that my basis engagement is my legal
leadership was convinced about me. Jammu from water bodies profession where currently I am
conservation plan is concerned, I am devoting my time. I have suffered huge
You lost election by huge margin not aware of that. I could not see many personal monetary losses during
of 1.22 lakh votes. That is a of the newspapers recently and am agitation and later in elections. Right
significant margin. It was no direct hearing this first time from you. I will now I am busy in making up losses,
contest by any means. Months before issue a statement on this very soon. getting back to my clients and pleasing
the elections you were the leader their cases in the court. But yes, let
of masses; somebody who me admit that I often feel isolated
mobilized lakhs of people. Then in among the politicians who have their
electoral politics, people did not I am not in any hibernation. personal interests supreme.
fully trust you. What happened? You must understand that I That is not fair sir. You have a
Your assessment is wrong and I mandate of 2.5 lakh people of four
don't agree with this. The ruling
am a professional. I am a districts who voted for you in Lok
establishment deleted more than lawyer by profession and that Sabha elections. You could not reach
1.5 lakh votes, particularly in is how I earn my bread and the Parliament but you are a
regions of Rajouri and Poonch who representative of 2.5 lakh people.
butter. I have hundreds of
were believed to be my supporters. We have not seen you even on the
Had that not happened, I would clients who trust me. They thanks giving tour.
have won the elections by a margin suffered during agitation. Let me correct you. I thanked my
of at least 30,000 votes. Then there Immediately after agitation I voters through statement in the press
were two other factors –I did not and the local television channels.
have the kind of money to face
got back to my professional
elections and BJP's local cadre did work and respond to my But sir do you think people
not fully support me. clients. That is my basic would have voted for you if you had
sought votes by a request through
engagement and I can not
Well, according to you your the press. We saw you reaching out
loss in elections comes as loss of compromise there. to all areas across four districts.
Jammu but there are ways of Look I have told you twice earlier
taking up public issues even if you that for being active in politics one
are not an elected representative. needs a lot of infrastructure and
For example, Jammu is once again You are no more with Shri money. You can well understand that
agitating on the location of Central Amarnath Yatra Sangharsh Samiti and one needs at least a good vehicle to
University as many believe that it is have never been seen at the BJP reach out to these far flung areas.
being established in Kashmir; headquarters or at any official Neither have I had the kind of money
recently the Union Environment functions of the party after nor the infrastructure to do that. But
Minister announced a funding of Rs elections. Don't you feel that a year that does not mean that I am keeping
1700 Crores for preservation of after agitation you stand completely myself completely away from people.
famous lakes in Kashmir but there isolated? I am doing whatever is possible for
was no mention of important water I am no more a convener of the me. Recently I have been to Chhamb
bodies in Jammu region. These Shri Amarnath Yatra Sangharsh Samiti sector (some 40 kilometers from
issues are being seen in Jammu as but I continue to be its member and Jammu City) to thank the people who
fresh onslaught of discrimination have often been attending meetings. voted for me.

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Year After Land Row

OPINION
Needed Soul Searching
Life After Sangarsh 2008
KAPIL SHARMA

I
magine what was happening these always remained obedient and humble struggles to conclude. People of Jammu
days last year. Emotions of to his mother, has always accepted all are contented with the licences of B.Ed
Jammuites were at the peak. I have the orders or commands of mother with Colleges, Bars and Liquor Shops. This is
not seen freedom struggle but I am sure no fuss at all. Look at the irony the not an anti-national or criminal demand.
that the feelings and sentiments if not mother has never thought. This child is Constitution of India very well permits
greater but must have been at par. What ailing. This child is not well at all. Elder this. New state had been created in the
has happened now situation or feelings brother is not taking care of the younger past and will be created in future as well.
it now are just like a deflated balloon. one and mother has no time or intention Till the time it does not happen we the
We have forgotten every thing so fast. to take care of this ailing child. Why is it people of Jammu will keep as cribbing
Where that energy has gone? Has any so? The reason is, younger child does not whenever we see the lists of P.S.C., S.S.B.
body thought what was the real issue ? cry and remember mother feeds only entrance examinations etc.
You think that piece of land, well I when the baby cries. I have got nothing to do with BJP,
strongly contradict that. We all know Problem with us is that we think Congress, PDP or NC etc. I am a common
what is the real problem. I have failed everything will happen on its own or man like everybody. I want the answer
to understand why no body is airing the why should I do any thing. It's not my from all the common people of Jammu.
real issue openly and bravely. I firmly problem. But then will bell the cat. Two Was last year's Sangarsh a fluke. Do your
believe in the thought – “Be Bold in generations have gone and they did think there was no spine or bone in the
What You Stand For.” Yes, the real issue nothing; ours is the third generation our struggle. If your answer is no then
is suppression of Jammu and which has taken this discrimination lying why Jammu centric people were
Jammuties. Don't you think so. My dear down. Do you want our children should defeated. My pointer is towards defeat
friends land now was not the disease but also suffer because we are sleeping. of Ms. Shilpi Verma in Assembly
was jus a symptom. Last year only the Do you remember these names – elections and Mr. Lila Karan Sharma in
symptom was treated but the disease is Mr. Brij Mohan, Mr. Gulshan Honda and Parliamentary Elections. Again I would
still there. What we got in the solutions Mr. Subash . No even I was made to do like to highlight I have nothing to do
of land deal was a symptomatic relief. some search to get thee names. These with any political party. Their defeat
Disease is still not cured. Even at that people are our martyrs. (Shheed of has given the strength to the thought of
time no body talked about permanent Jammu). These boys sacrificed their struggle of proverbeat two and half
discriminations with Jammu and even lives on September 16, 1966 for the districts. Such ideas got weightage
today we are sleeping over things. cause of Jammu. It was their sacrifice because we the people of Jammu are
Ours is the story of two siblings. because of which we have Agricultural reluctant to come out of the confronts
One sibling has never recognized or University at R.S.Pura. If this is the of our bedrooms and drawing rooms.
respected his/her mother, has always respect we carry for our Martyrs then Come on friends, if we really think some
been on war path with its own family, we deserve what we are today (Please thing is got to be done then keep hand
has always admired or respected the pardon me if I am getting too harsh) on your hearts and do some soul
neighbour's mother still the real mother There is a talk of creation of some searching and do something for coming
has always prepared or given everything new State in India.There is no Jammu in generations. Please think over it.
to this sibling. His all the demands are that list and why Jammu's name should Author is a doctor at Acharya
listened with due care accepted or not be there? Who has asked for it ? No body. Shri Chander College of Medical
accepted is different issue. On the That shows we have not even started Science (ASCOMS) Hospital. Views
other hand is this second sibling who has our struggle. It takes ages for such expressed here are his personal.

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Year After Land Row

Kashmir's Democratic
Catharsis
RIYAZ WANI

Local elections in the restive Indian state have reshaped Kashmir's landscape of conflict In the summer of 2008,
Indian Kashmir reverberated with the groundswell of protest. Hundreds of thousands of people took to the
streets, heeding the call of the separatist conglomerate, the Hurriyat Conference. This was the first time after
the initial years of two decades of armed conflict that Kashmiris reverted to the method of peaceful political
agitation, loudly turning their backs on the gun. (The immediate provocation for the protest was the transfer of
state land to a Hindu trust which facilitates the annual pilgrimage to the ancient shrine of Shri Amarnath in the
Himalayas. The decision stirred the deep local suspicion of a larger design to undermine the Islamic character of
the troubled, Muslim-majority Valley of Kashmir.)
To handle the protests, the state government took recourse to curfews and stringent security measures,
which shut the Valley down for almost three months. Yet the most effective way of dealing with the protests -
and the underlying mistrust of New Delhi that they stemmed from - was not through the baton but the ballot.
Elections for the state assembly in December 2008 were revelatory.
Initially, observers feared the worst for the polls. Major regional pro-New Delhi parties like National
Conference (NC - the opposition party at the time), People's Democratic Party (PDP - the then ruling party) and
the Congress itself (India's ruling party) squared up for a tough electoral battle. But the seething "separatist"
summer seemed to have driven these establishment and more conciliatory parties to the fringes of the Valley's
political landscape. Hurriyat, which saw the state polls as designed to strengthen India's "occupation" of
Kashmir, called for the boycott of the exercise. In the lead up to the vote on 17 November, it seemed that the
force of recent popular protest would leave the polling booths relatively empty. Instead, turnout shocked
everybody. Booth after booth, long waving queues of people waited for hours in the winter chill to cast their
votes. An estimated 63 per cent of voters (around three million out of the 4.8 million eligible voters) cast their
votes, which was by far the highest turnout recorded in the Valley in the past 20 years.

