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Constitution of the United State

Chapter One – Sovereignty of the People and Supremacy of this


Constitution
Article 1.

(1) All sovereign power belongs to the people of The United States and shall be exercised only in
accordance with this Constitution.

(2) The people exercise their sovereign power either directly or through their democratically
elected representatives.

(3) Sovereign power in America is vested in the people, in their local governments, in their
states, and in the particular matters which this constitution prescribes, the Union.

(4) The sovereign power of the people is exercised at

(a) The national level; and

(b) The state and local level.

Article 2.

(1) This Constitution is the supreme law of the Republic and binds all persons and all State
organs at both levels of government.

(2) No person may claim or exercise State authority except as authorized under this
Constitution.

(3) The validity or legality of this Constitution is not subject to challenge by or before any court
or other State organ.

(4) Any law, including customary law that is inconsistent with this Constitution is void to the
extent of the inconsistency, and any act or omission in contravention of this Constitution is
invalid.

(5) The general rules of international law shall form part of the law of The United States.

(6) Any treaty or convention ratified by The United States shall form part of the law of The
United States under this Constitution, and other laws are subordinate to them but shall be
subservient to the Constitution.

Article 3.

(1) Every person has an obligation to respect, uphold and defend this Constitution.
(2) Any attempt to establish a government otherwise than in compliance with this Constitution
is unlawful, but treason may only apply to those who are convicted in open court with two
independent personal witnesses or open confession, and those who actively make war against
the United States as a primary belligerent the United States did not incite or directly aiding and
abetting those who make such war in voluntary and uncoerced capacities, provided that the
United States has openly by Congressional active action declared such a state of war or open
rebellion, and such states of war are specific to the conflict in the time periods in which the
treason occurred.

Chapter Two – The Republic


Article 4.

(1) The United States is a sovereign Republic.

(2) The Republic of The United States shall be a multiparty democratic State founded on the
national values and principles of governance referred to in Article 8.

Article 5.

The United States consists of the territory and territorial waters comprising The United States on the
effective date, and any additional territory and territorial waters as defined by an Act of Congress.

Article 6.

(1) The United States is comprised of states and territories, which retain their autonomy and
sovereignty to the extent that those powers are not granted to the United States, and which
shall have powers exercised at a national level for the benefit of harmonization of complex
interests, preventing unnecessary antagonism and disfavour among the people of states and
territories and corrupting interests changing their actions to the disbenefit of the many who
have a right to benefits by law or the constitution, presenting the United States as a unified and
resolute force and will to the nations of the world, and for accepting the tasks of a magnitude
which no individual state or territory can be reasonably expected to address individually, and
the United States shall act by the principles of subsidiarity at the municipal, county, state and
territorial, national, and international levels.

(3) A national State organ shall ensure reasonable access to its services in all parts of the
Republic, so far as it is appropriate to do so having regard to the nature of the service.

Article 7.

There shall be no State religion, and no money from the State or any foreign state or person residing in
another country not a citizen of the United States may be donated nor may they provide any thing of
value to any religious organization within the United States or be the legal owner of such an
organization or the buildings used by such organizations. Such organizations may not contribute to any
funding of any political activity and must remain neutral in political matters, and a person who holds
elected or State office at any level may not also be a religious minister nor may they have held such
position in the previous year before and after their term.

Article 8.

(1) The national values and principles of governance in this Article bind all State organs, State
officers, public officers and all persons whenever any of them

(a) Applies or interprets this Constitution;

(b) Enacts, applies or interprets any law; or

(c) Makes or implements public policy decisions.

(2) The national values and principles of governance include

(a) National unity, sharing and devolution of power, the rule of law, democracy and
participation of the people;

(b) Human dignity, equity, social justice, inclusiveness, equality, human rights,
nondiscrimination and protection of the marginalized;

(c) Good governance, integrity, transparency and accountability;

(d) Sustainable development.

Article 9.

(1) This Constitution recognizes culture as the foundation of the nation and as the cumulative
civilization of the American people and nation.

(2) The State shall

(a) promote all forms of national and cultural expression through literature, the arts,
traditional celebrations, science, communication, information, mass media,
publications, libraries and other cultural heritage;

(b) Recognize the role of science and indigenous technologies in the development of the
nation; and

(c) Promote the intellectual property rights of the people of The United States.

(3) Congress shall enact legislation to

(a) Ensure that communities receive compensation or royalties for the use of their
cultures and cultural heritage; and
(b) Recognize and protect the ownership of indigenous seeds and plant varieties, their
genetic and diverse characteristics and their use by the communities of The United
States.

Chapter Three – Citizenship


Article 10.

(1) Every citizen is entitled to

(a) The rights, privileges and benefits of citizenship, subject to the limits provided or
permitted by this Constitution; and

(b) An American passport and any document of registration or identification issued by


the State to citizens.

(2) A passport or other document referred to in clause (1) (b) may be denied, suspended or
confiscated only in accordance with an Act of Congress that satisfies the criteria mentioned in
Article 22.

Article 11.

(1) Every person who was a citizen immediately before the effective date retains the same
citizenship status as of that date.

(2) Citizenship may be acquired by birth or registration.

(3) Citizenship is not lost through marriage or the dissolution of marriage.

Article 12.

(1) A person is a citizen by birth if on the day of the person’s birth, whether or not the person is
born in The United States, either the mother or father of the person is a citizen.

(2) Clause (1) applies equally to a person born before the effective date, whether or not the
person was born in The United States, if either the mother or father of the person is or was a
citizen.

(3) Congress may enact legislation limiting the effect of clauses (1) and (2) on the descendants
of American citizens who are born outside The United States.

(4) A child found in The United States who is, or appears to be, less than eight years of age, and
whose nationality and parents are not known, is presumed to be a citizen by birth.

(5) A person who is an American citizen by birth and who, on the effective date, has ceased to
be an American citizen because the person acquired citizenship of another country, is entitled
on application to regain American citizenship.
Article 13.

(1) A person who has been married to a citizen for a period of at least seven years is entitled on
application to be registered as a registration.

(2) A person who has been lawfully resident in The United States for a continuous period of at
least seven years, and who satisfies the conditions prescribed by an Act of Congress, may apply
to be registered as a citizen.

(3) A child who is not a citizen, but is adopted by a citizen, is entitled on application to be
registered as a citizen.

(4) Congress shall enact legislation establishing conditions on which citizenship may be granted
to individuals who are citizens of other countries.

(5) This Article applies to a person as from the effective date, but any requirements that must be
satisfied before the person is entitled to be registered as a citizen shall be regarded as having
been satisfied irrespective of whether the person satisfied them before or after the effective
date, or partially before, and partially after, the effective date.

Article 14.

A citizen by birth does not lose citizenship by acquiring the citizenship of another country.

Article 15.

(1) If a person acquired citizenship by registration, the citizenship may be revoked if the person

(a) acquired the citizenship by fraud, false representation or concealment of any


material fact;

(b) has, during any war in which The United States was engaged, unlawfully traded or
communicated with an enemy or been engaged in or associated with any business that
was knowingly carried on in such a manner as to assist an enemy in that war;

(c) has, within five years after registration, been convicted of an offence and sentenced
to imprisonment for a term of three years or longer; or

(d) Has, at any time after registration, been convicted of treason, or of an offence for
which

(i) A penalty of at least seven years imprisonment may be imposed; or

(ii) A more severe penalty may be imposed.

(2) The citizenship of a person who was presumed to be a citizen by birth, as contemplated in
Article 12 (4), may be revoked if
(a) The citizenship was acquired by fraud, false representation or concealment of any
material fact by any person;

(b) The nationality or parentage of the person becomes known, and reveals that the
person was a citizen of another country; or

(c) The age of the person becomes known, and reveals that the person was older than
eight years when found in The United States.

Article 16.

Congress shall enact legislation

(a) Prescribing procedures by which a person may become a citizen;

(b) Governing entry into and residence in The United States;

(c) Providing for the status of permanent residents;

(d) Providing for voluntary renunciation of citizenship;

(e) Prescribing procedures for revocation of citizenship;

(f) Prescribing the duties and rights of citizens; and

(g) Generally giving effect to the provisions of this Chapter.

Chapter Four – The Bill of Rights


Part One – General Provisions Related to the Bill of Rights
Article 17.

(1) The Bill of Rights is an integral part of The United States’ democratic state and is the
framework for social, economic and cultural policies.

(2) The purpose of recognizing and protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms is to
preserve the dignity of individuals and communities and to promote social justice and the
realization of the potential of all human beings.

(3) The rights and fundamental freedoms in the Bill of Rights

(a) Belong to each individual and are not granted by the State;

(b) Do not exclude other rights and fundamental freedoms not in the Bill of Rights, but
recognized or conferred by law, except to the extent that they are inconsistent with this
Chapter; and
(c) Are subject only to the limitations contemplated in this Constitution.

Article 18.

(1) The Bill of Rights applies to all law and binds all State organs and all persons.

(2) Every person shall enjoy the rights and fundamental freedoms in the Bill of Rights to the
greatest extent consistent with the nature of the right or fundamental freedom.

(3) In applying a provision of the Bill of Rights, a court shall

(a) Develop the law, with the intent of their authors citing the notes and debates during
their passage to the extent that it does not undermine a right or fundamental freedom;
and

(b) Corrects for previous biases and failures of the law and society to respect the diverse
character of the United States and each community thereof and those discriminations
and inequalities against marginalized people, and

(b) Adopt the interpretation that most favors the enforcement of a right or fundamental
freedom.

(4) In interpreting the Bill of Rights, a court, tribunal or other authority shall promote

(a) The values that underlie an open and democratic society based on world peace,
opposition to oligarchy, dictatorship, theocracy, plutocracy, authoritarianism, human
dignity, equality, equity and freedom; and

(b) The spirit, purport and objects of the Bill of Rights.

(5) In applying any right under Article 43, if the State claims that it does not have the resources
to implement the right, a court, tribunal or other authority shall be guided by the following
principles

(a) It is the responsibility of the State to show that the resources are not available on
clear and convincing evidence;

(b) in allocating resources, the State shall give priority to ensuring the widest possible
enjoyment of the right or fundamental freedom having regard to prevailing
circumstances, including the vulnerability of particular groups or individuals; and

(c) The court, tribunal or other authority may not interfere with a decision by a State
organ concerning the allocation of available resources, solely on the basis that it would
have reached a different conclusion.

Article 19.
(1) It is a fundamental duty of the State and every State organ to observe, respect, protect,
promote and fulfil the rights and fundamental freedoms in the Bill of Rights.

(2) The State shall take legislative, policy and other measures, including the setting of standards,
to achieve the progressive realization of the rights guaranteed under Article 40 and all other
rights.

(3) All State organs and all public officers have the duty to address the needs of vulnerable
groups within society, including women, older members of society, persons with disabilities,
children, and youth, members of minority or marginalized communities, and members of
particular ethnic, religious or cultural communities, and to provide for the autonomy and self
governance as if they were states in their own right of the Indigenous people of the United
States who have by unlawful and deceitful action by the United States even with respect to
contemporaneous standards, were malicious and objected to.

(4) The State shall enact and implement legislation to fulfil its international obligations in respect
of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

Article 20.

(1) Every person has the right to institute court proceedings claiming that a right or fundamental
freedom in the Bill of Rights has been denied, violated or infringed, or is threatened.

(2) In addition to a person acting in their own interest, court proceedings under clause (1) may
be instituted by

(a) A person acting on behalf of another person who cannot act in their own name;

(b) A person acting as a member of, or in the interest of, a group or class of persons;

(c) A person acting in the public interest; or

(d) An association acting in the interest of one or more of its members.

(3) The Chief Justice shall make rules providing for the court proceedings referred to in this
Article, which shall satisfy the criteria that

(a) The rights of standing provided for in clause (2) are fully facilitated;

(b) Formalities relating to the proceedings, including commencement of the


proceedings, are kept to the minimum, and in particular that the court shall, if
necessary, entertain proceedings on the basis of informal documentation;

(c) No fee may be charged for commencing the proceedings;

(d) The court, while observing the rules of natural justice, shall not be unreasonably
restricted by procedural technicalities; and
(e) An organization or individual with particular expertise may, with the leave of the
court, appear as a friend of the court.

(4) The absence of rules contemplated in clause (3) does not limit the right of any person to
commence court proceedings under this Article, and to have the matter heard and determined
by a court.

Article 21.

(1) The District Court has jurisdiction, in accordance with Article 162, to hear and determine
applications for redress of a denial, violation or infringement of, or threat to, a right or
fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights.

(2) Congress shall enact legislation to give original jurisdiction in appropriate cases to
subordinate courts to hear and determine applications for redress of a denial, violation or
infringement of, or threat to, a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights.

(3) In any proceedings brought under Article 20, a court may grant appropriate relief, including

(a) A declaration of rights;

(b) An injunction;

(c) A conservatory order;

(d) A declaration of invalidity of any law that denies, violates, infringes, or threatens a
right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights and is not justified under Article 22;

(e) An order for compensation; and

(f) An order of judicial review.

Article 22.

(1) A right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights shall not be limited except by law, and
then only to the extent that the limitation is reasonable and justifiable in an open and
democratic society based on human dignity, equality and freedom, taking into account all
relevant factors, including

(a) The nature of the right or fundamental freedom;

(b) The importance of the purpose of the limitation;

(c) The nature and extent of the limitation;

(d) The need to ensure that the enjoyment of rights and fundamental freedoms by any
individual does not prejudice the rights and fundamental freedoms of others;
(e) The relation between the limitation and its purpose and whether there are less
restrictive means to achieve the purpose.

(f) The law shall be terminated every five years, but a new law may be enacted to enact
the same language, but subsequent laws also terminate every five years.

(2) Despite clause (1), a provision in legislation limiting a right or fundamental freedom

(a) In the case of a provision enacted or amended on or after the effective date, is not
valid unless the legislation specifically expresses the intention to limit that right or
fundamental freedom, and the nature and extent of the limitation;

(b) shall not be construed as limiting the right or fundamental freedom unless the
provision is clear and specific about the right or freedom to be limited and the nature
and extent of the limitation; and

(c) Shall not limit the right or fundamental freedom so far as to derogate from its core or
essential content.

(d) The State or a person seeking to justify a particular limitation shall demonstrate to
the court, tribunal or other authority that the requirements of this Article have been
satisfied.

(3) Despite clause (1) and (2), a provision in legislation may limit the application of the rights or
fundamental freedoms in the following provisions to persons serving in the United States
Defence Forces or the Federal Bureau of Investigation

(a) Article 38 (2)

(b) Article 30

(c) Article 38

(d) Article 40

(e) Article 46.

Article 23.

Despite any other provision in this Constitution, the following Fundamental Rights and fundamental
freedoms shall not be limited

(a) Freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment
including capital punishment;

(b) Freedom from slavery or servitude;

(c) The right to a fair trial;


(d) No arbitrary punishment or treatment or retroactive application of laws creating or
maintaining offenses

(e) The right to an order of habeas corpus.

(F) The right to life

(g) Freedom of religion, thought, consciousness, and equality before the law

(h) The right to human dignity

(i) That no person may be deported except after an impartial trial finding their guilt of a
felony beyond a reasonable doubt demonstrated by the accuser, with the right to not
incriminate themselves, with the assistance at no charge of counsel and an interpreter
and the right to pretrial release under the same conditions as if they were facing a
criminal indictment.

Part Two – Rights and Fundamental Freedoms


Article 24.

(1) Every person has the right to life.

(2) A person born into this world shall not be deprived of life intentionally, except to the extent
authorized by this Constitution or other written law

Article 25.

(1) Every person is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and equal benefit
of the law.

(2) Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and fundamental freedoms.

(3) Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal
opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres.

(4) The State shall not discriminate directly or indirectly against any person on any ground,
including race, sex, pregnancy, marital status, health status, ethnic or social origin, colour, age,
disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, dress, language or birth.

(5) A person shall not discriminate directly or indirectly against another person on any of the
grounds specified or contemplated in clause (4).

(6) To give full effect to the realization of the rights guaranteed under this Article, the State shall
take legislative and other measures, including affirmative action programs and policies designed
to redress any disadvantage suffered by individuals or groups because of past discrimination.
(7) Any measure taken under clause (6) shall adequately provide for any benefits to be on the
basis of genuine need.

(8) In addition to the measures contemplated in clause (6), the State shall take legislative and
other measures to implement the principle that not more than three-fifths of the members of
elective or appointive bodies shall be of the same gender, and that the chairperson or presiding
officer of an elective or appointive body shall not be succeeded in that role by someone of the
same gender.

Article 26.

Every person has inherent dignity and the right to have that dignity respected and protected.

Article 27.

Every person has the right to freedom and security of the person, and this right shall be pertained to
everyone under the legal or practical control for any reason of any agent of the United States, any law
enforcement or military or security body thereof, or of any state or authority within the United States or
their agents beyond the borders of such state or authority, and without regard to what the charges or
accusations against the person are, and whether or not they are an unlawful combatant or otherwise
recognized as a user of legitimate force authorized by the laws of war, which includes the right not to,
without derogation on any grounds including states of exception or emergency or conflict or other
extraordinary circumstances, be

(A) Deprived of freedom arbitrarily or without just cause, and not without having been
suspected on probable cause of violating a rule or law or actionable item which has
been broadcast publicly as being forbidden or mandatory prior to the violation in
question occurring;

(b) Detained without a civilian trial, except during a state of emergency, in which case
the detention is subject to Article 55, and in no case under any circumstance, for a
period longer than one year without the need of denying bail proven on balance of
probabilities before a competent civilian judge;

(c) Subjected to any form of violence from either public or private sources;

(d) subjected to torture in any manner, whether physical or psychological, and torture
being defined as including any intentional or negligence which causes a victim distress,
pain, emotional trauma, imposing guilt, or suffering, for the purpose of extracting or
inducing a confession or information, for political, religious, or sexual reeducation or
changes in their political, religious, or sexual behaviour, for sadism, as punishment or
revenge for any act or supposed act, for extortion, or inducing others who know or care
about the person subject to torture to change their behaviour or provide information or
confessions or to pay any sum, and any information extracted by torture is invalid as
evidence, and also includes the systematic and deliberate infliction of acute pain by one
person on another, or on a third person, in order to accomplish the purpose of the
former against the will of the latter, and includes the passing of water over inhalation
intakes, the deprivation of food, water, or sleep, being made to stand or sit in single
positions for unnaturally long periods, being deprived of sight, subjection to loud or
repetitive or unnatural sounds for extended periods, feigned executions, seeing or being
made to believe or know about the torture of their friends or family or acquaintances,
and the forced ingestion or consumption of drugs or food or water not recommended
by a medical professional for a medically recognized purpose, arbitrary or dangerous
changes in temperature, including those which cause hypothermia and hyperthermia,
and being held in restrains arbitrarily or without genuine and demonstrated need while
already in captivity;

(e) Subjected to corporal punishment; or

(f) Executed or assassinated

(g) Transported, expelled, deported, or extradited to any place where torture or


executions are known to occur or are seriously suspected to occur, and prohibit
transportation to any intermediary or intermediate country where the person is
reasonably expected to face the credible risk of torture or execution, or any other denial
of their civil rights or liberties against state or non-state punishment or treatment or will
be subjected to cruel, inhuman, or degrading manner or will face discrimination on
grounds forbidden in this constitution or as recognized as discrimination by the courts of
the United States.

(h) Treated or punished in a cruel, inhuman or degrading manner.

And the public education and the publicly owned or controlled media and government
statements shall emphatically deny any justification for torture or execution and ensure that
statements are regularly made to discredit torture and executions, including that the
information derived from it is valid or trustworthy, that it is compatible with a democratic and
free society, or that extreme circumstances can justify torture, and shall ensure that methods of
torture are accurately understood to be forms of torture and not euphemistically excused.

Article 28.

(1) A person shall not be held in slavery or servitude.

(2) A person shall not be required to perform forced labour, including military or national
service.

(3) Every person has the right to privacy, which includes the right not to have

(a) Their person, home or property searched;


(b) Their possessions seized, and if their possessions are damaged or illegally seized or
otherwise made less valuable due to the public’s handling of that possession, that
compensation is provided swiftly;

(c) Information relating to their family or private affairs unnecessarily required or


revealed; or

(d) The privacy of their communications infringed.

Article 29.

(1) Every person has the right to freedom of conscience, religion, thought, belief and opinion.

(2) Every person has the right, either individually or in community with others, in public or in
private, to manifest any religion or belief or lack thereof through worship, practice, teaching or
observance, including observance of a day of worship, or by declining to participate in the same.
Minors have the equal right to choose their own faith and practices or no practices.

(3) A person may not be denied access to any institution, employment or facility, or the
enjoyment of any right, because of the person’s belief or religion.

(4) A person shall not be compelled to act, or engage in any act, that is contrary to the person’s
belief or religion or lack of religion.

(5) Religious organizations have the free right to be organized, to be incorporated, to sue and be
sued in their own name, and shall be accountable to their worshippers who shall each be equal
in the eyes of their organization and have equal say in the operation of their organization by
secret ballot at least once per year, and such directors of branches and ministers shall also be
annually responsible before the same as shall the honest and true accounts of their
organization.

Article 30.

(1) Every person has the right to freedom of expression and of knowledge, which includes

(a) Freedom to seek, receive or impart information or ideas;

(b) Freedom of artistic creativity; and

(c) Academic freedom and freedom of scientific research.

(2) The right to freedom of expression does not extend to

(a) Propaganda for war;

(b) Incitement to violence;

(c) Hate speech; or


(d) Advocacy of hatred that

(i) Constitutes ethnic incitement, vilification of others or incitement to cause


harm; or

(ii) Is based on any ground of discrimination specified or contemplated in Article


25(4).

(3) In the exercise of the right to freedom of expression, every person shall respect the rights
and reputation of others.

Article 31.

(1) Freedom and independence of electronic, print and all other types of media is guaranteed,
but does not extend to any expression specified in Article 30 (2).

(2) The State shall not

(a) Exercise control over or interfere with any person engaged in broadcasting, the
production or circulation of any publication or the dissemination of information by any
medium; or

(b) Penalize any person for any opinion or view or the content of any broadcast,
publication or dissemination.

(3) Broadcasting and other electronic media have freedom of establishment, subject only to
licensing procedures that

(a) Are necessary to regulate the airwaves and other forms of signal distribution; and

(b) Are independent of control by government, political interests or commercial


interests.

(4) All State owned media shall

(a) Be free to determine independently the editorial content of their broadcasts or other
communications;

(b) Be impartial; and

(c) Afford fair opportunity for the presentation of divergent views and dissenting
opinions.

(5) Congress shall enact legislation that provides for the establishment of a body, which shall

(a) Be independent of control by government, political interests or commercial interests;

(b) Reflect the interests of all sections of the society; and


(c) set media standards and regulate and monitor compliance with those standards.

Article 32.

(1) Every citizen has the right of access to

(a) Information held by the State; and

(b) Information held by another person and required for the exercise or protection of
any right or fundamental freedom.

(c) The calendars and timetables for State officer activities and the programs and
projects they have and contracts which are signed or proposed

(2) Every person has the right to the correction or deletion of untrue or misleading information
that affects the person, and to receive from the State all information which it knows or has
about that person.

(3) The State shall publish and publicize any important information affecting the nation.

(4) The right of access shall be provided for them in a reasonable time manner and at no
expense, and public information, disclosures, registries of lobbyists, of official decisions, the
budget, and other official documents are to be provided in an online and machine readable
format at no expense.

(5) If access is denied, which may only be on the grounds of substantial and overriding needs of
individual privacy, national security, the right of patients and clients to attorneys to their
privilege, evidence or testimony given on the basis of confidence and needing to be in
confidence for the protection of evidence bearers and witnesses, and only in the public interest
and in a manner and with a definition expressly provided for in statutory law, each person has
the right to appeal that decision to a court of law. If denied or only partially disclosed, they shall
be informed of their right to appeal and be provided with a narrative explanation of why their
right was denied or only partially applied and the legal basis for doing so. General statistics,
updated at least once every four months and prepared in a report announced to a legislative
committee on oversight, shall be published on open databases as public information to reflect
the nature of the disclosures, the answers to freedom of information requests, the denial or
only partial delivery on those requests, the judicial review of such denials or partial deliveries,
the rate of overturnment, and the reasons for the same.

(6) Each jurisdiction shall have an independent commission to enforce this provision and make
the initial decision as to whether or not to release the information, subject to an order by a
court.

Article 33.
(1) Every person has the right to freedom of association, which includes the right to form, join or
participate in the activities of an association of any kind.

(2) A person shall not be compelled to join an association of any kind.

(3) Any legislation that requires registration of an association of any kind shall provide that

(a) Registration may not be withheld or withdrawn unreasonably; and

(b) There shall be a right to have a fair hearing before a registration is cancelled.

Article 34.

(1) Every person has the right to peacefully assemble, to demonstrate, to picket, and to present
petitions to public authorities, without prior license or permit required to do so or approval
from law enforcement or political authorities.

(2) Every person who is a citizen or ordinary resident may on a public forum, submit a petition
outlining a complaint or desire, a basic summary of the basis for that petition, a summary of
what the petitioner wishes to have done about that complaint or desire, the person to whom it
is addressed or as a general open letter to branches of government collectively, and a basic
summary of the legal grounds for why there is the power in the law or the constitution vested in
that branch to accomplish the tasks requested of them.

(3) If a number of people who are qualified to start a petition also are signing a petition within
ninety days of beginning the petition exceeds zero point zero two percent of the number of
registered voters in the relevant jurisdiction against which the petition is levied, the secretary
for the department which is primarily responsible for the subject matter, with the endorsement
of the President or other relevant chief executive of the level of government pertained to, shall
within thirty days, respond to the petition with a narrative summary, an explanation of why they
are or are not intending or are currently implementing the goals of the petition, the basis in law,
the constitution, or facts or evidence for that answer, and an explanation of how that response
supports the general policies and program of the department.

(4) If a number of people who are qualified to start a petition are also signing a petition within
ninety days of beginning the petition exceeds zero point one percent of the number of
registered voters, the legislature, and in bicameral legislatures, in each house, shall have the
petitions committee in each such house which exists debate the petition and present a report
within sixty days into their findings related to the petition to their house, and the plenary house
shall within thirty days of that report being made, debate the petition, the executive’s response
to it, hear the report of the petitions committee and debate that report, and motions pertaining
to the petition shall be accepted, debated, and discussed at that time. At least one day every
fourteen sitting days shall be dedicated to the consideration of petitions.
(5) During the time for which a petition, including those addressed to the legislature and the
executive, and those which request recall or a referendum, is circulating, the same limits shall
apply to the spending, donation, transparency, lack of foreign spending or support, auditing, and
distinct entity incorporation to third parties against the author and circulators of the petition as
which apply to a third party in the two months before an election.

(6) No person may be paid for signing a petition, and no person may be paid or compensated
other than for actual expenses incurred in the assisting of circulating a petition for their
authoring or volunteering a petition.

(7) A person shall not be paid or given other material rewards to promote, attend a public
hearing, or protest for a viewpoint they do not already sincerely believe, including for the
support of a business or a group of businesses through advocacy for rules or regulations related
to them or appreciating their products, goods, services, or employees by falsifying the support in
customers or clients, celebrities, testimonials or endorsements, or influencers, or falsely
representing oneself as a customer or client, and any funds given to a supporter of a protest or
demonstration shall be strictly used and made out to assist with the actual costs incurred in
attending the protest where their economic fortitudes do not permit them to cover their own
expenses or covering the expenses incurred in striking from lost income. The funds involved may
not come from any person not an actual ordinary resident in the United States, nor those who
are outside the state where the demonstration or protest is occurring, and may not originate
from any foreign government. No political party, candidate, campaign, or committee may spend
any money to pay people or give them other material rewards to promote, attend public
hearings, or protest viewpoints they do not already sincerely believe.

(8) A group which attempts to protest, attend a public hearing, or promote a political viewpoint
or change or propose the policy of government or public authorities which utilize funds to do so
distributed from any central source shall be subject to the same form of rules and requirements
as a third party in an election in the time during which they attempt to protest or promote a
political viewpoint or change or propose the policy of government or public authorities. Any
advertising done by that group shall list in large print any person or group which has donated
more to the group or otherwise provided in loans, material goods, or the market rate
equivalents than the amount which a donation to a third party during the period which they are
active in any given particular year. Each such group shall be organized democratically and all
members including all individuals who are members of member organizations, donors, and
sincere supporters of the group shall have the right to vote on an annual basis by secret ballot
for the organization’s executive structure, auditor, chairperson, and directors assigned to direct
the lines of action and influence, and they shall each be informed of their right to vote and
stand..

(9) A legal entity, a person or an organized group, may not use another form of a legal entity to
disguise their identity or members or their funding process or the ones who control or holds
executive power over them, if the purpose is to avoid a tax or fee, evade a court judgement or
decision of a regulatory body, that they falsely or maliciously claim to represent average
persons, that they disrupt or hinder the security of American foreign policy, that they disrupt or
hinder the good and honest consideration of people to be appointed or elected to positions in
government or employed in the civil service, if they disrupt or hinder the honest consideration
of the laws and policy of those elected and appointed officials or the civil service, if they assist
the interests of any foreign state or any foreign government official, civil servant, or elected
politician or judge or their espionage or armed services, the international commitments of
America, the rights of workers, employees, or the environment, the principles of public
administration, or the protection of groups which in this constitution are entitled to be free
from discrimination.

(10) A testimonial by someone who is paid by any such group or a member thereof regulated by
this section or any other in this constitution shall disclose before testifying before a court,
legislative body, legislative committee, independent commission or officer, tribunal, questioning
body, advisory board, committee, council, or any other public official that fact at the beginning
of the testimony, and shall disclose immediately whether they are a lobbyist or not and if so,
who employs them, and such testimonial before a public official shall be under oath or
affirmation.

(11) A group or person which spends money to hire another group or person that in turn will or
has or is currently engaging in activities regulated or prohibited in this Article, or in any other
means, hires another group or person to sequentially hire other groups or persons that
eventually causes such activities regulated or prohibited in this Article are themselves as guilty
for any violation as the specific group which itself engages in regulated or prohibited activities as
defined in this Article.

Article 35.

(1) Every citizen is free to make political choices, which includes the right

(a) To form, or participate in forming, a political party;

(b) To participate in the activities of, or recruit members for, a political party; or

(c) To campaign for a political party or cause.

(2) Every citizen has the right to free, fair and regular elections based on universal suffrage and
the free expression of the will of the electors for

(a) Any elective public body or office established under this Constitution; or

(b) Any office of any political party of which the citizen is a member.

(3) Every adult citizen has the right, without unreasonable, arbitrary, or discriminatory
restrictions
(a) To be registered as a voter;

(b) To vote by secret ballot in any election or referendum; and

(c) To be a candidate for public office, or office within a political party of which the
citizen is a member and, if elected, to hold office.

Article 36.

(1) Every person has the right to freedom of movement.

(2) Every person has the right to leave The United States.

(3) Every citizen has the right to enter, remain in and reside anywhere in The United States.

Article 37.

(1) Subject to Article 62, every person has the right, either individually or in association with
others, to acquire and own property

(a) Of any description; and

(b) In any part of The United States.

(2) Congress shall not enact a law that permits the State or any person

(a) To arbitrarily deprive a person of property of any description or of any interest in, or
right over, any property of any description; or

(b) To limit, or in any way restrict the enjoyment of any right under this Article on the
basis of any of the grounds specified or contemplated in Article 25 (4).

(3) The State shall not deprive a person of property of any description, or of any interest in, or
right over, property of any description, unless the deprivation

(a) results from an acquisition of land or an interest in land or a conversion of an interest


in land, or title to land, in accordance with Chapter Five; or

(b) Is for a public purpose or in the public interest and is carried out in accordance with
this Constitution and any Act of Congress that

(i) Requires prompt payment in full, of just compensation to the person; and

(ii) Allows any person who has an interest in or right over, that property a right
of access to a court of law.

(4) Provision may be made for compensation to be paid to occupants in good faith of land
acquired under clause (3) who may not hold title to the land.
(5) The State shall support, promote and protect the intellectual property rights of the people of
The United States.

(6) The rights under this Article do not extend to any property that has been found to have been
unlawfully acquired.

Article 38.

(1) Every person has the right to fair labour practices.

(2) Every worker has the right

(a) To fair remuneration;

(b) To reasonable working conditions;

(c) To form, join or participate in the activities and programs of a trade union; and

(d) To go on strike.

(3) Every employer has the right

(a) To form and join an employer’s organization; and

(b) To participate in the activities and programs of an employer’s organization.

(4) Every trade union and every employers’ organization has the right

(a) To determine its own administration, programs and activities;

(b) To organize; and

(c) To form and join a federation.

(5) Every trade union, employers’ organization and employer has the right to engage in
collective bargaining.

Article 39.

Every person has the right to a clean and healthy environment, which includes the right

(a) to have the environment protected for the benefit of present and future generations
through legislative and other measures, particularly those contemplated in Article 66;
and

(b) To have obligations relating to the environment fulfilled under Article 67.

Article 40.
(1) Every person has the right

(a) To the highest attainable standard of health, this includes the right to health care
services, including reproductive health care;

(b) To accessible and adequate housing, and to reasonable standards of sanitation;

(c) To be free from hunger, and to have adequate food of acceptable quality;

(d) To clean and safe water in adequate quantities;

(e) To social security; and

(f) To education.

(2) A person shall not be denied emergency medical treatment.

(3) The State shall provide appropriate social security to persons who are unable to support
themselves and their dependents.

Article 41.

(1) Every person has the right to use the language, and to participate in the cultural life, of the
person’s choice.

(2) A person belonging to a cultural or linguistic community has the right, with other members
of that community

(a) To enjoy the person’s culture and use the person’s language; or

(b) To form, join and maintain cultural and linguistic associations and other organs of
civil society.

(3) A person shall not compel another person to perform, observe or undergo any cultural
practice or rite.

Article 42.

(1) The family is the natural and fundamental unit of society and the necessary basis of social
order, and shall enjoy the recognition and protection of the State.

(2) Every adult has the right to marry consenting adults, based on the free consent of the
parties.

(3) Parties to a marriage are entitled to equal rights at the time of the marriage, during the
marriage and at the dissolution of the marriage.

(4) Congress shall enact legislation that recognizes


(a) Marriages concluded under any tradition, or system of religious, personal or family
law; and

(b) Any system of personal and family law under any tradition, or adhered to by persons
professing a particular religion, to the extent that any such marriages or systems of law
are consistent with this Constitution.

Article 43.

(1) Consumers have the right

(a) To goods and services of reasonable quality;

(b) To the information necessary for them to gain full benefit from goods and services;

(c) To the protection of their health, safety, and economic interests; and

(d) To compensation for loss or injury arising from defects in goods or services.

(2) Congress shall enact legislation to provide for consumer protection and for fair, honest and
decent advertising.

(3) This Article applies to goods and services offered by public entities or private persons.

Article 44.

(1) Every person has the right to administrative action that is expeditious, efficient, lawful,
reasonable and procedurally fair.

(2) If a right or fundamental freedom of a person has been or is likely to be adversely affected by
administrative action, the person has the right to be given written reasons for the action.

(3) Congress shall enact legislation to give effect to the rights in clause (1) and that legislation
shall

(a) Provide for the review of administrative action by a court or, if appropriate, an
independent and impartial tribunal; and

(b) Promote efficient administration.

Article 45.

The State shall ensure access to justice for all persons and, if any fee is required, it shall be reasonable
and shall not impede access to justice.

Article 46.

(1) An arrested person has the right


(a) To be informed promptly, in language that the person understands, of

(i) The reason for the arrest;

(ii) The right to remain silent; and

(iii) The consequences of not remaining silent;

(b) To remain silent;

(c) To communicate with an advocate, and other persons whose assistance is necessary;

(d) Not to be compelled to make any confession or admission that could be used in
evidence against the person;

(e) To be held separately from persons who are serving a sentence;

(f) To be brought before a court as soon as reasonably possible, but not later than

(i) twenty-four hours after being arrested; or

(ii) if the twenty-four hours ends outside ordinary court hours, or on a day that
is not an ordinary court day, the end of the next court day;

(g) At the first court appearance, to be charged or informed of the reason for the
detention continuing, or to be released; and

(h) To be released on reasonable conditions, pending a charge or trial, unless there are
compelling reasons not to be released.

(2) A person shall not be remanded in custody for an offence if the offence is punishable by a
fine only or by imprisonment for not more than six months.

Article 47.

(1) Every person has the right to have any dispute that can be resolved by the application of law
decided in a fair and public hearing before a court or, if appropriate, another independent and
impartial tribunal or body.