T
he separatists were stunned, as significant discourse-changing effect society. What's more remarkable is that
were most observers of the crisis within Kashmiri politics. Suddenly, the democratic electoral process within
in Kashmir, a state in the throes separatist figures who rode high on the the long-running conflict situation in
of secessionist violence since 1989. The long summer of discontent were pushed Kashmir has proven therapeutic too.
same people who fought the system in to the margins of the state's political life The election in December 2008
the summer voted for it in the winter. and the pro-India mainstream parties isn't the only one that nudged Kashmir
The struggle against Indian rule had like NC and PDP hurtled back to centre- along a different track. In 2002, Kashmir
gone hand-in-hand with participation in stage (the NC won the plurality of seats, assembly polls were held in a situation
democratic elections, even though the and formed a coalition government with of unremitting militant violence. The
former and the latter apparently stood the Congress). It goes without saying state was still reeling from the
in opposition to each other. that a free and fair election can usher in destabilizing consequences of the short
The assembly elections had a profound political transformation in any India-Pakistan war in 1999 over the

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Year After Land Row

Azadi agitation, Kashmir, August 2008

Kargil heights. The continuing alliance of largely religious parties led year-old monopoly over Kashmir. And
insurgency inside Kashmir intensified by the Jamaat-i-Islami. The same the beneficiary of this urge for change
with fidayeen attacks and suicide practice was followed in 1996, when the was the PDP - then just six years old - led
bombs becoming routine. But the Indian army coerced people to vote to by a former home minister of India,
election in 2002 - which was the first boost the turnout in what remained a Mufti Muhammad Sayeed. The result
cleanly-held exercise in the state's mostly boycotted election, with less was cathartic for the long pent up
entire democratic history - made a than 20 percent of eligible Kashmiris democratic aspirations in Valley. The
significant, redeeming difference. In a voting. All the polls from 1953 through realization that Kashmiris could
spectacular change in its Kashmir 1975 also share in this history of actually change governments through
strategy, New Delhi finally agreed to manipulation, with local governments the ballot gave the otherwise alienated
hold a free and fair election in the state being imposed and dismissed at the will people a fresh stake in the system.
as an effort to both clear its name of of the Indian government. Such a rich Everybody in the Valley expected the NC
past wrong-doing and to undermine the tradition of orchestrating from New to ride back to power on New Delhi's
ideology and popularity of the Delhi sparked the outrage that fed into support. But relatively high turnout (44
separatists. a violent secessionist movement in 1989 percent) set in motion a sea change in
Democratic processes in Kashmir (which was only abetted and Kashmiri politics.
at the time lacked all credibility. transformed into a more Islamist While the verdict of the election
Successive elections in the state had insurgency later in the 1990s with the came as a relief to Kashmiris, it was
been rigged to suit New Delhi's chosen spill-over of Afghanistan-hardened something of the opposite for many
allies and political outfits. In 1987, the mujahideen fighters after the triumph politicians. Realizing that political
ruling NC was allowed to manipulate the of the Taliban). power in Kashmir was now flowing from
election in its favour when all Yet the effect of the 2002 polls was the people rather than from the will of
indications pointed towards the striking. The election for the first time New Delhi, politicians had to become
triumph of Muslim United Front, an dislodged the NC and ended its fifty more responsive to local issues and

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Year After Land Row

Assembly elections, Kashmir, November 2009

aspirations. Political parties which until Forces Special Powers Act, seeking a weight of increasing democratization
now exclusively represented New Delhi reduction in the security presence of within Kashmir, the hardline positions of
's interests in Kashmir began to better the state and demanding an acceptable several separatist parties began to
accommodate the Valley's grassroots settlement between India and Pakistan crumble. Unnerved by the resurrected
discourse. The PDP, which was part of a over Kashmir. The reconfigured relevance of the mainstream parties,
six year rotational coalition government platforms found resonance with separatists have steadily moved
with Congress, focused on improving Kashmiris, and helped consolidated a towards a more pragmatic articulation
governance and security while deftly mainstream mass base in the state. of their demands.
straddling the Valley's mainstream- PDP rule resulted in the rise of a It has become increasingly
separatist political divide. representative political mainstream common to hear talk of flexible
The separatist strand, as embodied with strong indigenous moorings, that solutions to the Kashmir crisis, which
by the likes of the pro-Pakistan Hurriyat responded to local discussion and accommodate changing global realities
Conference, remained important within debate and helped dissipate the (including India's rise on the
Kashmir's political landscape. But pro- accumulated public anger which international stage and Islamabad's
India mainstream parties, particularly decades of political stonewalling had growing willingness to compromise on
PDP, made deep inroads for the first created. The party worked to make the Kashmir ). And one major separatist
time into undermining the political security forces more accountable for Sajjad Lone, hoping to remain relevant,
appeal of the separatists. They their treatment of civilians. It also controversially decided to enter
incorporated much of the agenda of the reined in the dreaded "Special electoral politics, unsuccessfully
separatists, but stopped well short of Operation Group" of the Kashmir police contesting in the recent national
the conventional rhetoric that calls for which was responsible for gross human parliamentary election.
independence from India. PDP was in rights violations in the state. It released The past seven years of the
the forefront of this new politics, a number of detained separatists as part democratic experience in Kashmir -
criticising the much-loathed Armed of its "Healing Touch" policy. Under the albeit still flawed in many respects -

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Year After Land Row

encourages the belief that an made a substantial difference to the more than 60 per cent polling in the
environment of conflict and division affairs of the troubled state. 2008 assembly polls. A democratic
can be improved if a democratic This change was duly noted in the process that has generally made right
outlet is made available. contemporary readings of the poll, and and responsive noises, delivered on
Democratic processes may not a parallel was forged. As Sumeet broad parameters of governance - no
overhaul the fundamental crisis or Ganguly writes in Crisis in Kashmir, "The doubt with some glaring failures now
counter the daily motions of (Punjab) state elections of 1992, which and then - has simultaneously engaged
insurgency and repression, but they followed five years of insurgency and and battled the separatist discourse.
have more subtly softened the direct rule from New Delhi , resulted in This has even caused the separatists to
sources of discord, tempering their extremely low voter turnout but did begin to find their own democratic
intensity. In India's case, Kashmir bring to power a legally constituted moorings and appreciate the new
may not be the only example of the government. The subsequent local ground realities. Now it is incumbent
utility of democracy within conflict. elections produced extra-ordinarily upon India and Pakistan, the state
Seventeen years ago, an election in high turnouts - more than 80 per cent of stakeholders in the conflict, to build on
Punjab - the western Indian state the eligible voters". This is a trajectory these developments and pursue a
that endured an armed, separatist that emerged in Kashmir too, with the meaningful settlement.
Sikh campaign through the 1980s - middling turnout in 2002 polls leading to (Courtesy : Open Democracy)

NATIONAL MEDIA FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAMME 2009-10


15th
Giving Print to the Unheart
FOR PRINT AND PHOTO JOURNALIST

The National Foundation for India has a media fellowship Programme for mid-career journalists to research and publish
articles and photo essays on a wide range of issues of importance to ordinary Indians, their battle for a better life and
covering diverse aspects of gender, social justice and development related issues. This includes Community Health,
Elementary Education, Livelihood Security, Local Governance and Peace & Justice.
In addition, fellowships are also awarded to print and photo journalists interest in covering issues of distress seasonal
migration and food security, child malnutrition and women’s health.
The fellowship amounts to Rs. 1,00,000/- each. Women journalists and stringers from small local newspapers are
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The last date for receipt of application is October 15th, 2009

For more information and application guidelines contact


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NATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR INDIA
Core 4A, UG Floor, India Habitat Centre, Lodi Road, New Delhi 110 003
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September 2009
J A MM U V/S K A S HM I R
Locating CU, IIM

Game is Lost for Now as


‘Divided we Always Fall’
ZAFAR CHOUDHARY

An age old adage 'united we stand and divided we fall' is something taught to the school children in the
early primary classes with a pictorial graphic of a bundle of sticks. The tender buds are quick to understand
the logic of staying united but in Jammu and Kashmir even generations do not understand this simple
ground rule. Divided, as the peoples are on regional lines between Kashmir and Jammu, they are suffering
losses but are still not ready to unite for common causes.

E stablishment of two world-class People are more concerned over where


premiere institutions of higher these institutions are located than what
learning –the Central University they deliver and how soon they come
and Indian Institute of Management –are up. Unfortunately the line of division
two fresh cases where the narrow between Kashmir and Jammu regions is
division between regions is coming to such an arduous and treacherous high
sheer disadvantage of the peoples of mountain that vehicles have to
Jammu and Kashmir. Based on the exchange sides via an underneath 2.4
recommendations of the Knowledge kilometers long tunnel –nothing can be
Commission and out of award of the situated atop this mountain to do an
Eleventh Finance Commission, the equitable justice between Kashmir and
Government of India (UPA-I) sanctioned Jammu and people in one region will
15 new Central Universities and 7 new immediately point out injustice if
Indian Institutes of Management to anything comes up first on the other
come up at different places in the side. Resolving this crisis is always a
country. In a historic decision, of course major strategic challenge for the
with the efforts of then Chief Minister political establishment. Soon after CU
Ghulam Nabi Azad, Jammu and Kashmir and IIM were announced for J&K, it was
was bestowed upon by one each such given to understand by then Chief
institution. Indeed, not a small Minister Ghulam Nabi Azad that CU shall
achievement for the state. Though in come up in Jammu and IIM in Kashmir.
matters of faculty recruitment and The announcement was welcomed in
admission of students, the CU and IIM both regions though with some
are open to a countrywide jurisdiction reservations. As the process of
but their coming up in any region brings establishing CU rolled out, the state
added advantages of changing mindset government, for its pre-occupations
of the peoples. Therefore, the sanction elsewhere, delayed identification of
of such prestigious institutions for J&K land for the purpose and in the
can be described as best thing to have meanwhile the Union Human Resource
happened to the state in many decades. Ministry appointed a Vice Chancellor of
The problem in Jammu and Kashmir accent and ethnicity. The
Kashmir is, however, entirely different. founder VC Prof Abdul Wahid, as a