(2) Every accused person has the right to a fair trial, which includes the right

(a) To be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved;

(b) To be informed of the charge, with sufficient detail to answer it;

(c) To have adequate time and facilities to prepare a defence;

(d) To a public trial by jury or by judge at the preference of the accused before a court
established under the law;
(e) To have the trial begin and conclude without unreasonable delay;

(f) To be present when being tried, unless the conduct of the accused person makes it
impossible for the trial to proceed;

(g) To choose, and be represented by, an advocate, and to be informed of this right
promptly;

(h) To have an advocate assigned to the accused person by the State and at State
expense, if substantial injustice would otherwise result, and to be informed of this right
promptly;

(i) To remain silent, and not to testify during the proceedings;

(j) To be informed in advance of the evidence the prosecution intends to rely on, and to
have reasonable access to that evidence;

(k) To adduce and challenge evidence;

(l) To refuse to give self-incriminating evidence;

(m) To have the assistance of an interpreter without payment if the accused person
cannot understand the language used at the trial;

(n) Not to be convicted for an act or omission that at the time it was committed or
omitted was not

(i) An offence in The United States; or

(ii) A crime under international law;

(o) Not to be tried for an offence in respect of an act or omission for which the accused
person has previously been either acquitted or convicted;

(p) to the benefit of the least severe of the prescribed punishments for an offence, if the
prescribed punishment for the offence has been changed between the time that the
offence was committed and the time of sentencing; and

(q) If convicted, to appeal to, or apply for review by, a higher court as prescribed by law.

(3) If this Article requires information to be given to a person, the information shall be given in
language that the person understands.

(4) Evidence obtained in a manner that violates any right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of
Rights shall be excluded if the admission of that evidence would render the trial unfair, or would
otherwise be detrimental to the administration of justice.

(5) An accused person


(a) charged with an offence, other than an offence that the court may try by summary
procedures, is entitled during the trial to a copy of the record of the proceedings of the
trial on request; and

(b) Has the right to a copy of the record of the proceedings within a reasonable period
after they are concluded, in return for a reasonable fee as prescribed by law.

(6) A person who is convicted of a criminal offence may petition the District Court for a new trial
if

(a) the person’s appeal, if any, has been dismissed by the highest court to which the
person is entitled to appeal, or the person did not appeal within the time allowed for
appeal; and

(b) New and compelling evidence has become available.

(7) In the interest of justice, a court may allow an intermediary to assist a complainant or an
accused person to communicate with the court.

(8) This Article does not prevent the exclusion of the press or other members of the public from
any proceedings if the exclusion is necessary, in a free and democratic society, to protect
witnesses or vulnerable persons, morality, public order or national security.

(9) Congress shall enact legislation providing for the protection, rights and welfare of victims of
offences.

Article 48.

(1) A person who is detained, held in custody or imprisoned under the law retains all the rights
and fundamental freedoms in the Bill of Rights, except to the extent that any particular right or
a fundamental freedom is clearly incompatible with the fact that the person is detained, held in
custody or imprisoned.

(2) A person who is detained or held in custody is entitled to petition for an order of habeas
corpus. (3) Congress shall enact legislation that

(a) Provides for the humane treatment of persons detained, held in custody or
imprisoned; and

(b) Takes into account the relevant international human rights instruments.

Part Three – Specific Application of Rights


Article 49.

(1) This Part elaborates certain rights to ensure greater certainty as to the application of those
rights and fundamental freedoms to certain groups of persons.
(2) This Part shall not be construed as limiting or qualifying any right.

Article 50.

(1) Every child has the right

(a) To a name and nationality from birth;

(b) To free and compulsory basic education;

(c) To basic nutrition, shelter and health care;

(d) To be protected from abuse, neglect, harmful cultural or religious practices, all forms
of violence, inhuman treatment and punishment, and hazardous or exploitative labour;

(e) To parental care and protection, which includes equal responsibility of the mother
and father to provide for the child, whether they are married to each other or not; and

(f) Not to be detained, except as a measure of last resort, and when detained, to be held

(i) For the shortest appropriate period of time; and

(ii) Separate from adults and in conditions that take account of the child’s
gender and age.

(iii) Not to be convicted of a crime until the age of fifteen.

(g) To choose and practice their own religion and cultural practices, or choose not to
follow any religion or cultural practices.

(2) A child’s best interests are of paramount importance in every matter concerning the child.

Article 51.

(1) A person with any disability is entitled

(a) To be treated with dignity and respect and to be addressed and referred to in a
manner that is not demeaning;

(b) To access educational institutions and facilities for persons with disabilities that is
integrated into society to the extent compatible with the interests of the person;

(c) To reasonable access to all places, public transport and information;

(d) To use Sign language, Braille or other appropriate means of communication; and

(e) To access materials and devices to overcome constraints arising from the person’s
disability.
(2) The State shall ensure the progressive implementation of the principle that at least five
percent of the members of the public in elective and appointive bodies are persons with
disabilities.

Article 52. The State shall take measures, including affirmative action programs, to ensure that the
youth

(a) Access relevant education and training;

(b) Have opportunities to associate, be represented and participate in political, social,


economic and other spheres of life;

(c) Access employment; and

(d) Are protected from harmful cultural practices and exploitation.

Article 53.

The State shall put in place affirmative action programs designed to ensure that minorities and
marginalized groups

(a) Participate and are represented in governance and other spheres of life;

(b) Are provided special opportunities in educational and economic fields;

(c) Are provided special opportunities for access to employment;

(d) Develop their cultural values, languages and practices; and

(e) Have reasonable access to water, health services and infrastructure.

Article 54. The State shall take measures to ensure the rights of older persons

(a) To fully participate in the affairs of society;

(b) To pursue their personal development;

(c) To live in dignity and respect and be free from abuse; and

(d) To receive reasonable care and assistance from their family and the State.

Part Four – State of Emergency


Article 55.

(1) A state of emergency may be declared only under Article 127(4) (d) and only when

(a) The State is threatened by war, invasion, general insurrection, disorder, natural
disaster, epidemic, or other public emergency; and
(b) The declaration is necessary to meet the circumstances for which the emergency is
declared where no other law or practice authorized by the law or constitution will
protect the public.

(2) A declaration of a state of emergency, and any legislation enacted or other action taken in
consequence of the declaration, shall be effective only

(a) Prospectively; and

(b) For not longer than five days from the date of the declaration, unless the House of
Representatives and Senate resolves to extend the declaration.

(3) The House of Representatives and Senate may extend a declaration of a state of emergency

(a) By resolution adopted

(i) Following a public debate in the House of Representatives and Senate and

(ii) By the majorities specified in clause (4); and

(b) For not longer than two months at a time.

(4) The first extension of the declaration of a state of emergency requires a supporting vote of at
least two-thirds of all the members of the House of Representatives and the Senate, and any
subsequent extension requires a supporting vote of at least three-fourths of all the members of
the House of Representatives and the Senate.

(5) The Supreme Court may decide on the validity of

(a) A declaration of a state of emergency;

(b) Any extension of a declaration of a state of emergency; and

(c) Any legislation enacted, or other action taken, in consequence of a declaration of a


state of emergency.

(6) Any legislation enacted in consequence of a declaration of a state of emergency

(a) May limit a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights only to the extent that

(i) The limitation is strictly required by the emergency; and

(ii) The legislation is consistent with the Republic’s obligations under


international law applicable to a state of emergency; and

(b) Shall not take effect until it is published in the Federal Register.
(7) A declaration of a state of emergency, or legislation enacted or other action taken in
consequence of any declaration, may not permit or authorize the indemnification of the State,
or of any person, in respect of any unlawful act or omission.

(8) If on the motion of any one-tenth of either House of Congress, a motion asking whether to
retain a state of emergency and the powers or functions associated with it, or a motion asking
the same but limited to certain powers of functions associated with a state of emergency but
not all powers and functions of the state of emergency, which such measures, powers, or
functions are to be specified in the motion, is brought to the presiding officer of the respective
House, a vote on the powers must be held within thirty-six hours by that House, and the vote of
two-thirds of that House must approve the retention of the powers the motion questions, and if
that House so approves, the other House must within thirty-six hours, also hold a vote and the
question as to whether to retain the measures and powers in the motion must pass with the
vote of two-thirds of that House. If either House fails to pass the motion, the state of emergency
or the more specific powers in the motion are cancelled as of the time when the motion first
fails to pass in either House. No veto may be imposed against the cancellation of such powers.

(9) When the state of emergency is declared, both Houses of Congress shall be convened for a
session and the session does not end until the election of their successors, and in such case, the
successive Houses shall be in continuous session, or until the end of the emergency, and they
shall sit in plenary at least once in every week and reserve at least seventy-five minutes, with
half dedicated to the Minority and half to the Majority, to the debate and discussion as to the
state of emergency and enthralling any measures to end it and to oversee the management of
the emergency and its resolution.

Part Five – American National Human Rights and Equality Commission


Article 56.

(1) There is established the United States National Human Rights and Equality Commission.

(2) The functions of the Commission are

(a) To promote respect for human rights and develop a culture of human rights in the
Republic;

(b) To promote gender equality and equity generally and to coordinate and facilitate
gender mainstreaming in national development;

(c) To promote the protection, and observance of human rights in public and private
institutions;

(d) To monitor, investigate and report on the observance of human rights in all spheres
of life in the Republic, including observance by the national security organs;
(e) To receive and investigate complaints about alleged abuses of human rights and take
steps to secure appropriate redress where human rights have been violated;

(f) on its own initiative or on the basis of complaints, to investigate or research a matter
in respect of human rights, and make recommendations to improve the functioning of
State organs;

(g) To act as the principal organ of the State in ensuring compliance with obligations
under treaties and conventions relating to human rights;

(h) to investigate any conduct in state affairs, or any act or omission in public
administration in any sphere of government, that is alleged or suspected to be
prejudicial or improper or to result in any impropriety or prejudice;

(i) To investigate complaints of abuse of power, unfair treatment, manifest injustice or


unlawful, oppressive, unfair or unresponsive official conduct;

(j) To report on complaints investigated under paragraphs (h) and (i) and take remedial
action; and

(k) To perform any other functions prescribed by legislation.

(3) Every person has the right to complain to the Commission, alleging that a right or
fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights has been denied, violated or infringed, or is
threatened.

(4) Congress shall enact legislation to give full effect to this Part, and any such legislation may
restructure the Commission into two or more separate commissions.

(5) If Congress enacts legislation restructuring the Commission under clause (4)

(a) That legislation shall assign each function of the Commission mentioned in this
Article to one or the other of the successor commissions;

(b) Each of the successor commissions shall have powers equivalent to the powers of
the Commission under this Article; and

(c) Each successor commission shall be a commission within the meaning of Chapter
Fifteen, and shall have the status and powers of a commission under that Chapter.

Chapter Five – Land and Environment


Part One - Land
Article 57.
(1) Land in The United States shall be held, used and managed in a Principles of land manner
that is equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable, and in policy accordance with the
following principles

(a) Equitable access to land;

(b) Security of land rights;

(c) Sustainable and productive management of land resources;

(d) Transparent and cost effective administration of land;

(e) Sound conservation and protection of ecologically sensitive areas;

(f) Elimination of gender discrimination in law, customs and practices related to land
and property in land; and

(g) Encouragement of communities to settle land disputes through recognized local


community initiatives consistent with this Constitution.

(2) These principles shall be implemented through a national land policy developed and
reviewed regularly by the national government and through legislation.

Article 58.

(1) All land in The United States belongs to the people of The United States collectively as a
nation, as communities and as individuals.

(2) Land in The United States is classified as public, community or private.

Article 59.

(1) Public land is

(a) Land which at the effective date was unalienated government land as defined by an
Act of Congress in force at the effective date;

(b) Land lawfully held, used or occupied by any State organ, except any such land that is
occupied by the State organ as lessee under a private lease;

(c) Land transferred to the State by way of sale, reversion or surrender;

(d) Land in respect of which no individual or community ownership can be established


by any legal process;

(e) Land in respect of which no heir can be identified by any legal process;

(f) All minerals and mineral oils as defined by law;


(g) government forests other than forests to which Article 60 (2) (d) (i) applies,
government game reserves, water catchment areas, national parks, government animal
sanctuaries, and specially protected areas;

(h) All roads and thoroughfares other than national trunk roads provided for by an Act
of Congress;

(i) All rivers, lakes and other water bodies as defined by an Act of Congress;

(j) The territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone and the sea bed;

(k) The continental shelf;

(l) All land between the high and low water marks;

(m) Any land not classified as private or community land under this Constitution; and

(n) Any other land declared to be public land by an Act of Congress

(i) In force at the effective date; or

(ii) Enacted after the effective date.

(2) Public land shall vest in and be held by a state government in trust for the people resident in
the state, and shall be administered on their behalf by the National Land Commission, if it is
classified under clause (1) (a), (b) (c), (d) or (e), (f), (g), (h), (j), (m), other than land held, used or
occupied by a national State organ.

(3) Public land classified under clause (1) (k) shall vest in and be held by the national government
in trust for the people of The United States and shall be administered on their behalf by the
National Land Commission.

(4) Public land shall not be disposed of or otherwise used except in terms of an Act of Congress
specifying the nature and terms of that disposal or use.

Article 60.

(1) Community land shall vest in and be held by communities identified on the basis of ethnicity,
culture or similar community of interest.

(2) Community land consists of

(a) Land lawfully registered in the name of group representatives under the provisions
of any law;

(b) Land lawfully transferred to a specific community by any process of law;

(c) Any other land declared to be community land by an Act of Congress; and
(d) Land that is

(i) Lawfully held, managed or used by specific communities as community


forests, grazing areas or shrines;

(ii) Ancestral lands and lands traditionally occupied by hunter gatherer


communities and their descendants; or

(iii) Lawfully held as trust land by the state governments, but not including any
public land held in trust by the state government under Article 59 (2).

(3) Any unregistered community land shall be held in trust by state governments on behalf of
the communities for which it is held.

(4) Community land shall not be disposed of or otherwise used except in terms of legislation
specifying the nature and extent of the rights of members of each community individually and
collectively.

(5) Congress shall enact legislation to give effect to this Article.

Article 61.

Private land consists of

(a) Registered land held by any person under any freehold tenure;

(b) Land held by any person under leasehold tenure; and

(c) Any other land declared private land under an Act of Congress.

Article 62.

(1) A person who is not a citizen may hold land on the basis of leasehold tenure only, and any
such lease, however granted, shall not exceed ninety-nine years.

(2) If a provision of any agreement, deed, conveyance or document of whatever nature purports
to confer on a person who is not a citizen an interest in land greater than a ninety-nine year
lease, the provision shall be regarded as conferring on the person a ninety-nine year leasehold
interest, and no more.

(3) For purposes of this Article

(a) a body corporate shall be regarded as a citizen only if the body corporate is wholly
owned by one or more citizens, and if there are multiple owners, then the majority of
the shares must be owned by those who are citizens for the body corporate to be
recognized as a citizen; and
(b) Property held in trust shall be regarded as being held by a citizen only if all of the
beneficial interest of the trust is held by persons who are citizens.

(4) Congress may enact legislation to make further provision for the operation of this Article.

Article 63.

(1) The State may regulate the use of any land, or any interest in or right over any land, in the
interest of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, or land use
planning.

(2) Congress shall enact legislation ensuring that investments in property benefit local
communities and their economies.

Article 64.

(1) There is established the National Land Commission.

(2) The functions of the National Land Commission are

(a) To manage public land on behalf of the national and state governments;

(b) To recommend a national land policy to the national government;

(c) To advise the national government on a comprehensive programme for the


registration of title in land throughout The United States;

(d) To conduct research related to land and the use of natural resources, and make
recommendations to appropriate authorities;

(e) To initiate investigations, on its own initiative or on a complaint, into present or


historical land injustices, and recommend appropriate redress;

(f) To encourage the application of traditional dispute resolution mechanisms in land


conflicts;

(g) To assess tax on land and premiums on immovable property in any area designated
by law;

(h) To monitor and have oversight responsibilities over land use planning throughout
the country.

(3) The National Land Commission may perform any other functions prescribed by national
legislation.

Article 65.

Congress and the state legislatures shall.


(a) Revise, consolidate and rationalize existing land laws;

(b) Revise sectoral land use laws in accordance with the principles set out in Article 59(1)

(c) Enact legislation

(i) To prescribe minimum and maximum land holding acreages in respect of


private land;

(ii) To regulate the manner in which any land may be converted from one
category to another;

(iii) To regulate the recognition and protection of matrimonial property and in


particular the matrimonial home during and on the termination of marriage;

(iv) To protect, conserve and provide access to all public land;

(v) To enable the review of all grants or dispositions of public land to establish
their propriety or legality;

(vi) To protect the dependents of deceased persons holding interests in any


land, including the interests of spouses in actual occupation of land; and

(vii) To provide for any other matter necessary to give effect to the provisions of
this Chapter.

Part Two – Environment and Natural Resources


Article 66.

(1) The State shall

(a) Ensure sustainable exploitation, utilization, management and conservation of the


environment and natural resources, and ensure the equitable sharing of the accruing
benefits;

(b) Work to achieve and maintain a tree cover of at least ten per cent of the land area of
The United States;

(c) Protect and enhance intellectual property in, and indigenous knowledge of,
biodiversity and the genetic resources of the communities;

(d) Encourage public participation in the management, protection and conservation of


the environment;

(e) Protect genetic resources and biological diversity;


(f) Establish systems of environmental impact assessment, environmental audit and
monitoring of the environment;

(g) Eliminate processes and activities that are likely to endanger the environment; and

(h) Utilize the environment and natural resources for the benefit of the people of The
United States.

(2) Every person has a duty to cooperate with State organs and other persons to protect and
conserve the environment and ensure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural
resources.

Article 67.

(1) If a person alleges that a right to a clean and healthy environment recognized and protected
under Article 39 has been, is being or is likely to be, denied, violated, infringed or threatened,
the person may apply to a court for redress in addition to any other legal remedies that are
available in respect to the same matter.

(2) On application under clause (1), the court may make any order, or give any directions, it
considers appropriate

(a) To prevent, stop or discontinue any act or omission that is harmful to the
environment;

(b) To compel any public officer to take measures to prevent or discontinue any act or
omission that is harmful to the environment; or

(c) To provide compensation for any victim of a violation of the right to a clean and
healthy environment.

(3) For the purposes of this Article, an applicant does not have to demonstrate that any person
has incurred loss or suffered injury.

Article 68.

(1) A transaction is subject to ratification by Congress if it

(a) involves the grant of a right or concession by or on behalf of any person, including
the national government, to another person for the exploitation of any natural resource
of The United States; and

(b) Is entered into on or after the effective date.

(2) Congress shall enact legislation providing for the classes of transactions subject to ratification
under clause (1).
Article 69.

Congress shall enact legislation to give full effect to the environment.

Chapter Six – Leadership and Integrity


Article 70.

(1) Authority assigned to a State officer, including those who are under the purview of the state
or local or county authorities, and those who are in the Public Service of the Union or any state
or local authority

(a) Is a public trust to be exercised in a manner that

(i) Is consistent with the purposes and objects of this Constitution;

(ii) Demonstrates respect for the people;

(iii) Brings honour to the nation and dignity to the office; and

(iv) Promotes public confidence in the integrity of the office; and

(b) Vests in the State officer the responsibility to serve the people, rather than the
power to rule them.

(c) may not be used, nor any resource or function or fund or vehicles entrusted to State
officers, for personal reasons, by any branch of the government or independent officers.

(d) shall have the basis in fact, ideology, logical reasoning, and the authority for their
power in the law or constitution or some other authoritative document for their
exercise by causing their powers to be exercised publicly released by the person who
wielded such powers within three days of the power being exercised, including
legislative votes, judicial decisions, executive decisions and the decisions of independent
tribunals, commissioners, and officers, and the decisions of State Officeholders.

(2) The guiding principles of leadership and integrity include

(a) Selection on the basis of personal integrity, competence and suitability, or election in
free and fair elections;

(b) Objectivity and impartiality in decision making, and in ensuring that decisions are not
influenced by nepotism, favouritism, other improper motives or corrupt practices;

(c) Selfless service based solely on the public interest, demonstrated by

(i) Honesty in the execution of public duties; and


(ii) The declaration of any personal interest that may conflict with public duties;

(d) Accountability to the public for decisions and actions; and

(e) Discipline and commitment in service to the people.

(3) No State Officer may be dismissed, threatened, transferred, change their location, terms of
employment, compensation, bonuses, privileges of employment, have their identity released or
threatened to be released, blacklisted, or otherwise retaliated in any way against for exposing or
testifying in good faith belief that an act of corruption, or unprofessional, unethical, abuse of
power, discriminatory, or illegal practices have occurred, are occurring, or will occur, including if
they report to a legislative body, an independent commission or officer, the judiciary, seek or
retain personal counsel, utilize any professional counsellors in the department or agency in
question, or report to news media, or appears that they are likely to, could potentially, or may
do one or more of these actions to whistleblow.

(4) State Officers shall report on when they observe, become aware of, or in good faith believe
that such act of corruption, or unprofessional, unethical, abuse of power, discriminatory, or
illegal practices have occurred, are occurring, or will occur, in a process established by statute.

(5) State Officers shall be trained in the good conduct in office and be made to be aware of the
laws, codes, practices, and constitutional rules regarding acts of corruption, unprofessional,
unethical, discriminatory, or illegal practices, and abuses of power, transparency requirements,
the means by which they can refuse to engage or collaborate in such practices, the means by
which they can report and prevent such practices. This shall include procurement officers and
contracting officials, elected and appointed officials, the judicial officers, the armed forces and
security forces, intelligence officers, independent commissions and directors, and the public
services, and they shall be regularly trained and have updated lessons not less frequently than
annually.

(6) The advice and legal opinions authored by the attorney general or general counsel to
another officer shall be publicly disclosed within two days of authoring it.

Article 71.

(1) Before assuming a State office, acting in a State office, or performing any functions of a
State office, or becoming a registered lobbyist or a member of the state or national
committee of a political party, including those who are under the purview of the state or
local or county authorities, and during their term and after their term as the case may be, a
person shall
(a) take and subscribe the oath or affirmation of office, in the manner and form
prescribed by an Act of Congress in the case of a federal union officer, and the state
laws or constitution in the case of a state or local or county officer, unless they are
acting as a lobbyist or a committee member of a political party alone.
(b) Provide a disclosure filing onto a publicly accessible registry, outlining their assets,
liabilities, debts, incomes, stock shares, trusts, bank accounts, physical property,
motor vehicles, memberships on boards and commissions in the previous five years,
the transcripts of the latter half of their post-secondary education, if they attended
post-secondary education, and tax filings in the previous ten years, and on a
periodic basis every six months, all the gifts they receive, the value, and from who
and for what purpose

(c) Place those assets into a blind trust for the duration of their term.

(d) During their term, such state officials and their immediate families and spouses shall
not accept any gift of a value exceeding ten times the hourly minimum wage of the
median employee in the jurisdiction which they operate in, and shall disclose all
such gifts and receipts of hospitality.

(e) In the three years after the end of their term, they shall not be a member of the
governing body, investing more than five percent of the shares in a corporation or
fund, or become an employee, of any firm or organization which the officer
regulated or oversaw during their term, and may not become a registered lobbyist
in the same period.

(f) During their term, they shall recuse themselves from any vote or approval process
of any thing that would give them, or their immediate family members or any
corporations or funds in which they own stock or were or are in the previous five
years had been an officer or manager of, a direct conflict of interest, and shall not
vote on any matter which gives a direct reason to perceive a conflict of interest, and
if any person challenges a vote or action on this basis, and a court finds the interest
existed of such magnitude, the vote or action shall be repeated with the officer in
question being recused.

(2) The disclosures provided for in this and other articles shall be audited on a regular basis by
an independent commission provided for the purpose of auditing such disclosures, and the
disclosures of that independent commission shall be audited by the auditor general of the
jurisdiction the independent commission is a part of.

Article 72.

(1) A State officer, including those who are under the purview of the state or local or county
authorities, shall behave, whether in public and official life, in private life, or in association with
other persons, in a manner that avoids

(a) Any conflict between personal interests and public or official duties;
(b) Compromising any public or official interest in favour of a personal interest; or

(c) Demeaning the office the officer holds.

(2) A person who contravenes clause (1), or Article 73, 74 or 75(2) shall be subject to the
applicable disciplinary procedure for the relevant office; and may, in accordance with the
disciplinary procedure, be dismissed or otherwise removed from office.

(3) A person who has been dismissed or otherwise removed from office for a contravention of
the provisions mentioned in clause (2) is disqualified from holding any other State office.

Article 73.

(1) A gift or donation to a State officer including those who are under the purview of the state or
local or county authorities on a public or official occasion is a gift or donation to the Republic
and shall be delivered to the State unless exempted under an Act of Congress in the case of a
federal officer and unless exempted under a state constitution or law in the case of state or local
or county officials.

(2) A State officer, including those who are under the purview of the state or local or county
authorities, shall not

(a) Maintain a bank account outside The United States; or

(b) Seek or accept a personal loan or benefit in circumstances that compromise the
integrity of the State officer.

Article 74.

(1) A fulltime State officer, including those who are under the purview of the state or local or
county authorities, shall not participate in any other gainful employment nor may any State
officer:

(i) in the five years after the end of their term, become a paid or unpaid consultant to
any firm, charity, enterprise, union, cooperative, contractor, religious organization
including those not formally the body providing faith and comfort to the
worshippers, political action committee, political party, or those which have a
contract with such organizations or become an executive director or manager,
chairperson, chief executive officer or other C-level officers, a president or vice
president, or a member of the board of directors, the auditor of a firm, or a member
of a nominations committee to their internal governance which they made any
legislation, regulations, contracts, other official actions, or appointments related to
the firm during their term.
(ii) be paid to appear on any television or news media station or be compensated
beyond actual expenses incurred to appear in the five years after the end of their
term

(iii) become a registered lobbyist in the eight years after the end of their term

(iv) fail to publicly disclose any lobbying positions they hold from the period when they
first become a lobbyist until the end of their lives as well as disclose the income for
which they receive by lobbying, and who they work for under what contractual
conditions

(v) be employed or an independent contractor or consultant for any group or firm or


incorporated business or any other employer or contracting party who employs paid
or professional lobbyists in the five years after their term

(vi) If they were in any of the aforementioned positions in this section in the five years
prior to seeking appointment or candidacy, become a State officer including those
who are under the purview of the state or local or county authorities.

(2) Any appointed or elected State officer, including those who are under the purview of the
state or local or county authorities, shall not hold office in a political party or hold membership
in their governing structures or committees and shall not be the chairperson of a campaign
committee or a member of a committee pertaining to a referendum.

(3) A retired State officer, including those who are under the purview of the state or local or
county authorities, who is receiving a pension from public funds shall not hold more than two
concurrent remunerative positions as chairperson, director or employee of

(a) A company owned or controlled by the State; or

(b) A State organ.

(4) A retired State officer shall not receive remuneration from public funds other than as
contemplated in clause (3).

(5)

(a) A person who is paid for the act of attempting to influence official decisions of the
government at any level, as a profession, or by any group which could or will benefit
from a change in the official direction, is a lobbyist and shall publicly register as such
within ten days of becoming a lobbyist, and shall register as such once per year.

(b) No State Officer may become a lobbyist in the six years after the end of their term,
or for a longer period or for life as prescribed by this Constitution, a treaty, or statutory
law, and no lobbyist may become a State Officer in the six years after they have ceased
being a lobbyist, or for a longer period or for life as prescribed by this Constitution, a
treaty, or statutory law.

(c) A person or employer of felonies convicted of lobbying offenses or corruption


offenses may not be a lobbyist or employ lobbyists for at least two years in the case of a
misdemeanor offense and for life or for twenty years in the case of employers of
lobbyists for felony offenses or offenses which could have been charged as felonies.

(d) All gifts they give to any State Officer shall be publicly recorded.

(e) They shall disclose:

(i) the pay and compensation under which they lobby,

(ii) the contract under which they lobby,

(iii) their employer,

(iv) the issues they lobby for

(v) who they are intending to influence or expect to actually influence or could
plausibly influence,

(vi) the dates which they lobby for that employer,

(vii) to all other reporting sources, when they are speaking their personal
desires and viewpoints and when they are speaking the will of their employer or
as a lobbyist.

(f) Any employer of a lobbyist shall register on the registry upon beginning to lobby and
once per year thereafter, and shall at least once every month record

(i) who they lobby,

(ii) who they employ as lobbyists,

(iii) who they intent to lobby,

(iv) who they have lobbied,

(v) who they intend to lobby in the near future,

(vi) all expenses they incur by lobbying,

(vii) all gifts or hospitality they provide while lobbying.


(g) The entire lobbying registry for lobbyists and lobbying employers and groups shall be
public information, aside from the personal contact information and specific street and
block address of individual lobbyists.

(h) The Auditor General shall audit the registry at least once every six months, and an
independent commission shall be established to oversee lobbying, operate the registry,
and impose penalties for noncompliance.

(i) A lobbyist and a person or group employing lobbyists shall on that lobbying registry,
disclose what they provide or argue to public officials or bodies of them, including the
information, figures and statistics, reasoning, values, and factual basis for claims they
make including at least one independent research source which they do not employ, pay
or donate to their authorship and have not so paid or donated in the previous five years
and will not pay or donate or employ, hire as an independent contractor or in the next
five years. They shall also provide the same information at the beginning of the meeting
or other occurrence of when they lobby a given public official. When they lobby, they
shall be under oath or affirmation to the veracity of what they say or present.

Article 75.

(1) A person is not eligible for election or appointment to a State office at a national level unless
the person is a citizen of The United States.

(2) A State officer or a member of the defence forces shall not hold dual citizenship.

(3) Clause (2) does not apply to

(a) Judges and members of commissions; or

(b) Any person who has been made a citizen of another country by operation of that
country’s law, without ability to opt out.

(4) A person appointed by the President, the Vice President, a Cabinet Member, or by any
Commission, Board, Officer, or by the Congress or either House of Congress may not be a
relative of any of the same or of the National or State Committee of a Party or the candidates
for the most recent election to the Congress or a State legislature or the most recent election to
the presidency or the governorship or executive officers of any state or any person who is
required to disclose their identities in order to donate to a political campaign within the fourth
degree of consanguinity or any person who would be so ineligible if the appointed person is the
spouse of conjugal partner of the person in fact appointed.

(5) When two persons are to be nominated or appointed by a given state officer to a larger
board or commission, including in all such bodies in this constitution, or two cabinet secretaries
or a cabinet secretary and the attorney general are to appoint two or more persons, if exactly
two persons are to be nominated or appointed, both of them may not be of the same gender,
and if there are more than two to be nominated or appointed, no more than a majority may be
of the same gender.

(6) A person elected or appointed to a State office at any level may not be also a State Officer at
any level of government below or above their own, or in any other level equal to theirs in
another jurisdiction, may hold any similar positions in any other country simultaneously, and a
person in one branch of government may not hold a position in any other branch, and for this
section, a branch includes an executive, legislative, judicial, and independent officers and
commissioners. A person may not be a member of more than one such executive, legislative,
judicial, or independent office or commissioner positions simultaneously.

(7) A person who has in the previous twelve years served as the presiding officer over either
House of Congress, a majority or minority leader in either House of Congress, a chairperson or
vice chairperson of a committee in either House of Congress, or the floor leader of a political
party’s members or chairperson of a political party’s members in either House of Congress, and
the same officers in a state or local legislature, are ineligible to be President or Vice President of
the United States, a Cabinet Member, to hold a governorship or lieutenant governorship or state
cabinet position, an executive mayoral position or a local executive position, , or hold any
appointed position in the executive, judiciary, or independent officer or commissioner, of any
state, locality, or the Union, and a person is ineligible to become a presiding officer over either
House of Congress, a majority or minority leader in either House of Congress, a chairperson or
vice chairperson of a committee in either House of Congress, or the floor leader of a political
party’s members or chairperson of a political party’s members in either House of Congress if
they have in the previous twelve years served as President or Vice President of the United
States, a Cabinet Member, to hold a governorship or lieutenant governorship or state cabinet
position, an executive mayoral position or a local executive position, , or hold any appointed
position in the executive, judiciary, or independent officer or commissioner, of any state,
locality, or the Union. Any ineligibility time periods and the periods of time for which a person
must report or disclose related to an individual who has been a presiding officer over either
House of Congress, a majority or minority leader in either House of Congress, a chairperson or
vice chairperson of a committee in either House of Congress, or the floor leader of a political
party’s members or chairperson of a political party’s members in either House of Congress, and
the same officers in a state or local legislature and which also apply to other legislators are
doubled for the officer.

Article 76.

Congress shall enact legislation to establish an independent ethics and anticorruption commission,
which shall be and have the status and powers of a commission under Chapter Fifteen, for purposes of
ensuring compliance with, and enforcement of, the provisions of this Chapter.

Article 77.
Congress shall enact legislation

(a) Establishing procedures and mechanisms for the effective administration of this
Chapter;

(b) Prescribing the penalties, in addition to the penalties referred to in Article 75, which
may be imposed for a contravention of this Chapter;

(c) Providing for the application of this Chapter, with the necessary modifications, to
public officers; and

(d) Making any other provision necessary for ensuring the promotion of the principles of
leadership and integrity mentioned in this Chapter, and the enforcement of this
Chapter.

Chapter Seven – Popular Representation


Part One – Electoral System and Process
Article 78.

The electoral system of the Union and of all subdivisions and states thereof shall comply with the
following principles

(a) Freedom of citizens to exercise their political rights under Article 35;

(b) Not more than three fifths of the members of elective public bodies shall be of the
same gender;

(c) Fair representation of persons with disabilities;

(d) Universal suffrage based on the aspiration for fair representation and equality of
vote; and

(e) Free and fair elections, which are

(i) By secret ballot;

(ii) Free from violence, intimidation, improper influence or corruption;

(iii) Conducted by an independent body;

(iv) Transparent; and

(v) Administered in an impartial, neutral, efficient, accurate and accountable


manner.
(f) An absence of nepotism, and thus, no person who is in the first or second degree of
consanguinity, their spouse or conjugal partner, or a person who if the spouse or
conjugal partner was the person is an elected officer, they would be denied under this
paragraph, may be a candidate in an election where the incumbent immediately prior to
the election is someone who is in the first or second degree of consanguinity, their
spouse or conjugal partner, or a person who if the spouse or conjugal partner was the
person is an elected officer, they would be denied under this paragraph.

(g) A general fairness and equality in the role of money in politics and ensuring that all
serious candidates have reasonable access to campaign funds with which to promote
viewpoints, dissenting viewpoints, and elect candidates which represent a substantial
fraction of the population, such that in general and primary elections:

(i) each person may donate to a single campaign or multiple campaigns, a single
candidate or multiple candidates candidate, a single political party or multiple
parties, or one political action committees, third parties, or multiple such
committees or third parties, the amount which is, for each class of campaign,
candidates, parties, and committees, up to one hundred times the hourly
minimum wage for the median employee in the jurisdiction holding the election,

(ii) any amount over twenty times that amount in subclause (I) is to be publicly
disclosed and all donations are to be disclosed on a central registry,

(iii) the public funds are matching donations at a rate established by statutory
law which provides for between three to five times the amount is to be matched
in decreasing amounts the higher the donation is

(iv) each candidate in a general election and in the primary elections of parties
which are or according to at least two independent consistent polls, will be,
entitled to a compensation of their electoral expenses, is given compensation
for sixty percent of their campaign expenses and ninety percent of their
childcare and disability costs, if they attained as many votes as is one fifth of the
number necessary to win, and is given a protected leave of absence during the
campaign period during which they cannot be dismissed by their employer for
any election related activity or for spending time away

(v) each political party which reaches more than two percent of the votes across
the entire jurisdiction which the election is held for is entitled to compensation
for fifty percent of their campaign costs and ninety percent of their childcare
and disability costs

(vi) each political party which reaches more than two percent of the votes
across the entire jurisdiction which the election is held for is entitled to a
subsidy for every vote they receive, fixed by a statutory law which is equal for all
parties, but amounting to between one quarter and one sixth of the hourly
median wage for the median employee in the jurisdiction in which the election
is being held.

(vii) in no case is a donation by any corporation, non individual, union, or any


person who is not a citizen or a permanent resident of the United States, and
who is not a resident of the actual jurisdiction holding the election, permitted to
be donated, loaned, or things of value to be given or provided or mutually
understood or understood by the donor to be exchanged.

(viii) In no case may a candidate or other individual utilize the funds of a


campaign or subsidies or matchings of the public for their own personal use,
except for individuals which are publicly disclosed to be officially employed by a
political party or campaign as an official taxable salary or pay and benefits, and
which do not include the actual candidates themselves.