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September 2009
J A MM U V/S K A S HM I R
Locating CU, IIM

The demand of establishment of Central University in Jammu


has been made by the leaders of the ongoing agitation to
completely look like Hindu-centric and City-centric. Majority
of the leaders spearheading agitation have their well known
RSS affiliations and the Central University Andolan Samiti
(CUAS) was until recently headquartered at a building in
Jammu that is called Geeta Bhawan, which also houses offices
of right wing Hindu organizations like Bajrang Dal and
Vishva Hindu Parishad. There is no Muslim representative in
Paviter Singh, the CUAS, particularly from the Muslim dominated four of
a retired Judge,
is Convenor of CUAS.
the ten districts in Jammu region

matter of his convenience, set up a Jammu region got its first main CUAS, particularly from the Muslim
small establishment office in Srinagar University and Agriculture University dominated four of the ten districts in
City to initiate some work on the years after these were established in Jammu region. Therefore, even before
University. That was enough an Kashmir. SKIMS and NIIT are exclusive Kashmir Valley counters Jammu's
indicator for the CU-watchers in Jammu privileges of Kashmir alone. “Hell is not demand for Central University, there is
that the campus is now coming up in going to break loose if newly sanctioned an advanced and quick reaction from
Kashmir and thus begins the agitation. Central University is located in Jammu the districts of Doda, Kishtwar, Ramban,
The state government has, so far, or if first allowed to come up in Jammu Rajouri and Poonch. In Doda district
neither clarified nor denied as where it and a similar institute is then alone as many as 35 educational, social,
wants to see the Central University to established in Kashmir”, is the common political and religious organizations
come up even as much on this account argument in Jammu and is largely valid have come under a single banner to
has to be decided by the HRD Ministry of for justice to regional aspirations. The demand the establishment of Central
India. There is an obvious reason for approach with which this matter is University in either of the three districts
state government's silence on the issue. pursued is grossly wrong and a typical –Doda, Kishtwar or Ramban –that form
Keeping two regions pitted against each reflective of Jammu's many failures in the so called Chenab Valley region.
other helps the coalition partners the past despite massive agitations. The Given such character and outlook of
strengthening their constituencies demand of establishment of Central Central University Andolan Samiti, the
–National Conference in Kashmir and University in Jammu has been made by demand coming from Jammu City could
Congress in Jammu. the leaders of the ongoing agitation to have faced a summary rejection at the
On locating the campuses of CU completely look like Hindu-centric and very outset if a serious political
and IIM, people in Jammu region have a City-centric. Majority of the leaders question of the survival of Congress
sound argument and a completely spearheading agitation have their well party (a partner in J&K's ruling coalition
flawed approach. The argument is: known RSS affiliations and the Central was not involved). Congress and BJP are
name any institution worth naming University Andolan Samiti (CUAS) was the traditional competitors in four
–Jammu and Kashmir University, until recently headquartered at a Hindu dominated districts of Jammu
Agriculture University, Sher-e-Kashmir building in Jammu that is called Geeta region –Jammu, Samba, Kathua and
Institute of Medical Sciences (a deemed Bhawan, which also houses offices of Udhampur. The Congress feels sitting
University of repute), NIIT (also a right wing Hindu organizations like idle on the issue it may well further
deemed University), Engineering Bajrang Dal and Vishva Hindu Parishad. loose out ground to the BJP in these
College –all first came up in Kashmir. There is no Muslim representative in the districts as it happened during the

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J A MM U V/S K A S HM I R
Locating CU, IIM

Assembly elections Jammu and Kashmir seems to


following last year's Therefore, even before Kashmir Valley counters have lost a year even on the
Amarnath land row agitation Jammu's demand for Central University, there is an IIM. Latest reports and
when BJP tally shot up from inquiries from the CU officials
one to 11 seats in these
advanced and quick reaction from the districts of in Srinagar suggest that the
districts and Congress lost Doda, Kishtwar, Ramban, Rajouri and Poonch. In HRD Ministry has told the Vice
eight seats it had won in Doda district alone as many as 35 educational, Chancellor to go slow on the
2002 elections. Therefore, social, political and religious organizations have project. The Central
the Congress legislators come under a single banner to demand the University of J&K has clearly
from Jammu impressed been put on hold and its
upon the Chief Minister to
establishment of Central University in either of the scheduled roll out of three
lead a delegation to the three districts –Doda, Kishtwar or Ramban –that M.Phill faculties –in
Prime Minister and Human form the so called Chenab Valley region I n f o r m a t i o n Te c h n o l o g y,
Resource Development ********** Business Management and
Minister. The delegation English Literature –have been
Given such character and outlook of Central
headed by Omar Abdullah, s u s p e n d e d . Re c r u i t m e n t
indeed, made a stupid
University Andolan Samiti, the demand coming process has too been halted.
demand: Give us another from Jammu City could have faced a summary So is the case with IIM. In
Central University –“one for rejection at the very outset if a serious political August 27 meeting of the
Jammu and other for question of the survival of Congress party (a partner Central Cabinet nod was given
Kashmir”. Though there was to establishment of seven new
in J&K's ruling coalition was not involved).
no written reply from IIMs (already announced by
Government of India but the
Congress and BJP are the traditional competitors in HRD Ministry on March 29,
obvious response is easy to four Hindu dominated districts of Jammu region 2008) but three of them –one in
understand. Till 2008, India –Jammu, Samba, Kathua and Udhampur. The Jammu and Kashmir and two in
could have only 20 Central Congress feels sitting idle on the issue it may well other states –were put on hold
Universities and 15 were for next year as the respective
further loose out ground to the BJP in these districts
added that year. Is it so state government failed to
simple to sanction another
as it happened during the Assembly elections identify the suitable locations
for J&K in just one year just following last year's Amarnath land row agitation as per parameters set by the
to balance the regional when BJP tally shot up from one to 11 seats in these HRD Ministry. The same day,
sentiments? districts and Congress lost eight seats it had won in state government told the
At a time when UPA-II is Legislative Assembly (currently
2002 elections
just taking control of things in session) that it was for HRD
and is reportedly in process
********** Ministry to finalise the land as
of making a fresh blueprint At a time when UPA-II is just taking control of seven locations (three in
for its Kashmir dialogue things and is reportedly in process of making a fresh Jammu and four in Kashmir)
project, the Central blueprint for its Kashmir dialogue project, the were under consideration for
Government appears in no both CU and IIM.
Central Government appears in no mood to burn it
mood to burn it hands with Recall the adage “united
the regional fire in Jammu
hands with the regional fire in Jammu and Kashmir we stand and divided we fall”.
and Kashmir which is out to which is out to be doused by the state government. By staying divided for a month,
be doused by the state The message is clear from New Delhi: set your house Jammu and Kashmir has
government. The message is in order first and then lay claim on the CU and clearly lost an academic year
clear from New Delhi: set of CU and IIM. It is to be seen
IIM. Leave aside having another Central
your house in order first and whether people can unite to
then lay claim on the CU and
University, Jammu and Kashmir seems to have lost finally have both the premiere
IIM. Leave aside having a year even on the IIM. institutions, though year(s)
another Central University, later.

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J A MM U V/S K A S HM I R
Locating CU, IIM

OPINION
CUAS and the Stillborn Wannabes

ANMOL SHARMA

O
nce again the nasty scenes from
the last years Sri Amarnath land
row confrontation are
threatening to re-enact themselves on
the socio-political canvass of our state
of Jammu and Kashmir. The conjecture
here is that the replica of the past in the
shape of Central University Andolan
(CUA) might make the present
panorama of this riyasat even scarier
than the previous land row and tenor of
this new disaster a bit redder.
The 2008's controversy was
attributed to vertically splitting the
people of Jammu-Srinagar, Jammu-
Poonch/Kishtwar into racial and
communal lines but this year it might
fulfill the remaining 'kasar'. The civil
society of Kashmir may descend deep
into their cocoon of isolation and
repugnance for India while the people super mega institutions the with state- Kashmir (CUJK) is naturally going to
of Jammu cry the bogey of of-the-art study hubs, taught by radically transform the place on which
discrimination into a new building international faculties and open to it will sit and educationally as well as
block. national as well international socially it is going to have the same
The biggest tragedy which has undergraduates are going to have on effect which IIT, Delhi or metro had,
compounded the gravity of the scenario each of the selected 15 geographic that eventually changed the face of
is the inconsiderate handling of the locations of India. These Central New Delhi.
issue by the daft politicians from Universities will also support one Now, if we look at the voices
Congress as well as National college each in every district under its emanating from both sides of the
Conference. Some of them are domain. Hence, the colossal magnitude Jawahar Tunnel it becomes quite clear
primarily guilty of propagating of this project in all the terms and easy to understand that everybody
disinformation amongst the masses and imaginable is not difficult to guess. wants CUJK at their respective places.
some of them, secondarily for keep Government of India intends to Reading the two famous dailies
their mouths shut. raise the standard of these universities published from Srinagar and listening to
A very few people in reality know to same level as we already have in the the voices of locals from Jammu makes
what the format and principal idea world famous Jawahar Lal Nehru clear the chasm dividing the two
behind Central University is and what University or Delhi University. The habitations.
kind of ramifications these billion dollar Central University of Jammu and At the same time, both the

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Locating CU, IIM

factions are completely off beam. site for the university was
Article after article in Kashmiri local identified in Samba and What is a Central University?
dailies is asserting that Jammu already later it was shifted to
has a very modern SMVDU, Baba Ghulam Srinagar, but the way they While other universities in the country are
Shah Badshah University, so no need for are protesting is a failed established by the State Governments, a Central
one more. But they must also realize approach which leads to University in India is formed by the Government
that first university in J&K opened in confrontation and no body of India, by an Act of Parliament. The
Kashmir, first Agricultural University wins. Government of India is responsible for
opened in Kashmir so was the case with The '30-35 years old arranging, allocating and distributing financial
REC, NIT, Islamic University of Science and still a student' aka resources required by the University Grants
and Tech in Awantipora and SKIMS is also ' Pa p p u s ' o f J a m m u
Commission (UGC) for the establishment of
a super-specialty Hospital cum university who have not
University which is functioning there.
Central Universities in India. Currently there are
been able to pass their
Nothing of that sorts happened first in exams and in any ordinary 20 Central Universities functioning in India and
Jammu. Is it not? day would have still sat 15 others are coming up.
Moreover, the then Chief Minister near Sharmaji's canteen or The higher education system in India being
Ghulam Nabi Azad is on record to say roamed idly around the one of the largest in the world, the responsibility
that two more Universities in Kashmir- campus are all of sudden rests on the Central Government to devise
an Islamic University funded by various pinching themselves to policies with a view to improving the quality of
trusts and foundations and Sharda Peeth see if it is really they who higher education in the country. Improving the
University under the aegis of Sri are coming on local TV quality and access of higher education and
Amarnath Shrine Board will be set up doing press conferences
research in India has become all the more
there. and the various print-
press interviews. It is also
important keeping in view the growing need of
On the other hand, Jammu is
u n n e ce ssa rily a doptin g a ve ry not a hidden fact that qualified human resources in various sectors of
aggressive posture and many politicians some of them have serious the economy. Therefore it can only be hoped that
of the BJP and allied organizations are criminal charges against there would be more central universities in India
adamant and pressuring the CM to shift them pending in the Court in the immediate future.
the site from Srinagar to Jammu. But of Law. It would not be Since the State Governments establish and
reading sub-section (5) of section 3 surprising to know that plan for the colleges and universities in the states
makes clear that it is the Central quite few of them might and the Central Government does it for the
Government which will select the site of have even prepared their
Central Universities, it is essential that there is
the Headquarters and they have also to s p e e c h e s t o
adequate cooperation between the State
publish it in the Official Gazette. Also if NDTV/CNNIBN.
Central University Act, 2009 is to be Going berserk on
Governments and the Central Government in the
followed then the Chancellor, VC etc are streets, shouting abuses, field of higher education. The Central Advisory
to be appointed under section 10, 11 damaging public/private Board of Education (CABE) has therefore been
respectively by the “Visitor” i.e., the property, demeaning the constituted to assist in the functioning of the two
President of India herself. Omar is Government or the Chief Governments and ensure that parity is
nowhere at the scene here. So why are Minister or for that matter maintained.
people not told about this. calling for bandh which The Central Government has also been
It is probable that keeping the hits the poor badly are all empowered by a special act of the Constitution
masses unaware helps the hardliner and exercises which were
to maintain a particular standard conducive to
separatist of Srinagar in the furthering tried last year and yielded
the educational health of the country. The
the alienist agenda in Kashmir and no good in the end. The
labeling the government as pro-Kashmir way of protesting which Central Government lays special emphasis on
helps communal forces of Jammu in reciprocates a civilized research and development carried out in
their 'I told you so' stance. Every person society would be to technical as well as other institutions.
of Jammu has cause for concern if the protest in a decent

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J A MM U V/S K A S HM I R
Locating CU, IIM

manner. Petitions should be sent to the


President of India who herself is the Some of the special features of Central Universities are -
“Visitor” of the central university and
The President of India acts as the 'Visitor' for all the Central Universities
Ä
all the matter are under her direct
control. Similarly there can be other The President has the power to nominate a few members to the Executive
Ä
modes of protesting which can be Committee/Board of Management/Court/Selection Committees of the
adopted by the students but in all University in terms of the various statutes and provisions laid down in the
respects playing at the hands of the University Act.
conniving politicians would be like The Ministry of Human Resources and Development (MHRD) assists the
Ä
fighting a battle which is already lost. President of India in the appointment of Vice Chancellors, Court Nominees
If the bigger picture is to be and Selection Committee Nominees.
comprehended then to a strategic
Analyst of RAW or any department of a could happen. Kashmiris as a matter of that they are becoming more
university observing the fact that a fact are living in a closed environment sophisticated in their thoughts, speak
diehard anti India newspaper is without a touch of outside world in the English and act proficiently in their
encouraging articles which directly sense that they have no opportunity behavior while riding the metro.
demand that a university sponsored, mixing with non-muslims or non- The best deal would be to set up
controlled and financed by the kashmiris. All the time a single thought two CUJK's, one in Jammu and other in
Government of India should be set up in of oppressive India is echoing their Srinagar, and is in consonance with what
Kashmir would definitely make him minds. Mr. Pavitar Singh of CUAS said in one
jump from his chair. It would be a great If they can come out of their newspaper “…Government should first
strategic win for India if such a thing slumber and realize that any establish the already sanctioned
ordinary civilian in UP, Central University at Samba and then
Existing CUs Punjab etc is also the victim explore the possibility of having Central
Ä Aligarh Muslim University of the rotten system then University at Kashmir.”
perhaps they can start This makes nobody feel neglected
Ä Assam University
identifying themselves with and economy of the both the regions
Ä Banaras Hindu University
others too. This world class gets a sonic boost.
Ä Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University university will also bring with New Cus coming up in : Bihar,
Ä English and Foreign Languages University it students and teachers Gujarat, Haryana, HP, Jharkhand,
Ä Indraprastha University from different parts of India Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, Punjab,
Ä Jamia Millia Islamia University and world, it will also bring Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and J&K.
Ä Manipur University great exposure and open the The author, is lawyer by
Ä Maulana Azad National Urdu University minds that will make the education and practice is a
Ä Delhi University local students of Kashmir dispassionate commentator also.
understand different
Ä Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi
viewpoints. It would not be a
Vishwavidyalaya
churlish to say that it might
Ä Mizoram University to do India what East India
Ä Nagaland University Co. did to UK but in a good
Ä North Eastern Hill University sense of regaining the lost
Ä Pondicherry University faith of Kashmiris.
Ä Tezpur University Just like one professor
Ä University of Allahabad of Columbia University did a
Ä University of Hyderabad research on Metro of New
Ä Visva-Bharati University Delhi and he described in
great detail how the metro is
Ä Jawaharlal Nehru University
effecting change in the
mindsets of Delhiites and

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60 ×
September 2009
F EATURE S
Changpas of Ladakh

Changpa Tribe’s Identity,


Way of Life Under Threat
TASHI MORUP

Tribal communities all over the world are now being acknowledged as playing a crucial role in sustaining natural
resources and protecting the environment. This is simply because unlike urban centers or even agrarian
communities, they live off the produce that nature provides and not cultivated. The fishing communities, forest
dwellers or adivasis, the nomads, the herdsmen all play a role in upholding a way of life that does not strip the
environment of its regenerative power. This, however, is under severe challenge for Changpas of Ladakh where
an enlightened governance is needed to prevent degeneration of a robust mountainous community.

I n Ladakh's portion of the Tibetan


Plateau where temperatures in
winter plunge to a sub-zero and the
bare mountainous terrain makes any
movement difficult, the nomadic
inhabitants, the Changpas represent a
unique way of life. Over hundreds of
years, this has allowed them to meet
the challenge of survival through the
institution of 'polyandrous' and not the
more conventional 'monogamous'
marriages.
The children are borne out of
wedlock between one child-bearing
woman and several men, all brothers,
the most famous historical example
being Draupadi. In Ladakh, these many
Draupadis are in a sense the core
strength of the Changpas each family
which owns a large herd of livestock
including sheep, goats, yaks and horses,
which they graze on the vast
mountainous expanse of the Chang- tightly knit together to meet the sustain their levels of income from the
thang. This involves moving the animals challenge. sale of wool and of animals for meat,
throughout the year across a variety of However sparse pastures of low which is becoming insufficient to meet
grazing areas and requires efficient nutritive value prevent families from family needs. What is at stake here is
management and high levels of increasing herd size while the family the traditional practice of polyandry
cooperation between family members. size relying on livestock has grow. This among the Changpa, which has been of
The rugged terrain, limited pastures has led to competition among the significant and practical economic
and winter chill makes the family unit families for animal grazing space to importance. Through this it has been