(ix) in all cases, all individuals and groups be they associated, incorporated, or
otherwise, to be known as a third party, which purchases campaign time or
resources, direct mail, broadcasts, or advertising of any sort, spending or
intending to spend more than sixty times the median minimum wage for the
jurisdiction holding the election for the median employee in the six months
prior to the election or six months prior to a primary election, supporting or
opposing a candidate, campaign, party, committee, or taking a political position
or a position primarily known for being associated with one or more of such
groups, shall disclose such spending.

(x) in all cases, that the spending by any third party, or committee in each
electoral constituency shall not exceed the equivalent of one hour of minimum
wage pay for every one hundred and fifty individuals, and for a candidate,
campaign, or party in the general election, does not exceed the equivalent of
one hour of minimum wage pay for every seven individuals, and for the primary
election, that no candidate or campaign or committee spending shall not exceed
the equivalent of one hour of minimum wage pay for every forty individuals in
the jurisdiction for which the candidate seeks election to and a political party
may not spend any money to assist or promote or dissuade support for any
faction or candidate, campaign, committee, or third party in a primary.

(xi) that third parties have a legally distinct entity, are not established by any
corporation or union, with their own independent account at a registered
financial institution as a bank or credit union, by resolution of their governing
body, name a person who is a citizen or permanent resident to be a financial
agent responsible for the finances of the third party, name an auditor who is
either a certified accountant or is an accounting firm if they incur or expect to
incur more than six hundred times the median minimum wage for the
jurisdiction holding the election for the median employee in the six months
prior to an election or prior to a primary election on spending for partisan
activities, election surveys, partisan advertising or election advertising,

(xii) that partisan activities are those which promote or oppose a political actor,
including a political party or candidate, other than by taking a position on an
issue associated with the political actor, and does not include attempts at only
fundraising for one’s own entity, election surveys are conducted during the pre-
election period or the election period and are used to inform your regulated
activities, partisan advertising is that which by name promotes or rejects a
campaign, candidate, party, or a committee within the six months prior to an
election and before two months before the election, election advertising that
which by name promotes or rejects a campaign, candidate, party, or a
committee in the two months prior to an election, and Issue advertising is the
transmission of a message to the public that takes a position on an issue with
which a candidate or registered party is clearly associated, without identifying
the candidate or party in any way.

(xiii) that partisan activity and partisan advertising naming a candidate,


campaign, committee, or party is limited in expenditure by a third party in the
six months prior to an election, that issue advertising which is also election
advertising is only subject to the limits on a third party in the two months prior
to an election, and that election advertising is subject to the limits on a third
party in the two months prior to an election.

(xiv) for each candidate and party, they are to have access at no cost to a
dedicated time for television and radio which is owned by the public, including
the Public Broadcast Service, especially to provide minority parties and
dissenting viewpoints to be heard on similar groundings as incumbents.

(xv) that foreign sources of funding or things of value, funds or things of value
through or from entities which are not registered and paying taxes to the Union
or a state thereof, money or things of value directly or indirectly provided by a
foreign government, and funding or things of value from those who are not
currently resident in the Union are absolutely and categorically prohibited to be
given to or utilized by any candidate, campaign, party, committee, or third
party, and that two thirds or more of the members of a group and two thirds or
more of their governing bodies are citizens or permanent residents of the Union
and residents of the jurisdiction where the election is taking place.

(xvi) that any candidate, campaign, party, committee, or third party provide a
disclosure of their expenses and revenue as it was at the beginning of their
campaign, as it was every month into the campaign period, their expenses and
revenue as it was as of the date of the election, and they shall within seven days
of those date periods, submit a disclosure to be publicly disclosed by the
Independent Elections and Boundaries Commission as of their receipt of the
disclosure and within seven days of auditing the disclosure.

(xvii) that third parties act independently of all candidates, campaigns,


committees, and parties in the six months prior to an election, and do not
coordinate any activity which will occur in the six months prior to an election,
and do not collude with any of the same, including sharing in either direction
any material which is not available to the public upon request or is advertised,
sharing in either direction any material about its strategic plans or needs, where
the entity in either direction was requested to act or refrain from acting in any
particular manner, was materially involved in a decision in the other, their
canvassing, material, advertisements, staff, events, volunteers, and
merchandise does not feature both groups together unless it was an event
where all such actors and third parties are invited to provide such material to
the public in a forum, and attempted or by omission, conducts such activities.

(xviii) that advertising and material in an election as a partisan activity or


advertisement or an election advertisement or survey shall state who
authorized the material or advertisement, the spending used to pay for it, how
to contact the entity paying for it, and how to complain about the
advertisement or material, and how to unsubscribe from the receipt of the
advertisement or material.

Article 79.

(1) Congress shall enact legislation to provide for

(a) The delimitation by the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission of


electoral units for election of members of the House of Representatives

(b) The nomination of candidates;

(c) The continuous registration of citizens as voters;

(d) The conduct of elections and referenda and the regulation and efficient supervision
of elections and referenda, including the nomination of candidates for elections; and

(e) The progressive registration of citizens residing outside The United States, and the
progressive realization of their right to vote.

(2) Legislation required by clause (1) (d) shall ensure that voting at every election, and including
all primary elections, is
(a) Simple;

(b) Transparent; and

(c) Takes into account the special needs of

(i) Persons with disabilities; and

(ii) Other persons or groups with special needs.

(d) Capable of being participated within in person or by mail in ballot with the option to
select such postal voting at a point that must be at least as late as is fourteen days
before an election, and no reason is required to vote by mail, persons are by default
included in the list of those who vote by mail, and persons shall be included on the list
until they expressly opt out of voting by postal votes, subject to this opting out being
rescinded by the voter upon request with immediate effect and at no cost with no
reason required, and is otherwise fixed by state constitutional law.

(e) Secure with the identification of voters such that:

(i) any voter may utter a photographic identification and be permitted to vote,

(ii) may utter two independently issued authentic documents which do not
necessarily include a photograph from two independent sources of any society
or organization, employer, corporation, educational institutions, utility provider,
bank documents, landlord, governmental documents, or other incorporated or
formally associated groups jointly confirming eligibility to vote and thus be
permitted to vote.

(iii) may vote on the basis of a written or interpreted declaration of eligibility to


vote in the election in question in combination with the sworn or affirmed
testimony of one other person who is eligible to vote and who has proven their
identity without testimony to that identification, and such sworn or affirmed
person may only testify to the eligibility of one other person in a given election.

(iv) Identification cards including a photo shall be open to all people eligible to
vote at no cost or fee to acquire such document,

(v) The offices to attain such identification cards shall be widespread including
at all post offices, and open at least six days in a week, for at least fourteen
hours in a day including at least six hours outside of the times for when the
median person is present at their place of work or education, and that they are
in this state of openness for at least three hundred days per year including at a
minimum, the two hundred and ten days before an election.
(vi) That the homeless and the indignant shall have a means to identify
residence and eligibility to vote in a manner permitting their universal suffrage
and equal right to vote.

(f) The registration to vote shall automatically include all persons known by any list of
people to be eligible which is held and capable of being verified by the state election
authority, including lists of those who hold driving licenses, birth registrations, service in
the armed forces, lists of those who receive social benefits including pensions, social
security, food security aid programs, health insurance aid programs, unemployment
insurance, and otherwise interact with government agencies or departments, unless
they expressly opt out of being registered for a renewable period of twelve years, but
they may cancel such opting out at any time or cancel their registration at any time for
any reason at no cost. Any person can register to vote at any time at no cost, including
through electronic website locations and through postal applications, and any person of
any age may register even if they would only become eligible to exercise their right to
vote at a date in the future after they registered. A person who registers on the day of
voting shall be permitted to vote.

(g) A person may vote in person at a time prior to the election, which shall include the
seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth days before the election, at an official polling station,
and no reason or cause is to be required or requested by the person wishing to vote.

(h) Open to participation by those who have disabilities or who cannot speak or read a
common language in the locality where the voting is to take place, and interpreters,
aids, or other forms of reasonable adaptation shall be provided so as to ensure their full
inclusion in the election processes.

(i) Conducted by secret ballot, and under no circumstances is the secrecy of a person’s
ballot to be divulged to any other person for any reason but for the strict and sole
purpose of allowing an interpreter of the choice of the voter to aid a disabled or of
unusual minority language groups to assist the voter, and to violate this sacrosanct right
is to be a crime.

(j) Not to be purged from the rolls of voters unless they are in fact ineligible to vote in a
given election, and a person must be given notification that they have been purged and
allow them the opportunity to challenge the purging. Any regularly scheduled purging
shall occur at least six months prior to an election.

(k) To include all persons eligible to vote who wish to participate, and shall not be
denied on the account of any grounds listed in this constitution as a reason for which a
person may not be discriminated against, may not be denied on the account of any
criminal sentence, punishment, incarceration records, criminal records, or any other
association with the criminal justice system or courts, may not be denied to those of the
age of eighteen or older, may not be denied to citizens, and in elections other than for
federal elections and referendums, not denied to any person who has lived at least
three consecutive years with no more than three months in any of those years spent
outside the United States, and at least one year of ordinary residence in the jurisdiction
holding the election with no more than thirty days in that year spent ordinarily residing
outside of the jurisdiction in question, nor denied on the basis of not having paid any
form of poll tax or any other form of tax, fee, levy, duty, tariff, or other source of
revenue.

(l) That election literature, advertisements, pamphlets distributed to voters, and the
ballots and associated postage and instructions provide for translations into any
language where more than four percent of the people in a jurisdiction speak that
language, and no cost translations for individual voters who cannot speak a provided for
language is provided by an official interpreter.

(m) That federal elections provide for representatives and senators proportional to the
population of the territories and the city of Washington to be elected to the Congress
and treated equally to the other Congresspersons, and to have an equal voice and vote
and ability to stand for positions within the Congress, and to account for their votes
directly in elections to the Presidency and Vice Presidency of the United States, and for
any vote related to a federal referendum.

(n) That all eligible voters have time away from any place of work or place of education
to be permitted to vote, with at least four hours of time which is not necessary for
reasonable sleeping time, for hygiene and care of family and their communities, for the
transportation of dependents and acquisition of household needs, and which is not
devoted to examination or tests, and that no employer or manager of an educational
institution deny to their employees, independent contractors, and students this right to
vote and the right to time with which to vote.

(o) That the integrity of the votes are secure, such that

(i) the right to appeal a certification or count to a court is maintained,

(ii) the right to a recount if the margin which can change a result is less than one
percent of the votes and an automatic recount if the said margin is less than
zero decimal two-five percent of the votes,

(iiI) that a tie is broken with a random method,

(iv) that any electronic machine has a paper verified audit receipt,

(v) that the physical ballots are retained until all appeals are exhausted and
ordered by the court of last resort in a state and by the state’s independent
elections and boundaries commission jointly orders the destruction,
(vi) that the returning officer of the voting station is a person selected solely
based on merit and neutrality, to be chosen autonomously by the independent
elections and boundaries commission of the state or local election authority
with the same independent status in the locality, and that other poll workers
are chosen by lottery and by merit based interviews and selection, and
examined to ensure that they are not prejudiced to use their powers or function
to cause a benefit or negative to any side or faction or the people or the press in
an election.

(vii) that each party, candidate, campaign, and committee has the right to
personally or by sending an authorized representative, view the counting of the
ballots and the storage of the ballots and machines involved, and to personally
view the software and programming of machines, and to lodge an appeal
against a ballot on any legal or constitutional grounds.

(viii) That voters who insist on their eligibility be provided provisional ballots,
with the dispute to be resolved by an appeals body.

(ix) That no person or group deliberately or negligently misinform or


deliberately or negligently mislead, and with no evidence of good faith belief
that the information was correct and that a reasonable person would have used
the information and spread the information, any voter or groups of voters as to
the means by which they can vote, when they may vote, who may vote, how
they may vote, who or what is on the ballot, or where they can vote.

(x) that samples, numbering at least one third of the ballots cast, are randomly
audited from each voting box and machine and from each station or polling
place.

(xi) That the law provides for a procedure to ensure that each person has a
precinct and a polling place assigned to them, that it is close to their location,
that it is fully accessible to those with disabilities, is in a secular establishment in
a location with as minimal a crime rate as can reasonably be attained and is
perceived by the people to be subjectively safe, that it be a popular or well
known establishment, that polling places and precincts not be arbitrarily
amended in their borders, numbers, or closed, and that such changes do not
occur without the approval of a judge of a local court and the approval of the
independent elections and boundaries commission of the state, and that they
do not in practice or by design restrict the voting power of all people and
especially the groups among society which is protected from discriminatory
practices.

(p) That all contracts associated with the election management and implementation and
auditing are conducted in a transparent and open manner.
Article 80.

(1) A person qualifies for registration as a voter at elections voter or referenda if the person is an
adult citizen

(2) A citizen who qualifies for registration as a voter shall be registered at only one registration
centre.

(3) Administrative arrangements for the registration of voters and the conduct of elections shall
be designed to facilitate, and shall not deny, an eligible citizen the right to vote or stand for
election.

Article 81.

In every election, all candidates and all political parties shall comply with the code of conduct prescribed
by the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission.

Article 82.

Any person is eligible to stand as an independent candidate for election if the person

(a) Is not a member of a registered political party and has not been a member for at
least three months immediately before the date of the election; and

(b) Satisfies the requirements of (i) Article 96 (1) (c) (i) or (ii), in the case of a candidate
for election to the House of Representatives or the Senate, respectively; or Article 179
(1) (c), in the case of a candidate for election to a state legislature.

Article 83.

At every election, the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission shall ensure that

(a) Whatever voting method is used, the system is simple, accurate, verifiable, secure,
accountable and transparent;

(b) The votes cast are counted, tabulated and the results announced promptly by the
presiding officer at each polling station;

(c) The results from the polling stations are openly and accurately collated and promptly
announced by the returning officer; and

(d) Appropriate structures and mechanisms to eliminate electoral malpractice are put in
place, including the safekeeping of election materials.

Article 84.

(1) Congress shall enact legislation to establish mechanisms for timely settling of electoral
disputes.
(2) Petitions concerning an election, other than a presidential election, shall be filed within
twenty-eight days after the declaration of the election results by the Independent Electoral and
Boundaries Commission.

(3) Service of a petition may be direct or by advertisement in a newspaper with national


circulation.

Part Two – Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission and


Redistricting
Article 85.

(1) There is established the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission.

(2) A person is not eligible for appointment as a member of the Commission if the person

(a) Has, at any time within the preceding five years, held office, or stood for election as

(i) A member of Congress or of a state legislature; or

(ii) A member of the governing body of a political party; or

(b) Holds any State office.

(3) A member of the Commission shall not hold another public office.

(4) The Commission is responsible for conducting or supervising referenda and elections to any
elective body or office established by this Constitution, and any other elections as prescribed by
an Act of Congress and, in particular, for

(a) The continuous registration of citizens as voters;

(b) The regular revision of the voters’ roll;

(c) The delimitation of constituencies and wards;

(d) The regulation of the process by which parties nominate candidates for elections;

(e) The settlement of electoral disputes, including disputes relating to or arising from
nominations but excluding election petitions and disputes subsequent to the declaration
of election results;

(f) The registration of candidates for election;

(g) Voter education;

(h) The facilitation of the observation, monitoring and evaluation of elections;


(i) The regulation of the amount of money that may be spent by or on behalf of a
candidate or party in respect of any election, observing the campaign finances,
distributing matching funds and compensation of fractions of the expenses of
candidates and parties, ensuring that the disclosures as required are observed, and to
operate the public registries, databases, and disclose what the public is entitled to know
from the coffers of information held by public authorities;

(j) The development of a code of conduct for candidates and parties contesting
elections; and

(k) The monitoring of compliance with the legislation required by Article 79(1) (b)
relating to nomination of candidates by parties.

(l) awarding fines, withholding compensation or matching funds, subpoenaing


information, disqualifying for election, and rescinding the certificates of election
required to hold office, of those who violate electoral laws, with the right of appeal
belonging to the aggrieved party to a competent court.

(5) The Commission shall exercise its powers and perform its functions in accordance with this
Constitution and national legislation.

Article 86.

(1) There shall be a number of constituencies, numbering the zero point three-one root of the
population of the United States for Delimitation of the purposes of the election of the members
of the House of Representatives electoral units.

(2) The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission shall review the names and
boundaries of constituencies at intervals of not less than eight years, and not more than twelve
years, but any review shall be completed at least twelve months before a general election of
members of Congress. The commissions of each state prescribe the borders with the approval of
their respective legislature in a process defined in this constitution.

(3) The Commission shall review the number, names and boundaries of wards periodically, but
no less frequently than once every eight years, a census being conducted nationally at some
point in between this period on a date set by an Act of Congress.

(4) If a general election is to be held within twelve months after the completion of a review by
the Commission, the new boundaries shall not take effect for purposes of that election.

(5) The boundaries of each constituency shall be such that the number of inhabitants in the
constituency is, as nearly as possible, equal to the population quota, but the number of
inhabitants of a constituency may be greater or lesser than the population quota in the manner
mentioned in clause (6) to take account of
(a) Geographical features and urban centres;

(b) Community of interest, historical, economic and cultural ties; and

(c) Means of communication.

(6) The number of inhabitants of a constituency or ward may be greater or lesser than the
population quota by a margin of not more than

(a) seven point nine per cent for cities and sparsely populated areas; and

(b) ten per cent for the other areas.

(7) In reviewing constituency and ward boundaries the Commission shall

(a) Consult all interested parties; and

(b) Progressively work towards ensuring that the number of inhabitants in each
constituency and ward is, as nearly as possible, equal to the population quota.

(8) If necessary, the Commission shall alter the names and boundaries of constituencies, and the
number, names and boundaries of wards.

(9) Subject to clauses (1), (2), (3) and (4), the names and details of the boundaries of
constituencies and wards determined by the Commission shall be published in the Federal
Register, and shall come into effect on the election for the first Congress following their
publication.

(10) A person may apply to the District Court for review of a decision of the Commission made
under this Article.

(11) An application for the review of a decision made under this Article shall be filed within
thirty days of the publication of the decision in the Federal Register and shall be heard and
determined within three months of the date on which it is filed.

(12) For the purposes of this Article, “population quota” means the number obtained by dividing
the number of inhabitants of The United States by the number of constituencies or wards, as
applicable, into which The United States is divided under this Article.

(13) There shall be a number of additional seats in the House of Representatives numbering the
difference between the zero point three-four root of the population minus the zero point three-
one root of the population, and these seats shall be distributed proportionally to each state at
large. Each ballot paper shall in addition to listing constituency candidates shall list the political
parties which have obtained ballot access in that state, and the number of votes for each party
within each state shall be added up and using the Sainte Lague method, be divided up by
political party, and firstly shall be filled by candidates who have won a direct mandate in a
constituency. If this number of candidates for a party exceeds the number which the Sainte
Lague method proportionally awards them, the party shall be entitled to retain those elected
members and the other parties shall be given their seats in order of which party had the largest
number of votes at each round of division by the Sainte Lague method. If the party has not filled
up all of the number of seats to which they are proportionally entitled by means of candidates
who were elected directly in a constituency, the candidate which was nominated by the party
who was not directly elected in a constituency with the highest percentage of votes for the
constituency election shall be awarded to the party, and this process shall repeat until all the
elected members which a party proportionally is awarded have been awarded.

Article 87.

The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission shall be responsible for the conduct and
supervision of elections conducted by state independent electoral and boundaries commissions and
shall ensure that

(a) Each political party participating in a general election nominates their candidates in
accordance with the laws;

(b) Except in the case of state legislature seats, each party list reflects the regional and
ethnic diversity of the people of The United States, where in the case of state
legislatures; they reflect the ethnic diversity of the state.

Part Three – Political Parties


Article 88.

(1) Every political party shall

(a) Have a national character as prescribed by an Act of Congress;

(b) Have a democratically elected governing body;

(c) Promote and uphold national unity;

(d) Abide by the democratic principles of good governance, promote and practice
democracy through:

(i) Regular, fair and free elections and conventions to vote on policy resolutions
within the party at least once in every two year period,

(ii) electing their executive and committees, auditors and internal elections
returning officers, spokespersons, chairperson, internal media outlets and think-
tank boards, and delegates to any conventions by means of secret ballots by
majority with subsequent ballots by exhaustive voting if there is no candidate
with an absolute majority if the voters for a position are themselves elected,
and by a runoff among the top two candidates on a day between seven and
twenty-one days later if there is no candidate with an absolute majority if the
voters are ordinary party members or the general electorate, and if delegates
are the ones who have the right to vote for those executives, committees, or
other delegates, they themselves shall be elected by means of secret ballot by
majority and if delegates are awarded the right to elect higher offices, the
delegates shall outnumber the positions to be elected by at least a ratio of six to
one,

(iii) Shall hold a convention between four and two months prior to each election
in their jurisdiction of operation whereupon they approve of their electoral
manifesto, and shall hold a policy convention every year with resolutions
proposed by any of the party’s subbodies and regional or demographically
specific clubs to approve of party policy which the electoral manifesto must
adhere to except for an actual necessity in appealing to likely voters by a two-
thirds vote with justification by a platform committee elected by the party
members before the manifesto convention. No more than three-fifths of the
delegates to any body or convention or committee or of any multi body board,
commission, committee, or executive, or both a chair and vice chair, may be of
any one gender;

(iv) accurate and public reporting and disclosure of all funding which they have
received through public funding and the accurate and public disclosure of all
funds, gifts, loans, below market rate provisioning of services and goods, and
donations, and accurate and public reporting and disclosure of the salaries and
compensation they pay to any person on their payroll, the value of any
contracts which they have signed and who they have signed with and for what
purposes the contract is signed to provide, and the accurate and public
disclosure of their annual auditor’s report and their annual budget.

(e) Respect the right of all persons to participate in the political process, including
minorities and marginalized groups;

(f) Respect and promote human rights and fundamental freedoms, and gender equality
and equity;

(g) Promote the objects and principles of this Constitution and the rule of law; and

(h) Subscribe to and observe the code of conduct for political parties.

(i) Elect through an open primary conducted among all the eligible voters in the
jurisdiction holding an election, their candidates for public office, subject to the
requirement that

(i) Those eligible voters do not vote in more than one party’s primary for the election to
be conducted to elect any given officeholder,
(ii) the party may require a nominal sum not exceeding one fifth of the hourly minimum
wage imposed in the jurisdiction holding the election imposed to cover the costs of the
open primary and to reimburse the costs of the candidates competing in the primary,
and the remainder of the proceeds as a donation to the eventually successful candidate,

(iii) That those who vote in a party’s primary sign a statement pledging to subscribe to
the party’s values,

(iv) in the case of the election to the Senate of the Congress, those who vote in the
primary and are qualified to sign a candidacy petition shall be eligible to vote for the
Senate of the Congress elections, and the number of voters and petition signatures
required shall be proportionally reduced to account for how many are so eligible,

(v) in the case of no candidate attaining an absolute majority of the votes, provided a
quorum of fifteen percent of those eligible have voted, the top two candidates shall
advance to a runoff between them with the same eligible to vote in the first round also
eligible for voting in the runoff,

(vi) the candidates in the primary obtain from the registered members of the party a
number of signatures which would qualify them for ballot access for the public election,
reducing the number of signatures proportionally to account for the number of
registered members of the party as a fraction of the total number of voters in the
jurisdiction holding the election,

(vii) The party’s candidate, if they fail to be nominated in the primary election, not
contest the general election and signs a pledge to support the eventual winner of the
primary.

(2) A political party shall not

(a) Be founded on a religious, linguistic, racial, ethnic, gender or regional basis or seek to
engage in advocacy of hatred on any such basis;

(b) Engage in or encourage violence by, or intimidation of, its members, supporters,
opponents or any other person;

(c) Establish or maintain a paramilitary force, militia or similar organization;

(d) Engage in bribery or other forms of corruption; or

(e) Except as is provided under this Chapter or by an Act of Congress, accept or use
public resources to promote its interests or its candidates in elections.

Article 89.

Congress shall enact legislation to provide for


(a) The reasonable and equitable allocation of airtime, by State owned and other
mentioned categories of broadcasting media; to political parties either generally or
during election campaigns;

(b) The regulation of freedom to broadcast in order to ensure fair election campaigning;

(c) The regulation of political parties;

(d) The roles and functions of political parties;

(e) The registration and supervision of political parties;

(f) The establishment and management of a political party’s fund;

(g) The accounts and audit of political parties;

(h) Restrictions on the use of public resources to promote the interests of political
parties; and

(i) Any other matters necessary for the management of political parties.

Chapter Eight – The Congress


Part One – Establishment and Role of Congress
Article 90.

(1) There is established a Congress of The United States, which shall Establishment of consist of
the House of Representatives and the Senate.

(2) The House of Representatives and the Senate shall perform their respective functions in
accordance with this Constitution.

Article 91.

(1) The legislative authority of the Republic is derived from Role of Congress. The people and, at
the national level, is vested in and exercised by Congress.

(2) Congress manifests the diversity of the nation, represents the will of the people, and
exercises their sovereignty.

(3) Congress may consider and pass amendments to this Constitution, and alter state boundaries
as provided for in this Constitution.

(4) Congress shall protect this Constitution and promote the democratic governance of the
Republic.
(5) No person or body, other than Congress, the state legislatures, local legislatures, and the
people themselves as voters, have the power to make provision having the force of law within
The United States except under authority conferred by this Constitution or by legislation.

(6) An Act of Congress, or legislation of a state, that confers on any State organ, State officer or
person the authority to make provision having the force of law in The United States, as
contemplated in clause (5), shall expressly specify the purpose and objectives for which that
authority is conferred, the limits of the authority, the nature and scope of the law that may be
made, and the principles and standards applicable to the law made under the authority. If that
authority is vested in a directly elected primary executive or the President, the lower house or
the House of Representatives respectively shall approve of the invocation of that authority
within thirty days after it is invoked, otherwise it becomes inoperative, and a cabinet secretary
and principle secretary in the relevant department shall certify the invocation and the legal basis
for doing so.

(7) Only the Congress by a vote of two-thirds of the members of each House may ratify a treaty
or executive agreement such that it has effect on or against the United States or binds it, or may
denounce such treaties after their ratification.

Article 92.

(1) The House of Representatives represents the people of the constituencies and special
interests in the House of Representatives.

(2) The House of Representatives deliberates on and resolves issues of concern to the people.

(3) The House of Representatives enacts legislation in accordance with Part Four of this Chapter.

(4) The House of Representatives

(a) Determines the allocation of national revenue between the levels of government, as
provided in Part Four of Chapter Twelve;

(b) Appropriates funds for expenditure by the national government and other national
State organs; and

(c) exercises oversight over national revenue and its expenditure.

(5) The House of Representatives

(a) Reviews the conduct in office of the President, the Vice President and other State
officers and initiates the process of removing them from office; and

(b) Exercises oversight of State organs.

(6) The House of Representatives, along with the Senate, approves declarations of war and
extensions of states of emergency.
(7) A Representative may be expelled from the House of Representatives by cause of a criminal
case finding them guilty of offenses which disqualify them for election to the House of
Representatives or holding State office, or of finding that they never had such qualifications,
provided that all appeals are exhausted and finalized, or by the vote of two-thirds of the House
of Representatives upon recommendation of the ethics committee in the House of
Representatives acting as a tribunal acting on sworn or affirmed evidence and testimony and
hearing the counterpoints of the accused Representative and their legal counsel of their choice
in a public tribunal meeting, making a final deliberation and vote in public.

Article 93.

The Members of the House of Representatives who are elected by constituencies are elected by an
absolute majority of the votes cast in those constituencies, a quorum of at least one-third of those
eligible to vote being present and voting. If this quorum or the absolute majority qualifier is not met, the
two candidates with the most votes shall proceed to a runoff between them and the candidate with
more votes is elected. The option for none of the above shall be included and if it obtains an absolute
majority in either round, nominations shall be reopened and the top two candidates shall be excluded
from the special election to fill the position.

Article 94.

(1) The Senate represents the states, and serves to protect the interests of the states and their
governments.

(2) The Senate participates in the lawmaking function of Congress by considering, debating and
approving Bills concerning states, as provided in Articles 106 to 109.

(3) The Senate determines the allocation of national revenue among state, as provided in Article
202, and exercises oversight over national revenue allocated to the state governments.

(4) The Senate participates in the oversight of State officers by considering and determining any
resolution to remove the President or Vice President from office in accordance with Article 140.

(5) No person can serve more than twelve consecutive years as a Senator, and upon the failure
to be reelected, the expiration of the term limit, or deciding not to stand in the next election
and thus their term expires, or otherwise the vacating of a Senatorial seat, at least eight
consecutive years must pass before a further term may be sought.

Part Two – Composition of the Senate and House of Representatives


Article 95.

(1) The Senate consists of four members for each state, and in each election which occurs every
two years, half of the members from each state shall be elected for a four year term, and in
each half election, the rules in this Article shall apply to the two who are elected
simultaneously.
(2) The Senators shall be elected by dual member proportional representation with the United
States acting as the zone for which the proportional distribution of senators is awarded, with
those who are state legislators or are members of county boards of supervisors eligible to vote,
but they shall be reweighted in value such that the vote weight of an elected officer is that of
the quotient of the population of their state or county respectively divided by the number of
legislators or supervisors which are elected in that state or county.

(3) The primary candidate with the majority of votes in the state shall be elected, and if there is
no absolute majority, the two candidates with the most votes shall proceed to a runoff.

(4) Each candidate runs on a dual ticket with a primary and may include a secondary candidate.
Both persons may not be of the same gender, and a political party may not nominate more than
a majority of its dual tickets to have a primary candidate or secondary candidate be of the same
gender.

(5) The remaining seats are awarded proportionally among the tickets with the most votes, and
the ticket which was directly elected shall have the primary candidate removed from
consideration and the number of votes halved.

(6) The votes by party for each ticket shall be summed up at large across the United States, and
the seats shall be awarded proportionally by party, and any seats which a party requires in
addition to any primary candidates who were elected by majority shall be the candidates with
the highest percentage of votes their ticket received, but if more than one party could have a
second seat in a state, the party with the larger number of votes for the ticket in that state shall
be awarded the seat.

(7) A Senator may be expelled from the Senate by cause of a criminal case finding them guilty of
offenses which disqualify them for election to the Senate or holding State office, or of finding
that they never had such qualifications, provided that all appeals are exhausted and finalized, or
by the vote of two-thirds of the Senate upon recommendation of the ethics committee in the
Senate acting as a tribunal acting on sworn or affirmed evidence and testimony and hearing the
counterpoints of the accused Senator and their legal counsel of their choice in a public tribunal
meeting, making a final deliberation and vote in public.

Article 96.

(1) Unless disqualified under clause (2), a person is eligible for election as a member of Congress
if the person

(a) Is registered as a voter;

(b) Satisfies any educational, moral and ethical requirements prescribed by this
Constitution or by an Act of Congress;

(c) Is nominated by a political party, or is an independent candidate who is supported


(i) In the case of election to the House of Representatives, by at least five
hundred registered voters in the constituency; or

(ii) In the case of election to the Senate, by at least one thousand registered
voters in the state.

(2) A person is disqualified from being elected a member of Congress if the person

(a) is a State officer or other public officer, other than a member of Congress;

(b) has, at any time within the five years immediately preceding the date of election,
held office as a member of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission;

(c) has not been a citizen of The United States for at least the ten years immediately
preceding the date of election;

(d) is a member of a state legislature;

(e) is of unsound mind;

(f) is an undischarged bankrupt;

(g) is subject to a sentence of imprisonment of at least six months, as at the date of


registration as a candidate, or at the date of election; or

(h) is found, in accordance with any law, to have misused or abused a State office or
public office or in any way to have contravened Chapter Six.

(3) A person is not disqualified under clause (2) unless all possibility of appeal or review of the
relevant sentence or decision has been exhausted.

Article 97.

Congress shall enact legislation to promote the representation in Congress of

(a) women;

(b) persons with disabilities;

(c) youth;

(d) ethnic and other minorities; and

(e) marginalized communities.

Article 98.

(1) A general election of members of Congress shall be held on the second Tuesday in November
in every fourth year, which is a public holiday.
(2) In the event of a vacancy in the case of a candidate elected by a majority of votes, (a) the
respective Speaker or President of the Senate shall, within ten days after the occurrence of the
vacancy, give notice in writing of the vacancy to the Independent Electoral and Boundaries
Commission; and a special election shall be held within ninety days of the occurrence of the
vacancy, subject to clause (4). If the legislature of the state where the vacancy occurred is in
session, they shall immediately in a joint session by secret ballot and by a majority vote, elect
someone to fill in the vacancy, but if the vacant position was a member of a party, the
temporary filling shall be made on the nomination of at least three members in the state
legislature who was a member of the party or if the party does not exist in the state legislature,
a member of the party in the state. If they are not in session, the chief executive of the state
shall name a replacement, and if the vacating officer was a member of a party, the appointment
shall be made from among those in the same party.

(3) A vacancy referred to in clause (2) (b) shall not be filled within the three months immediately
before a general election by a special election.

(4) In the case of other vacancies, the next person in the election who was eligible from that
party to fill the seat had the party been entitled to an additional seat shall be called to fill in the
vacancy. If there is no such person who can fill such vacancy, the party’s association in that state
where the vacancy occurred shall hold a vote of their party’s committee to elect by secret ballot
by majority vote a person to fill the vacancy for the remainder of the term.

Article 99.

(1) The term of each House of Congress expires at the time when the Houses are summoned and
meet for the first time after a general election.

(2) When The United States is at war, Congress may, by resolution supported in each House by
at least two-thirds of all the members of the House, from time to time extend the term of
Congress by not more than six months at a time.

(3) The term of Congress shall not be extended under clause (2) for a total of more than twelve
months. The term of the next Congress is proportionally reduced.

Article 100.

The office of a member of Congress becomes vacant

(a) if the member dies;

(b) if, during any session of Congress, the member is absent from eight sittings of the
relevant House without permission, in writing, from the Speaker, and is unable to offer a
satisfactory explanation for the absence to the relevant committee;
(c) if the member is otherwise removed from office under this Constitution or legislation
enacted under Article 77;

(d) if the member resigns from Congress in writing to the Speaker;

(e) at the end of the term of the relevant House; or

(f) if the member becomes disqualified for election to Congress under Article 96 (2).

Article 101.

(1) The electorate has the right to recall the directly elected member of the House of
Representatives or the Senate representing their constituency or state respectively before the
end of the term of the relevant House of Congress, by petition signed by a number of people
equal to ten percent of those who voted in the previous election to the constituency in terms of
the House of Representatives and by those who hold twelve point five percent of the weighted
votes for the seat in the Senate, signed in a period of one hundred and twenty days. No grounds
or offenses are required to be subject to recall.

(2) A recall election shall be scheduled within forty-five days, and the question shall ask as a yes
or no question as to whether the voters in the constituency want to recall the elected member.

(3) If a majority of the votes cast, a quorum of twenty percent of those eligible to vote turning
out to do so, the seat shall be declared vacant and a special election shall be held to fill the
position within forty-five days with the candidate who was removed ineligible to be a candidate
in that special election.

(4) This clause shall be inoperative during the last one hundred and eighty days of a legislative
term and the first one hundred and eighty days of a legislative term.

Article 102.

(1) The District Court shall hear and determine any question whether

(a) a person has been validly elected as a member of Congress; or

(b) the seat of a member has become vacant.

(2) A question under clause (1) shall be heard and determined within six months of the date of
lodging the petition.

(3) Congress shall enact legislation to give full effect to this Article.

Part Three – Offices of the Congress, Party Leaders, and Committees


Article 103.

(1) There shall be


(a) a Speaker for the House of Representatives and a President of the Senate for the
Senate, to be collectively known as the presiding officers of the Congress, who shall be
elected by secret ballot by majority vote, through exhaustive balloting, by that House in
accordance with the Standing Orders from among the members of that House, such that
the candidates are nominated, the ballot box is proven to be empty, each candidate
may make a speech, each member shall be given a ballot and may not show their
marked ballot to any other person and no camera or media recording device may pan in
to see a marked ballot, the ballots shall be deposited in the ballot box and the ballots,
the boxes, and the members may not be subdivided so as to cause the groupings of
support for a candidate to be known in any way, the ballots shall be counted, and the
results thereof to be described; and

(b) a Deputy Speaker for the House of Representatives and a Deputy President of the
Senate for the Senate, to be collectively known as the deputy presiding officers of the
Congress, who shall be elected by secret ballot by majority vote through exhaustive
balloting by that House in accordance with the Standing Orders, from among the
members of that House.