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September 2009
F EATURE S
Changpas of Ladakh

possible for single families to sustain They take turns grazing the young goats mature deliveries. Due to timely
large herds of livestock, requiring as and sheep on alternate days. The two medical help at a hospital in Leh, a
they do, extensive manpower for their fathers Phuntsog and Delden, likewise fourth child survived. During this period
control. It has also been a very practical take turns in grazing the 'demos' or of illness the family had no one to look
way of restricting population growth. female yaks, while mother Skalzang after its livestock, resulting in Sanghe
The break-down of such joint looks after the home. The whole losing his yaks and horses to wolves.
families due to increasingly household was completely thrown out He among many of the other Changpa
monogamous marriages, has not only of gear when after a long illness who have left the Chang-thang, has
resulted in a considerable increase in Phuntsog lost the use of his legs. Deldan been reduced to buying raw goatskins
the population, but has left the new then walked for several days across the from butchers in Leh, instead of
nuclear families lacking shearing his own animals. From
sufficient manpower to a proud owner of livestock in a
efficiently deal with their What is at stake here is the traditional region where his ancestors
livestock, which can range from practice of polyandry among the Changpa, roamed, he has to work as a day
200 to 500 head per family. labourer to feed his small
which has been of significant and practical
Whilst families in other herding family of three and to send his
societies might turn to economic importance. Through this it has 10-year -old son to school.
employing additional help, the been possible for single families to sustain Tribal communities all
economic circumstances of life over the world are now being
on the Chang-thang do not
large herds of livestock, requiring as they do, acknowledged as playing a
permit what for these families extensive manpower for their control. It has crucial role in sustaining
would be an impossible luxury. natural resources and
also been a very practical way of restricting
According to an official in protecting the environment.
the Leh District land records population growth. The break-down of such This is simply because unlike
office, revenue record indicate joint families due to increasingly urban centers or even agrarian
that the initial number of only communities, they live off the
eight households in Kharnak has
monogamous marriages, has not only resulted produce that nature provides
now increased to 93. According in a considerable increase in the population, and not cultivated. The fishing
to the 1993 census carried out but has left the new nuclear families lacking communities, forest dwellers
by the Leh Nutrition Project or adivasis, the nomads, the
(LNP), the community at that sufficient manpower to efficiently deal with herdsmen all play a role in
time consisted of 67 families, their livestock, which can range from 200 to upholding a way of life that
indicating an increase of 26 does not strip the environment
500 head per family.
families in just a decade. As the of its regenerative power.
culture of polyandry declines, This needs to be
more families are splitting up snowbound Chang-thang and over the respected and they need a
with the men finding wives. 5,600m Taglang-la to reach Leh for guiding hand to steer them and if
Even in normal times, the few help. An army rescue helicopter went necessary steady them amidst the
surviving families are stretched to their out to find Phuntsog, and ferried him to inevitable winds of change in social,
limits in just dealing with day-to-day Leh where he was hospitalised for several economic and environmental processes
life. This gets exacerbated during months. This small unit was able to that affect them. This necessarily needs
crises like illness and brings to fore, the survive Phuntsog's absence by somehow enlightened governance. It would be a
abominable state of health facilities for pitching in to collectively share his tasks. shame if we let such a proud and robust
this brave and robust community. 25 Others have not been so lucky. mountainous community degenerate
year old Dolma Chondol and her monk Sanghe Palzang (43) in Kharnak was into a compromised existence on the
brother Jigmet Chonjor, age 21 years struck with paralysis for three years and fringes of society.
belong to a smaller polyandrous family. his wife Ishey Dolma suffered pre- Charkha Features

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September 2009
F EATURE S
Changpas of Ladakh

The Fur Traders and


The Lost Avenues
BINISH GULZAR & SYED RAKSHANDA SUMAN

Kashmir has a place of its own in the Fur trade before it was banned in 1978 rendering hundreds of
artisans jobless. The next best thing the furries could have done was the leather work which too is
dying due to official apathy.

A
s we strolled along the Abi-Guzar
bund on the bank of river Jhelum
we caught a glimpse of a shop -
“Fine Art Furriers”. This struck us as
strange since we know that Fur has been
banned a long time back under the Wild
Life Protection Act 1978. The term
'furriers' clearly applies to a person or
organisation, which sources, and
markets furs In the current context,
how was it possible that such a shop
exists in Kashmir? Peeping through the
window pane what we see is a
septuagenarian man stitching a leather
coat, his frail hands moving effortlessly
over the garment. A while later we are
in conversation with this old man who
uncannily seems has been waiting for
many years for us to come, to share his
woes.
Gulam Hassan Pandit, with a frown
on his face and a stiffening of his body
initially hesitates to speak to us. It
almost seems as if he feels betrayed.
The first thing that he tells us is that
many people have interviewed him in yearning for a time when life was full of the name of the shop he says , “The shop
the past but his words and feelings have hope. The fur jackets hanging around has a history of more than 98 years and
always been misrepresented. are the testimonial of the fact that this that the name was given almost 51 years
Glancing round the shop, we see old man has dealt with fur business, back, when the fur business existed.”
that the shop is quite messy, with the which has all but closed down. After the prohibition on Fur, he has now
leather jackets scattered all over the While there is a hesitancy to open taken to the leather business which
floor, the walls are cracked and a dirty up, there also is an eagerness to talk, though has not showed any progress in
mannequin dressed gorgeously in long share his experiences. Responding Jammu & Kashmir. The reasons are
fur jacket. There is pathos in the air, a quickly to a spontaneous question about manifold. According to the statistics,

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September 2009
F EATURE S
Changpas of Ladakh

Kashmir Leather Industry has a Kashmir however pushes up the leather shop has already taken up a new
potential to generate revenue of $ 1 production costs and on the other hand business. Few of them have begun to
billion, annually, but unfortunately this forces local artisans and traders to sell shift to other states to earn their
industry is losing its niche. Says Gulam these products at a very low price to livelihood. There are several others
Hassan, “Since we don't have leather traders outside the state. with a similar tale like Gulam Hassan
factories here, we have to import the Environmentalists have always been and Mehrajuddin. All the people who
raw material from Chennai and other against setting up tanneries in Kashmir, dealt with fur had to abandon the work
states of country at a very high cost as it produces highly toxic effluents. in the wake of the ban imposed by the
every year”. Therefore, the government. Sadly those who
production of the leather took to the leather business may
products has reached its Leather Industry has a potential to have to leave it in the light of
minimum level. Our artisans are generate revenue of $ 1 billion, annually, government apathy. An industry
famous all around the globe, the that is well suited to the region
but unfortunately this industry is losing its
reason being that most of our and could provide livelihoods to
products are handmade and niche. thousands within Kashmir is
foreigners in large numbers are ******* gradually being snuffed out.
attracted to these. He informs us If the leather industry has
that more than 5000 Kashmiri More than 5000 Kashmiri artisans are shown the potential to generate
artisans are working with various working with various leather industries huge revenue annually for the
leather industries outside J&K state's economy, then what is
because of their proven superior
outside J&K because of their proven stopping the government to
craftsmanship. After a long pause superior craftsmanship. revive and boost this home-
he says “If they can generate grown industry? Why is it only
*******
value for the whole country, why concerned with the raging
not for our own state, Since Kashmiris consume meat voraciously political issues and controversies
Government is doing nothing for and statistics reveals that on an average and turning a blind eye to the
us”. Because of the neglect by the developmental needs of the
state government, the industry 3.5 million sheep and goat are slaughtered people? With an environment for
loses billions every year. annually for our consumption, the skin can the raw material already in place
Warming up to the subject, and a pool of local craftsmen and
be utilised for production of leather
he tells us that sheep leather is traders, it needs to take the step
the highest quality leather and provided there are tanneries. The absence to set up tanneries here so that
because of its climatic conditions of tanneries is pushing the artisans to entrepreneurs like Gulam Hassan
Kashmir provides one of the best and others of his ilk do not need
environments for this leather. work outside the state and traders to seel to waste their resources at
Expanding on the theme, he goes the skins as throw away prices. sourcing leather from other
on to say that since Kashmiris states at a high price. The fur
consume meat voraciously and industry is long gone, a relic of
statistics reveals that on an average 3.5 The answer to this could have come the past, one that is clearly out of sync
million sheep and goat are slaughtered from the Government, which is not with current thought on society and
annually for our consumption, the skin showing any interest in setting of an ETP environment. The leather business does
can be utilised for production of leather (Effluent Treatment Plant). This could not carry this burden and can grow into
provided there are tanneries. The have solved the problem and pacified a profitable activity for many Kashmiris.
absence of tanneries is pushing the the green lobby. The onus is squarely on the government
artisans to work outside the state and Tired of the official apathy, many so that a promising industry like the
traders to seel the skins as throw away aspiring businessmen have already leather business does not sink into
prices. given up and many like trader, atrophy.
The absence of a tannery in Mehrajuddin who used to have his own Charkha Features

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September 2009
C O L UMN
Reports from Ground

Kashmir ki kali...
bruised and shattered

T he more-than 60-years-old tug of remains a distant dream...


war between India and Pakistan For the women of Kashmir, the
over the mountain state of impact of the tragedy has been doubly
Jammu & Kashmir has resulted in fatal, as they have not just borne the
tremendous destruction, preventing wrath of the conflict but have also been
both countries from realising their full treated as objects of use and
socio-economic and political potential. amusement, both by the militants and
Other than the loss of human lives, the the Indian security forces. Over the
casualties have been trust, years, the women have tried hard to
brotherhood, and, to a large extent, the douse the fires of the violence,
entire ethos of Kashmiriyat. simultaneously keeping the fires in their
While the men from Indian- houses burning. Each has emerged a
administered-Kashmir have crossed winner in her own right, though
over to Pakistan-administered-Kashmir somewhat bruised and shattered.
to receive training in arms, and have The image of Kashmiri women has
come back to 'liberate' their motherland changed drastically over the last few
from India, the women have been at the decades. In the early Nineties,
forefront of protests and rallies, and newspapers were splashed with
MANISHA SOBHRAJANI have provided psycho-social support to images of burqa-clad women flocking
Author is a Delhi-based independent their men folk. In turn, the men have the streets of Srinagar in protests for
researcher working on the various been killed and the women have borne one thing or the other. For the
aspects of the Kashmir conflict. She numerous mothers, wives, sisters and
the brunt of it in the form of the most
can be reached at
gruesome violations. 'Azaadi', however, daughters in Jammu and Kashmir,
manishasobhrajani@epilogue.in)

Epilogue Ø
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September 2009
C O L UMN
Reports from Ground

negotiating space for their men-folk population was allegedly raped in the men. During the seven-year waiting
during the two-decade-long conflict initial years of insurgency. period, the women's rights to their
has become a way of life, whether it is Dardpora, the village of widows, husbands' property are often
taking up the issue of missing sons and in Kupwara district, is nestled in the threatened.
husbands or hiding militants in their mountains, and is very close to the Kunan Poshpora was raided on 23-
homes. Kashmiri women have been Line of Control (LoC) between India 24 February 1990, by soldiers from the
targeted both by the militants as well and Pakistan. Almost all the men-folk 4th Rajputana Rifles, during a counter-
as security forces, and have borne in the village have been killed either in insurgency operation. Women were
more than their share of the brunt of fratricidal wars or by the Indian mass-raped, and the village was nick-
the political unrest. security forces in the early years of named as the 'village of raped women'
Sexual exploitation has been a key militancy. Those who haven't been after the incident got highlighted in the
feature in Kashmiri women's lives in the killed have gone 'missing', and their international media. Till date, most
past 18 years. Indian security forces and women from the village remain
militant forces in Kashmir have been unmarried because of the stigma
using rape to punish, intimidate, Thousands of women are attached to this gruesome violation of a
coerce, humiliate, and degrade their woman's body.
female victims. The psychological toll
going through an identity This is the village and the women
of rape includes anxiety, depression, crisis owing to the on whom video films have been made,
nightmares, social phobias, physical phenomenon of enforced where numerous national and
complaints, and post traumatic stress international teams have gone, where
disorder (PTSD). disappearances, which leads George Verghese conducted an
One of the impacts of the them to the status of half- investigation for the Press Council of
protracted armed conflict has been the widows (whose husband's India, spent 15 minutes, and concluded
increasing number of widows and half- that no rape had taken place because
widows, and the shockingly increasing death is not ascertained). the raped girls had been laughing. The
number of women who have been For such women, each day Press Council of India dismissed the
physically violated by the personnel of begins with the hope of their allegations of the victims, while their
the armed forces. Thousands of women medical reports were withheld. The
are going through an identity crisis men returning, and ends in report said that when investigators
owing to the phenomenon of enforced despair. The armed conflict went to Kunan Poshpora to find out if
disappearances, which leads them to the mass rape had actually taken place,
has also affected women
the status of half-widows (whose they found that all the women were
husband's death is not ascertained). For physically. giggling and laughing. This led them to
such women, each day begins with the believe that such a heinous crime like
hope of their men returning, and ends in rape could not have been committed
despair. The armed conflict has also there, or else the women would not
affected women physically. wives are called 'half-widows'! What have been laughing!
In Kashmir's troubled history of the remains in this village is women and The question of the future of
past 15 years, two villages have grabbed children. Widowhood has become the raped women, widows and half-
newspaper headlines but little by way dominant marker of these women in widows presents a challenge to the
of help out of their predicament. Both Dardpora. Azaadi movement. These issues have
Dardpora and Kunan Poshpora fall in the Needless to say, the widows are not gained the attention of the leaders
border district of Kupwara, situated on harassed by the security forces and the who seemed to be concerned about
the Line of Control in the north of the militants, not to mention the daily everything else. The civil society, too,
state. While Dardpora has the dubious struggle of having to fend for leaves a lot to be desired. Though
distinction of being the 'Village of themselves and their children. The there is no lack of sympathy for
Widows' because there aren't many men Indian government does not provide any Kashmiri women, but building a local
left, Kunan Poshpora's plight came to relief to half-widows before seven years support structure requires organized
the fore when its entire female from the date of disappearance of their effort.

Epilogue Ø
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September 2009
C O L UMN
History

History of Forts in
Jammu Hills

Aerial view of Bahu Fort

F orts were one of the most construction and their maintenance as


effective and popular the most powerful measure of the
components of the defence defence of their own empire. Kautilya's
measures of India during ancient and Arthashastra records four types of forts
medieval period. The construction of such as water or river fort (audaka or
fort was understood one of the nadi durga), mountain fort (Parvata
dominant features of the state Durga), desert fort (dhanvana durga)
formation and its strength. The and forest fort (vana durga). Some
archaeological remains of the different other literature of the ancient India
parts of India show that fort mention six to eight kinds of forts. The
construction had become one of the maintenance of the forts by the rulers of
main duties of the ruling class, since the early medieval India is mentioned
PROF JIGAR MOHAMMED they exist in all states of ancient and by the Turkish historians of the
Author is Professor of History at medieval India. It could be either the Sultanate of Delhi. The Turkish
University of Jammu. He is associated historians' works show that they were
Mauryan rulers such as Chndragupta
with Epilogue as Editorial Adviser on
Maurya or Ashoka of ancient India or the very much impressed by the Rajput forts
History of Jammu and Kashmir. He can
be reached at Mughal rulers of 16th and 17th century of the 12th and 13th centuries northern
jigar.mohammad@epilogue.in A.D., all of them treated forts India. Hasan Nizami, a court historian of

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September 2009
C O L UMN
History

Qutubuddin Aibak (1206-10) and lofty mountain, and surrounded by a to keep these route secure. One of the
Shamsuddin Iltutmish (1210-36) has all wide moat boundless like an ocean, its most effective security measures was
praise for the some of the Rajput forts ramparts were high that even fast flying the construction new fort and
of the north India. Describing the falcon could not soar over them, and its maintenance of the old forts.
strength and attraction of Delhi fort on battlements were invisible to the naked However, in the Jammu hills
the eve of the Turkish invasion, Hasan eye of someone watching them from the construction and maintenance of
writes, “ As the imperial flags (May God the ground.” The forts of Kol, Gwalior forts were understood as the most
keep them aloft) reached Delhi, the and Kalinjer are also find huge space in effective means of both the
first thing to be visible was the rampart Hasan Nizami's work.9 maintenance the sovereignty of the
of the fort, which, like the dignity of the The contemporary sources of ruling king and maintenance of law and
king, rose higher than the top of the both the Sultanate of Delhi and Mughal order in the region. Since the states of
Saturn, while to foundations were as empire given considerable space in Jammu hills were closely linked with
strong as the basis of the great empire. terms of their location, their use for both the Punjab and Kashmir, their
The Engineer of the reason was unable security purpose and historical rulers were conscious of the security
to attempt its mensuration, and background and maintenance. measures of their states. It is evident
observers of eyes had not seen the like Moreover the ruling dynasties of from the fact that the modern Jammu
of it in the length and breadth of the medieval India treated the construction region was studded with the forts during
whole world. From its top the condition of the fort as one of their prerogatives the medieval period. Recently, Shiv
of the cluster of Pleiades in the casket and parts of their cultural life. For Nirmohi, a historian Jammu, made a
of the skiy could be seen, and the true security measures the Sultans of Delhi survey of the forts of Jammu and
form of the chess-piecesof the stars on generally repaired and constructed produced detailed study on the forts of
the white chess-board on the firmament forts on major routes. Sultan Jammu. .
could be observed at close quarters.” It Ghiyasuddin Balban built a fort at The remains of the forts of
is important to mention that when Gopalgir to strengthen security of Delhi Jammu hills show that the ruling
Shibuddin Muhammad Ghori attacked against Meos menace.10 Similarly, he dynasties of the region had associated
Delhi its ruler was Prithiviraj Chauhan. built forts at Kampil, Patiali and the construction and maintenance of
The fort of Meerut attracted the Bhojpur to supress the robbers and the forts with their socio-political life.
attention of Hasan and it strength rebels.More importantly, Balban got the They treated forts as symbol of their
inspired him to pen down its military fort of Lahore reconstructed to defend their political grandeur. Though during
significance. Describing its strategical north-west frontier the Mangol the medieval period all the ruling
importance and the Turkish imvasion on menace.12 Abul Fazl's Ain-i-Akbari dynasties of India treated forts as the
it Hasan Nizami writes: “…the fort of records the forts of the Mughal empire prime mover of their military activities,
Merut…is the famous fort of this at the Pargana level. It is important to the existence of large number of forts in
celebrated city, well known for the mention that the sources of the Mughal Jammu hill states establish that besides
firmness of its foundation and the empire not only mention the forts builts military strength of a state, forts were
strength of its pillars, a company of by the Mughal ruling class, but also built the major architectural activities of the
soldiers (Turkish), reputed for their by the local rulers. It is well establilshed region. Shiv Nirmohi's Duggar ke Durg
matchless valour and remarkable fact that Punjab was the region consists of the description of 128 forts.
devotion to duty started the hostilities. through which generally the foreign It is understood that construction of the
Awe-struck by the valour of the king in invaders, particularly Cental Asian, forts became a major security measure
the battle-field, the inmates of the fort Iranian and Afghans, endagered the in Jammu hills from early eleventh
found themselves in a miserable security of India during the Sultanate century onwards. Frederic Drew
condition, and when it came to actual and Mughal period. Since different witnessed a series of the forts in the
fighting they realised that they were trade routes of Punjab were Jammu hills in the nineteenth century.
utterly helpless before the royal troops. instrumental in maintaining trade His findings show that most of the forts
Thus was captured the impregnable commerce between India and foreign of Jammu hills were constructed by the
fort, an inaccessible stronghold, the countries, the rulers like Sher Shah and indigenous ruling dynasties. According
ramprts of which firm and solid like a Mughal emperors took various measures to him, “All over the low hills, on both