(c) a number of votes equal to two-thirds of the members present having cast a vote in
favour of a presiding officer or deputy presiding officer in the election thereof in order
to declare them elected, and if this quota is not met, another round of voting identical
to the first round shall be held, and if no candidate has met this quota, a third round of
voting shall be held identical to the first round, and if no candidate has met this quota
on this round, subsequent rounds shall be held, and in the failure of meeting this quota,
the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated and another round shall commence,
unless there are only two candidates in that round, in which case the candidate with
more votes shall be declared elected.

(2) The office of the presiding officer or the deputy presiding officer shall become vacant

(a) when a new House of Congress first meets after an election;

(b) if the office holder, as a member of the relevant House, vacates office under Article
100;

(c) if the relevant House so resolves by resolution proposed by any ten percent of their
members and approved by a secret ballot vote with an absolute majority of its
members; or

(d) if the office holder resigns from office in a letter addressed to the relevant House.

(3) If only one candidate stands for the election, a vote shall be held by secret ballot as to
whether or not to accept that candidate as the presiding officer or the deputy presiding officer,
and if this candidate receives votes from two-thirds of the members present, the candidate shall
be declared elected, and if no such amount of support is cast, subsequent rounds of nominating
and voting shall occur with the same quota with the rejected candidate excluded, unless six
rounds of voting have occurred in this manner with only one candidate on the ballot in each
such round, in which case all the candidates rejected shall be included in a multicandidate ballot
to be conducted as if it was a regular multicandidate race.

(4) The presiding officer or deputy presiding officer shall resign from their party for the duration
of their term as presiding officer or deputy presiding officer and receive no communications
from their party’s group and not attend any meetings which are not advertised and open to
those who are not members of the party in either House. They may not vote in any internal
party election or serve on any committee or institution or organ of any political party, or of the
majority or minority. They may not introduce any motion, bill, resolution, or amendment or vote
on any matter unless the vote is conducted by secret ballot, unless they can vote in a manner
which can change the outcome, whereupon they may vote.

(5) A person may not stand for election as presiding officer or deputy presiding officer if they
were in the previous eight years a Majority or Minority Leader, a party leader chair or whip of
any party in the previous eight years, or were a member of the agenda committee in the
previous six years. Their candidacy must be signed by at least three members in the Senate for a
President of the Senate or Deputy President of the Senate and five in the House of
Representatives for a House of Representatives Speaker or Deputy Speaker, of whom not more
than three-fifths, may be of the same gender, who were members of their party or
independents and an equal number from a party which they are not members of or who are
independents, and at least six members for a President of the Senate or Deputy President of the
Senate and at least eight members for a House of Representatives Speaker or Deputy Speaker
who in the previous eight years has not been an officer of any party or been the Majority or
Minority Leader of that House nor a member of the agenda committee in the previous six years.

Article 104.

(1) At any sitting of a House of Congress

(a) the Speaker or President of the Senate presides;

(b) in the absence of the Speaker or the President of the Senate, the Deputy Speaker or
the Deputy President of the Senate presides;

(c) in the absence of the Speaker or the President of the Senate and the Deputy Speaker
or of the Deputy President of the Senate, another member of the House elected by
secret ballot by exhaustive balloting by the House presides.

(2) At a joint sitting of the Houses of Congress, the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall
preside, assisted by the President of the Senate.

Article 105.
(1) There shall be a leader of the majority faction and a leader of the minority faction, and a
leader of each party, in each House.

(2) The party with the majority of seats, or in the absence of any party with a majority, a
collection of parties and independents recognized by the presiding officer of that House as
constituting a majority, with an appeal without debate to the plenary House being accepted if
any member challenges the Speaker’s decision as to whether a party or independent is included
in the collection constituting a majority, shall constitute the majority, and the other parties and
independents shall constitute the minority. If any member challenges the view of the presiding
officer, a vote shall be cast as to whether the judgement shall be sustained and a majority of the
votes cast shall overrule the presiding officer

(3) The majority and minority shall each have a leader, to be known respectively as the Majority
and the Minority Leader, and they shall each be elected at the beginning of the term for which
their House was elected and in the middle of that term, in a secret ballot by exhaustive
balloting. If only one candidate stands for election as such, a secret ballot vote shall be held
asking whether or not to accept that candidate as the Majority or Minority Leader, and if a
majority accepts, they are the said Leader, otherwise, the nominations are reopened with the
defeated candidate ineligible to stand.

(4) Each party in each House shall elect at the beginning of the term of the House and in the
middle of that term their officers, including a leader in each House in the same manner as the
Majority or Minority Leader, as well as a chairperson of their party members, the deputy
chairperson, a policy chair, their chief whip and any other whips, and a secretary, and may
remove those officers by a petition signed by any twenty percent of the members of that party
in that House and voted on by secret ballot with those signing the petition being anonymous,
except that those eligible to vote are the members of the party as defined as those who are
elected as candidates of that party and subsequently accepted into that party by majority vote
by secret ballot among the members of the party in that House and expelled by a two-thirds
vote in a secret ballot on proposal of any one-third of the members of the party in that House.
Those who are not officers of the party nor are the Speaker, Deputy Speaker, President of the
Senate or Deputy President of the Senate, or the Majority or Minority Leaders of the House
form the party’s backbench committee, and shall elect their chair, deputy chair, secretary, and
other officials they deem necessary to have and shall have a meeting without the presence of
the officers of the party or the House at least once in every sitting week. The chairperson of a
party in a House and the leader of the party in a House may not simultaneously be of the same
gender.

(5) Each party elects by secret ballot for a term lasting until the next election of that House the
members of each committee and subcommittees to which their party is proportionally entitled,
with the number of members of the committee set by the standing rules but no fewer than
thirteen members may be in a House of Representatives Committee and no fewer than nine
members may be in a Senate Committee. The leader, the chair, and the chief whip of a party
may not be members of any committee. The Ethics committee in each House shall have an equal
number of members from the Majority and Minority, and may not have any officers of any party
or the Majority or Minority Leaders as members. Members of committees may only be removed
by a two-thirds vote of that House on recommendation of the Ethics Committee recommending
their removal. A mediation committee comprised of members of both Houses is assembled to
mediate conflicts over bills passed in each as different versions of the refusal of one House to
approve of the other’s proposal, and is comprised of eleven members from each House who are
elected as if they were members of a regular committee in that House, and shall be chaired by
co-chairs who preside on alternating sitting days and each House shall elect from among the
members of the Mediation committee which they elected their House’s co-chair.

(6) Each House elects by secret ballot through exhaustive voting, with a ballot listing all those
eligible to be elected, the chairs and deputy chairs of the committees and subcommittees, with
the Ethics Committee and the Committee on Financial Oversight having a chairperson from the
Majority or Minority, whichever is opposed to the party of the President of the Republic. The
committee chairs and deputy shall be proportionally divided up by party in each House such that
the number of chairs and deputy chairs who are members of a party is proportional to their
strength in that House. Officers of a party may not be a chair or deputy chair of a committee.
The Majority and Minority Leaders and the presiding officer or deputy presiding officer may not
be on any committee. A chairperson or deputy chairperson may only be removed by a secret
ballot vote of that House by a majority vote on the proposal of a petition anonymously signed by
at least one-third of the members of that House.

(7) An agenda committee provides for the basic delineation of the agenda for most sitting days,
and is comprised of two members of that House named by the leader of the majority and an
equal number by the leader of the minority, three members elected at large by the whole House
by secret ballot, three members elected by the policy chairs of each party with the weight of
each policy chair proportional to the strength of the party in the House, and one person elected
to be the chairperson by a vote of the whole House.

(8) A backbenchers committee of the House shall set the agenda at least one day in every sitting
week, and shall be elected only by those who are not an officer of a party as defined by this
section, and no officer of a party or the Majority or Minority Leader nor a presiding officer or
deputy presiding officer is eligible to be on that committee, and their chair, deputy chair,
secretary, and other officers shall be exclusively elected after debates held only among the
backbenchers without the presence of any party officer, whip, employee, or the same of the
House officer, Speaker, Deputy Speaker, President of the Senate, Deputy President of the
Senate, Majority Leader, or Minority Leader.

(9) The agenda committee shall include for debate and a vote any bill or nomination proposed
by the President or the Cabinet, any motion or bill proposed by the leader or policy chair of any
party or by the joint submission by the leaders or policy chairs of parties with one quarter or
more of the members of that House, any motion or bill proposed by the Majority or Minority
Leader, any motion which is passed by the other House, any motion which is supported by any
one quarter of the members of the House signing a petition anonymously to state they wish for
the inclusion of that topic or bill, and any topic or bill which is approved by a majority vote in
any committee.

(10) The chair of a committee shall include for debate and vote any topic which is submitted to
it by any of the same authorities which can force a bill to be included in a debate by the whole
House by request to the agenda committee.

(11) A whip from the party may only be used if on the anonymous petition signed by any one
quarter of the members of the party in that House, two-thirds of the members of the party in
that House endorse the statement on party unity.

(12) At the beginning of each term, each House adopts by majority vote their rules of procedure
and Standing Orders, and may amend them by an absolute majority vote with fourteen days or
more of notice, and may suspend them without notice by a two-thirds vote or unanimous
consent.

(13) A committee shall be established in each House, to be termed that House’s Public Accounts
Committee with at least twenty-five members in the House of Representatives and at least
seventeen members in the Senate, and at least fifty-five percent, rounded up to the next odd
number, of the members on that committee and the chair of that committee must be of the
majority or minority party in the plenary House which forms the opposition to the current
President and Cabinet. The members and the chair of the committee shall be members highly
regarded for their financial and corruption knowledge and opposition, of supreme command of
ethics and investigatory capacity, and be paragons of public interest and repute. They shall have
the same power as a district court to acquire evidence, hear testimony, and compel evidence
and witnesses with or without the approval of their respective House in plenary. Such
committee shall provide a report at least once in every three months as to the performance of
the government, the value for money in the government’s programs, an assessment of whether
the projects and accounts of the government are legal and not corrupt, and report on the
findings they receive from the Auditor General and Comptroller General. Every four months,
each member of the Cabinet including the Attorney General shall in person report for at least
two hours before each committee in a public hearing under oath or affirmation and answer
their questions, and to explain their activities and behaviour.

(14) Each member of each House may ask any Cabinet Member, the Attorney General, the
heads of departments and agencies, principal secretaries, and other executive appointees and
ambassadors questions in writing, and they shall within thirty days, provide a written response,
and the initial question and the response shall be made a public document within five days of
the receipt of the response. They shall justify their department or agency’s actions upon such
request. If any one-fourth of either House’s members support any member’s questions by
stating that the need for a response is urgent, the response shall be delivered within ten days.
(15)

(i) The Congress, either House thereof, or a committee of either House, or any fifteen
percent of the members of either House or any quarter of any committee may for a
legislative purpose but including the possibility of authoring laws or legislative actions,
determining whether existing laws, judicial actions, treaties, or the constitution has
been followed, considering whether to bring about motions to officially censure,
remove, or impeach any official, or to rectify previous historical failings, may demand by
subpoena by signed petition of the relevant majorities or minorities any witness or
evidence they consider relevant, and the principal of executive privilege shall not be
applied against this subpoena.

(ii) If the respondents of the subpoena are the members of the executive branch or an
independent commission or office or the judicial offices which are not employed by the
civil service system, and they dispute some or all of the subpoena, the case shall be in
the Supreme Court of the United States by original jurisdiction, otherwise they shall be
in the district court which is in the proper jurisdiction by law.

(iii) A subpoena in the case of an impeachment proceeding shall be considered by


original jurisdiction in the Supreme Court, unless the Supreme Court itself or one of
their judges are the subpoenaed party, in which case, the chief justices of all the courts
of appeal of the United States shall constitute a special tribunal from which there is no
appeal for that particular case.

(iv) That a particular part of the subpoena request may be invalid shall not invalidate the
remainder of the subpoena request and shall not invalidate the then occurring
proceedings at the given stage it is at in respect to that remainder.

(v) The burden of proof that a legislative subpoena of the other branches, or a subpoena
of an independent authority against any other branch, or of the judiciary against any
other branch is invalid or for only partisan reasons, and that the privilege of that other
branch of government applies, shall be that which benefits those who petition to access
the information, and the response shall prove their case of invalidity by clear and
convincing evidence. Any privilege must be invoked by the chair of the independent
commission or multi member body, the director or head of an independent officer, the
President, in the case of the executive, by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the
United States, in the case of the judiciary, and by the Speaker of the House of
Representatives in the case of the House of Representatives and by the President of the
Senate in the case of the Senate, and by both the President of the Senate and the
Speaker of the House of Representatives in the case of the Congress.

Part Four – Procedure of Legislation


Article 106.
(1) Congress shall exercise its legislative power through Bills and Resolutions passed by Congress
and assented to by the President.

(2) A Bill or Resolution not concerning state government is considered first in the House of
Representatives, and passed in accordance with Article 118 and the Standing Orders of the
House of Representatives.

(3) A Bill or Resolution concerning state government may originate in the House of
Representatives or the Senate, and is passed in accordance with Articles 107 to 109, and Article
118 and the Standing Orders of the Houses.

(4) A Bill or Resolution may be introduced by five members of the House of Representatives, by
any three Senators, by the President of the Republic, by the Cabinet Secretary in relation to bills
concerning their department or field, by resolution of any one-fifth of the state legislatures, by a
petition signed by a number of people equal to zero point one of those who voted in the
previous election for the President of the Republic, or committee of the relevant House of
Congress, but a money Bill may be introduced only in the House of Representatives in
accordance with Article 110.

(5) In the case of a Resolution to Nullify a Rule, the agency or department responsible for the
rule shall provide a copy of the rule to the Federal Registrar and to each House of Congress with
a written copy of the text of the rule and the intended effective date.

(i) If in the ninety days subsequent to that delivery of the rule to the Federal Registrar
and each House of Congress, any person or group with the right to introduce a Bill or
Resolution moves a motion for a Resolution to Nullify a Rule, the Resolution in question
shall be placed on the table and must be considered by the committee which oversees
the relevant department or agency.

(ii) If the committee does not report out the Resolution in question within thirty days,
any one-quarter of the members of that House may anonymously sign a petition to
demand the consideration by the plenary, and if they do so sign, the full plenary shall
debate the Resolution for up to twelve hours with at least forty percent of that time
dedicated to each of the Majority and Minority, and at least one third of the time within
each Majority and Minority shall be dedicated to the questions and concerns of the
backbenchers.

(iii) If the Resolution in question passes by the majority required to pass a Bill or
Resolution, the other House shall repeat these steps and must put the item into the
consideration of the committee of their House within ten days of the originating House
proposing the Resolution, and if they pass it, it shall be treated as if it passed by the
ordinary legislative procedure.
(iv) No amendment to a Resolution to Nullify a Rule is in order, and they do not go to a
Mediation Committee.

(v) If the President returns the Resolution to Nullify a Rule without their assent, the time
limits for considering an override shall be the same as those which exist to consider the
Resolution originally, and the rules of debate shall be the same.

(vi) A Resolution to Nullify a Rule shall also apply to the attempt by a federal agency or
department to repeal or amend an existing rule, and if the Resolution passes, the
department may not repeal the rule or amend it in the way they have proposed to do
so, or amend it in substantially similar ways.

(6)

(i) A resolution may, if solely written to do so, may require that the executive
department or an officer or commission of the executive department to create reporting and
codify their rules and or reporting or codify an aspect of their roles or reporting, or some
combination of the same, or to provide a report for the feasibility of an idea or project or
potential idea or project or a report on the feasibility of a new law or resolution or an
amendment, replacement, or repeal of an existing law or resolution, other than to require the
public disclosure of information given in confidence in accordance with the law or the
constitution or to require classified information which has been classified in the legal manner to
be disclosed to the public.

(ii) If the resolution proposed in subsection (i) passes the House of Representatives by a
majority vote in accordance with standard procedure for a bill or resolution that is not a
proposal to reject an executive rule, it must be assented to the President within ten days and
who may not veto the proposal, except in order to request a second vote on the entire
proposed resolution which shall pass if an absolute majority of the House of Representatives
passes the proposal, the President shall sign it into law within five days.

(iii) If the President challenges the constitutionality of the same by the same process as
by which they challenge the constitutionality of other bills and resolutions, and if it is found to
be constitutional, the President shall sign it into law within 5 days.

(iv) If the resolution calls for recurring reports or recommendations or feasibility studies,
it shall specify for what period of time or that it recurs indefinitely, and shall specify how
periodical the recurrence shall be, and only another bill or resolution may nullify the
requirement to provide the reports or the rules or codifications or recommendations in
question.

(v) The cost on the executive office to conduct the required actions as provided for in
such a resolution shall be absorbed in the next budget and until that time the cost shall be
covered out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund.
(7)

(i) A resolution or legislative action, if it solely does such, may cause a program, fund,
office, or other activity, which is slated to expire due to previous legislative action, to be
extended further for a period of up to twelve years and not less than one year, the
period being prescribed in the legislative action, and if the legislative action attains the
required majorities in the Houses which had to cause the program or activity to exist in
the first place, it must be assented to the President within ten days and who may not
veto the proposal, except in order to request a second vote on the entire proposed
resolution which shall pass if the original Houses required to create the program or
activity passes the proposal a second time but making it such that it would also pass if
every single member of the Houses required in fact voted on the proposal, the President
shall sign it into law within five days.

(ii) If the President challenges the constitutionality of the same by the same process as
by which they challenge the constitutionality of other bills and resolutions, and if it is
found to be constitutional, the President shall sign it into law within 5 days.

(iii) The President may also apply this section to a particular numbered line or section of
the legislative action and not to the entire legislative action, and the Congress or the
relevant House thereof may countermand the President’s line item veto to some or all
of the President’s line item vetoes by the same thresholds as permit them to overturn a
veto of the entire legislative action.

(8) A resolution or legislative action to cause there to be naming of things including laws after
other things or people, to create commemorative activity in a specific instance, to
commemorate a specific person or activity, to create ceremonial coinage and award specific
individuals awards, shall not occur unless recommended by an independent commission
established for the sole purpose of considering and recommending such ceremonial and
commemorative activity to the jurisdictions of the United States or to on its own authority in
cases provided by law, to do so autonomously.

(9) Upon the submission of a petition signed anonymously by any majority of the members in a
house present, or upon no objection from any member in a house present, the debate shall end
and the motion voted upon, except in the case of where a higher threshold is required to pass
the bill, confirmation, or motion or resolution in which case either no objection is required or
the number of members which would constitute the threshold required to pass the actionable
item as a vote shall sign the petition to end the debate.

(10) An upper house may not amend a proposal it receives from a lower house or a mediation
committee, it may only approve or reject it.

(11) On proposal of any ten percent of the members of either House of Congress signing a
petition to do so, or a combination of the members thereof, citing the relevant law or legal
instrument, the President or their Cabinet members including the Attorney General, or an
independent commission or officer, shall respond to a question of why they do not apply a
clause or part or all of a law or legal instrument to a specific case where they could potentially
apply that law or legal instrument, and they shall within sixty days present a narrative
explanation explaining their decision and the reasoning behind it, or if any twenty percent of the
members of either House of Congress or a combination of the members thereof declare the
petition urgent, they shall provide their reasoning within fifteen days.

Article 107.

(1) In this Constitution, “a Bill concerning state government” means a Bill which uses powers
which are to be shared concurrently as defined in the schedule or which uses state
administrations, funds, and civil servants to implement a Bill.

(2) Before either House considers a Bill or Resolution, the Speaker of the House of
Representatives and the President of the Senate shall jointly resolve any question as to whether
it is a Bill or Resolution concerning states and, if it is, whether it is a special or an ordinary Bill or
Resolution.

(3) When any Bill or Resolution concerning state government has been passed by one House of
Congress, the Speaker of the House shall refer it to the President of the Senate, or vice versa, as
the case may be.

(4) If both Houses pass the Bill or Resolution in the same form, the presiding officer of the House
in which the Bill or Resolution originated shall, within seven days, refer the Bill or Resolution to
the President for assent.

(5) A Resolution may cancel a rule proposed by a department or agency which they make
pursuant to existing statutory law, if it is done in the form of a Resolution to Nullify a Rule, but
that Resolution may not concern any other subject, it only proposes to cancel that specific rule.

Article 108.

A Bill or Resolution may only address a single subject, which subject shall be expressly stated in the title
of that Bill or Resolution, and amendments may not alter the subject of that Bill or Resolution. The
constitutional authority by which the Congress passes or considers passing the Bill or Resolution shall be
provided for in the Bill or Resolution.

Article 109.

(1) If a Bill or Resolution is referred to a mediation committee under Article 108, the presiding
officers of both Houses shall refer the Bill or Resolution to the Mediation Committee to attempt
to develop a version of the Bill or Resolution that both Houses will pass.
(2) If the mediation committee agrees on a version of the Bill or Resolution, each House shall
vote to approve or reject that version of the Bill or Resolution.

(3) If both Houses approve the version of the Bill or Resolution proposed by the mediation
committee, the Speaker of the House of Representatives or the President of the Senate,
whichever House first voted on whether or not to adopt the Bill or Resolution, shall refer the Bill
or Resolution to the President within seven days for assent.

(4) If the mediation committee fails to agree on a version of the Bill or Resolution within sixty
days, or if a version proposed by the committee is rejected by either House and a second
attempt to refer the Bill or Resolution to a mediation committee fails to develop a version which
is passed by both Houses within one hundred and eighty days, the Bill or Resolution is defeated.

Article 110.

(1) A money Bill may not deal with any matter other than those listed in the definition of “a
money Bill” in clause (3).

(2) If, in the opinion of the Speaker of the House of Representatives, a motion makes provision
for a matter mentioned in the definition of “a money Bill”, the House of Representatives may
proceed only in accordance with the recommendation of the relevant Committee of the House
of Representatives after taking into account the views of the Cabinet Secretary responsible for
finance.

(3) In this Constitution, “a money Bill” means a Bill, other than a Bill specified in Article 203 that
contains provisions dealing with

(a) taxes;

(b) the imposition of charges on a public fund or the variation or repeal of any of those
charges;

(c) the appropriation, receipt, custody, investment or issue of public money;

(d) the raising or guaranteeing of any loan or its repayment; or

(e) matters incidental to any of those matters.

(4) In clause (3), “tax”, “public money”, and “loan” do not include any tax, public money or loan
raised by a state.

Article 111.

(1) Within fourteen days after receipt of a Bill, the President shall

(a) assent to the Bill;


(b) refer the entire Bill back to Congress for reconsideration by Congress, noting any
reservations that the President has concerning the Bill or Resolution. Any reservations
shall include a redraft of the Bill or Resolution in legal language which the President
declares they would assent to;

(c) partially assent to the Bill, and find other parts of the Bill as having questionable
qualities in the opinion of the President, such parts assented and not assented to being
full numbered lines or paragraphs, sections, or parts to the Bill, and shall refer the Bill
back to Congress for reconsideration by Congress noting any reservations that the
President has concerning the Bill or Resolution. Any reservations shall include a redraft
of the Bill or Resolution in legal language which the President declares they would
assent to. This option may not be used in the case of the Bill to pass the general budget
for any given fiscal year;

(d) refer the Bill or the Resolution to the Supreme Court, to ask it to determine the
constitutionality of the Bill or Resolution and whether the Bill or Resolution was passed
in the correct procedure and by the rules of each House. The Supreme Court shall write
an opinion within fourteen days as to the matter, and if they find the Bill or Resolution is
constitutional and has been handled in the proper procedure and rules, the President
shall sign it within three days.

(2) If the President refers a Bill back for reconsideration, Congress may, following the
appropriate procedures under this Part

(a) amend the Bill or Resolution in light of the President’s reservations; or

(b) pass the Bill or Resolution a second time without amendment, or not passing all of
the amendments which the President provided for in their veto message.

(3) If Congress amends the Bill or Resolution fully accommodating the President’s reservations,
the appropriate Speaker of the House of Representatives or President of the Senate, whichever
House first passed the Bill or Resolution which was vetoed by the President, shall resubmit it to
the President for assent, which they must do within seven days.

(4) Congress, after considering the President’s reservations, may pass the Bill a second time,
without amendment, or with amendments that do not fully accommodate the President’s
reservations, by a vote supported

(a) such that if either an absolute majority of the Senate and three-fifths of the House of
Representatives or two thirds of the House of Representatives votes to override the
veto, it shall be deemed to have been a vote to override the President or

(b) the members of the House of Representatives and a vote supported by the Senators
provided that not more than one third of the members of either House votes to sustain
the veto, if it is a Bill that requires the approval of the Senate,
(c) the members of the House of Representatives if the vetoed subject in question is a
Resolution to Nullify a Rule, provided that not more than forty percent of the members
of the House of Representatives does not vote to sustain the rule,

(d) if in the case of a Resolution to Nullify a Rule, the original rule in the executive
department required powers that would cause it to have needed the approval of the
Senate were it to be a Bill or Resolution, by the members of the House of
Representatives and the Senators, provided that not more than forty percent of the
members in either House vote to sustain the veto,

(e) by an absolute majority of the House of Representatives, and in the case of where
the original Bill or Resolution required the consent of the Senate, an absolute majority
of the Senate, after a period of ninety days after the Bill or Resolution has been referred
back to the Congress unless three fifths of the members in each House resolve to
consider the measure earlier, in the case of where the President has partially assented
to the Bill or Resolution, but not all of it.

(5) If Congress has passed a Bill or Resolution under clause (4)

(a) the Speaker of the House of Representatives or the President of the Senate,
whichever House first passed the Bill or Resolution, shall within seven days resubmit it
to the President; and

(b) the President shall within seven days assent to the Bill or Resolution.

(6) If the President does not assent to a Bill or Resolution refer it back within the period
prescribed in clause (1), or assent to it under (5) (b), or in any other instance in which a bill or
legislative action may be passed, their respective temporal limit, the Bill or Resolution shall be
taken to have been assented to on the expiry of that period.

(7) If the vote to override the veto fails to pass by the required margin to overturn the veto, but
it does attain the votes necessary for it to pass as a Bill or Resolution in the Houses required,
upon a vote to refer the Bill or Resolution to a referendum proposed by any member or person
who is eligible to introduce a Bill or Resolution that passes by the same margins as those which
are originally necessary to pass the Bill or Resolution, a referendum shall be scheduled within
one hundred and eighty days on a date eligible to be a day for a general election by the
Independent Elections and Boundaries Commission, and if the referendum has a majority of the
votes cast in favour of the Bill or Resolution passed by Congress and the turnout is at least
twenty-five percent, the Bill or Resolution shall be deemed to have been assented to by the
President.

Article 112.

(1) A Bill or Resolution passed by Congress and assented to by the President shall be published
in the Federal Register as an Act of Congress within seven days after assent.
(2) Subject to clause (3), an Act of Congress comes into force on the fourteenth day after its
publication in the Federal Register, unless the Act stipulates a different date on or time at which
it will come into force.

(3) An Act of Congress that confers a direct pecuniary interest on members of Congress shall not
come into force until after the next general election of members of Congress.

(4) Clause (3) does not apply to an interest that members of Congress have as members of the
public.

(5) If a Resolution to Nullify a Rule passes, the Rule shall cease to have effect immediately and
the department or agency in question may not reintroduce or enforce that rule or a
substantially similar rule unless a subsequent Act of Congress permits the department or agency
to act on the same.

Part Five – Congressional General Procedures and Rules


Article 113.

(1) There shall be freedom of speech and debate in Congress.

(2) Congress may, for the purpose of the orderly and effective discharge of the business of
Congress, provide for the powers, privileges and immunities of Congress, its committees, the
leader of the majority party, the leader of the minority party, the chairpersons of committees
and members.

(3) No person may be arrested or indicted or otherwise punished for their speeches or
statements or political opinions made on the floor of the Congress or in its committees, except
when under oath for perjury.

Article 114.

(1) Congress shall

(a) conduct its business in an open manner, and its sittings and those of its committees
shall be open to the public; and

(b) facilitate public participation and involvement in the legislative and other business of
Congress and its committees.

(2) Congress may not exclude the public, or any media, from any sitting unless in exceptional
circumstances the relevant Speaker or President of the Senate has determined that there are
justifiable reasons for the exclusion and the motion to hold the meeting in confidence is
approved by a resolution passed by a majority of that House. Each committee shall likewise hold
their meetings in public unless the Speaker or the President of that House has determined there
are justifiable reasons for the exclusion and the motion to hold the meeting in confidence is
approved by a resolution passed by a majority of that House or by a majority of that committee.
Article 115.

(1) Every person has a right to petition Congress to consider any matter within its authority,
including enacting, amending or repealing any legislation.

(2) Congress shall make provision for the procedure for the exercise of this right.

Article 116.

In case of a conflict between different language versions of an Act of Congress, the version signed by the
President shall prevail.

Article 117.

(1) The quorum of Congress shall be a majority of the members of the relevant House, and
unless otherwise stated, on the final reading of a bill or resolution before a House, it must pass
with at least one-third of the members voting in favour of it and more votes in favour than there
are cast in the negative, and in the case of an attempted override of the President, an absolute
majority of the votes must be cast in the affirmative and as many votes in favour as compared
with those in the negative as is required by the relevant section of this Constitution.

(2) If there is no quorum within fifteen minutes of the beginning of the sitting day, the presiding
officer or deputy presiding officer shall ring the bells to call for members to arrive, and if they do
not after sixty minutes, the sitting is adjourned until the next sitting day.

(3) On proposal of any ten members, a call may be asked if there is a quorum, if at any time
there appears to be a lack of a quorum, all members shall motion to inquire, and a call shall be
held. The Speaker or the President of the Senate shall not enter dilatory quorum calls when it is
beyond doubt that there is a quorum.

Article 118.

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, any question proposed for decision in
either House of Congress shall be determined by a majority of the members in that House,
present and voting.

(2) On a question proposed for decision in either House, the presiding officer or deputy
presiding officer has no vote except in the case of if their vote can change the outcome of the
vote and may not simultaneously participate in any debate and be the presiding officer at the
time of the debate or vote on the subject of that debate, unless the vote is held by secret ballot.
If the vote is tied, the question is deemed to have lost.

(3) Congress may establish joint committees consisting of members of both Houses and may
jointly regulate the procedure of those committees, but the members and the co-chairs of those
committees are elected and removed by the same means as the Mediation Committee and the
co-chairs preside over the committee on alternating days, but the total number of members of
the joint committee is to be jointly resolved by both Houses with an equal number of members
from each.

(4) The proceedings of either House are not invalid just because of

(a) a vacancy in its membership; or

(b) the presence or participation of any person not entitled to be present at, or to
participate in, the proceedings of the House.

(5) When a House of Congress considers any appointment for which its approval is required
under this Constitution or an Act of Congress

(a) the appointment shall be considered by a committee of the relevant House;

(b) the committee’s recommendation shall be tabled in the House for approval; and

(c) the proceedings of the committee and the House shall be open to the public.

(6) An open hearing shall be scheduled for those who are considered for appointment by the
consent or on the proposal of the House where the person under consideration shall appear
before the House and answer the questions, including an assured question period for the
Minority and the Majority, and another hearing shall be scheduled for the public to make
comments or provide feedback on the suitability, competence, and other warnings or
information they may have on the considered person.

Article 119.

(1) Either House of Congress, or any of its committees, has power to summon any person to
appear before it for the purpose of giving evidence or providing information.

(2) For the purposes of clause (1), a House of Congress and any of its committees have the same
powers as the District Court

(a) to enforce the attendance of witnesses and examine them on oath, affirmation or
otherwise;

(b) to compel the production of documents; and

(c) to issue a commission or request to examine witnesses abroad.

Part Six - Miscellaneous


Article 120.

(1) A sitting of either House may be held at any place within The United States and may
commence at any time that the House appoints, and shall be held with at least three days’
notice in the event of any one-third of the members of that House demanding a meeting, the
Speaker of the House of Representatives of the President of the Senate calling for a meeting, or
the President of the Republic calling for a meeting when meetings were not originally going to
occur, and if the President of the Republic calls a meeting, they may set the agenda for that
meeting. The total number of surprise meetings called by the President of the Republic shall not
exceed fourteen sitting days in any given year unless two-thirds of the House or unanimous
consent of the House waives this requirement.

(2) A law shall dictate where the Congress meets, which shall be not more than thirty days after
the election. The first meeting of each House after an election is convened by the oldest serving
member who is not an officer of any caucus, and they preside over the election of the Speaker
or the President of the Senate, who in turn presides over the election of the Deputy Speaker or
Deputy President of the Senate. The law dictates when the beginning and end of the session
occurs, and the planned breaks in the session.

(3) There shall be a break in the session beginning at least forty-five days prior to a general
election and lasting until fifteen days after the election so as to provide members with the
opportunity to campaign and file relevant documents related to it.

(4) The President may not prorogue the Congress.

(5) A sitting of a House of Congress is called for by within twenty days of an election to the
Congress, to begin sitting within ten days of the call, by the longest serving member of that
House by reference to their official record, and if there is a tie, the oldest member shall call the
meeting, and that member presides over the election of the presiding officer of that House. The
House is thereafter convened by their presiding officer, on their own initiative or within seven
days of a written petition demanding a sitting signed by any one fourth of the members of that
House. The member who for the primordial sitting of a new House presides over that sitting to
elect the presiding officer, if they accept the role, forfeits the right to stand as a candidate for
the presiding officer, and if they forfeit, the next person who is the oldest serving, and in the tie,
the older of the tied members, shall preside. If the office of the deputy presiding officers is
vacant and there is a motion to consider the ousting of the presiding officer, that oldest serving
member shall preside over the motion.

Article 121.

(1) There is established the Congressional Service Commission.

(2) The Commission consists of

(a) the Speaker of the House of Representatives, as a co-chair who chairs on the first day
followed by the vice chairperson who chairs on the second day, to be repeated as often
as the Commission meets;

(b) a vice chairperson who is the President of the Senate, as a co-chair,


(c) seven members appointed by Congress by secret ballot from among its members of
whom

(i) four shall be nominated equally from both Houses by the party or coalition of
parties forming the national government, no more than two of whom may be of
the same gender; and

(ii) three shall be nominated by the parties not forming the national
government, at least one of whom shall be nominated from each House and no
more than two may be of the same gender; and

(d) two people, who may not be of the same gender, appointed by Congress from
among persons who are experienced in public affairs, but are not members of Congress.

(3) The Clerk of the Senate shall be the Secretary to the Commission.

(4) A member of the Commission shall vacate office

(a) if the person is a member of Congress

(i) at the end of the term of the House of which the person is a member; or

(ii) if the person ceases to be a member of Congress; or

(b) if the person is an appointed member, on revocation of the person’s appointment by


Congress.

(5) Despite clause (4), when the term of a House of Congress ends, a member of the Commission
appointed under clause (2) (c) shall continue in office until a new member has been appointed
in the member’s place by the next House.

(6) The Commission is responsible for

(a) providing services and facilities to ensure the efficient and effective functioning of
Congress;

(b) constituting offices in the Congressional service, and appointing and supervising
office holders;

(c) preparing annual estimates of expenditure of the Congressional service and


submitting them to the House of Representatives for approval, and exercising budgetary
control over the service;

(d) undertaking, singly or jointly with other relevant organizations, programs to promote
the ideals of American democracy; and

(e) performing other functions


(i) necessary for the wellbeing of the members and staff of Congress; or

(ii) prescribed by national legislation.

(f) nominating a director of the Congressional Budget Office, who shall be accepted for a
non-renewable ten year term on the same conditions for qualification and on the same
terms of tenure, staff, employment, budget, and emoluments as an Auditor General,
provided that two-thirds of each House consents to the appointment of such director
candidate. The Commission shall accept open applications and each House of Congress
shall interview the candidate director in the same manner as they would for any
independent officer or commissioner. The director may be removed by the same
mechanism as which an independent officer may be removed. A director serves until
their successor is appointed.

(g) nominating to the Congress, and with the consent of two-thirds of both Houses,
appointing for an eight year non-renewable term on the same conditions for
qualification and on the same terms of tenure, staff, employment, budget, and
emoluments as an Auditor General, a director of the Congressional Research Service,
and upon two failed attempts at appointing a candidate, may propose a nominee who is
approved by a majority vote in both Houses. The Commission shall accept open
applications and each House of Congress shall interview the candidate director in the
same manner as they would for any independent officer or commissioner. The director
may be removed by the same mechanism as which an independent officer may be
removed. A director serves until their successor is appointed.

(h) The staff of the Congressional Service Commission shall be appointed and removed
by an administrator named and solely responsibly to the Congressional Service
Commission, within the terms of the applicable labour laws and the rights of employees,
these staff being competent and qualified for their positions.

(i) having command and direction over the Capitol Police, and the chairperson of the
Commission shall have day to day command over the Capitol Police, but the Sergeant at
Arms of each House shall be responsible for directing and causing the Capitol Police to
assist them in executing warrants and subpoenae. The Sergeant at Arms shall be the
most senior but equal ranking members of the Capitol Police.

(7) The Congressional Budget Office shall independently of the President’s budget proposals and
executive department assessments, publish on an annual basis at least ninety days prior to the
end of the fiscal year, their macroeconomic assessments of the state of the American and
relevant aspects of the global economy and their own fiscal forecasts. Such documents shall be
public documents made so public within three days of their release. The Congressional Budget
Office does not endorse any particular political viewpoint or policy, or endorse normative
viewpoints and recommendations. The Congressional Budget Office also shall monitor the
compliance with fiscal rules by bodies which must adhere to responsible compliance with fiscal
rules. The Congressional Budget Office shall also give a report each year as to the long term
financial stability and sustainability into the time scales of the next thirty years and beyond, also
taking into account the broader economy and demographic factors as well as multi-year
projections in budgets. The Congressional Budget Office shall also issue a costing for all changes
to existing policy or law, proposed repeals to existing policy or law, and all new policies and laws
which the Congress or either House or a committee of it oversees. The Congressional Budget
Office shall also give a costing for the political platforms of any party whose candidates appear
or any presidential or vice presidential candidate which appears to it likely to receive more than
2% of the votes in an election such that at least ten days intervene between the publication of
the costing to the people and the election. The Congressional Budget Office shall have access to
all non classified information and not sealed for precisely personal information vital for the
public interest or protection of civil rights to privacy within the branches and departments
including those not which are legislative, and including those which are not published to the
public but are merely internal documents.

(8) The Congressional Budget Office shall propose its own independent budget and staffing
levels to the House of Representatives which may only be amended by a two-thirds vote of each
House, and is adopted by a simple majority in the House of Representatives, and may only be
amended to the extent that they are not deprived of the practical or staffing ability to fulfil their
constitutional mandate. If the new budget is not approved, the previous budget shall be
extended and remain in force until a new budget is approved. The Congressional Budget Office
has the same responsibility to make public involvements and transparency in the drafting of the
budget as the President has for the more general budget. The staff of the Congressional Budget
Office shall be appointed and removed by an administrator named and solely responsibly to the
director of the Congressional Budget Office, within the terms of the applicable labour laws and
the rights of employees, these staff being competent and qualified for their positions. The
documents, research, the preparatory work thereof, the factual basis thereof, and the findings
of the Congressional Budget Office are publicly released without requiring any other prior
authorization from another body to do so.

(9) The Congressional Budget Office shall have an advisory body to oversee it, to advise it, and to
assess its effectiveness, comprised of outside experts, consisting of eleven individuals on a part
time basis, employed at universities of public accreditation, who have a doctorate degree, at
least one third of whom are accountants and at least one third of whom are economists. Of
them, two each who are not both of the same gender shall be chosen by each of the committee
of the economic oversight in the House of Representatives, the committee of economic
oversight in the Senate, the committee of finances in the House of Representatives and the
committee of finances in the Senate, and one shall be chosen by the Congressional Service
Commission on recommendation of the Public Services Commission after consulting with the
leaders of every party represented in each House, each serving renewable four year terms. The
Congressional Budget Office shall subject findings of theirs and methodology to peer review on a
regular basis, in a process to be established by an Act of Congress, including transmitting results
to other independent fiscal institutions around the world to cross-check their work, and shall
have an audit performed annually by the Auditor General and at least one nongovernmental
auditing firm chosen by the Congressional Services Commission with the consent of the House
of Representatives.

(9) The director of the Congressional Budget Office shall testify at least once in every two month
periods to each House of Congress’s committee for finances. At least once in every twenty-one
day periods, the director or a senior staff member directly chosen by the director shall testify to
such committees or another committee to discuss and provide feedback as to the nature of
finances in a department or agency which the committee is inquiring about.

(10) The director of the Congressional Research Service, and the Congressional Research Service
itself, shall provide for the entire Congress on a non-partisan basis research information but no
policy direction or advice contained within to all members of Congress, their parties, their
caucuses, the committees, and the officers thereof, to facilitate a legislature which is well
informed about the factual basis by which policy, laws, appointments, and arguments are made,
making the research and papers outlining the facts and figures they find public records, and
ensuring that each legislator, officer, committee, party, and caucus shall have timely responses
to information and if there are any delays, reasonable explanations of why.

(11) The Congressional Research Service shall propose its own independent budget and staffing
levels to the House of Representatives which may only be amended by a two-thirds vote of each
House, and is adopted by a simple majority in the House of Representatives, and may only be
amended to the extent that they are not deprived of the practical or staffing ability to fulfil their
constitutional mandate. If the new budget is not approved, the previous budget shall be
extended and remain in force until a new budget is approved. The Congressional Research
Service has the same responsibility to make public involvements and transparency in the
drafting of the budget as the President has for the more general budget. The staff of the
Congressional Research shall be appointed and removed by an administrator named and solely
responsibly to the director of the Congressional Research Service, within the terms of the
applicable labour laws and the rights of employees, these staff being competent and qualified
for their positions. The documents, research, the preparatory work thereof, the factual basis
thereof, and the findings of the Congressional Research Service are publicly released without
requiring any other prior authorization from another body to do so.

(12) The director of the Congressional Research Service shall testify at least once in every two
month periods to the Joint Committee on the Library. At least once in every twenty-one day
periods, the director or a senior staff member directly chosen by the director shall testify to
such committees or another committee to discuss and provide feedback as to the nature of
information in a department or agency which the committee is inquiring about.

Article 122.
(1) There shall be a Clerk for each House of Congress, as well as a Sergeant at Arms, a
Parliamentarian, a Chief Administrative Officer, each elected by secret ballot by exhaustive
balloting, with a vote of approval or disapproval by secret ballot in the event of only one
candidate, at the beginning of the term of each House, removable on the resolution of a secret
ballot passed by the members of that House, and supervised on a daily basis by the
Congressional Service Commission under the chair or vice chair and the members of the
Congressional Service Commission, whichever is elected by the House which elected the officer.

(2) The offices of the Clerks and offices of members of the staff of the Clerks shall be offices in
the Congressional Service.

(3) The other officers and heads of departments within each House is appointed by the
Congressional Service Commission with the approval of that House, and the other employees,
other than civil servants, are appointed by those officers and heads of departments with the
approval of the Congressional Service Commission.

(4) The offices and staff of the members is awarded to each member on the proposal of their
party’s backbench committee, and in the event of the member being an independent, on their
own proposal endorsed by the backbench committee of the House, and accepted by the
Congressional Service Commission.

(5) The offices and staff to each party are provided on the proposal of the party’s backbench
committee and accepted without amendment or rejected by the Congressional Service
Commission, and the amendment of those offices and staff may only be made by the
acceptance of that backbench committee of that party.

(6) The staff of the committees of the House is provided and employed on the proposal of their
chair, deputy chair, secretary, and two other members elected by secret ballot among those
committee members, and is accepted without amendment or rejected by the Congressional
Service Commission, and is under the daily supervision of the chair of the committee, and
subcommittee staff are allotted by a vote of the committee and under the supervision of the
chair of the subcommittee.

Article 123.

Votes in each House and within each party for their elections to committees, elections to officers of
committees, elections to officers of the caucus, officials of a backbench committee of both parties and
the House, the Majority and Minority Leader, the Congressional Service Commission, the presiding
officer or deputy presiding officer, and on bills and resolutions, have their precise result tally numerically
published within 48 hours of the election or vote occurring along with who was a candidate in each
election.
Chapter Nine – The Executive
Part One – Principles and Structure of the National Executive
Article 124.

(1) Executive authority derives from the people of The United States and shall be exercised in
accordance with this Constitution.

(2) Executive authority shall be exercised in a manner compatible with the principle of service to
the people of The United States, and for their wellbeing and benefit.

Article 125.

(1) The national executive of the Republic comprises the President, the Vice President and the
rest of the Cabinet.

(2)

(a) The composition of the national executive shall reflect the regional and ethnic
diversity of the people of The United States, including at least one person who is an
American Indian or Native Hawai’ian or a Native Alaskan or Native Polynesian. The Vice
President shall not have ordinarily resided in the previous ten years in the same judicial
appeals court circuit as the President. A political party may not nominate as their
candidates for the President and Vice President two people who are both of the same
gender.

(b) No more than one-eighth of the Cabinet Secretaries may have resided in the
previous ten years in any one state, and the distribution of the ordinary residence in the
previous five years of the Cabinet Secretaries and the Attorney General shall be such
that the percentage of the members of the Cabinet as a fraction of the plenary Cabinet
who have so ordinarily resided in any one judicial appeals court circuit shall be
proportional to the population of the area in that circuit as a fraction of the population
of the United States.

(c) No more than a majority of the Cabinet Secretaries and the Attorney General,
combined for the purpose of this clause, may be of the same gender.

Part Two – The President and Vice President


Article 126.

(1) The President

(a) is the Head of State and Government;

(b) exercises the executive authority of the Republic, with the assistance of the Vice
President and Cabinet Secretaries;
(c) is the Commander in Chief of the United States Defence Forces;

(d) is the chairperson of the National Security Council; and

(e) is a symbol of national unity.

(2) The President shall

(a) respect, uphold and safeguard this Constitution;

(b) safeguard the sovereignty of the Republic;

(c) promote and enhance the unity of the nation;

(d) Promote respect for the diversity of the people and communities of The United
States; and

(e) Ensure the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms and the rule of
law.

(3) The President shall not hold any other State or public office or official position within a party
or have any power to make decisions within a party, nor may they hold any other function of
office or position whether in the government or not.

Article 127.

(1) The President shall

(a) Address the opening of each newly elected Congress;

(b) Address a special sitting of Congress once every year and may address Congress at
any other time; and

(c) Once every year

(i) report, in a written address to the nation read by the President of the Senate
in a joint sitting of both Houses of Congress, on all the measures taken and the
progress achieved in the realization of the national values, referred to in Article
8;

(ii) Publish in the Federal Register the details of the measures and progress
under subparagraph (i); and

(iii) Submit a report for debate to the House of Representatives on the progress
made in fulfilling the international obligations of the Republic.
(iv) Attend a meeting of the Cabinet at least once in every week chaired by the
Vice President, where each member of the Cabinet shall attend and a quorum of
a majority of those entitled to attend is required.

(d) Ensure the execution of the statutory laws of the United States and the rules and
regulations and other orders made pursuant to those laws.

(e) Provide reports to Congress on the varying topics they mandate by the processes of
passing a resolution to require a report or passing a statute mandating reports at a given
trigger or frequency within 14 days of the trigger or frequency occurring or the passage
of the resolution.

(2) The President shall nominate and, with the approval of the House of Representatives,
appoint, and may dismiss

(a) The Cabinet Secretaries, in accordance with Article 147, and in the case of a dismissal
of a Cabinet Secretary, dismisses all the Cabinet Secretaries and the Attorney General
and the Chief of Staff simultaneously and who are ineligible for reappointment to any
office of trust, honour, or profit of the United States in the next twenty-four months;

(b) The Attorney General, in accordance with Article 152, provided a majority of the
Senate also approves of the appointment, and in the case of a dismissal of the Attorney
General, dismisses all the Cabinet Secretaries and the Attorney General and the Chief of
Staff simultaneously and who are ineligible for reappointment to any office of trust,
honour, or profit of the United States in the next twenty-four months;

(c) the Secretary to the Cabinet in accordance with Article 150 upon the request of a
majority of the Cabinet Secretaries which is a binding request, reckoning the Attorney
General as if they were a Cabinet Secretary for the purposes of this section;

(d) Principal Secretaries in accordance with Article 151 on the binding proposal of the
Cabinet Secretary responsible for overseeing the department or agency which the
Principal Secretary is responsible for;

(e) high commissioners, ambassadors and diplomatic and consular representatives from
among those with at least 10 years of cumulative experience in the Public Service in
consulates, embassies, and other foreign service offices, with the President nominating
one person from a list of three candidates assembled by an advisory committee;
consisting of

(i) One designee each of the majority and minority parties in each Houses of
Congress elected by secret ballot of their members by majority vote,

(ii) Two members chosen by the Secretary of State,


(iii) Two members chosen by the President who have been high commissioners,
ambassadors, and diplomatic and consular representatives or a combination of
the same for at least ten years.

(iv) Two members elected by secret ballot by the committee of foreign affairs in
each House, and

(v) Three members chosen by the Public Services Commission

(vi) One person chosen by the Vice President to act as the chairperson of the
advisory committee,

(f) Their Chief of Staff, in the same process by which they appoint a Cabinet Secretary,
and may dismiss them at their absolute discretion.

(g) No other officers may be nominated or appointed by the President unless they are
doing so on the proposal of an officer or body which they cannot solely appoint or
dismiss on their own authority alone and which is expressly provided for by statutory
law or the Constitution.

(h) In the event of a dismissal of a person from the executive branch, except it be for
cause as is required under the constitution and the law, the dismissed official retains
their function and full pay until their successors are confirmed and officially
inaugurated.

(3) The President shall direct and coordinate the functions of ministries and government
departments by a programme presented to the public within fifteen days after their
inauguration for their government term by written orders and instructions defining their policy
goals, agenda, legislative bills they seek to introduce, the general policy goals of their budget
proposals, the means by which they will assess such goals at every quarter, and may update this
from time to time, with a written description of these policies and objectives published
immediately after being approved by the President, but those departments and ministries shall
have a Cabinet Secretary or Principle Officer or an commission assigned to them and which is
fixed by the law and the Standing Rules of each House shall assign a committee to oversee that
department or ministry.

(4) The President may

(a) Perform any other executive function provided for in this Constitution which they
execute at their discretion.

(b) Receive foreign diplomatic and consular representatives;


(c) Confer honours in the name of the people and the Republic when the law authorizes
such and on the recommendation of an advisory committee established by law
recommending candidates for such honours;

(d) Subject to Article 55, declare a state of emergency; and

(e) With the approval of two thirds of both houses of Congress, declare war or the use
of armed conflict, but such declaration expires after an eighteen month period, or a
shorter period if the Congress amends such authorization prior to passing it by a
majority vote, and that declaration shall specify which organization or country the
declaration applies to and the scope of the conflict and the scope of the troops and
equipment assigned to the conflict. At the end of that prescribed period, a new
authorization shall be passed in the same manner, with the same amount of details, and
with the same majorities to pass and amend. On proposal of any ten percent of the
members of either House of Congress, the approval may be challenged part way
through the authorization and if the Congress fails to sustain the authorization by a 2/3
vote in both Houses, the approval shall terminate with immediate effect and the forces
shall be withdrawn within forty-five days.

(f) On the proposal of the relevant Cabinet Secretary or the Attorney General, and the
endorsement of a majority of the remaining Cabinet members reckoning the Attorney
General as a Cabinet member, may introduce a bill or treaty into the House of
Representatives, for them to consider, and it being drafted in legal language such that it
would be enforceable legislation if it were to be approved.

(g)

(i) On the proposal of the Cabinet Secretary or the Attorney General, propose
that a referendum be held on a matter of great national importance, which does
not approve of a budget, a motion to authorize a state of emergency, a military
operation or deployment, or other actions requiring the approval of the
National Security Council, or propose or affirm a constitutional amendment,
such that the referendum approves of a bill or treaty which the President
proposes, which is drafted in legal language.

(ii) If the proposal is supported by at least one third of the members of the
House of Representatives, and if the bill or treaty if passed through Congress
would require the approval of the Senate, at least one third of the members of
the Senate concur as well, a vote shall be held by the Independent Elections and
Boundaries Commission not earlier than sixty days after the endorsement of
legislators requisite and not later than one year later, and should be combined
with another election date, if possible, and shall be on a date which a general
election may be held.
(iii) If the referendum has a turnout of at least one third of the registered voters
turning out to vote, the referendum is quorate and valid with the text enacted
as law or treaty equivalent to other acts of Congress, and is approved if a
majority of those voting vote in favour of it, except in the case of where the bill
or treaty if passed through Congress would have required the approval of the
Senate, where a majority of the states shall each have a majority of the votes
cast in favour of the referendum in order for the referendum question to be
approved.

(h) order a special session, specifying the time and date of assembly and of adjournment
of the Congress, to come to order, and provide them an agenda which is to be voted
upon, but other activities of the special sessions may be provided for and the Congress
may additionally consider any other items and vote on them or debate them. The
President may call the Congress into special sessions for up to fourteen days at a time,
up to thirty days in a year, and with at least thirty days in between special sessions,
except in the case of where the sole agenda item is to consider a state of emergency or
the use of the armed forces domestically or in response to open armed conflict.

(i) Adjourn the Congress if the session has exceeded the dates provided for by the
Congress in a law for when sessions ordinarily occur, and only if they are not considering
an impeachment or other removal proceedings against the President or their Cabinet or
another officer which the Congress or a House thereof is responsible for approving the
appointment of, and both Houses have failed to agree on a date of adjournment for at
least seven consecutive days.

(j)

(i) Issue executive orders, or amend or repeal existing orders, when the law
expressly allows the President to make an executive order, with the countersignature of
the principally relevant Cabinet Secretary or the Attorney General, who shall be relevant
if their department is the one affected by the executive order and the original law which
allows such orders to be made under that clause shall indicate which Cabinet Secretary
or the Attorney General is relevant in such cases, and an executive order shall be
sustained by the House of Representatives within 30 days, otherwise, it lapses and the
same order or those substantially similar to the failed order may not be issued by the
President except by leave of the House of Representatives.

(ii) An executive order which does not proclaim a state of emergency shall be
held as delayed for a period of seven days during which the committee in the House of
Representatives which oversees the department principally affected may by the support
of two thirds of them may delay the order for a period of thirty days during which
period the House of Representatives must vote on the executive order as to whether to
sustain or reject it.
(5) The President shall ensure that the international obligations of the Republic are fulfilled
through the actions of the relevant Cabinet Secretaries.

Article 128.

(1) On the petition of any person, but not before a conviction has actually occurred, the
President may exercise a power of mercy in accordance with the advice of the Advisory
Committee established under clause (2), by

(a) Granting a free or conditional pardon to a person convicted of an offence;

(b) Postponing the carrying out of a punishment, either for a specified or indefinite
period;

(c) Substituting a less severe form of punishment; or

(d) Remitting all or part of a punishment.

(2) There shall be an Advisory Committee on the Power of Mercy, comprising of members
numbering a number defined by an Act of Congress, and is appointed by the President, who
nominates the candidates to the House of Representatives and Senate on the recommendation
of an advisory body consisting of

(a) Two designees each of the majority and minority parties in each Houses of Congress
elected by secret ballot of their members by majority vote,

(b) Two members chosen by the Attorney General,

(c) Two members chosen by the Chief Justice,

(d) Two members chosen by the chief justices of the courts of appeal of the United
States.

(d) Two members chosen by the chief justices of the district courts of the United States.

(f) Two members chosen by the council of the American Bar Association.

(g) Two members chosen by the governing bodies of the ten largest associations
responsible for the care and representation of victims of crime, ranked by the number
of victims cared for.

(h) Two members chosen by the governing bodies of the ten largest associations
responsible for the representation of those convicted of crimes and their rehabilitation.

(i) Two members elected by secret ballot by the committee of justice in each House, and

(j) Two members chosen by the Public Services Commission


(k) One person chosen by the Vice President to act as the chairperson of the advisory
committee

Preparing a list of three nominees of whom the President selects one to nominate, and each
House shall approve of the nomination only by a two thirds vote in both Houses.

(3) The advisory committee shall publicize a vacancy and accept applications, and shall hold
public interviews with the considered applicants, shall hold a public hearing with the public to
inquire as to the people’s comments and information as to possible candidates, and shall hold a
public meeting as to the deliberation of which candidates to accept on the list, and they shall
approve of the list only by a two-thirds vote of the advisory committee.

(a) the tenure of the members of the Advisory Committee, but removal may only be for
cause on acceptance of the Public Service Commission finding that there is cause for
removal, and the term lasts no less than seven years, is fixed by law, and amendments
to the term do not apply to any current members, and members cannot be reappointed;

(b) The procedure of the Advisory Committee; and

(c) Criteria that shall be applied by the Advisory Committee in formulating its advice.

(4) The Advisory Committee shall take into account the views of the victims of the offence in
respect of which it is considering making recommendations to the President.

Article 129.

(1) A person who holds the office of President or who is authorized in terms of this Constitution
to exercise the powers of the President

(a) During the period commencing on the date of the first vote in a presidential election,
and ending when the newly elected President assumes office; or

(b) While the President is absent or incapacitated, or at other times contemplated in


Article 143 (3), may not exercise the powers of the President specified in clause (2).

(2) The powers referred to in clause (1) are

(a) The nomination or appointment of the judges of the superior courts;

(b) The nomination or appointment of any other public officer whom this Constitution
or legislation requires or permits the President to appoint;

(c) The nomination or appointment or dismissal of Cabinet Secretaries and other State
or Public officers;

(d) The nomination or appointment or dismissal of a high commissioner, ambassador, or


diplomatic or consular representative;
(e) The power of mercy;

(f) The authority to confer honours in the name of the people and the Republic,

(g) The changing of diplomatic statuses of other countries or recognizing, derecognizing,


or changing recognition of other countries or other governments or

(h) Changes in the short term or medium term or long term security policies of the
Republic.

Article 130.

A decision of the President in the performance of any function of the President under this Constitution
shall be in writing and shall bear the seal and signature of the President.

Article 131.

(1) The President shall be elected by registered voters in a national election conducted in
accordance with this Constitution and any Act of Congress regulating presidential elections.

(2) An election of the President shall be held

(a) On the same day as a general election of Members of Congress; or

(b) In the circumstances contemplated in Article 141.

Article 132.

(1) A person qualifies for nomination as a presidential candidate if the person

(a) Is a citizen by birth;

(b) is qualified to stand for election as a member of Congress;

(c) is nominated by a political party by a vote of the members of the party in a


nomination contest where a majority must accept that candidate on the first ballot on
through a ranked ballot, on subsequent counts, or is an independent candidate; and

(d) Is nominated by not fewer than two thousand voters from each of two thirds of the
states and at least one hundred thousand voters across the entire United States.

(2) A person is not qualified for nomination to stand as or to be a presidential candidate if the
person

(a) owes allegiance to a foreign state or is a non-naturally born citizen born within the
United States or to at least one person who at the time of their birth was a citizen, or a
dual citizen unless they are unable to opt out of foreign citizenship; or
(b) is a public officer, or is acting in any State or other public office.

(c) They have not yet served at least four consecutive years within the previous ten
years before the date of the election as a member of a democratically elected
organization or body’s elected officers with at least 2000 unique individual voters who
voted in each of the elections to that body during those same four consecutive years,
and that organization or body was in the category required by law or by their internal
rules to disclose the most information regarding its internal workings, elections, officers,
ethics and disclosures of their elected and appointed officers, and finances, and which
complied with that requirement in every one of those four consecutive years. It is not
necessary for the body or organization to be one of government, or for those four
consecutive years to have been with the same elected body or organization or elected
to the exact same position.

(3) Clause (2) (b) shall not apply to

(a) The President;

(b) The Vice President;

(c) A member of Congress;

(d) a member of a state executive, state legislature, or a local executive or legislature,


provided that they take a leave of absence for at least three months prior to the primary
election, or if they stand as independents, prior to the general election.

Article 133.

(1) If only one candidate for President is nominated, that candidate shall be declared elected if a
vote of the people accept in a secret ballot that person as President, and if a majority of the
votes cast do not do so, or if they do not receive at least one third of the votes of approval cast
in a majority of the states, the candidate shall not become President and is excluded from the
next election for President, and a special election shall be scheduled within ninety days for filling
in the candidate and the position shall be temporarily filled by the President of the Senate.

(2) If two or more candidates for President are nominated, an election shall be held in each
constituency.

(3) In a presidential election

(a) All persons registered as voters for the purposes of Congressional elections are
entitled to vote;

(b) the poll shall be taken by secret ballot on the day specified in Article 98(1) at the
time, in the places and in the manner prescribed under an Act of Congress; and
(c) After counting the votes in the polling stations, the Independent Electoral and
Boundaries Commission shall tally and verify the count and declare the result.

(4) A candidate shall be declared elected as President if the candidate receives

(a) More than half of all the votes cast in the election; and

(b) At least twenty per cent of the votes cast in each of more than half of the states, and
there is a turnout of at least fifty percent of those eligible to vote and at least one-third
of those eligible to vote in two-thirds of the states.

(5) If no candidate is elected, a fresh election shall be held within thirty days after the previous
election and in that fresh election the only candidates shall be

(a) The candidate who received the greatest number of votes; and

(b) The candidate, or the candidates, who received the second greatest number of
votes.

(6) If the two candidates in section (5) (a) and (b) receive the same number of votes as more
candidates, a lottery draw shall be utilized to select the two candidates with the highest number
of votes

(7) The candidate who receives the most votes in the fresh election shall be declared elected as
President.

(8) A presidential election shall be cancelled and a new election held if

(a) No person has been nominated as a candidate before the expiry of the period set for
the delivery of nominations;

(b) A candidate for election as President or Vice President dies on or before the
scheduled election date; or

(c) A candidate who would have been entitled to be declared elected as President dies
before being declared elected as President.

(9) A new presidential election under clause (8) shall be held within sixty days after the date set
for the previous presidential election.

(10) Within seven days after the presidential election, the chairperson of the Independent
Electoral and Boundaries Commission shall

(a) Declare the result of the election; and

(b) Deliver a written notification of the result to the Chief Justice, the presiding officer or
deputy presiding officer of both Houses of Congress, and the incumbent President.
(11) A Vice President shall be elected in the same manner as the President, with independent
nominations, independent primary, and independent elections, and occurs by the same
procedure, but no person shall occupy the position of Vice President more than two terms in
their lifetimes.

Article 134.

(1) If a President elect dies after being declared elected as President, but before assuming office

(a) the Vice President elect shall be sworn in as acting President on the date on which
the President elect would otherwise have been sworn in; and

(b) A fresh election to the office of President shall be held within sixty days after the
death of the President elect.

(2) If the Vice President-elect dies before assuming office, the office of the Vice President shall
be declared vacant on the assumption of office by the person declared elected as the President.

(3) If both the persons declared elected as the President and the Vice President die before
assuming office

(a) the President of the Senate shall act as President from the date on which the
President elect would otherwise have been sworn in; and

(b) a fresh presidential election shall be conducted within sixty days after the second
death.

Article 135.

(1) A person may file a petition in the Supreme Court to challenge the election of the President
elect within seven days after the date of the declaration of the results of the presidential
election.

(2) Within fourteen days after the filing of a petition under clause (1), the Supreme Court shall
hear and determine the petition and its decision shall be final.

(3) If the Supreme Court determines the election of the President elect to be invalid, a fresh
election shall be held within sixty days after the determination.

Article 136.

(1) The swearing in of the President elect shall be in public before the Chief Justice, or, in the
absence of the Chief Justice, the Deputy Chief Justice.

(2) The President elect shall be sworn in on the first Tuesday following
(a) the fourteenth day after the date of the declaration of the result of the presidential
election, if no petition has been filed under Article 135; or

(b) the seventh day following the date on which the court renders a decision declaring
the election to be valid, if any petition has been filed under Article 135.

(3) The President elect assumes office by taking and subscribing the oath or affirmation of
allegiance, and the oath or affirmation for the execution of the functions of office as fixed by
law.

(4) Congress shall by legislation provide for the procedure and ceremony for the swearing in of a
President elect.

Article 137.

(1) The President shall hold office for a term beginning on the date on which the President was
sworn in, and ending when the person next elected President in accordance with Article 131(2)
(a) is sworn in.

(2)

(a) A person shall not hold office as President for more than two terms and no person
can assume the position for more than a total of ten years.

(b) A person is ineligible to serve consecutive presidential terms.

(b) sections (a) and (b) of clause (2) of Article 137 are non-amendable, is retroactive to
all those who have served in the position of President of the United States, does not
reset in the event of a constitutional amendment or a new constitution, and this
verbatim Article must be included in all future constitutions which include a President of
the United States as head of state.

Article 138.

(1) Criminal proceedings shall not be instituted or continued in any court against the President
or a person performing the functions of that office, during their tenure of office.

(2) Civil proceedings shall not be instituted in any court against the President or the person
performing the functions of that office during their tenure of office in respect of anything done
or not done in the exercise of their powers under this Constitution.

(3) Where provision is made in law limiting the time within which proceedings under clause (1)
or (2) may be brought against a person, a period of time during which the person holds or
performs the functions of the office of the President shall not be taken into account in
calculating the period of time prescribed by that law.
(4) The immunity of the President under this Article shall not extend to a crime for which the
President may be prosecuted under any treaty to which The United States is party and which
prohibits such immunity.

Article 139.

(1) A member of the House of Representatives, supported by at least a quarter of all the
members, or the Vice President and any third of the remaining Cabinet members which may or
may not include the Attorney General, may move a motion for the investigation of the
President’s physical or mental capacity to perform the functions of office.

(2) If a motion under clause (1) is supported by a majority of all the members of the House of
Representatives, the Speaker shall inform the Chief Justice of that resolution within two days;
and (b) the President shall continue to perform the functions of the office pending the outcome
of the proceedings required by this Article.

(3) Within seven days after receiving notice of the resolution from the Speaker, the Chief Justice
shall appoint a tribunal consisting of

(a) three persons who are qualified to practice medicine under the laws of The United
States, nominated by the body which by law is responsible for regulating the
professional practice of medicine;

(b) one advocate of the District Court nominated by the body which by law is
responsible for regulating the professional practice of advocates; and

(c) one person nominated by the President.

(4) If the Chief Justice is unable to appoint a tribunal under clause (3), the Deputy Chief Justice
shall appoint such a tribunal.

(5) If the President is unable to nominate the person required to be nominated under clause
(3) (c), the person shall be nominated by

(a) a member of the family of the President; or

(b) if no such member is willing or able to make the nomination, by a close relative of
the President.

(6)

(a) The President shall designate in advance at the beginning of their term a person with
at least ten years of experience as a licensed medical practitioner to be a doctor who is
responsible to maintaining the health of the President and in the event of a tribunal is
called for under this section, shall be a member of that tribunal. The President may, on
their own absolute authority under plenary power, appoint and dismiss that doctor and
replace them with a different qualified doctor.

(b) The doctor is protected by doctor-patient privilege and shall respect medical
confidentiality of the President.

(7) The tribunal shall inquire into the matter and, within fourteen days after the appointment;
report to the Chief Justice and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

(8) The Speaker shall cause the report of the tribunal to be tabled before the House of
Representatives within seven days after receiving it.

(9) The report of the tribunal shall be final and not subject to appeal and if the tribunal reports
that the President is capable of performing the functions of the office, the Speaker of the House
of Representatives shall so announce in the House of Representatives.

(10) If the tribunal reports that the President is incapable of performing the functions of the
office, the House of Representatives shall vote on whether to ratify the report.

(11) If a majority of all the members of the House of Representatives vote in favour of ratifying
the report, the President shall cease to hold office.

Article 140.

(1) A member of the House of Representatives, supported by at least twenty percent of all the
members, may, on probable cause, where a common or reasonable person would believe there
could be a cause for impeachment, move a motion for the impeachment of the President by
impeachment on the ground of treason or attempted or permitting treason, or obstruction of
justice or attempted obstruction of justice or negligently permitting obstruction of justice, for
perjury or attempted perjury or neglecting to prevent bribery, bribery or corruption or
attempted or permitting bribery or neglecting to prevent bribery or corruption, obstruction of
justice or attempted obstruction of justice or permitting others to conduct obstruction of
justice, causing, attempting to cause, or permitting the serious impediments in the reputation or
function of the administration or neglecting to prevent serious impediments in the reputation or
function of the administration, causing, attempting to cause, or neglecting to prevent the
appointment of officers to positions established by law or by the Constitution for excessive
periods of time with no serious explanation as to why suitable candidates cannot be found or
permitting others with such authority to fail to do so, improper interference or attempted
improper interference or causing or attempting to cause undue fear and uncertainty with the
rights and duties of other officials or branches of government or oversight bodies or permitting
others to do so, or the rights and freedoms of the people, improper tendering and contract
awarding or the awarding of funds or resources or the attempt at doing so or permitting others
to do so, cronyism or nepotism or attempted or permitting others to engage in cronyism or
nepotism, or gross neglect, incompetence, or maladministration, or for any high crime or
misdemeanor or attempted high crime or misdemeanor or neglecting to prevent any high crime
or misdemeanor, the factual basis for the allegations to be provided in a narrative explanation in
writing, citing proposed evidence and witnesses. Each charge or allegation shall be listed as a
separate charge.

(2) A high crime describes any crime or offense or political action which can only be taken or
attempted or be neglected by a political officeholder of a public officer and does not necessarily
require a specific act or omission which is forbidden by law but may consist of acts or omissions
which are against the principles of the Constitution, against the principles of international law to
which the United State subscribes, betrays the public trust and confidence in governance, is
dishonest, selfish, or obnoxious to democracy, and is a broad definition which obstructs the
needs of the people to have reliable, competent, selfless, transparent, and inclusive public
officials.

(3) If a motion under clause (1) is supported by at least twenty percent of all the members of the
House of Representatives

(a) The House of Representatives shall within five days elect a special committee’s
members and chairperson who within ten days of being elected shall begin to
investigate the allegations, and shall have the right and duty equal to that of any other
committee to call up evidence, testimony, documents, and any other matter, including
matters which ordinarily would be subjected to executive privilege, to consider whether
or not to recommend to the House of Representatives a motion of impeachment. The
President is entitled to submit a briefing paper outlining their position and to personally
be present to defend themselves or to have counsel or a representative to personally be
present to defend the President, but the President does not have to engage in such if
they elect not to do so.

(b) the special committee shall have at least one public hearing for each charge and the
evidence, testimony, and documents called in relation to that charge, hold at least one
public session for the public to come forward and provide their input and consideration,
and at least one public session to deliberate about what to do with all the information
they have and the opinions, legal briefs and amicus committee papers filed, comments
they receive from the public, and the sworn or affirmed evidence, testimony, and
documents they have.

(c) have at least ten hours for the Majority and Minority factions, with an additional ten
hours provided which are split proportionally to the Majority and Minority as they are
proportionally represented in the Senate, such that they can in those ten hours have the
right to question witnesses and ask questions under oath about the documents and
evidence they receive

(d) Ensure that for each charge, at least ten witnesses may be called by subpoena, of
which two of whom shall be called by each the majority and the minority factions and
the remaining witnesses shall be proportionally split between the majority and the
minority, and any other witnesses can be subpoenaed by a majority vote

(e) Ensure that for each charge, at least fifteen pieces of evidence or documents may be
called by subpoena, of which five may be called by each the majority and minority
factions and the remaining evidence or documents may be called by subpoena.

(f) that executive privilege does not apply to the proceedings of the special committee

(g) The committee shall deliver up a recommendation, and if they recommend a plenary
vote, shall propose in the recommendation possible managers for the trial, and shall
deliver up this recommendation within fourteen days if at least sixty days have passed
since they began their investigation and at least one third of the members of the House
of Representatives have signed a discharge petition in an anonymous manner.

(h) Any motion to award time, evidence, witnesses, or any other things shall provide at
least one third of them to the majority, one third of them to the minority, and the
remainder to be distributed proportionally to the strength of the majority and minority
in each house.

(i) Within the majority and minority, things shall be distributed as evenly to each party
as possible from the amount to which they are awarded to the faction the party is
among and the member senators thereof shall vote on how to allocate their share.

(j) The House of Representatives shall receive the recommendation and consider it, and
shall on each line item of the impeachment charges listed, vote yes, no, or abstain on
each line, and if any or all of them receive the support of one third or more of the
members of the House of Representatives in favour of the charge, the charge shall be
valid.

(k) the Speaker shall inform the President of the Senate and the Chief Justice of the
United States Supreme Court of any valid charge within two days; and

(l) the President shall continue to perform the functions of the office pending the
outcome of the proceedings required by this Article, unless a motion supported by two-
thirds of the members present and voting in the House of Representatives also votes for
a motion to declare the President suspended during this period which is to be voted
upon within seventy-two hours if the motion to impeach passes.

(m) If the House adopts the motion proposed by the committee, the managers they
propose shall be adopted as managers. If the House adopts a motion of impeachment
but does not adopt as is presented the motion proposed by the committee, the House
shall elect by secret ballot at least one manager for every charge listed by majority vote.
(n) If a House member believes that there is probable cause for a charge, they shall vote
for the charge, such that it would advance to trial.