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September 2009
C O L UMN
History

sides of the Chinab, they (forts) are in built before eleventh century. The of these states. It is evident from their
extraordinary number. They were built Mughal sources from Akbar's period policy of making alliance with the
at the time when each little tract had its onwards give information about Jammu Rajput rulers of Jammu hill states from
own ruler, and each ruler had to defend hill forts in better way than other Akbar's period onwards. One of the most
himself against his neighbour. These sources. effective security measures of the
forts are commonly on the summit of Abul Fazl records some of the Mughals was to construct forts at
some rocky hill, with naturally scarped forts existing in Jammu hills. Jammu strategic places of the Jammu hills. It is
face; by their position, and by the way fort has been shown as the biggest fort an established fact that generally the
they were planned, they are well of the region. He mentions Jammu fort Mughal emperors visited Kashmir from
protected against escalcade. Though constructed on the top of the hill with the period of its annexation to the
now (second half of the 19th century) huge army. This fort is shown with 1000 Mughal empire in 1586-87 onwards.
they have all come into the hands of one cavalry and 20000 infantry. Manhas are They followed the route of Rajouri and
ruler, they are still kept up, that is so far shown as the rulers of Jammu.22 Abul Punch. To strengthen the security of this
that a small garrison-may be only of a Fazl's description of the establishment route Akbar constructed a fort at
dozen men- is kept in each. Some of the of the Mughal sovereignty in Jammu Naushahra. Alberuni's account shows
most kown are Mangla, on the Jhelam; under Akbar shows that Jammu fort was that a fort of Loharakotta was built in
Mangal Dev, near Naushahra; and Troch, treated as the main source of the Punch by its rulers in early medieval
near Kotli; these are each on the defence of the state. Consequently, the period. The fort of Loharkotta is known
summit on a rocky preciptous hill most Mughal army besieged the Jammu fort to be gate way to Kashmir during the
difficult of access.” Frederic Drew's to compel the ruler of Jammu for the medieval period.
mention is concerned with the areas of acceptance of the Mughal sovereignty.23 The tradition of constructing
east and west of the Chinab river, which Mankot state of Jammu hills has been forts for defence purpose and as a
consisted of Basoli or Bilawar, Mankot or shown with four forts by the Ain-i- symbol of political grandeur were
R a m k o t , R a m n a g a r, A k h n u r, Akbari.24 It also shows that there was 30 continued by the rulers of the Jammu
BhimbarRajouri ant Punch etc. Though cavalry and 1200 infantry soldiers in hill stated till nineteenth century. It is
history of these forts in chronological Mankot state, and the ruling class understood that the fort of Mahoregarh
order is not known because of the belonged to the Manhas clan of the was also built during fifteenth or
absence of indigenous historical source Rajput.25 Mankot is known as Ramkot in sixteenth century. The fort of
in the hills, non-indigenous sources, modern period. It ia understood that Kapurgarh was built in the sixteenth
particularly Mughal sources, attest the the ruling dynasty of Mankot was an century by Raja Kapur Dev (1530-71),
historiocity of these sources. offshoot from Jammu and it started to the ruler of Jammu. The fort of Dansal
It is an established fact that be known as Mankotia.It is said that was built by one of the sons of Raja
the Mangol invader Timur invaded Manak-Dev, a descendant of the ruling Kapur Dev during the sixteenth century.
Jammu in 1398-99. When he wrote his family of Jammu founded the Mankot The fort of Samba or Nandini Durg was
autobiography or Memoirs he state and build a fort there. Jasrota was built in early medieval period. The fort
incorported some places, structures another important state of Jammu hills of Lakhanpur also belongs to the
and topographical features. It is which finds mention in the Ain-i-Akbari. medieval period. It is understood to
important to mention that his It is shown with 400 cavalry and 5000 have been built by its ruler Sangram Dev
autobiography is the first literary source infantry soldiers and Malanhas (Manhas) during the 14th century. According to
which mention the nomenclature as the ruling family. Abul Fazl menions Hutchinson and Vogel, “The alternative
Jammu. When Timur invaded he Jammu the existence of a fort in Jasrota in the name (of Lakhanpur) was Thain as found
he found a fort in Jammu in which the Akbarnama. Though Abul Fazl mentions in some of the records, from the name
ruling king of Jammu resided. This it a small fort, the remains of a this fort of a strong fort on a lofty cliff
shows that Jammu had a strong show that it was a big fort constructed overhanging the right bank of the Ravi,
tradition of the maintenance of the fort by its own ruler. Since Jammu hill states where the Rajas seem often to have
during the medieval period. For, were buffer states between Kashmir resided.” The Ain-i-Akbari mentions
Hutchison and Vogel the oldest fort of and Punjab, the Mughal emperors were Lakhanpur as Lakhnor. The forts of
Jammu was the Bahu fort, which was very much concerned with the security Bilawar and Bhadu were constructed

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September 2009
C O L UMN
History

during medieval period. Though exact up to nineteenth century. Mian Gulab Chinab) and hills of Kishtwar to check
dates of their construction are not Singh contributed to the expansion of the advancement of the Mughal army.
availvable, these states find mention in this fort and constructed an entrance Jahangir also appreciates the
the Ain-i-Akbari. According to it, gate and a wall for making it stronger specilization of the Kishtwaris in rope
Bhadu's military strength was very and more secured in the early bridge building, which was very useful
small. It consisted of 30 cavalry and nineteenth century. The fort of for defence purpose. Regarding the
1200 infantry. Its zamindars belonged to Sanalkot at village Pauni, district expertise of the Kishtwaris in rope
Jat and Bandwal castes. The military Udhampur was constucted during early building Jahangir writes, “From the…
strength of Bilawar state was also small. medieval period. It is known as one of river (the Maru) to the Chinab, which
During the sixteenth century 50 cavalry the oldest forts of the Jammu hills. strong support to these unfortunate
and 3000 infantry were maintained by According to the folk tradition it was people (Kishtwaris), is a distance of two
its ruler.40The fort of Sunderikot in built by a king Shalbahan. Ganeshdas bow-shots, and on the bank of Chenab
Bilawar Tahsil, Kathua district seems to Badehra quotes an oral tradition about there is a lofty hill. The crossing of the
have been built in the 17th century. the coming of Raja Shalbahan to Pauni water is a difficult matter, and, with a
According to the folk tradition, it was from Sialkot. According to it, “…during view to the coming and going of people
built by the rulers of Bhadwal for the the last days of his life Raja Shalbahan on foot, they attach strong ropes, and
shelter of the people during the natural left Sialkot and came to the hills near place planks of the width of a cubit
calamity.41 The fort of Kohag or Mandali Pauni and founded a city on the spur of a between two ropes, and fasten one
was built in the late sixteenth or early mountain on the bank of Chinab river rope's and fasten one rope's Zampa in
17th century. It was built by the ruler of and named it Sanalkot. He took his the language of the people of the hill
the Bandralta state for the protection of residence on the peak of that country.”
the frontier of his state. The fort of mountain.” The fort of Battal seems to The forts of Jammu hills not
Thial in Tahsil Ramnagar, district have been constructed during the 17th only strengthened the military power of
Udhampur, was constructed in the last century. the states concerned, but they also
decade the sixteenth century. The fort of Kishtwar was one of the most became instrumental in the
According to an inscription of a well, famous and oldest forts of the Jammu flourishment of the building industries.
situated outside the fort, it was built in hills. It is understood that it was built Moreover, with the construction of the
Samvat 1541. A oral tradition tells that during the seventh or eighth century A.D forts, the rulers of Jammu hills
it was built by one Thial Singh, a . by the successors of the Raja Kahn enhanced the historical importance of
jagirdar of Bandralta state. The fort of Sen49, the founder of the Kishtwar state. their states. Though ruling dynasties
Landar was built in the village Landar, in Kalhan, the author of the emerged and declined, the forts
modern district of Udhampur. It is Rajatarangini, mentions Kishtwar as constructed by them speak of their
understood that it was built in the Kashtvata. Abul Fazl mentions Kishtwar existence and constructive activities.
seventeenth century by the Butiyal as one of the important regions of the The remains of these forts in Jammu
kings. Therefore, it is also called the 16 th century India. 50 The Mughal region tell the story of the security
fort of Bhutiyal. The mention of the empreror Jahangir was very impressed measures taken by the ruling classes for
Bhutiyal state is found in the Ain-i- with the expertise of the Kishtwaris in the protection of the interests of their
Akbari. According to it, Bhutiyal state military affairs and the popularity of its own states. These forts are living
was situated in sarkar of the Bari Doab, ruler. He found that the Kishtwar army heritage of the Jammu region. These
Suba Lahore. Its ruling class has been used its topographical features, forts also tell that the ruling classes of
mentioned as the Bhutiyalah. Its specially hills and rivers for defending Jammu were followers of the work
military strength was 30 cavalry and its territory against the outside culture. The existence of these forts
1000 infantry. The fort of Bhimgarh, invasion. Even Jahangir's army received establishes that construction was the
situated in Riasi state, about sixty four tough resistence from the Kishtwaris major trend of the Jammu hills during
k.m. from Jammu, was built by Bhim, a when it attacked Kishtwar for the ancient and medieval period,
local chief of the area during medieval establishment of the Mughal obstruction and destruction were not
period. It was used very effectively for sovereignty there. For Jahangir, the appreciated socio-politically in Jammu
military purpose by the rulers of Jammu Kishtwaris used both rivers (Maru and hills.