(4) Within seven days after receiving notice of a resolution from the Speaker of the House of
Representatives the Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court shall convene a meeting of
the Senate to hear charges against the President; and (b) the Senate shall elect a special
investigatory committee comprising twenty five of its members to investigate the matter, acting
as a tribunal, and this committee shall be elected and chaired by the same manner as any other
committee of the Senate.

(5) A special committee appointed under clause (3) shall

(a) investigate the matter; and

(b) report to the Senate within twenty-one days whether it finds the particulars of the
allegations against the President to have been substantiated.

(c) be presided over by the Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court and have
the same rules apply to them as any other committee of the Senate, with any ruling of
the chair able to be overruled by a majority vote of the committee, but any action of the
committee which is against the constitution or the law or the rules of the Senate may be
appealed to the full Senate, which

(d) have at least ten hours for the Majority and Minority factions, with an additional ten
hours provided which are split proportionally to the Majority and Minority as they are
proportionally represented in the Senate, such that they can in those ten hours have the
right to question witnesses and ask questions under oath about the documents and
evidence they receive

(e) Ensure that for each charge, at least ten witnesses may be called by subpoena, of
which two of whom shall be called by each the majority and the minority factions and
the remaining witnesses shall be proportionally split between the majority and the
minority, and any other witnesses can be subpoenaed by a majority vote

(f) Ensure that for each charge, at least fifteen pieces of evidence or documents may be
called by subpoena, of which five may be called by each the majority and minority
factions and the remaining evidence or documents may be called by subpoena. All
evidence, documents, witnesses, and testimony, is presented and heard in public,
except when it is essential for the safety of the witnesses or the national security or to
protect an individual’s privacy where it is guaranteed by the Constitution and privacy
laws, in the public interest, agreed that it is necessary by the presiding panel of judges,
and upheld by a majority vote in the Senate. Witnesses are on oath or affirmation.

(g) that executive privilege does not apply to the proceedings of the special committee
(h) have at least one public hearing for each charge and the evidence, testimony, and
documents called in relation to that charge, hold at least one public session for the
public to come forward and provide their input and consideration, and at least one
public session to deliberate about what to do with all the information they have and the
opinions, legal briefs and amicus senatus papers filed, comments they receive from the
public, and the sworn or affirmed evidence, testimony, and documents they have.

(6) The President shall have the right to appear and be represented before the special
committee during its investigations, and the members of the House of Representatives which
have been elected by it to be managers of the accusation shall have the right to bring forth
witnesses and evidence against the President.

(7) The Senate shall hold at least one public hearing for each charge and the evidence,
testimony, and documents called in relation to that charge, hold at least one public session for
the public to come forward and provide their input and consideration, and at least one public
session to deliberate about what to do with all the information they have and the opinions, legal
briefs and amicus senatus papers filed, comments they receive from the public, and the sworn
or affirmed evidence, testimony, and documents they have.

(8) The Special committee, acting as tribunal, shall within twenty –one days, or if the Senate by a
majority vote grants leave to investigate further, in increments of seven days, present to the
plenary Senate a written report of their findings, the laws involved, the witnesses and evidence
by which they base their findings upon, presenting a separate report for each charge which the
House of Representatives finds to be a possible reason for removal, and the Senate shall vote on
whether or not to adopt the report on each of the separate charges. The Special committee
shall believe that it is more likely that their findings are correct than they believe that it is not
correct.

(9) If a Senator believes the President is guilty of the allegation, after considering all the
evidence, they shall vote to convict.

(10) If at least two thirds of all the members of the Senate vote to uphold any impeachment
charge, the President shall cease to hold office. Otherwise, the President shall be reinstated, and
in any case, shall be lifted from suspension within one ninety days of the vote of the House of
Representatives to suspend the President, if they had in fact done so. If the Senators vote to
adopt the report, the Senators shall then also immediately subsequently on whether or not to
bar the President from serving in any other office of trust or profit or state office under the
United States, and if a majority of the Senators present and voting vote to do so, the President
shall be so ineligible. The Senators vote on the basis of the balance of probabilities, but upon the
lack of evidence or witnesses or reasoning to the contrary, the President shall be assumed to be
innocent.

(11) The Chief Justice shall preside over the Senate, which shall be under oath or affirmation,
during the consideration of the impeachment proceedings and the trial. The Deputy Chief
Justice shall also be present, and a third member of the Supreme Court of the United States, not
of the same gender as the Chief Justice, elected by secret ballot by the other judges on the said
court by majority vote, shall be entered into the panel of judges to jointly hold the chair in the
trial in the Senate, and a majority of the panel shall rule on all questions of whether to allow a
subpoena, a motion, question, a senator desiring to speak, decision of relevance, materiality,
redundancy, and incidental questions which the chair ordinarily decides, except when a member
of the Senate challenges the decision of the chair where a simple majority, a quorum present,
may overturn the decision of the chair, and the vote shall be taken immediately without debate,
but no such decision can prevent a side from exercising their rights as provided by this
Constitution or the statutes of Congress. But all evidence, documents, witnesses, and testimony
from the inquiry held by the House of Representatives and their committee shall be
automatically entered into consideration by the Senate and accepted.

(12) No meeting between Senators of the same party or of the same minority or majority faction
may occur during the impeachment trial by the Senate without it being a public meeting where
at least five members of another party from the other faction shall be present.

(13) The Senate may not vote to dismiss the charges, they shall give a fair and neutral
assessment to them without prejudice or favour or fear, and only vote after their special
committee has created a report, and no motion to compel them to create a report by a
discharge petition shall pass prior to thirty days of investigation, and no less than seven days of
trial in the plenary Senate may occur, with at least twenty four hours of arguments for the
majority and minority to occur in that period, and the trial may only conclude by the vote on
whether or not the President is guilty.

(14) Any motion to award time, evidence, witnesses, or any other things shall provide at least
one third of them to the majority, one third of them to the minority, and the remainder to be
distributed proportionally to the strength of the majority and minority in each house.

(15) Within the majority and minority, things shall be distributed as evenly to each party as
possible from the amount to which they are awarded to the faction the party is among and the
member senators thereof shall vote on how to allocate their share.

(16) The Vice President may be accused, investigated, suspended, and removed in the same
manner as the President may be.

Article 141.

(1)

(a) The President may be accused of violations of the Constitution, a treaty, the law, a
court order or warrant, or another binding law or resolution, by any twenty percent of
the members of the House of Representatives or the Senate.
(b) Such accusation shall include witnesses to bring to the trial and evidence which shall
be included in the trial and managers to act as the prosecutors in the trial who may
bring further evidence and witnesses.

(c) Those managers have the right to subpoena additional evidence and witnesses
provided it is not illegal of them to do so or if such would violate attorney-client
privilege or patient-doctor privilege.

(2) If such accusation is made, the Supreme Court shall empanel in plenary with all members
capable of being present being present, and shall hold a trial ascertaining the guilt or innocence
of the President thereof, with the burden of proof in favour of the President and the accusers
required to present clear and convincing evidence of the President’s guilt.

(a) The trial shall be held by the same rules of evidence as is the Federal Rules of
Evidence adopted by law.

(b) The President has the right to bring forward evidence and witnesses, and may
compel by subpoena evidence and witnesses.

(c) The President shall be provided with a copy of all the evidence and witnesses which
the managers intend to bring forward against them with during the trial.

(3) If the Supreme Court by a two-thirds vote convicts the president, the President shall cease to
hold office and may not hold state office in any state or under the United States for two times as
long as the maximum sentence length would be in the laws for the offense, and if not listed, for
fifteen years, and may be subject to standard criminal or legal prosecution or other enforcement
action as may occur against any other individual.

Article 142.

(1) The office of President shall become vacant if the President

(a) dies;

(b) resigns, in writing, addressed to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the
House of Representatives by resolution accepts the resignation; or

(c) otherwise ceases to hold office under Article 139 or 140 or under any other provision
of this Constitution.

(d) in a procedure exclusive to the removal of the President or Vice President, a petition
is signed by fifteen percent of those who voted in the most recent election for President
calling for the recall of the President or Vice President, within a period of one hundred
and eighty days from the beginning of the circulation of the petition, and subsequently
the Independent Elections and Boundaries Commission holds a vote among the people
in every state asking the question whether the voters want to recall the President or
Vice President, and if a majority of those votes cast express a desire to do so, a quorum
of at least one quarter of those eligible to vote turning out to do so, the Presidency or
Vice Presidency shall be declared vacant and a new election called within sixty days. No
grounds or offenses are required to be subject to recall.

(2) When a vacancy occurs in the office of President within the two hundred and seventy days
prior to the scheduled next general election

(a) the Vice President shall assume office as President until the special election to fill the
vacancy is held and the President-Elect is sworn or affirmed in.

(b) if the office of Vice President is vacant, or the Vice President is unable to assume the
office of President, the President of the Senate shall act as President

(c) If the Presidency is vacant prior to the two hundred and seventy days before the next
scheduled general election, a special election shall occur for the remaining duration of
the term.

(3) A person who assumes the office of President under clause (2) (a), or following an election
required by clause (2) (b), shall, unless otherwise removed from office under this Constitution,
hold office until a newly elected President is sworn in following the next regularly scheduled
election under Article 131 (2) (a).

Article 143.

(1) The Vice President shall be the principal assistant of Functions of the President and shall
deputize for the President in the execution of Vice President.

(2) The Vice President shall perform the functions conferred by this Constitution and any other
functions of the President as the President may assign, but when they name a person to be the
chairperson of a body to consider applications for another body, they shall make their selection
from a list with 5 of those on the list named by the Speaker of the House of Representatives and
5 further individuals on the list named by the President of the Senate, and the majority and
minority leader and the other house’s presiding officer shall each strike three from the list in a
sequential order determined by lot before the Vice President makes their selection.

(3) Subject to Article 129, when the President is absent or is temporarily incapacitated, and
during any other period that the President decides, the Vice President shall act as the President.

(4) The Vice President shall not hold any other State or public office.

(5) The Vice President elect assumes office by taking and subscribing

(a) the oath or affirmation of allegiance; and


(b) the oath or affirmation for the execution of the functions of office, as prescribed by
an Act of Congress.

(6) The term of office of the Vice President shall run from the date of the swearing in of the Vice
President, and shall end

(a) when the person next elected President at an election under Article 131 (2) (a) is
sworn in;

(b) on the Vice President assuming the office of President; or

(c) on resignation, death or removal from office of the Vice President.

(7) The Vice President may resign from office at any time by notice, in writing, addressed to the
President and the resignation shall take effect on the date and at the time specified in the
notice, if any, or if a date is not specified, at noon on the day after the notice is delivered.

(8) A person shall not hold office as Vice President for more than two terms whether
consecutively served or not, and in no case more than ten years whether consecutively served
or not.

Article 144.

Within fourteen days after a vacancy in the office of Vice President arises, the President shall nominate a
person to fill the vacancy, and the House of Representatives and the Senate shall vote on the
nomination within sixty days after receiving it, an absolute majority in both houses by secret ballot
affirming the nomination of the President. If more than forty percent of the term is left to be served, a
special election shall be held for the position within ninety days of the vacancy occurring.

Article 145.

The Vice President may be removed from office by the same mechanism as if they were the President.

Article 146.

(1) The remuneration and benefits payable to the President and the Vice President shall be a
charge on the Consolidated Fund.

(2) The remuneration, benefits and privileges of the President and Vice President shall not be
varied while in office, and are fixed by law.

(3) The retirement benefits payable to a former President and a former Vice President, the
facilities available to and the privileges enjoyed by them, shall not be varied to their
disadvantage during their lifetime.

Part Three – The Cabinet


Article 147.
(1) The Cabinet consists of

(a) the President;

(b) the Vice President;

(c) the Attorney General; and

(d) not fewer than fourteen and not more than twenty-four Cabinet secretaries, the
name, number, department, Principle Secretary, and function of each are fixed by law.

(e) A Cabinet Secretary may not be reassigned to another department or position; they
must have vacated their position and not earlier than ninety days after the end of their
position as a Cabinet Secretary, be nominated for another position.

(f) Individuals who have at least ten years of practical experience in the department’s
field for which they are appointed, who are eligible to become President, and who have
a bachelor’s degree in the field for which they are appointed.

(2) The President shall nominate and, with the approval of the House of Representatives,
appoint Cabinet Secretaries with the consent of the person being nominated as a Cabinet
Secretary. After each individual Cabinet Secretary and Attorney General have been confirmed as
the nominee for that specific position, the House of Representatives shall give assent or
disapproval to the appointment of the entire Cabinet as a collective entity. In the event of an
appointment to fill in a specific vacancy and not the replacement of the Cabinet as a collective
entity, the approval of the proposed nominee in their own right and not in conjunction with any
other votes or nominees shall be required for their appointment by the President.

(a) The President shall be a member of an advisory committee as the chairperson, along
with the Vice President, a person selected by the Public Service Commission, and the
majority and minority groups in the committee in the Senate which oversees the
department over which a given Cabinet Secretary would be appointed to head each
electing by secret ballot by majority vote one person, and in the case of meeting to
oversee the considerations of appointments of the Attorney General, one person named
by the Director of Public Prosecutions, one person named by the Judicial Services
Commission, and two people of different genders named by the governing body of the
American Bar Association, and this advisory committee shall

(i) publicize vacancies and expected vacancies in Cabinet positions, and

(ii) hold public interviews on those who apply,

(iii) acquire from each applicant an application which shall be made public citing
their accomplishments, history, background, educational qualifications, their
disclosures and security checks, and references, which shall be subject to public
comment and this comment period shall last no less than ten days prior to
further action on them may be taken

(iv) have the President select at least seven individuals from those applicants for
the advisory committee to interview, of whom at least three must be randomly
chosen from among all legally qualified applicants and at least two must be
nominated by at either of the persons who are designated by a Senate
committee chair or vice chair, and randomly assign the order in which they are
considered, and the President shall prior to the beginning of the application
process, prescribe the rules and regulations for the advisory committee and the
time each person has to be interviewed and the questions each member of the
advisory committee had to interview them

(v) for each interviewee, go over each line and item in their application in a
public hearing and in a public hearing, hear testimony from at least five persons
cited as reference, under oath or affirmation, to answer questions pertaining to
the good judgement, character, policy goals, and qualifications of the
interviewee, and each person in the advisory committee shall have the right to
ask questions about all aspects of their application and ask questions of the
reference person

(vi) hold a public comment period accepting questions and answering concerns
from the public as to the interviewees about the good judgement, character,
policy goals, and qualifications of the interviewee,

(vii) hold a public debate period among themselves as to who would make for
the best nominee of the President, and how the interviewees conform to the
need of diversity of geography, gender, ethnicity, religious belief and lack
thereof, and nationality in the United States and conform to the national values
listed in Article 10,

(viii) assemble a list by majority vote, which is to be public information, as to the


final three candidates which the advisory committee considers most qualified in
no particular order.,

(ix) the President may, citing reasons in writing, reject the list of candidates, and
demand a new list be created. If the President still is not satisfied with the
second list, citing reasons in writing, they shall select any interviewee, citing
written reasons for their choice,

(viii) the President shall select from among the interviewees when either
presented with a list or when they make the choice among the interviewees in
their absolute discretion, not earlier than seven days from the end of the
interviewing process a person among them to nominate to be a Cabinet
Secretary or the Attorney General, and with any dialogue or communication
between the President and the interviewees must be public information and
distributed to the members of that ad hoc advisory committee which
considered them) during the period between the interviews are over and the
period when they formally nominate them to the Congress.

(ix) the members of the advisory body and those appearing before it shall during
the meetings of the body and the hearings and interviews shall be on oath or
affirmation and face perjury.

(b) Appointments to the Cabinet and the Principle Secretaries shall take into account the
national values mentioned in Article 10, and the principle that the composition of the
Cabinet and the Principle Secretaries, taken as a whole, shall reflect the regional,
gender, and ethnic diversity of the people of The United States.

(c) The vote in the Congress to approve of the nomination of the Cabinet Secretaries,
the Attorney General, the Cabinet as a whole, and the Principle Secretaries requires the
assent of at least an absolute majority of the members in the House assenting to the
relevant motion.

(d) For each position requiring the assent of the Congress or a House thereof to appoint
a person to that position, which shall include all military generals at or above the
commissioned rank of Colonel, each House shall have a question and answer period
with at least four-tenths of the time dedicated to questions from the Minority Party and
at least the same time dedicated to questions from the Majority Party, at least half of
the time dedicated to the Majority and Minority dedicated exclusively to those who are
not officers of any party nor are the Majority or Minority Leader and are not members
of the Congressional Service Commission, and a public debate as to the result of the
recommendation of the committee which oversees the nominee, and each House shall
have a committee delineated in the Rules of the House in question to hold a similar
question and answer period and to hold a public hearing on the matter with the
presence of the nominee, as well as a public hearing with the public as to their opinions
and concerns related to the appointment, a public deliberation as to what to do with
the opinions and concerns and how they influence the committee’s decision, and a
public deliberation in that committee as to whether to recommend that the House
assent or dissent to the appointment. At least two of the reference individuals which
the person being nominated had cited during their interviews by the advisory
committee who aided in their nomination shall be called in a public hearing to ask
questions about the nominee.

(e) The vote on the nominees is a privileged matter in each House such that it must be
included on the agenda in a reasonable time frame and the procedures of the vote and
the interviews, questions and answering period, plenary deliberations, and the
committee hearings and deliberations, and reviewing the report of the committee shall
also be completed within a reasonable time period and upon the request of any twenty
percent of the members of either House, is included on the agenda within ninety days of
the nomination being made.

(3) A Cabinet Secretary shall not be a Member of Congress nor may they have been members of
Congress in the previous ten years, and they may not have been members of the national
committees of any political party in the previous ten years, nor may they have been a paid staff
member to the President or any member of Congress in the previous ten years, nor any person
who has donated to a political campaign in the amount or under circumstances such that they
were required to publicly disclose that donation, nor in the previous four years been any directly
elected executive of any state or a legislator of any state, nor in the previous four years been
any statewide committee member of any political party, nor may they have been a member of
the campaign staff for the President or Vice President.

(4) Each person appointed as a Cabinet Secretary

(a) assumes office by swearing or affirming faithfulness to the people and the Republic
of The United States and obedience to this Constitution, before the President, in the
wording of the oath prescribed by law;

(b) may resign by delivering a written statement of resignation to the President; and

(c) receives a salary and receives remuneration and other benefits prescribed by an Act
of Congress which may not be amended during the term of a President, and may receive
no other emolument or benefit from the United States or any of them or from any other
position or fund during their term from any thing of any description, and any inheritance
or payments due to them, the duty to provide that payment existing prior to the term of
the Cabinet member, shall be vested in a blind trust until the end of their term.

(5) The President may dismiss the Cabinet including the Attorney General, but may not dismiss
the Vice President, and may not dismiss any individual member of the Cabinet, except in the
case of where a Cabinet member or the Attorney General is being removed on the initiative of
the President for cause in which case the President shall convene a tribunal by the same
procedure as if the President were to remove a member of an independent commission by
means of Article 235 and shall act on it’s recommendations, and may suspend the Cabinet
member or Attorney General on half pay until such time as the tribunal makes its
recommendations.

(6) If the President has dismissed a Cabinet member including the Attorney General, that same
President and their immediate successor may not reappoint that person to be a Cabinet
member including the Attorney General for a period of two years after the dismissal.
(7) The Cabinet of the prior President shall have their terms end upon the inauguration of the
next President, but they shall serve until their successors are appointed, but if the President has
not nominated any new person to be a Cabinet Secretary for any given position or any new
person to be the Attorney General, the incumbent person shall be automatically nominated to
succeed themselves in the same position to the Congress.

(8) The functions of a Cabinet Secretary or the Attorney General, if the position is vacant and not
being served out by the incumbent until a successor is appointed, or if the positionholder is
suspended by the President in accordance with this Constitution, the Deputy Cabinet Secretary
or the Deputy Attorney General as the case may be shall continue with their functions, and if
that position is vacant or it’s positionholder is suspended, the Principle Secretary for the
department shall carry out the functions, and a law shall be enacted by the Congress as to the
determination of which officer of the Executive Branch shall carry out the functions in the
interim.

Article 148.

A Cabinet Secretary or any other civil officer of the United States below the President may be removed

(a) by the same procedure as is provided for the removal of a President by tribunal for
incapacity

(b) by the same procedure as is provided for the removal of a President by legislative
votes without a tribunal

(c) by impeachment, by a trial held before the Supreme Court as to allegations of


violations or attempted violations of binding law

(d) by the investigations of a tribunal, except that an absolute majority in the House of
Representatives is substituted for any requirements related to a legislative vote in
the relevant clause and the motion may be proposed by ten percent of the
members of the House of Representatives instead of twenty percent of the
members of the House of Representatives.

Article 149.

(1) A decision by the Cabinet shall be in writing.

(2) Cabinet Secretaries are accountable individually, and collectively, to the President for the
exercise of their powers and the performance of their functions.

(3) A Cabinet Secretary shall attend before a committee of the House of Representatives, or the
Senate, when required by the committee, and answer any question concerning a matter for
which the Cabinet Secretary is responsible.
(4) Cabinet Secretaries shall

(a) act in accordance with this Constitution; and

(b) provide Congress with full and regular reports concerning matters under their
control.

Article 150.

(1) There is established the office of Secretary to the Cabinet, which is an office in the public
service.

(2) The Secretary to the Cabinet shall

(a) be nominated and, with the approval of the House of Representatives, appointed by
the President on the recommendation of a majority of Cabinet Secretaries; and

(b) may be dismissed by the President on the advice of a majority of the Cabinet
Secretaries.

(c) be eligible to be a Cabinet secretary or the Attorney General in their own right

(3) The Secretary to the Cabinet shall

(a) have charge of the Cabinet office;

(b) be responsible, subject to the directions of the Cabinet, for arranging the business,
and keeping the minutes, of the Cabinet;

(c) convey the decisions of the Cabinet to the appropriate persons or authorities; and

(d) have other functions as directed by the Cabinet.

(4) The Secretary to the Cabinet may resign from office by giving notice, in writing, to the
President.

Article 151.

(1) There is established the office of Principal Secretary, which is an office in the public service.

(2) Each State department shall be under the administration of a Principal Secretary, as well as
Deputy Principal Secretaries, Assistant Principal Secretaries, and Principal Undersecretaries who
are appointed and removed in the same manner as the Principal Secretary.

(3) The Cabinet Secretary and the Attorney General shall

(a) nominate a person for appointment as Principal Secretary from among a list of five
persons recommended by the Public Service Commission;
(b) with the approval of the House of Representatives, appoint Principal Secretaries and

(c) on the recommendation of the Public Service Commission, remove the Principal
Secretary. A Principal Secretary may resign from office by giving notice, in writing, to the
President.

(d) only nominate those who are eligible to be a Cabinet Secretary or the Attorney
General, as the case may be, for the department to which they are assigned to be the
Principle Secretary of.

(4) All other executive and civil officers and military officers who are not selected purely by
means of a merit based, career based, standardized examination and employment by the civil
service and their tenure dependent on merit and employment by the civil service, who are
employed within a given department or agency or bureau or likewise, who are not by statute or
by this Constitution an independent officer or a commission or board listed as an independent
agency in Chapter Fifteen, shall be approved by majority vote of the committee of the Senate
which in law is responsible for overseeing a given department, agency, bureau, or otherwise the
organization in question.

(5) Appointments made via section (5) are to be made from a proposal from a list of three
individuals proposed by an advisory committee, and each Cabinet Secretary and the Attorney
General are to each have one for their department, consisting of the following:

(a) one designees each of the majority and minority parties in each Houses of Congress
elected by secret ballot of their members by majority vote,

(b) two members chosen by the relevant Cabinet Secretary or Attorney General,

(c) two members, and two different Cabinet Secretaries or the Attorney General at
random shall each appoint one of them,

(d) two members elected by secret ballot by the relevant committee overseeing the
Cabinet Secretary or the Attorney General as the case may be in each House, each
House’s committee selecting one of the members, and

(e) two member chosen by the Public Services Commission

(f) one member chosen by secret ballot of all the heads of the different departments,
undersecretaries, deputy secretaries, heads of agencies, administrators, and others of
such rank which serve under the purview of that Cabinet Member or the Attorney
General as the case may be

(f) one person chosen by the Vice President on recommendation of a list of three
individuals elected by all the Cabinet Secretaries and the Attorney General to act as the
chairperson of the advisory committee.
(6) The advisory committee shall solicit applications, conduct interviews, conduct public
hearings and deliberations on their candidates, and create their lists of candidates for
appointments within the section under the purview of the Cabinet Secretary or the Attorney
General. The Cabinet Secretary or the Attorney General as the case may be shall select within
forty-five days a candidate, or if they fail to, one person shall be chosen by the chairperson of
the advisory committee, and this person is submitted to the Senate committee which is relevant
to the Cabinet Secretary or Attorney General’s department, and if they approve of the
nomination, they are officially appointed by the Cabinet Secretary or the Attorney General in
question.

(7) A person appointed by the processes in sections (4), (5), and (6) may be dismissed by a
tribunal prior to the end of a set four year renewable term which ends upon the appointment of
their successor, on the grounds of.

(a) inability to perform the functions of office arising from mental or physical incapacity;

(b) noncompliance with Chapter Six;

(c) bankruptcy;

(d) incompetence; or

(e) gross misconduct or misbehavior.

(8) A person desiring the removal of the officer may present a petition to the Public Service
Commission which, shall be in writing, setting out the alleged facts constituting the grounds for
the removal of the officer.

(9) The Public Service Commission shall consider the petition and, if it is satisfied that it discloses
the existence of a ground under clause (1), it shall send the petition to the Cabinet Secretary or
the Attorney General in question.

(10) On receipt and examination of the petition, the Cabinet Secretary or the Attorney General
shall, within fourteen days, suspend the officer from office pending action by the Cabinet
Secretary or the Attorney General in accordance with clause (5) and the Cabinet Secretary or the
Attorney General shall, acting in accordance with the advice of the Public Service Commission
and making their choices from lists of three individuals provided by the Majority and Minority
Leader of each House, appoint a tribunal consisting of

(a) one member from each such list from among persons who hold or have held office
as a judge of a superior court, or who are qualified to be appointed as such;

(b) one advocate of at least fifteen years ‘standing nominated by the statutory body
responsible for the professional regulation of advocates, with their chairperson making
the nomination from a list of three individuals provided by their internal advisory bodies
on legal ethics; and

(c) two other persons with at least ten years of experience in public affairs and a post-
secondary degree in the relevant fields, one of whom is chosen from among a list of
three individuals for each position to be appointed provided by the Judicial Services
Commission.

(11) The tribunal shall inquire into the matter expeditiously and report on the facts and make
recommendations to the Cabinet Secretary or the Attorney General, who shall act in accordance
with the recommendations of the tribunal.

(12) The officer may also be removed by the Cabinet Secretary or the Attorney General on the
grounds of their refusal to cooperate with the policies of the administration, which are publicly
cited in writing, and a narrative explanation of how they hinder the progress, and how it is not
removal for any reason or purpose which is unconstitutional or illegal or which obstructs the
lawful authority and independence of the officer, and if the Cabinet Secretary or the Attorney
General proposes this removal and it is approved by a majority of the Cabinet, which may or
may not include in the majority the Attorney General, the Senate’s committee related to the
function of the department of the officer in question shall consider the facts presented and call
a public hearing with the officer in question, with the public or civil society to solicit feedback
into the conduct, character, and cooperativeness of the officer, and assembles a public
deliberation on the officer. If a majority of them approve of the dismissal, the officer is
dismissed by the Cabinet Secretary or the Attorney General in question.

(13) State officers which are not otherwise provided for as a constitutional officer to be
appointed and removed in a different manner, are an independent officer or commissioner, are
a judge or judicial officer, or are elected officials, or are Cabinet members, may be appointed
and removed in the same process substituting the state’s institutions with those of the
Union.chief

Part Four – Other Executive Offices


Article 152.

(1) There is established the office of Attorney General.

(2) The Attorney General shall be nominated by the President and, with the approval of the
House of Representatives, appointed by the President, and the President may remove the
Attorney General, in the same process as the President appoints any other Cabinet member.

(3) The qualifications for appointment as Attorney General are the same as for appointment to
the office of Chief Justice.

(4) The Attorney General


(a) is the principal legal adviser to the Government;

(b) shall represent the national government in court or in any other legal proceedings to
which the national government is a party, other than criminal proceedings; and

(c) shall perform any other functions conferred on the office by an Act of Congress or by
the President.

(5) The Attorney General shall have authority, with the leave of the court, to appear as a friend
of the court in any civil proceedings to which the Government is not a party.

(6) The Attorney General shall promote, protect and uphold the rule of law and defend the
public interest.

(7) The powers of the Attorney General may be exercised in person or by subordinate officers
acting in accordance with general or special instructions.

Article 153.

(1) There is established the office of Director of Public Prosecutions.

(2) The Director of Public Prosecutions shall be nominated and, with the approval of the House
of Representatives and the Senate, appointed by the President on the recommendation of an
advisory body consisting of

(a) two designees each of the majority and minority parties in each Houses of Congress
elected by secret ballot of their members by majority vote,

(b) two members chosen by the Attorney General,

(c) two members chosen by the Chief Justice,

(d) two members elected by secret ballot by the committee of justice in each House,
and

(e) one member chosen by the Public Services Commission

(f) one person chosen by the Vice President to act as the chairperson of the advisory
committee,

Preparing a list of three nominees of whom the President selects one to nominate, and each
House shall approve of the nomination only by a two thirds vote in both Houses.

(3) The advisory committee shall publicize a vacancy and accept applications, and shall hold
public interviews with the considered applicants, shall hold a public hearing with the public to
inquire as to the people’s comments and information as to possible candidates, and shall hold a
public meeting as to the deliberation of which candidates to accept on the list, and they shall
approve of the list only by a two-thirds vote of the advisory committee.

(4) The qualifications for appointment as Director of Public Prosecutions are the same as for the
appointment as a judge of the District Court.

(5) The Director of Public Prosecutions shall have power to direct the Director of the Federal
Bureau of Investigation to investigate any information or allegation of criminal conduct and the
Director shall comply with any such direction.

(6) The Director of Public Prosecutions shall hold office for a term of ten years and shall not be
eligible for reappointment.

(7) The Director of Public Prosecutions shall exercise State powers of prosecution and may

(a) institute and undertake criminal proceedings against any person before any court
(other than a court martial) in respect of any offence alleged to have been committed;

(b) take over and continue any criminal proceedings commenced in any court(other
than a court martial) that have been instituted or undertaken by another person or
authority, with the permission of the person or authority; and

(c) subject to clause (8) and (9), discontinue at any stage before judgment is delivered
any criminal proceedings instituted by the Director of Public Prosecutions or taken over
by the Director of Public Prosecutions under paragraph (b).

(8) If the discontinuance of any proceedings under clause (7) (c) takes place after the close of
the prosecution’s case, the defendant shall be acquitted.

(9) The Director of Public Prosecutions may not discontinue a prosecution without the
permission of the court.

(10) The powers of the Director of Public Prosecutions may be exercised in person or by
subordinate officers acting in accordance with general or special instructions.

(11) The Director of Public Prosecutions shall not require the consent of any person or authority
for the commencement of criminal proceedings and in the exercise of his or her powers or
functions, shall not be under the direction or control of any person or authority.

(12) In exercising the powers conferred by this Article, the Director of Public Prosecutions shall
have regard to the public interest, the interests of the administration of justice and the need to
prevent and avoid abuse of the legal process.

(13) Congress may enact legislation conferring powers of prosecution on authorities other than
the Director of Public Prosecutions.

Article 154.
(1) The Director of Public Prosecutions may be removed resignation of from office only on the
grounds of Director of Public Prosecutions.

(a) inability to perform the functions of office arising from mental or physical incapacity;

(b) noncompliance with Chapter Six;

(c) bankruptcy;

(d) incompetence; or

(e) gross misconduct or misbehavior.

(2) A person desiring the removal of the Director of Public Prosecutions may present a petition
to the Public Service Commission which, shall be in writing, setting out the alleged facts
constituting the grounds for the removal of the Director.

(3) The Public Service Commission shall consider the petition and, if it is satisfied that it discloses
the existence of a ground under clause (1), it shall send the petition to the President.

(4) On receipt and examination of the petition, the President shall, within fourteen days,
suspend the Director of Public Prosecutions from office pending action by the President in
accordance with clause (5) and the Vice President shall, acting in accordance with the advice of
the Public Service Commission and making their choices from lists of three individuals provided
by the Majority and Minority Leader of each House and the Attorney General, appoint a tribunal
consisting of

(a) one member from each such list from among persons who hold or have held office
as a judge of a superior court, or who are qualified to be appointed as such;

(b) one advocate of at least fifteen years ‘standing nominated by the statutory body
responsible for the professional regulation of advocates, with their chairperson making
the nomination from a list of three individuals provided by their internal advisory bodies
on legal ethics; and

(c) two other persons with at least ten years of experience in public affairs and a post-
secondary degree in the relevant fields, one of whom is chosen from among a list of
three individuals for each position to be appointed provided by the Judicial Services
Commission.

(5) The tribunal shall inquire into the matter expeditiously and report on the facts and make
recommendations to the President, who shall act in accordance with the recommendations of
the tribunal.

(6) A Director of Public Prosecutions who is suspended from office under clause (4) shall be
entitled to two thirds of their remuneration until removed from, or reinstated in, office.
(7) A tribunal appointed under clause (4) shall elect a chairperson from among its members.

(8) A tribunal appointed under clause (4) shall be responsible for the regulation of its
proceedings.

(9) The Director of Public Prosecutions may resign from office by giving notice, in writing, to the
President.

Article 155.

(a) A prosecuting director to be known as a US Attorney shall be appointed for each of


the judicial districts in the United States, the borders of which are fixed by law, and
there shall be one district for each trial court division.

(b) The prosecuting director shall be appointed, overseen, and removed in the same
manner as the Director of Public Prosecutions, and shall have the equal right to
independence, salary protection, and shall be appointed for a renewable term of 6
years, and may be removed in the same manner as the Director of Public Prosecutions.

(c) They shall have the power to initiate prosecutions in their district.

Chapter Ten - Judiciary


Part One – Judicial Authority and Legal System
Article 156.

(1) Judicial authority is derived from the people and vests in, and shall be exercised by, the
courts and tribunals established by or under this Constitution.

(2) In exercising judicial authority, the courts and tribunals shall be guided by the following
principles

(a) justice shall be done to all, irrespective of status;

(b) justice shall not be delayed;

(c) alternative forms of dispute resolution including reconciliation, mediation,


arbitration and traditional dispute resolution mechanisms shall be promoted, subject to
clause (3);

(d) justice shall be administered without undue regard to procedural technicalities; and

(e) the purpose and principles of this Constitution shall be protected and promoted.

(f) that no other bureaucratic or elected officials or independent commissioners or


directors be commenting on an ongoing case before a court to which they are not a
direct party to, and shall never use their powers or authority to illegally or unethically
undermine the rule or law or the free and impartial trial and investigation by a court to
independently and without prejudice decide a case, so that a court can provide equal
justice to all.

(3) Traditional dispute resolution mechanisms shall not be used in a way that

(a) contravenes the Bill of Rights;

(b) is repugnant to justice and morality or results in outcomes that are repugnant to
justice or morality; or

(c) is inconsistent with this Constitution or any written law.

Article 157.

(1) In the exercise of judicial authority, the Judiciary, as constituted by Article 158, shall be
subject only to this Constitution and the law and shall not be subject to the control or direction
of any person or authority.

(2) The office of a judge of a superior court shall not be abolished while there is a substantive
holder of the office.

(3) The remuneration and benefits payable to or in respect of judges shall be a charge on the
Consolidated Fund.

(4) Subject to Article 165 (6), the remuneration and benefits payable to, or in respect of, a judge
shall not be varied to the disadvantage of that judge, and the retirement benefits of a retired
judge shall not be varied to the disadvantage of the retired judge during the lifetime of that
retired judge. The salary, remuneration, and benefits payable to each judge shall not be less
than that of a salary granted to a Cabinet Secretary.

(5) A member of the Judiciary is not liable in an action or suit in respect of anything done or
omitted to be done in good faith in the lawful performance of a judicial function.

Article 158.

(1) The Judiciary consists of the judges of the superior courts, magistrates, other judicial officers
and staff.

(2) There is established the office of

(a) Chief Justice, who shall be the Head of the Judiciary;

(b) Deputy Chief Justice, who shall be the Deputy Head of the Judiciary; and
(c) Chief Registrar of the Judiciary, who shall be the chief administrator and accounting
officer of the Judiciary.

(3) The Judicial Service Commission may establish other offices of registrar as may be necessary.

Article 159.