Epilogue Ø
70 ×
September 2009
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HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

INFRASTRUCTURE REVOLUTIONARY STEPS TO ERADICATE UNEMPLOYMENT MENAGE FROM JANUARY 2009


v
PMGSY to be SSRB has made 8086 selections. PSC has made 438 selections, Police has made 3835 selections.
v
given special Posts created - 11.163
v
thrust. Posts referred - 5060 to PSC and SSB, 7035 to Police Recruitment Board.
v
Expeditious
v Another about 7000 class IV posts to be filled soon
v
implementation Contractual; Adhoc, consolidated salary appointment to be made regularised if 7 years of such service completed and
v
the incumbents and academically qualified to hold the jobs.
of hydroelectric
All districts to have Employment and Counseling Centers including newly created districts. Two pilot projects to be
v
projects. started in 2009-10.
Power sector
v Unemployment data, skill-inventory and skill-deficiency mapping to be done at district level.
v
reforms to be On-line registration facility for unemployment youth by 2nd October 2009.
v
implemented on “State Policy on Employment” to be ready by 5th December 2009 coinciding with 105th birth anniversary of Sher-i-
v
Kashmir Jenab Sheik Muhammad Abdullah.
priority
New Employment Scheme for the youth to be launched, namely Sher-i-Kashmir Employment and Welfare Programme
v
for the Youth (SKEWPY).
MLAs ‘State Policy on Skill Development’ to be formulated to create talented and employable workforce.
v
Constituency 22 Rural Self Employment Training Institutes (RSETIs) to be set up; one in each districts.
v
Development Fund ‘Entrepreneurship Development Fund’ with a corpus of Rs. 25 crore to be created. Scheme to be launched through
v
enhanced JKEDI on 5th December 2009.
Women entrepreneurship to be encouraged-Revolving fund of Rs. 10 crore to be created and 2200 women to be helped
v
v
Raised from Rs. in the first phase.
35 lakh to Rs. 50 Employment Facilitation Agency to be created under a senior Civil Servant and Governing Body to he headed by the
v
lakh. Modified Chief Secretary.
guidance to be Overseas employment Corporation to be created to help job seekers in the international market.
v
Rehbar-e-Zirats to be granted additional incentive of Rs. 1500 per month through DRDSs/Panchayats for implementing
v
issued.
and monitoring various agriculture, horticulture and allied sector schemes in districts.

DIP/J-2881
ORIENTED BUDGET
Impartment announcements made in BUDGET SPEECH
Total receipts up from Rs. 19077 crore in RE 2008-09 to Rs. 22739 crore in 2009-10. Rs. 19462 crore
v
comprise revenue receipts and Rs. 3277 crore capital receipts and Rs. 3277 crore capital receipts.
Total Revenue Expenditure up by Rs. 2319 crore to Rs. 14949 crore.
v
Total Capital Expenditure up by Rs. 1343 crore to Rs. 7790 crore.
v
Expenditure on salary and pension to account for Rs. 8126 crore.
v
Interest payments estimates up by Rs. 127 crores at Rs. 1729 crore constituting about 12% of non-plan
v
revenue expenditure estimated at Rs. 14245 crore.
Increase in non-plan expenditure mainly due to implementation of Sixth Central Pay Commission for
v
state employees and pensions.
Fiscal Deficit estimated at Rs. 2081 crore; down by Rs. 306 crore.
v
Total Plan size up by 22.22% to Rs. 5500 crore
v
Capital expenditure accounts for Rs. 4847 crore and Revenue expenditure Rs. 653 crore.
v
PMRP increased by Rs. 187 crore to Rs. 1200 crore.
v
Allocation under Irrigation and Flood Control stepped up by 122% from Rs. 208.85 crore to Rs. 464.33
v
crore.
Allocation for transport sector stepped up by 90% from Rs. 486.20 crore to Rs. 923.99 crore.
v
Allocation for social sector up by 43% from Rs. 1089.17 crore to Rs. 1556.06 crore.
v
Allocation on general services including ERA, upgradation grants, non-functational buildings,
v
Governments Presses, IMPA up by 37% from Rs. 467 crore to Rs. 638 crore.
Allocation for primary health sector stepped up by 56% from Rs. 105 crore to Rs. 164 crore.
v
Promote farm mechanization by providing 25% subsidy on power thrashers and paddy transplanters.
v
Floriculture marketing and export to be supported.
v
Sericulture revival through multi task expert force.
v
Incentive for local production of eggs, chickens and mutton.
v
Five innovation Awards to be set up with cash prize of Rs. one lakh each in collaboration with
v
National Innovation Foundation to encourage indigenous creativity in solving local problems.
Composition scheme for Brick Kiln owners under Section 56 of J&K VAT Act covering 396 Brick Kilns
v
in J&K scheme to be notified separately.

Largest ever maintenance Double cropping to be introduced


plan of Rs. 150 crore for roads. for the first time in Kashmir valley
RATE OF LIQUOR ENHANCED
Cess on petrol increased by Rs. 2/- per litre and named as ‘employment cess’.
v
Levied employment Cess on diesel @Rs.1/- litre.
v
Increased GST on liquor from 20% to 25%
v

Dt. : 13/8/09
Epilogue Classified Mart
because there is more to know REACH OUT TO DECISION MAKERS

JAMMU AND KASHMIR


Sher-e-Kashmir ACADEMY OF ART,
University of Agricultural Sciences CULTURE
& Technology of Jammu
Administrative Block, AND LANGUAGES
Main Campus, Chatha (Jammu) Lalmandi, Srinagar
0194-2310509/2311521
ADDENDUM NOTICE FOR EXPRESSION OF INTEREST
It is notified that the last date for receipt of applications
The Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, Govt. of
advertised vide Notification No. 01 (Est) of 2009 Dt : 17-07-
Jammu and Kashmir, intends to construct a grant
2009 is extended upto 4th of September, 2009
Integrated Cultural Centre featuring state-of-the art
CLARIFICATION cultural facilities, showcasing cultural heritage of the
Following clarifications are hereby made in relation to post State which will include auditorium, art gallery, museum,
advertised vide Notification No.: 01(est) of 2009 Dt : 17-07- meeting hall, performance and dance space, theater
2009 sculpture garden, handicrafts display room, canteen etc.
1) Candidates in any discipline of Agriculture/Horticulture/ The Academy calls/seeks for expression of interest from
Forestry/Home Science/Agri. Engineering Co-ordinator the individuals/Consultants/ Agencies having considerable
appeared at Sr. No. 4 of the said notification. experience in the field for designing blue print of the
2) Candidates having UG &/or PG degree in the discipline or cultural centre. The consultant/agencies will have to
Bio-technology can also apply for the post of Associate prepare two blue prints for the Integrated Centre; one for
Professor / Senior Scientist and Assistant Professor / Junior the existing buildings and one for a new centre on. The last
Scientist / Subject Matter Specialist in the discipline of Plant date for receipt of expression of interest is 5th of
Breeding & Genetics appeared at Sr. No. 3(2) and 5(2). By September, 2009. The consultant will be selected by the
order. President of the Academy (Chief Minister of the J&K).
Sd/- Sd/-
Registrar Zafar Iqbal Manhas
Secretary

Address : New Era College


NEW ERA Mobile : 9205136406, 9906074079
14/A Shastri Nagar, Opp. Water Tank, Nai Basti, Jammu

College of IT & Mgt.


UGC/DEC/IGNOU (Approved University)
COURSES :
PG Programmes - MCA, MBA, MA etc. UG Programmes - BCA, Bsc. IT, BA etc.
Certificate Courses : MLT, Fooy Safety M.Phil Programmes

M.J.C.I.S
Regd. No. : 4515.S Improve your Personality Special classes for Ramp Modeling for Boys & Girls
J.R. SHARMA
(Jackson)
Mb: 9419149906
M.JACKSON DANCING INSTITUTE
Institute Timing :
For boys and Girls 2:00 P.M. to 8:00 P.M
Ladies Classes for 10:00 A.M. to 12:00 Noon

MAIN CHOWK, JANIUR, JAMMU

For booking your advertisement on this page contact Bali @9419631610, 9906362115
WE CONGRATULATE
Kanwal Group of Companies
On steadily climbing the ladder of
success and winning accolades for
excellence in terms of quality
and purity all along.

ANOTHER FEATHER IN THE CAP OF KANWAL GROUP:


Farooq Amin, Director Sales and Marketing, Kanwal Foods & Spices
(I) Pvt. Ltd. receiving the 1st Prize for Excellence in the Industries
Sector for the year 2006-07 and 1st Prize in Food Processing
Segment (Kashmir) for the year 2007-08 at the award distribution
function organized by KCC&I at SKICC.
From
All well wishers

Adding Kashmiri Flavour to Global Cuisine


Carbon Cell bring established at Janipur campus in
ö
Jammu.
Two brainstorming sessions held on CDM, carbon
ö
mapping.
Two state level workshops held under National
ö
Bamboo Mission.
MOU with SMVD University and BGSB
ö
University for Joint Collaboration in Research