(1) The superior courts are the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the District Court and the
courts mentioned in clause (2).

(2) Congress shall establish courts with the status of the District Court to hear and determine
disputes relating to

(a) employment and labour relations;

(b) the environment and the use and occupation of, and title to, land.

(c) The trial of those accused of corruption in a manner so as not to cause an


unreasonable delay.

(3) Congress shall determine the jurisdiction and functions of the courts contemplated in clause
(2).

(4) The subordinate courts are the courts established under Article 166, or by Congress in
accordance with that Article.

Part Two – Superior Courts


Article 160.

(1) There is established a court of last resort, which shall be known as the Supreme Court, which
shall consist of:

(a) the Chief Justice, who shall be the president of the court;

(b) the Deputy Chief Justice, who shall

(i) deputize for the Chief Justice; and

(ii) be the vice president of the court; and

(c) a number of other judges which is equal to the number of judicial circuits there are
for federal courts of appeals, as well as one additional judge reflecting that there is a
bankruptcy court, one additional judge reflecting that there are martial courts, and one
additional judge reflecting that there are tax courts, and if this number does not cause
the Supreme Court to have at least seventeen judges, and if there are still an even
number of judges, an additional judge shall be appointed
(d) such judges representing those circuit courts and additional specialty courts shall
have those appointed to fill those roles have at least eight years of experience on those
courts.

(2) The Supreme Court shall be properly constituted for the purposes of its proceedings if it is
composed of two-thirds of the members of the court or more.

(3) The Supreme Court shall have

(a) exclusive original jurisdiction to hear and determine disputes relating to the elections
to the office of President arising under Article 135; and

(b) subject to clause (4) and (5), appellate jurisdiction to hear and determine appeals
from

(i) the Court of Appeal; and

(ii) any other court or tribunal as prescribed by national legislation.

(4) Cases shall be tried directly to the Supreme Court

(a) as of right in any case involving the interpretation or application of this Constitution;

(b) in any other case in which the Supreme Court, or the Court of Appeal, certifies that a
matter of general public importance is involved, subject to clause (5);

(c) on any appeal in a dispute between the independent officers and commissions, the
Executive, or the Legislative branches or the committees or sub-committees or officers
of such branches over any question of fact, law, or procedure; and

(d) Any other matter which is provided for by statutory law to be directly appealed to
the Supreme Court.

(5) A certification by the Court of Appeal under clause (4) (b) may be reviewed by the Supreme
Court, and either affirmed, varied or overturned.

(6) The Supreme Court may give an advisory opinion at the request of the national government,
any State organ, or any state government with respect to any matter concerning state
government.

(7) All courts, other than the Supreme Court, are bound by the decisions of the Supreme Court.

(8) The Supreme Court shall make rules for the exercise of its jurisdiction.
(9) An Act of Congress may make further provision for the operation of the Supreme Court.

Article 161.

(1) There is established the Courts of Appeal, which

(a) shall consist of the number of judges, being not fewer than five in each circuit, as the
borders and magnitude of the circuits and the number of judges in each circuit may be
prescribed by an Act of Congress; and

(b) shall be organized and administered in the manner prescribed by an Act of Congress.

(2) There shall be a president of the Court of Appeal who shall be elected by the judges of the
Court of Appeal from among themselves, and each circuit shall elect a president for their
specific circuit, these presidents are chosen for a non-consecutively renewable term of four
years and the other judges vote by secret ballot with exhaustive voting, and they may be
removed by secret ballot by a majority vote of the other judges on proposal of any two judges
eligible to vote.

(3) The Court of Appeal has jurisdiction to hear appeals from

(a) the District Court; and

(b) any other court or tribunal as the existence of such tribunals may be prescribed by
an Act of Congress.

(4) Judges on Circuit Courts hear cases in panels of five, and two-thirds of the judges shall concur
on any decision unfavourable to a defendant.

Article 162.

(1) There is established the District Court, which

(a) shall consist of the number of judges prescribed by an Act of Congress; and

(b) shall be organized and administered in the manner prescribed by an Act of Congress,
but no fewer than three judges for each District Court such that three judges always
form a panel to hear a trial or case, the concurrence of a majority of them being
required to cause any decision unfavourable to a defendant.

(2) There shall be a Principal Judge of each District Court, who shall be elected by the judges of
the District Court from among themselves for a non-consecutively renewable term of four years
and the other judges vote by secret ballot with exhaustive voting, and they may be removed by
majority vote of the other judges on proposal of any two judges eligible to vote.

(3) Subject to clause (5), the District Court shall have


(a) unlimited original jurisdiction in criminal and civil matters;

(b) jurisdiction to determine the question whether a right or fundamental freedom in


the Bill of Rights has been denied, violated, infringed or threatened;

(c) jurisdiction to hear an appeal from a decision of a tribunal appointed under this
Constitution to consider the removal of a person from office, other than a tribunal
appointed under Article 139;

(d) jurisdiction to hear any question respecting the interpretation of this Constitution
including the determination of

(i) the question whether any law is inconsistent with or in contravention of this
Constitution;

(ii) the question whether anything said to be done under the authority of this
Constitution or of any law is inconsistent with, or in contravention of, this
Constitution;

(iii) any matter relating to constitutional powers of State organs in respect of


state governments and any matter relating to the constitutional relationship
between the levels of government; and

(iv) a question relating to conflict of laws under Article 177; and

(e) any other jurisdiction, original or appellate, conferred on it by legislation.

(4) Any matter certified by the court as raising a substantial question of law under clause(3) (b)
or (d) shall be heard by an uneven number of judges, being not less than three, assigned by the
Chief Justice.

(5) The District Court shall not have jurisdiction in respect of matters

(a) reserved for the exclusive jurisdiction of the Supreme Court under this Constitution;
or

(b) falling within the jurisdiction of the courts contemplated in Article 159 (2).

(6) The District Court has supervisory jurisdiction over the subordinate courts and over any
person, body or authority exercising a judicial or quasi-judicial function, but not over a superior
court.

(7) For the purposes of clause (6), the District Court may call for the record of any proceedings
before any subordinate court or person, body or authority referred to in clause (6), and may
make any order or give any direction it considers appropriate to ensure the fair administration
of justice.
Article 163.

(1) The President shall appoint the judges, in accordance with the recommendation of the
Judicial Service Commission from among a list of three judges for each vacancy, the list being
approved by two-thirds of the Judicial Service Commission, and in the case of the Supreme
Court judges, with the advice and consent of two-thirds of both Houses of Congress.

(2) The judges on the entire federal judiciary shall appoint for a 4 year term, the Chief Justice
and the Deputy Chief Justice, by secret ballot for a non-consecutively renewable term, by
majority vote, and may remove them on proposal of any twenty judges with the approval of a
majority vote of the judges by secret ballot.

(3) Each judge of a superior court shall be appointed from among persons who

(a) hold a law degree from a recognized university, or are advocates of the District Court
of The United States, or possess an equivalent qualification in a common-law
jurisdiction;

(b) possess the experience required under clause (4) to (7) as applicable, irrespective of
whether that experience was gained in The United States or in another Commonwealth
common-law jurisdiction; and

(c) have exceptionally high moral character, integrity and impartiality.

(4) The judges of the Supreme Court shall be appointed from among persons who have

(a) at least fifteen years’ experience as a judge, including at least five of those years as a
judge on a federal circuit court; or

(b) at least fifteen years’ experience as a distinguished academic, judicial officer, legal
practitioner or such experience in other relevant legal field; or

(c) held the qualifications mentioned in paragraphs (a) and (b) for a period amounting,
in the aggregate, to fifteen years;

(5) Each judge of the Court of Appeal shall be appointed from among persons who have

(a) at least ten years’ experience as a superior court judge; or

(b) at least ten years’ experience as a distinguished academic or legal practitioner or


such experience in other relevant legal field; or

(c) held the qualifications mentioned in paragraphs (a) and (b) for a period amounting,
in the aggregate, to ten years.

(6) Each judge of the District Court shall be appointed from among persons who have
(a) at least ten years’ experience as a superior court judge or professionally qualified
magistrate; or

(b) at least ten years’ experience as a distinguished academic or legal practitioner or


such experience in other relevant legal field; or

(c) held the qualifications specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) for a period amounting, in
the aggregate, to ten years.

Article 164.

(1) A judge shall retire from office on attaining the age of seventy years, but may elect to retire
at any time after attaining the age of sixty five years, whichever is the earlier retirement age.

(2) The Chief Justice and any other judge may resign from office by giving notice, in writing, to
the President.

Article 165.

(1) A judge of a court may be removed from office only on the grounds of

(a) inability to perform the functions of office arising from mental or physical incapacity;

(b) a breach of a code of conduct prescribed for judges of the superior courts by an Act
of Congress;

(c) bankruptcy;

(d) incompetence; or

(e) gross misconduct or misbehavior.

(2) The removal of a judge may be initiated only by the Judicial Service Commission acting on its
own motion, or on the petition of any person to the Judicial Service Commission.

(3) A petition by a person to the Judicial Service Commission under clause (2) shall be in writing,
setting out the alleged facts constituting the grounds for the judge’s removal.

(4) The Judicial Service Commission shall consider the petition and, if it is satisfied that the
petition discloses a ground for removal under clause (1), send the petition to the President.

(5) The President shall, within fourteen days after receiving the petition, suspend the judge from
office and, acting in accordance with the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission,
appoint a tribunal consisting of

(a) a designee of the Speaker of the House of Representatives, as chairperson;


(b) six superior court judges from common law jurisdictions from lists of three
individuals provided to the Vice President by the majority leader and minority leader of
each House and the Attorney General and the Public Services Commission, selecting one
person from each list;

(c) one advocate of fifteen years standing nominated by the President of the Senate;
and

(d) two other persons with experience in public affairs who are chosen by the
chairperson of the bar association taking two candidates from a list of nominees
provided for by the committee on legal ethics of the bar association.

(6) Despite Article 157 (4), the remuneration and benefits payable to a judge who is suspended
from office under clause (5) shall be adjusted to three quarters of the standard remuneration
and benefits until such time as the judge is removed from, or reinstated in, office.

(7) A tribunal appointed under clause (5) shall

(a) be responsible for the regulation of its proceedings, subject to any legislation
contemplated in clause (10); and

(b) inquire into the matter expeditiously and report on the facts and make binding
recommendations to the President.

(8) A judge who is aggrieved by a decision of the tribunal under this Article may appeal against
the decision to the Supreme Court, within ten days after the tribunal makes its
recommendations.

(9) The President shall act in accordance with the recommendations made by the tribunal on the
later of

(a) the expiry of the time allowed for an appeal under clause (8), if no such appeal is
taken; or

(b) the completion of all rights of appeal in any proceedings allowed for under clause
(8), if such an appeal is taken and the final order in the matter affirms the tribunal’s
recommendations.

(10) Congress shall enact legislation providing for the procedure of a tribunal appointed under
this Article. If no decision is taken within one hundred and eighty days, they shall be reinstated.

Part Three – Subordinate Courts


Article 166.

(1) The subordinate courts are


(a) the Magistrates courts;

(d) any other court or local tribunal as may be established by an Act of Congress, other
than the courts established as required by Article 159(2).

(c) No person may be court martialed; all persons shall be tried before a civilian court.

(2) Congress shall enact legislation conferring jurisdiction, functions and powers on the courts
established under clause (1).

Part Four - Judicial Services Commission


Article 167.

(1) There is established the Judicial Service Commission.

(2) The Commission shall consist of

(a) the Chief Justice, who shall be the chairperson of the Commission except when the
Commission is considering a complaint made against the Chief Justice;

(c) one Court of Appeal judge elected by the judges of the Court of Appeal by secret
ballot by exhaustive vote;

(d) one District Court judge and one magistrate, both of whom may not be of the same
gender, elected by secret ballot by exhaustive vote by the members of the association of
judges and magistrates;

(e) a designee of the Attorney General who has the qualifications to be appointed to a
District Court.

(f) two advocates, one a woman and one a man, each of whom has at least fifteen years’
experience, elected by the members of the statutory body responsible for the
professional regulation of advocates by secret ballot by exhaustive vote by the members
of the bar association;

(g) two appointed by the Public Service Commission;

(h) two people to represent the public, not being lawyers, appointed by the Vice
President on the proposal of a majority of the Cabinet Secretaries excluding the
Attorney General with the approval of the House of Representatives and the Senate,

(i) one individual chosen by the majority and the minority in each House, elected by
secret ballot by exhaustive vote from lists of five candidates prepared by the committee
on the judiciary in each House, and the majority and minority on each committee shall
create separate lists.
(3) Each member of the Judicial Service Commission serves a nonrenewable term of six years,
and as evenly as possible, one-third of the members are replaced every two years.

(4) The Chief Registrar of the Judiciary shall be the Secretary to the Commission.

(5) Members of the Commission, apart from the Chief Justice and the Attorney General, shall
hold office, provided that they remain qualified, for a term of five years and shall be eligible to
be nominated for one further term of five years.

Article 168.

(1) The Judicial Service Commission shall promote and facilitate the independence and
accountability of the judiciary and the efficient, effective and transparent administration of
justice and shall

(a) recommend to the President persons for appointment as judges;

(b) review and make recommendations on the conditions of service of

(i) judges and judicial officers, other than their remuneration; and

(ii) the staff of the Judiciary;

(c) appoint, receive complaints against, investigate and remove from office or otherwise
discipline registrars, magistrates, other judicial officers and other staff of the Judiciary,
in the manner prescribed by an Act of Congress;

(d) prepare and implement programs for the continuing education and training of
judges and judicial officers; and

(e) advise the national government on improving the efficiency of the administration of
justice.

(f) For each vacant position which the Judicial Service Commission is responsible for
assisting the filling up of, the Judicial Service Commission shall

(i) widely and publicly publicize the vacancy and request that eligible people file
applications to be included,

(ii) hold hearings in public on the accepted candidates, a public hearing with the
members of the public who are interested in commenting on or have
information for the Commission, and a public hearing and debate shall be held
on who to finally recommend or appoint or who should be on the list for
recommendation or appointment and

(iii) the ratio of accepted candidates to applied candidates shall be public


information and released reasons shall be published as to the reasons for why
an individual was chosen and those reasons why someone was not invited
despite applying to be considered for a hearing.

(g) review judges on a periodic basis not less frequently than once every six
years for competence, legal qualifications, administrative capacity, skills,
abilities, communications, ethics and integrity, impartiality, professionalism,
adherence to judicial philosophies enshrined in this constitution, adherence to
discriminatory legislation to end discrimination, and fairness in their decisions,
including providing surveys of attorneys, prosecutors, peace officers, victims,
jurors, court employees, interviews, surveys provided by judges, public hearings
with the judges, with the results of the same to be disclosed within thirty days
of the review on an open database.

(2) In the performance of its functions, the Commission shall be guided by the following

(a) competitiveness and transparent processes of appointment of judicial officers and


other staff of the judiciary; and

(b) the promotion of gender and racial equality.

Article 169.

(1) There is established a fund to be known as the Judiciary Fund which shall be administered by
the Chief Registrar of the Judiciary.

(2) The Fund shall be used for administrative expenses of the Judiciary and such other purposes
as may be necessary for the discharge of the functions of the Judiciary.

(3) Each financial year, the Chief Registrar shall prepare estimates of expenditure for the
following year, and submit them to the House of Representatives for approval.

(4) On approval of the estimates by the House of Representatives, the expenditure of the
Judiciary shall be a charge on the Consolidated Fund and the funds shall be paid directly into the
Judiciary Fund.

(5) Congress shall enact legislation to provide for the regulation of the Fund.

Chapter Eleven - Federalism


Part One – Objectives and Principles of Federalism
Article 170.

The objectives of the federalism of government are

(a) to promote democratic and accountable exercise of power;


(b) to foster national unity by recognizing diversity;

(c) to give effect to self-governance to the people and enhance the participation of the
people in the exercise of the powers of the Union and in making decisions affecting
them;

(d) to recognize the right of communities to manage their own affairs and to further
their development;

(e) to protect and promote the interests and rights of minorities and marginalized
communities;

(f) to promote social and economic development and the provision of proximate, easily
accessible services throughout The United States;

(g) to ensure equitable sharing of national and local resources throughout The United
States;

(h) to facilitate the decentralization of governmental organs, their functions and


services, from the capital of The United States; and

(i) to enhance checks and balances and the separation of powers.

Article 171.

State governments established under their constitutions shall reflect the following principles

(a) State governments shall be based on democratic principles and the separation of
powers;

(b) State governments shall have reliable sources of revenue to enable them to govern
and deliver services effectively; and

(c) no more than three fifths of the members of representative bodies in each State
government shall be of the same gender.

(d) the legislative bodies of the states and their respective local governments including
municipal councils and county boards of supervisors shall be elected by means of
proportional representation such that the number of seats which are representing a
faction of the population, both geographic and political party factions, is proportional to
the number of votes cast by that geographic and political party faction, and those
legislatures shall be numerous enough such that the legislative body is not smaller than
the cube root of the population and if bicameral, that the upper house is not less than ¼
of the magnitude of the lower house.

(e) If the candidates are not elected from single member districts or taken as runner ups
in single member districts, nominated in contests within that district alone, the voters
shall have the right to distinguish binding preferences for candidates among a slate or
list presented by a political party.

(f) If the candidates are elected in a single member district, excluding any candidates
elected by virtue of assisting a party to reach its proportional weight in the legislative
body, the candidate shall obtain a majority of the votes cast.

(g) The members of the state legislature and directly elected executives are recallable
on the proposal of any ten percent of those who voted in the district for which a
legislator was elected or any fifteen percent of those who had voted in the election for a
directly elected executive, signing a petition calling for their recall within a period of one
hundred and eighty days from the beginning of the circulation of the petition, and in the
case of a legislator elected directly by winning a majority of the votes cast or the directly
elected state executive, a majority of the votes cast, a turnout of twenty-five percent of
those eligible to vote voting, shall recall the legislator and a special election shall be
called to fill the vacancy. In the case of those who are not elected by winning a majority
of the votes cast, if a majority of votes are cast in favour of their removal provided that
not enough votes are cast in favour of retaining them such that they could elect that
candidate in a general election to assist their party faction in electing that candidate to
represent the proportional strength of the faction in the state legislature, the seat shall
also be vacant. This paragraph is inoperative in the first ninety days of a state legislator
or directly elected executive’s term or the last one ninety days of that term. No grounds
or offenses are required to be subject to recall.

(h)

(i) Each state shall adopt an independent elections and boundaries commission
by the same mechanisms by which the federal such Commission is appointed
and enjoys the same tenure, term length, and is appointed in the same manner
with the state government officials substituted for the federal government
officials, and shall draw up the state into districts for the local, state, and federal
elected officials which the state is entitled to elect, and conduct elections for
the state.

(ii) Each state independent elections and boundaries commission shall at least
once every eight years draw up their maps such that each district represents the
same ratio of elected members of the legislative body to the population as is the
case with the median ratio across the entire state, plus or minus seven point
five percent as a deviation from that median, that the boundaries are
contiguous except for islands, that the boundaries are compact, that the
boundaries do not bypass a local area for one further away, that the boundaries
do not use political information or electoral results to draw up the boundaries,
and that the boundaries as closely as possible follow main highways, municipal
and county boundaries, rivers, or natural geographic features including
hydrological divides.

(iii) Each state’s independent elections and boundaries commission shall when
drawing up their maps for electoral district divisions shall hold public hearings
during the process of drafting their maps, and prior to presenting their final
options and deliberating on which to recommend, shall hold a public hearing on
that map.

(iv) The state legislature shall receive each state’s independent elections and
boundaries commission district proposal and vote to accept or reject it. If they
accept it by a vote of two-thirds of their lower house, it shall be used in the next
legislative or Congressional election provided that the next election will not
occur for at least one hundred and eighty days.

(v) If they do not accept it by that margin, a new map shall be drawn by the
commission in the same process and put to a vote in the state legislature by a
margin of three fifths of their lower house and it shall be used as if the first map
were accepted.

(vi) If this still does not produce a map that is accepted, a third map shall be
drawn by the same process and presented to the state legislature and voted on,
and if accepted by an absolute majority of the state lower house, it shall be used
as if it were the first map accepted.

(vii) If this final map is not accepted, the highest court of appeals of the state
government shall decide on one of the three maps drafted by the commission
and rejected by the state legislature by exhaustive voting with any tie broken by
the presiding judge of that highest court of appeals.

(i) The state constitution is adopted by a vote of a referendum by the eligible voters of
the state, requiring a majority vote to be cast in favour of it with a minimum turnout of
at least one-third of those eligible turning out to vote, and is amended or replaced by
the same margin on proposal of two-thirds of the members of the state lower house in
one session or an absolute majority of the members of the state lower house in two
subsequent lower house sessions separated by an intervening election, or by any 10% of
those who voted for the state lower house in the most recent election for that lower
house, having drafted the proposal into legally binding language.

(j)

(i) The state judiciary is appointed by a judicial services commission of the state,
to copy the federal judicial services commission substituting those who name
their members with the equivalents which exist in the state constitution, and
which have the same term, tenure, eligibility and eligibility, removal, pay,
compensation, and staff levels, and they select their judges from the same
criteria from among the candidates in the state bar association or the state’s
professors of law at their public universities with tenure.

(ii) Their judges are chosen for life until retirement at age sixty-five, or seventy
in the case of the state highest court of appeals, or for a fixed term not less than
twelve years, to be retained or denied by the people of the state in secret ballot
votes or who are ineligible for a further term via retention or appointment, as
prescribed by the state constitution.

(iii) Their judges may be removed by the same processes by which a judge of the
federal union may be removed, substituting federal officers with their state
equivalents in the state constitution.

(iv) The judicial fund of the state shall be under the control of the same
authorities as the Judicial Fund of the federal union, adapting the officers
responsible for appointing them with the state constitutional equivalents.

(v) The judicial districts and organization is established by the state constitution
and the state legislation of their people or legislature alone and never an
executive regulation or order, and this shall include the staffing structure of the
judiciary, the borders of the judicial districts, the existence of a court, the
number of judges in each district but no decrease in the number of judges shall
affect incumbent judges, and the salary and benefits given to judges, which may
not be diminished or altered to the disadvantage of any judge or their staff.

(vi) All judges of the states are bound to administer justice impartially,
independently, freely, and without fear or favour, without prejudice, and in
respect to the human rights of all participants, to protect the Bill of Rights and
the constitution of the United States and of their state, and fundamental justice.
The courts of the state are bound by no person or authority; they are bound
only by the law and the Constitution of the federal union and of their state.

(vii) A court of a state shall, if a law of a state or any other legally binding
instrument issued under state level authority has contravened the state
constitution or the constitution of the United States, strike it down to the extent
of the inconsistency.

(viii) The courts of the state shall respect the decisions of the higher courts, and
the state highest court of appeals shall be subject to no other court other than
federal courts.
(ix) The judges of each level of each state court, including each district or circuit
in the state court system, elects by secret ballot their presiding judge, by secret
ballot by exhaustive ballot for a limited period fixed by the state constitution for
no more than 4 years, and may remove them by proposal of judges by secret
ballot by majority vote, and these presiding judges administer the
administrative elements and departments of the state judiciary.

(x) Judges of the state or the federal union are ineligible to seek elective office
for 15 years after the end of their term as a judge, and those who have been
elected are ineligible to seek a judgeship for fifteen years after their elected
term is completed.

Part Two – State Governments


Article 172.

(1) There shall be a state government for each state provided for in the structure established by
their respective constitutions, including a legislative branch, an executive branch, and a judicial
branch, and providing for direct elections for their governor, lieutenant governor, the state
attorney general, the state treasurer, the secretary of the state, superintendent of schools, the
commissioner of insurance, the commissioner of labour, the commissioner of agriculture, the
commissioner of natural resources, and in each state from proportionally represented districts,
a school board, a health board, and a board of regents for the state’s post-secondary
institutions, on different electoral ballots independent of each other, such executive branch
elections occurring by majority vote with a runoff or ranking system if necessary to ensure such
majority.

(2) Each organized territory of the United States with a distinct identity and permanent
population, as well as the City of Washington, shall have the right to the same autonomy as a
state and shall for all other intents and purposes in this constitution be treated as a state,
limited only strictly by what the population, economic status and diversity, and the consent of
that territory or city’s legislature or executive or people requires for their good government,
transparency, ethics, and fiscal health, and only with the consent of the Senate can a law be
passed to consider them differently than a state. A territory with a population so small that it
would not reasonably qualify for a legislative seat independently may be grouped with other
territories so that it does qualify for legislative seats in Congress.

(3) The governor shall, if the state constitution does not provide for an election to the position in
which case the election shall follow the same rules and eligibility and term limits as the chief
executive, appoint the state cabinet, the positions of which are not to exceed fifteen and are to
be defined in state law, in the same process as which the President follows while soliciting
individuals to be part of the cabinet, assembling an advisory committee to consider the applying
individuals, nominating the cabinet to the state legislature, and the state legislature shall apply
the same process as the Congress applies to the nominees, but in the case of the Cabinet
secretaries and attorney generals, the state upper house in addition to the lower house shall
approve of the appointment. The cabinet as a collective shall represent the diversity of the state
and not have more than a majority of members of any gender.

(4) The chief executive of the state appoints other members of the state executive including the
heads of departments and agencies on the proposal of the cabinet member responsible for the
department or agency with the approval of the state legislature. They appoint no other official
unless they are proposed by an official they cannot remove or appoint without the consent of
another body which itself they cannot appoint or remove alone, and only if the official cannot
be removed by the chief executive alone or on the proposal of an official which the chief
executive may unilaterally dismiss or reassign. This does not in any case apply to the chair and
vice chair of multi member bodies and councils and commissions which shall elect by secret
ballot their own chair and vice chair.

(5) The governor may dismiss the cabinet officers not directly elected as a collective body by the
same process as the President applies when dismissing the Cabinet of the Union, and dismisses
other officials on the proposal of the cabinet secretary responsible for the department or
agency.

(6) The governor may issue executive orders, or amend or repeal existing orders, when expressly
provided for in state laws, with the countersignature of the head of the relevant department
whose appointment is approved by the state lower house whose department is concerned with
the executive order. The executive orders of the chief executive of the state shall be sustained
by both houses of the state legislature within thirty days, otherwise it fails and the same order
or those substantially similar to the failed order may not be issued by the chief executive of the
state except by leave of the state lower house. An executive order which does not proclaim a
state of emergency shall be held as delayed for a period of seven days during which the
committee in the state lower house which oversees the department principally affected may by
the support of two thirds of them may delay the order for a period of thirty days during which
period the state lower house must vote on the executive order as to whether to sustain or reject
it.

(7) The state executive, civil officers, the state judiciary, and independent commissions and
officers may be impeached and removed by the analogous process and on the same grounds as
by those same type of officials of the Union may be impeached and removed, and they may be
removed for medical incapacity in the analogous manner as the President may be removed.
Elected such officers may be recalled in the analogous manner as Union elected officers may be
recalled. If a tribunal is to be provided for in the removal of a Union officer, the same manner of
holding a tribunal with the same proportional composition by different actors shall be
assembled, and they shall be as independent and have the same rights to call up evidence and
testimony under oath or affirmation as a tribunal of the Union, be free to establish rules of
procedure, and are bound by the same rules of evidence and burden of proof, and are to be
assembled within the same periods of time as are provided for a tribunal of the Union. Tribunals
shall offer the opportunity for the accused official to defend themselves and retain counsel.

(8) Every state government shall decentralize its functions and the provision of its services to the
extent that it is efficient and practicable to do so.

(9) State legislatures have copies of the procedures, rules, committees, party caucuses,
majorities, minorities, and officers, and the powers assigned to the officers, prescribed to exist
for the Congress of the United States in Articles 103, 104, and 105, amended only for mutatis
mutandis.

(10) Each state shall have their independent commissions and officers and their directors of
public prosecutions and district attorneys chosen, qualified, eligible and identifying those who
are ineligible, serving for periods of time, under the same salary and staffing protections, and
with the same requirements and procedure for removal, as is provided for Federal independent
commissions and officers and their directors of public prosecutions and district attorneys, or
more protective, as is to be prescribed by the state constitution.

(11) Each state shall have a judicial services commission, which by copying Mutatis Mutandis the
judicial services commission of the Union, examines for appointments the judges of their state
and localities which do not have their own such commission, who are interviewed in public akin
to the process for interviews and solicitation of applications as the Union’s commission, who are
appointed by the chief executive of the state government on approval of two-thirds of their
state’s legislatures, both houses of which if their state has a bicameral legislature, who interview
and examine the nominee by the same process as the Union’s nominees for judges, examines
for dismissal of administrative penalties any judge or judicial servant who is accused of
contravening their judicial code or the laws or the constitutions of the state or the Union or
other grounds for dismissal or administrative penalties, and in the states where their state
constitution provides for the retention of judges by a popular vote, recommends to the people
of the state whether or not to retain a judge or not, such retention elections happening at
frequencies not greater than once in every ten year periods as prescribed by frequency by the
state constitution. A state judge who is appointed and if necessary, retained, may serve until the
age of seventy.

(12) Each state shall have a public services commission, which by copying Mutatis Mutandis the
public services commission of the Union, appoints the public service of the state and the
localities which do not have their own such commissions, and dismisses or transfers them, in the
process established by the state constitution and state laws.

(13) Each state shall have independent commissions and officers, to be appointed by processes
which are akin in appointment including the interview process and examination by legislative
committees, dismissal, transfer, that 1/3 of a commission is renewed 1/3 of the length of the
term as evenly as possible, term length which is no longer than twelve years, is no shorter than
five years, and is seven years by default unless a state constitution or a clause in this
constitution prescribes another length, that terms cannot be renewed, the eligibility and
ineligibility criteria and restrictions on what a person on the commission or office can have done
before their term, what they can do during the term, and what they can do after their term,
independence to initiate investigations and produce public reports and recommendations,
protection of their salary, staff, offices, budgets, and administrative resources Mutatis Mutandis
to the independent commissions and officers of the Union, and these independent officers and
commissions shall have like authority to address such officers and commissions of local
authorities which do not have their own officers and commissions designed and protected in the
same manner operating for their own local governments, and they shall ensure similar numbers
of people of each gender serve and that the ethnic and social composition and geographic
composition of such are representative of the populations of the state or locality in question,
and they shall include at least

(a) a commission for the administration of public lands of the state,

(b) a commission for the employment, conduct, and dismissal of teachers,

(c) a commission for the employment, conduct, and dismissal of law enforcement
officers of the state,

(d) a director of the state’s prosecution agency who has the authorization to prosecute
cases on behalf of the state, for a term of ten years

(e) a state ethics commission for a term at least six years

(f) a commission to furnish the state legislature with financial information and economic
information for the furtherance of competent and transparent budgets and impacts of
finances on state laws,

(g) a comptroller of the state budget for a term of ten years,

(h) an auditor general for the state’s financial resources for a term of ten years,

(i) a commission for the arbitration of labour disputes and establishing labour protection
regulations

(j) the commission or director of a body which provides for the public health
administration and any employment of medical professionals for the state’s public
health programs to fulfil their requirement in this constitution that all people receive
universal healthcare

(k) a commission to administer and certify the state’s public universities in an impartial
manner and providing for full advancement of academic liberty, and employment and
tenure of the professors and administrators thereof.
(l) a commission or director to administer the state’s regulation and good governance of
the insurance industry in their state

(m) a commission or director to administer the state’s regulation and good governance
of the banking system in their state

(n) the inspectors general and general counsels of the state administrations, agencies,
departments, and other units and branches,

(o) a commission to furnish for the legislature of the state all the relevant and necessary
materials and staff to be provided on a non partisan basis ensuring that access to such is
provided to backbenchers and opposition parties and members

(p) a commission to establish the pay grades of the state employees, law enforcement
officers, teachers, elected and appointed officials, legislative salaries, and the salaries of
the judiciary and other independent officers and directors.

(q) a commission to ensure that public procurement is provided for in a fair, impartial,
and transparent manner at market rates impervious to corruption, bid rigging, and
fraud, in a timely manner.

(r) a commission to ensure that the public acquisition of property by means of eminent
domain is conducted fairly, transparently, legally, and exclusively for public use and
benefit with fair compensation in all cases

(s) a commission which provides pardons, paroles, and commutations on an impartial


basis, for the public good, taking into account the needs of the guilty and of the victims
of crime, and not for the benefit of individuals in powerful positions or for criminal
organizations.

(t) a commission for the fair regulation and provision of the state’s electricity and utility
markets and the public corporations which administer and construct energy and utilities

(u) a commission for the fair regulation and impartial oversight of the state’s energy and
natural resources extraction, refinement, and sale, in a safe, environmentally sound,
and transparent manner which provides to the public a fair market rate for the sale of
the natural resources to investors and clients.

(v) a commission for the fair regulation and transparent oversight of the state’s
securities market and investors, and those authorized to broker such securities.

(w) a commission for the review and management of local authorities, counties,
municipalities, special districts, and other useful subdivisions of the state, determining
the boundaries of those divisions subject to ratification by referendum or by the state
legislature by a process established by the state constitution, dissolving or suspending
their administrations and elected officials in the event of their incapacity or
unwillingness to comply with their duties subject to the oversight by the state
legislature ratifying such dissolution or suspension within fourteen days of the
suspension or dissolution, and reviewing the disclosure, audit, and transparency papers
of those local authorities.

(x) a commission to consider the length of the sentences to be imposed as part of a


finding of guilt for crimes

(y) all other commissions and directors or otherwise independent officers which are
established or provided for by state statute or the state constitution

(z) the advisory bodies which recommend appointments as would be analogous to the
advisory bodies used for appointing Union important or independent officials.

(14) Each state legislature has a Mutatis Mutandis equivalent office for the running of their
legislative body as an administrative unit, an office for the publicly disclosed research of the
facts and figures necessary to make necessary and proper laws, policies, and appointments, and
an office for the proper provision of financial, economic, and budgetary information, so as to
provide that this information and administration is not provided by the executive branch, to be
as similar as possible in independence, transparency, competence, qualifications, and
effectiveness as the Congressional Services Commission, the Congressional Research Service,
and the Congressional Budget Office, respectively. Each state legislative house shall have a
presiding officer and deputy presiding officer given the name prescribed by the state
constitution who are nominated, elected, removable, and who act and vote in the same manner
as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of Representatives.

(15) Each state has a legislature, and may be bicameral or unicameral at the prescription of the
state constitution. The most numerous branch is to be referred to as the upper house, and the
less numerous branch is to be referred to as the lower house, such branches to be named as the
state constitution prescribes. The most numerous branch shall have at least as many as is the
cube root of the population of the state, rounded up to the next odd number, and the state
upper house, if they have one, shall have at least as many as is one-third of the lower house,
and not less than thirty-one in any case.

(16) The state legislative houses shall be elected for terms prescribed by the state constitution
but in no case more than four years. The state legislature in both houses shall be elected
proportionally, such that a given group of voters who vote in a commonly aligned manner which
constitutes approximately X percent of the votes cast shall cause approximately X percent of the
seats in the legislature to be aligned with that group, be they a party, faction, or an organized
group of voters or voters using ranked preferences, and if a single member district is used, the
person elected to that seat must receive a majority of the votes if an ordinal voting method if
used and shall receive the most consensus in the case of a cardinal method of voting is used.
(17) The state legislature shall be directly elected in each branch for a fixed term, and the upper
house is elected for terms which are the same or which exceed the term of the state lower
house. The state upper house may be elected in fractions such that a fraction of the state upper
house is replaced at every given election, and if that is the case, they shall randomize a process
for which to select which members of that upper house face election every such cycle.

(18) Local governments, that is to say counties, parishes, municipal districts, municipalities,
towns, cities, and villages, shall be elected in a manner as similar as is possible to the state lower
house.

(19) The state lower house shall approve of the cabinet appointments, the appointments to
heads of departments and boards and commissions, judicial appointments, appointments to law
enforcement and military bodies, auditing bodies and comptroller offices, appointments to
bodies to oversee and conduct elections, the appointments to the bodies which provide
pardons, commutations, amnesties, parole, and other forms of mercy for crimes and offenses,
and the appointments of independent boards and commissions, and shall initiate the
impeachment or other removal proceedings against an elected executive officer of the state,
and the state upper house, if the state has one, hears the charge against a directly elected
executive officer or partisan independent officer which is elected in that state as is prescribed by
the state constitution and is chaired by the chief justice of the state’s court of last resort, unless
the charges are of a specifically illegal nature, in which case the charges are heard by the state’s
court of last resort. The state lower house shall approve of the budget, may propose
constitutional amendments, and approves of the laws and of state emergency orders, and the
state upper house may have a role in the approval processes in a procedure required by the
state constitution.

(20) The state upper house’s committees responsible for overseeing the departments and
agencies to which they are assigned by law of the state shall approve of the appointment of
officers which are otherwise unspecified in this constitution, the state constitution, and state
law to neither be employed professionally as part of the civil service of the state, a local
authority which has its own executive, judiciary, legislative, and independent authorities, and
not to be appointed on the confirmation of the state lower house, and to authorize their
dismissal or transfer by the same process by which the Union’s Senate is to authorize the
dismissal and transfer of officers in the same analogous positions.

(21) Each state legislature is convened, presided over in its inaugural meeting, and convened for
special purposes and adjourned by the chief executive of the state in the same manner as is
provided for the same functions of the Congress of the Union.

(22) Each state has an advisory committee on the power of mercy, to be constituted and
operating in the same manner as the Union’s body for the same purpose, to be appointed by the
same type of officers which the state has under its control and constitutes, and the power of
mercy within the state for offenses committed against state codes of law is to be solely heard
and exercised by such advisory committee.

(23) A directly elected governor may cause a referendum in the same manner as by which a
President may cause a referendum, but a majority of the votes causes the referendum, if the
turnout is valid, to be approved regardless of geographic distribution.

(24) Each state’s salaries and remuneration commission shall propose to the state legislature the
amount, which is not to be changed more than once in any given six year period, of the pay and
remuneration, including pensions, expenses, covered plans and other common employee
benefits systems, of the members of the legislature, the staff of the legislature, and of the
elected executive officers, constitutionally provided for state executive officers, and the cabinet
secretaries and the state attorney general, and those schedules listing the same shall not take
effect until the next election to that office occurs. Any increase above the rate of inflation shall
be approved by a referendum of the state’s voters.

(25) In the event of a vacancy in the case of a candidate elected by a majority of votes or by a
ranked ballot, (a) the respective speaker or president of the state legislative body shall, within
ten days after the occurrence of the vacancy, give notice in writing of the vacancy to the state
independent electoral and boundaries commission; and a special election shall be held within
ninety days of the occurrence of the vacancy, subject to clause (4). If the county legislatures of
the districts involved are in session, they shall immediately in a joint session by secret ballot and
by a majority vote, elect someone to fill in the vacancy, but if the vacant position was a member
of a party, the temporary filling shall be made on the nomination of at least three members in
the county legislature or legislatures who was a member of the party or if the party does not
exist in the county legislature or legislatures, a member of the party in the county or counties. If
they are not in session, the chief executive of the county or counties in the district shall name a
replacement, and if the vacating officer was a member of a party, the appointment shall be
made from among those in the same party. If the general election was conducted via party lists,
the next candidate on the list shall be immediately inaugurated.

Article 173.

State governments, that is to day their partisan independent officers, their executive officers, and
legislatures, are elected for terms of no more than four years, and their executives, including their state
cabinet, their governor, their lieutenant governor, and other directly elected executive officers, may not
serve more than two terms of four years in their lifetimes, and no more than ten years in any case
including any time as an interim officeholder. A person may not serve consecutive terms as state
executive elected officers.

The appointments of the directly elected state executives and their immediate appointments shall be
confirmed by both houses of the state legislature or be proposed by an independent commission which
the state legislature confirms and which the executive cannot dismiss without cause.
Article 174.

(1)

(4) The state legislature, after considering the governor’s reservations on a bill or resolution,
may pass the bill or resolution a second time, without amendment, or with amendments that do
not fully accommodate the governor’s reservations, by a vote supported

(a) by the of members of the lower house provided that not more than one third of the
members of the lower house does not vote to sustain the veto or the members of the
lower house and the majority of the upper house if the state has an upper house
provided that not more than forty percent of the members of the lower house and an
absolute majority of the members of the upper house vote to sustain the veto; and

(b) the members of the lower house and a vote supported by the members of the upper
house provided that not more than one third of the members of either house votes to
sustain the veto, if it is a bill that requires the approval of the upper house according to
the state constitution,

(c) the members of the lower house if the vetoed subject in question is a resolution to
nullify a rule, provided that not more than forty percent of the members of the lower
house does not vote to sustain the rule,

(d) if in the case of a resolution to nullify a rule, the original rule in the executive
department required powers that would cause it to have needed the approval of the
upper house were it to be a bill or resolution, by the members of the lower house and
the members of the upper house, provided that not more than forty percent of the
members in either house vote to sustain the veto.

Article 175.

(1) A state legislature shall exercise its legislative power through bills and resolutions passed by
the state legislature and assented to by the governor.

(2) A bill or resolution not concerning local government is considered first in the lower house or
the only house if the state is unicameral, and passed in accordance with sections twenty-three
through thirty-two and the standing orders of the house or houses involved.

(3) A bill or resolution concerning local government in a bicameral state shall originate in the
upper house, and is passed in accordance with sections six through nine, sections twelve
through fifteen, sections twenty-three through thirty-two, and the standing orders of the house
or houses involved.

(4) A bill or resolution may be introduced by any one percent of the members of the house
concerned not fewer than three in number, by the governor, by the state cabinet secretary or
other directly elected executive officer in relation to bills concerning their department or field,
by resolution of any one-fifth of the local legislatures, by a petition signed by a number of
people equal to zero point one of those who voted in the previous election for the governor, or
committee of the relevant house, but a money bill may be introduced only in the lower or only
house in accordance with sections sixteen through nineteen.

(5) In the case of a resolution to nullify a rule, the agency or department responsible for the rule
shall provide a copy of the rule to the legislative record and to each house in the state
legislature with a written copy of the text of the rule and the intended effective date.

(i) If in the ninety days subsequent to that delivery of the rule to the state legislative
record and each of the houses in the state legislature, any person or group with the
right to introduce a bill or resolution moves a motion for a resolution to nullify a rule,
the resolution in question shall be placed on the table and must be considered by the
committee which oversees the relevant department or agency.

(ii) If the committee does not report out the resolution in question within thirty days,
any one-quarter of the members of that house concerned may anonymously sign a
petition to demand the consideration by the plenary, and if they do so sign, the full
plenary shall debate the resolution for up to twelve hours with at least forty percent of
that time dedicated to each of the majority and minority factions, and at least one third
of the time within each majority and minority shall be dedicated to the questions and
concerns of the backbenchers.

(iii) If the resolution in question passes by the majority required to pass a bill or
resolution, the other house, if the state is bicameral, shall repeat these steps and must
put the item into the consideration of the committee of their house within ten days of
the originating house proposing the resolution, and if they pass it, it shall be treated as if
it passed by the ordinary legislative procedure.

(iv) No amendment to a resolution to nullify a rule is in order, and they do not go to a


mediation committee.

(v) If the governor returns the resolution to nullify a rule without their assent, the time
limits for considering an override shall be the same as those which exist to consider the
resolution originally, and the rules of debate shall be the same.

(vi) A resolution to nullify a rule shall also apply to the attempt by a state agency or
department to repeal or amend an existing rule, and if the resolution passes, the
department may not repeal the rule or or amend it in the way they have proposed to do
so, or amend it in substantially similar ways.

(6)
(i) A resolution may, if solely written to do so, may require that the executive
department or an officer or commission of the executive department to create
reporting and codify their rules and or reporting or codify an aspect of their roles or
reporting, or some combination of the same, or to provide a report for the feasibility of
an idea or project or potential idea or project or a report on the feasibility of a new law
or resolution or an amendment, replacement, or repeal of an existing law or resolution,
other than to require the public disclosure of information given in confidence in
accordance with the law or the constitution or to require classified information which
has been classified in the legal manner to be disclosed to the public.

(ii) If the resolution passes the lower house of the state legislature by a majority vote in
accordance with standard procedure for a bill or resolution that is not a proposal to
reject an executive rule, it must be assented to the governor within ten days and who
may not veto the proposal, except in order to request a second vote on the entire
proposed resolution which shall pass if an absolute majority of the House of
Representatives passes the proposal, the governor shall sign it into law within five days.

(iii) If the governor challenges the constitutionality of the same by the same process as
by which they challenge the constitutionality of other bills and resolutions, and if it is
found to be constitutional, the governor shall sign it into law within 5 days.

(iv) If the resolution calls for recurring reports or recommendations or feasibility studies,
it shall specify for what period of time or that it recurs indefinitely, and shall specify how
periodical the recurrence shall be, and only another bill or resolution may nullify the
requirement to provide the reports or the rules or codifications or recommendations in
question.

(v) The cost on the executive office to conduct the required actions as provided for in
such a resolution shall be absorbed in the next budget and until that time the cost shall
be covered out of the state consolidated revenue fund.

(7)

(i) A resolution or legislative action, if it solely does such, may cause a program, fund,
office, or other activity, which is slated to expire due to previous legislative action, to be
extended further for a period of up to twelve years and not less than one year, the
period being prescribed in the legislative action.

(ii) If the legislative action attains the required majorities in the houses of the state
legislature which had to cause the program or activity to exist in the first place, it must
be assented to the governor within ten days and who may not veto the proposal, except
in order to request a second vote on the entire proposed resolution which shall pass if
the original state legislative houses required to create the program or activity passes the
proposal a second time but making it such that it would also pass if every single member
of the state legislative houses required in fact voted on the proposal, the governor shall
sign it into law within five days.

(iii) The governor may also apply this section to a particular numbered line or section of
the legislative action and not to the entire legislative action, and the legislature may
countermand the governor’s line item veto to some or all of the governor’s line item
vetoes by the same thresholds as permit them to overturn a veto of the entire
legislative action.

(iv) If the governor challenges the constitutionality of the same by the same process as
by which they challenge the constitutionality of other bills and resolutions, and if it is
found to be constitutional, the governor shall sign it into law within 5 days.

(8) A resolution or legislative action to cause there to be naming of things including laws after
other things or people, to create commemorative activity in a specific instance, to
commemorate a specific person or activity, to create ceremonial things and award specific
individuals awards, shall not occur unless recommended by an independent commission
established for the sole purpose of considering and recommending such ceremonial and
commemorative activity to the jurisdictions of the state or to on its own authority in cases
provided by law, to do so autonomously.

(9) Upon the submission of a petition signed anonymously by any majority of the members in a
house present, or upon no objection from any member in a house present, the debate shall end
and the motion voted upon, except in the case of where a higher threshold is required to pass
the bill, confirmation, or motion or resolution in which case either no objection is required or
the number of members which would constitute the threshold required to pass the actionable
item as a vote shall sign the petition to end the debate.

(10) An upper house may not amend a proposal it receives from a lower house or a mediation
committee, it may only approve or reject it.

(11) On proposal of any ten percent of the members of either house of the state legislature
signing a petition to do so, or a combination of the members thereof, citing the relevant law or
legal instrument, the chief executive of the state or their cabinet members including the
attorney general, or an independent commission or officer, shall respond to a question of why
they do not apply a clause or part or all of a law or legal instrument to a specific case where they
could potentially apply that law or legal instrument, and they shall within sixty days present a
narrative explanation explaining their decision and the reasoning behind it, or if any twenty
percent of the members of either house of the state legislature or a combination of the
members thereof declare the petition urgent, they shall provide their reasoning within fifteen
days.

(12) In this Constitution, “a bill concerning local government” means a bill which uses powers
which are to be shared concurrently as defined in the schedule to the state constitution as to be
shared with local authorities or which uses local administrations, funds, and civil servants to
implement a bill.

(13) Before any house considers a bill or resolution, the presiding officer or presiding officers of
the state legislature shall resolve any question as to whether it is a bill or resolution concerning
local government and, if it is, whether it is a special or an ordinary bill or resolution.

(14) When any bill or resolution concerning local government has been passed by one one
house in a bicameral legislature, the presiding officer of that house shall refer it to the presiding
officer of the other house.

(15) If in a bicameral legislature, both houses pass the bill or resolution in the same form, the
presiding officer of the house in which the bill or resolution originated shall, and in the case of a
unicameral legislature, the presiding officer of the sole house shall, within seven days, refer the
bill or resolution to the governor for assent.

(16) A resolution may cancel a rule proposed by a department or agency which they make
pursuant to existing statutory law, if it is done in the form of a resolution to nullify a Rule, but
that resolution may not concern any other subject, it only proposes to cancel that specific rule.

(17) A bill or resolution may only address a single subject, which subject shall be expressly stated
in the title of that bill or resolution, and amendments may not alter the subject of that bill or
resolution. The constitutional authority by which the state legislature passes or considers
passing the bill or resolution shall be provided for in the bill or resolution.

(18) If in a bicameral legislature a bill or resolution is referred to a mediation committee under ,


the presiding officers of both houses shall refer the bill or resolution to the mediation
committee to attempt to develop a version of the bill or resolution that both houses will pass.

(13) If the mediation committee agrees on a version of the bill or resolution, each house shall
vote to approve or reject that version of the bill or resolution.

(14) If both houses approve the version of the bill or resolution proposed by the mediation
committee, the presiding officer of that house, whichever house first voted on whether or not
to adopt the bill or resolution, shall refer the bill or resolution to the governor within seven days
for assent.

(15) If the mediation committee fails to agree on a version of the bill or resolution within sixty
days, or if a version proposed by the committee is rejected by either House and a second
attempt to refer the bill or resolution to a mediation committee fails to develop a version which
is passed by both Houses within one hundred and eighty days, the bill or resolution is defeated.

(16) A money bill may not deal with any matter other than those listed in the definition of “a
money bill” in clause (18).
(17) If, in the opinion of the presiding officer of the lower house in a bicameral legislature, a
motion makes provision for a matter mentioned in the definition of “a money bill”, the lower
house may proceed only in accordance with the recommendation of the relevant committee of
the lower house after taking into account the views of the cabinet secretary responsible for
finance.

(18) In this Constitution, “a money bill” means a bill that contains provisions dealing with

(a) taxes;

(b) the imposition of charges on a public fund or the variation or repeal of any of those
charges;

(c) the appropriation, receipt, custody, investment or issue of public money;

(d) the raising or guaranteeing of any loan or its repayment; or

(e) matters incidental to any of those matters.

(19) In clause (18), “tax”, “public money”, and “loan” do not include any tax, public money or
loan raised by a local government.

(20) Within fourteen days after receipt of a bill, the governor shall

(a) assent to the bill; or

(b) refer the bill back to the state legislature for reconsideration by the state legislature,
noting any reservations that the governor has concerning the bill or resolution.

(21) If the governor refers a bill back for reconsideration, the state legislature may, following the
appropriate procedures under this Article

(a) amend the bill or resolution in light of the governor’s reservations; or

(b) pass the bill or resolution a second time without amendment.

(22) If the state legislature amends the bill or resolution fully accommodating the governor’s
reservations, the appropriate presiding officer, in bicameral systems whichever house originally
passed the bill or resolution which was vetoed by the governor, shall resubmit it to the governor
for assent, which they must do within seven days.

(23) Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution or the state constitution, any question
proposed for decision in a state legislative house shall be determined by a majority of the
members in that house, present and voting.

(24) On a question proposed for decision in a house, the presiding officer or deputy presiding
officer has no vote except in the case of if their vote can change the outcome of the vote and
may not simultaneously participate in any debate and be the presiding officer at the time of the
debate or vote on the subject of that debate, unless the vote is held by secret ballot. If the vote
is tied, the question is deemed to have lost.

(25) A state legislature which is bicameral may establish joint committees consisting of members
of both houses and may jointly regulate the procedure of those committees, but the members
and the co-chairs of those committees are elected and removed by the same means as the
mediation committee and the co-chairs preside over the committee on alternating days, but the
total number of members of the joint committee is to be jointly resolved by both houses with an
equal number of members from each.

(26) The proceedings of a legislative house are not invalid just because of

(a) a vacancy in its membership; or

(b) the presence or participation of any person not entitled to be present at, or to
participate in, the proceedings of the House.

(27) When a legislative house considers any appointment for which its approval is required
under this Constitution, the state constitution, or an act of the state legislature

(a) the appointment shall be considered by a committee of the relevant house;

(b) the committee’s recommendation shall be tabled in the house for approval; and

(c) the proceedings of the committee and the house shall be open to the public.

(28) An open hearing shall be scheduled for those who are considered for appointment by the
consent or on the proposal of the house where the person under consideration shall appear
before the house and answer the questions, including an assured question period for the
minority and the majority, and another hearing shall be scheduled for the public to make
comments or provide feedback on the suitability, competence, and other warnings or
information they may have on the considered person.

(29) Any legislative house, or any of its committees, has power to summon any person to appear
before it for the purpose of giving evidence or providing information.

(30) For the purposes of clause (29), a legislative house and any of its committees have the same
powers as the District Court of the United States

(a) to enforce the attendance of witnesses and examine them on oath, affirmation or
otherwise;

(b) to compel the production of documents; and

(c) to issue a commission or request to examine witnesses abroad.


(31) Upon the submission of a petition signed anonymously by any majority of the members in a
house present, or upon no objection from any member in a house present, the debate shall end
and the motion voted upon, except in the case of where a higher threshold is required to pass
the bill, confirmation, or motion or resolution in which case either no objection is required or
the number of members which would constitute the threshold required to pass the actionable
item as a vote shall sign the petition to end the debate.

(32) An upper house may not amend a proposal it receives from a lower house or a mediation
committee, it may only approve or reject it.

(33) The state constitution cannot be amended and the law of the state governing emergency
powers cannot be amended during an active state of emergency.

(34) The fundamental rights of people which cannot be derogated in this Constitution or a state
constitution cannot be derogated by a state government during a state of emergency.

(35) A state executive may issue a declaration of emergency powers under the same
circumstances as the President may invoke emergency powers, but only by the confirmation of
the invocation by the state legislature by a two thirds vote within five days of the invocation and
expiration at the end of a sixty day period, after the consultation with the majority and minority
leaders of their state legislature and the presiding officers of their state legislature and the
presiding judge over their state judiciary.

(36) A renewal of the powers may occur after consultation with the same authorities as is
required for the initial declaration and is subject to the legislative confirmation by the same
majority required and expires at the end of the same period.

(37) A state executive may cancel a state of emergency as a plenary power.

Part Three – Authority of the States


Article 176.

(1) In the event of a conflict between federal laws and state laws occur, to the extent that the
federal law is constitutional, the federal law prevails to the extent of the inconsistency.

(2) A state’s tax collection department collects prescribed federal tax rates on value added
taxes, tariffs, income taxes, payroll taxes, and excise taxes, which are set nationally. The agency
shall retain an amount which covers the actual documented expenses in collecting the tax as
well as the amount which the state is entitled to have under the present budget plans to be
distributed as block and preapproved project or formula grants to the states, the amount which
they are entitled to have as an equalization fund, the salaries and pay of the employees of the
National Guard of the amount authorized by federal law and the upkeep and maintenance of
ordinary barracks and general purpose military vehicles as authorized by federal law, and shall
submit the remainder of the funds directly to the United States’ Treasury Fund.
(3) Members of the armed forced remain as reserves within the United States and as employees
of their state’s National Guard, unless and until pressed into actual service for a national
purpose when authorized by this Constitution and by the laws.

(4) A state legislature may only establish or disestablish a local government or amend the
borders of a local government on the proposal of a report of an independent commission
established for the purpose of considering such borders, and only by a two-thirds vote in each
house which the state legislature consists of, and the bill to do so shall originate in the state
upper house if the state is bicameral. The commission shall consider administrative capacity to
perform the work of a local government, the demographics and demographic trends, the
density of the local governments, the history of amending such borders in the past, the desires
of the population involved, the economic viability of the local area, the tax and revenue base for
the local authority, the logistical infrastructure of the local area, historical, linguistic, and
cultural ties, and the efficiency of local authorities, and shall hold at least two public hearings on
the matter and solicit the comments of the local people affected and the local government
authority in the area, with the change, establishment, or disestablishment finally going into
effect if a majority of the voters in the location to be changed vote in favour of the change in a
referendum with a turnout of at least twenty five percent.

Part Four – State Boundaries and Creation of New States


Article 177.

In the event of a desire by a state or more than one state to merge with another state, for one or more
states to split up into new states, and for a new state to exist where the territory does not currently
overlap with the territory of an existing state, the assent of the people by referendum by majority vote
with a minimum turnout of at least one-third of those eligible to vote casting a vote in the referendum
shall be required in each state whose borders would be affected, and in the specific area which is
proposed as a new state, and the new state shall be admitted upon its ratification of a state constitution
being accepted by the Congress of the United States by majority vote in both Houses.

Part Five – Suspension of State and Local Governments


Article 178.

(1) The Congress may suspend a state government

(a) in an emergency arising out of internal conflict or war; or

(b) in exceptional circumstances where it is impossible or there is a refusal to observe


this constitution and the state government will not observe the ruling of a court on the
matter after appeals are exhausted.

(2) A state government shall not be suspended under clause (1) (b) unless an independent
commission of inquiry has investigated allegations against the state government and presents a
report to Congress recommending the suspension and the mechanisms for relieving the
suspension’s causes.

(3) During a suspension under this Article, arrangements shall be made for the performance of
the functions of a state government in accordance with an Act of Congress.

(4) The Congress may at any time terminate the suspension.

(5) A suspension under this Article shall not extend beyond a period of ninety days.

(6) On the expiry of the period provided for under clause (5), elections for the relevant state
government shall be held.

(7) A state legislature may suspend a county government or a unit of governance below it on the
same grounds and for the same duration by which the Congress may suspend a state
government, in a process established by the state constitution, and with the same process as is
used to suspend a state government by Congress. The state upper house may at any time cancel
the suspension.

(8) Any suspension may be challenged before the court of last resort in the level which is
conducting a suspension by the members of the legislative body being suspended, by an
independent commission of the suspended level, or by the executive of the body being
suspended, by any ten percent of the legislators of the level conducting the suspension, or any
petition signed by as many people as would be necessary to sign a petition to put a person on
the ballot in that suspended jurisdiction for the chief executive, and a decision shall be rendered
within seven days of filing the complaint. If the court rules against the suspension, it is
immediately cancelled with retroactive effect.

Part Six - Miscellaneous


Article 179.

(1) Unless disqualified under clause (2), a person is eligible for election as a member of a state
legislative assembly if the person

(a) is registered as a voter;

(b) satisfies any educational, moral and ethical requirements prescribed by this
Constitution; and

(c) is either

(i) nominated by a political party; or

(ii) an independent candidate supported by at least five hundred registered


voters in the ward concerned.
(2) A person is disqualified from being elected a member of a state legislature if the person

(a) is a State officer or other public officer, other than a member of the state legislature;

(b) has, at any time within the five years immediately before the date of election, held
office as a member of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission;

(c) has not been a citizen of The United States for at least the year years immediately
preceding the date of election;

(d) is of unsound mind;

(e) is an undischarged bankrupt;

(f) is serving a sentence of imprisonment of at least six months;

or

(g) has been found, in accordance with any law, to have misused or abused a State
office or public office or to have contravened Chapter Six.

(3) A person is not disqualified under clause (2) unless all possibility of appeal or review of the
relevant sentence or decision has been exhausted.

Article 180.

The office of a member of a state legislature becomes vacant:

(a) if the member dies;

(b) if the member is absent from eight sittings of the assembly without permission, in
writing, of the presiding officer of the state legislature, and is unable to offer
satisfactory explanation for the absence;

(c) if the member is removed from office under this Constitution or legislation enacted
under Article 77;

(d) if the member resigns in writing addressed to the presiding officer of the state
legislature.

Article 181.

(1) A state legislature or any of its committees has power to summon any person to appear
before it for the purpose of giving evidence or providing information.

(2) For the purposes of clause (1), an assembly has the same powers as the District Court to
(a) enforce the attendance of witnesses and examining them on oath, affirmation or
otherwise;

(b) compel the production of documents; and

(c) issue a commission or request to examine witnesses abroad.

Article 182.

(1) A state legislature shall

(a) conduct its business in an open manner, and hold its sittings and those of its
committees, in public; and

(b) facilitate public participation and involvement in the legislative and other business of
the assembly and its committees.

(2) A state legislature may not exclude the public, or any media, from any sitting unless in
exceptional circumstances the speaker has determined that there are justifiable reasons for
doing so.

Article 183.

Not more than three fifths of the members of any state legislature or state executive appointed cabinet
members shall be of the same gender.

Article 184.

State legislation does not take effect unless published.

Article 185.

Congress shall enact legislation providing for all matters necessary or convenient to give effect to this
Chapter.

Chapter Twelve – Public Finance


Part One – Principles and Framework of Public Finance
Article 186.

The following principles shall guide all aspects of public finance in the Republic

(a) there shall be openness and accountability, including public participation in financial
matters;

(b) the public finance system shall promote an equitable society, and in particular
(i) the burden of taxation shall be shared fairly;

(ii) revenue raised nationally shall be shared equitably among national and state
governments; and

(iii) expenditure shall promote the equitable development of the country,


including by making special provision for marginalized groups and areas;

(c) the burdens and benefits of the use of resources and public borrowing shall be
shared equitably between present and future generations;

(d) public money shall be used in a prudent and responsible way; and

(e) financial management shall be responsible, and fiscal reporting shall be clear.

Article 187.

(1) Revenue raised nationally shall be shared equitably among the national and state
governments.

(2) State governments may be given additional allocations from the national government’s share
of the revenue, either conditionally or unconditionally.

Article 188.

(1) The following criteria shall be taken into account in determining the equitable shares
provided for under Article 187 and in all national legislation concerning state government
enacted in terms of this Chapter

(a) the national interest;

(b) any provision that must be made in respect of the public debt and other national
obligations;

(c) the needs of the national government, determined by objective criteria;

(d) the need to ensure that state governments are able to perform the functions
expected of them and to which they are entitled to do;

(e) the fiscal capacity and efficiency of state governments;

(f) developmental and other needs of states;

(g) economic disparities within and among states and the need to remedy them;

(h) the need for affirmative action in respect of disadvantaged areas and groups;
(i) the need for economic optimization of the states and to provide incentives for each
state to optimize its capacity to raise revenue;

(j) the desirability of stable and predictable allocations of revenue; and

(k) the need for flexibility in responding to emergencies and other temporary needs,
based on similar objective criteria.

(2) For every financial year, the equitable share of the revenue raised nationally that is allocated
to state governments shall be not less than fifteen per cent of all revenue collected by the
national government.

(3) The amount referred to in clause (2) shall be calculated on the basis of the most recent
audited accounts of revenue received, as approved by the House of Representatives.

Article 189.

(1) There is established an Equalization Fund into which shall be paid one half per cent of all the
revenue collected by the national government each year calculated on the basis of the most
recent audited accounts of revenue received, as approved by the House of Representatives.

(2) The national government shall use the Equalization Fund only to provide basic services
including water, roads, health facilities and electricity to marginalized areas to the extent
necessary to bring the quality of those services in those areas to the level generally enjoyed by
the rest of the nation, so far as possible.

(3) The national government may use the Equalization Fund

(a) only to the extent that the expenditure of those funds has been approved in an
Appropriation Bill enacted by Congress; and

(b) either directly, or indirectly through conditional grants to states in which


marginalized communities exist.

(4) The Commission on Revenue Allocation shall be consulted and its recommendations
considered before Congress passes any Bill appropriating money out of the Equalization Fund.

(5) Any unexpended money in the Equalization Fund at the end of a particular financial year
shall remain in that Fund for use in accordance with clauses (2) and (3) during any subsequent
financial year.

(6) This Article lapses twenty years after the effective date, subject to clause (7).

(7) Congress may enact legislation suspending the effect of clause (6) for a further fixed period
of years, subject to clause (8).
(8) Legislation under clause (7) shall be supported by more than half of all the members of the
House of Representatives, and more than half of all the Senators in the Senate.

(9) Money shall not be withdrawn from the Equalization Fund unless the Comptroller General of
Budget has approved the withdrawal.

Article 190.

(1) When a Bill that includes provisions dealing with financial legislation the sharing of revenue,
or any financial matter concerning state governments is published, the Commission on Revenue
Allocation shall consider those provisions and may make recommendations to the House of
Representatives and the Senate.

(2) Any recommendations made by the Commission shall be tabled in Congress, and each House
shall consider the recommendations before voting on the Bill.

Part Two – Other Public Funds


Article 191.

(1) There is established the Consolidated Fund into which shall be paid all money raised or
received by or on behalf of the national government, except money that

(a) is reasonably excluded from the Fund by an Act of Congress and payable into another
public fund established for a specific purpose; or

(b) may, under an Act of Congress, be retained by the State organ that received it for the
purpose of defraying the expenses of the State organ.

(2) Money may be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund only

(a) in accordance with an appropriation by an Act of Congress;

(b) in accordance with Article 207 or 208; or

(c) as a charge against the Fund as authorized by this Constitution or an Act of Congress.

(3) Money shall not be withdrawn from any national public fund other than the Consolidated
Fund, unless the withdrawal of the money has been authorized by an Act of Congress.

(4) Money shall not be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund unless the Comptroller General
of Budget has approved the withdrawal.

Article 192.

(1) There shall be established a Revenue Fund for each state government, into which shall be
paid all money raised or received by or on behalf of the state government.
(2) Money may be withdrawn from the Revenue Fund of a state government only

(a) as a charge against the Revenue Fund that is provided for by legislation of the state;
or

(b) as authorized by an appropriation by legislation of the state.

(3) Money shall not be withdrawn from a Revenue Fund unless the Comptroller General of
budget of the state has approved the withdrawal.

Article 193.

(1) There is established a Contingencies Fund, the operation of which shall be in accordance
with an Act of Congress.

(2) An Act of Congress shall provide for advances from the Contingencies Fund if

(a) the Cabinet Secretary responsible for finance is satisfied that there is an urgent and
unforeseen need for expenditure for which there is no other authority

(b) the Comptroller General of Budget certifies that there is no other authority, that the
spending is urgent and unforeseen, and that the Congress has not in the previous
eighteen months debated the issue and not voted down a proposal to spend money in
that manner or for the purposes which the Contingencies Fund is being proposed to be
used.

(c) and that the fund shall have a magnitude no larger than two percent of the budget
which is annually appropriated by the national budget.

Part Three – Revenue Raising Powers and the Public Debt


Article 194.

Only a law or bylaw of a local government passed by the Congress, a state legislature, or a local elected
legislative body can impose a tax or tariff or fee schedule.

Article 195.

(1) No tax or licensing fee may be imposed, waived or varied except as provided by legislation.

(2) If legislation permits the waiver of any tax or licensing fee

(a) a public record of each waiver shall be maintained together with the reason for the
waiver; and

(b) each waiver, and the reason for it, shall be reported to the Auditor General.
(3) No law may exclude or authorize the exclusion of a State officer from payment of tax by
reason of

(a) the office held by that State officer; or

(b) the nature of the work of the State officer.

Article 196.

(1) Congress may, by legislation

(a) prescribe the terms on which the national government may borrow; and

(b) impose reporting requirements.

(2) Within seven days after either House of Congress so requests by resolution, the Cabinet
Secretary responsible for finance shall present to the relevant committee, information
concerning any particular loan or guarantee, including all information necessary to show

(a) the extent of the total indebtedness by way of principal and accumulated interest;

(b) the use made or to be made of the proceeds of the loan;

(c) the provision made for servicing or repayment of the loan; and

(d) the progress made in the repayment of the loan.

Article 197.

State constitutions shall prescribe the circumstances under which a state may borrow on its own credit,
and only legislation passed by their legislatures or by their people can authorize borrowing.

Article 198.

(1) An Act of Congress shall prescribe terms and conditions under which the national
government may guarantee loans.

(2) Within two months after the end of each financial year, the national government shall
publish a report on the guarantees that it gave during that year.

Article 199.

(1) The public debt is a charge on the Consolidated Fund, but an Act of Congress may provide for
charging all or part of the public debt to other public funds.

(2) For the purposes of this Article, “the public debt” means all financial obligations attendant to
loans raised or guaranteed and securities issued or guaranteed by the national government.
Part Four – Revenue Allocation by State
Article 200.

(1) There is established the Commission on Revenue Allocation.

(2) The Commission shall consist of the following persons appointed by the President

(a) a chairperson, who shall be nominated by the President and approved by the House
of Representatives;

(b) two persons nominated by the political parties by secret ballot among their
legislative members represented in the House of Representatives according to their
proportion of members in the Assembly;

(c) five persons nominated by the political parties by secret ballot among their
legislative members represented in the Senate according to their proportion of
members in the Senate; and

(d) the Principal Secretary in the department responsible for finance.

(3) The persons nominated under clause (2) shall not be members of Congress.

(4) To be qualified to be a member of the Commission under clause (2) (a), (b) or(c), a person
shall have extensive professional experience in financial and economic matters for at least
fifteen years and a post-secondary degree in the relevant field.

Article 201.

(1) The principal function of the Commission on Revenue Allocation is to make


recommendations concerning the basis for the equitable sharing of revenue raised by the
national government between the national and state governments.

(2) In formulating recommendations, the Commission shall seek

(a) to promote and give effect to the criteria mentioned in Article 188(1);

(b) when appropriate, to define and enhance the revenue sources of the national and
state governments; and

(c) to encourage fiscal responsibility.

(3) The Commission shall determine, publish and regularly review a policy in which it sets out
the criteria by which to identify the marginalized areas for purposes of Article 189(2).

(4) The Commission shall submit its recommendations to the Senate, the House of
Representatives, the national executive, state legislatures and states executives.
Article 202.

(1) Once every five years, the Senate shall, by resolution, determine the basis for allocating
among the states the share of national revenue that is annually allocated to the state level of
government.

(2) In determining the basis of revenue sharing under clause (1), the Senate shall

(a) take the criteria in Article 188 (1) into account;

(b) request and consider recommendations from the Commission on Revenue


Allocation;

(c) consult the state executives and the Cabinet Secretary responsible for finance and
also the Cabinet Secretary responsible for relationships with the states; and

(d) invite the public, including professional bodies, to make submissions to it on the
matter.

(3) Within ten days after the Senate adopts a resolution under clause (1), the President of the
Senate shall refer the resolution to the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

(4) Within sixty days after the Senate’s resolution is referred under clause (3), the House of
Representatives may consider the resolution, and vote to approve it, with or without
amendments, or to reject it.

(5) If the House of Representatives

(a) does not vote on the resolution within sixty days, the resolution shall be regarded as
having been approved by the House of Representatives without amendment; or

(b) votes on the resolution, the resolution shall have been

(i) amended only if at least two thirds of the members of the Assembly vote in
support of an amendment;

(ii) rejected only if at least two thirds of the members of the Assembly vote
against it, irrespective whether it has first been amended by the Assembly; or

(iii) approved, in any other case.

(6) If the House of Representatives approves an amended version of the resolution, or rejects
the resolution, the Senate, at its option, may either

(a) adopt a new resolution under clause (1), in which case the provisions of this clause
and clause (4) and (5) apply afresh; or
(b) request that the matter be referred to a joint committee of the two Houses of
Congress for mediation under Article 106, applied with the necessary modifications.

(7) A resolution under this Article that is approved under clause (5) shall be binding until a
subsequent resolution has been approved, and is not subject to a veto by the President.

(8) Despite clause (1), the Senate may, by resolution supported by at least two thirds of its
members, amend a resolution at any time after it has been approved.

(9) Clauses (2) to (7), with the necessary modifications, apply to a resolution under clause (8).

Article 203.

(1) At least two months before the end of each financial year, there shall be introduced in
Congress

(a) a Division of Revenue Bill, which shall divide revenue raised by the national
government among the national and state levels of government in accordance with this
Constitution; and

(b) a State Allocation of Revenue Bill, which shall divide among the states the revenue
allocated to the state level of government on the basis determined in accordance with
the resolution in force under Article 202.

(2) Each Bill required by clause (1) shall be accompanied by a memorandum setting out

(a) an explanation of revenue allocation as proposed by the Bill;

(b) an evaluation of the Bill in relation to the criteria mentioned in Article 188 (1); and

(c) a summary of any significant deviation from the Commission on Revenue Allocation’s
recommendations, with an explanation for each such deviation.

Article 204.

A state’s share of revenue raised by the national government shall be transferred to the state without
undue delay and without deduction, except when the transfer has been stopped under Article 210.

Part Five – Budgets and Spending


Article 205.

Budgets of the national and state governments shall contain

(a) estimates of revenue and expenditure, differentiating between recurrent and


development expenditure;
(b) proposals for financing any anticipated deficit for the period to which they apply;
and

(c) proposals regarding borrowing and other forms of public liability that will increase
public debt during the following year.

Article 206.

(1) At least two months before the end of each financial annual Appropriation year, the Cabinet
Secretary responsible for finance shall submit to the House of Representatives estimates of the
revenue and expenditure of the national government for the next financial year to be tabled in
the House of Representatives.

(2) The estimates mentioned in clause (1) shall

(a) include estimates for expenditure from the Equalization Fund; and

(b) be in the form, and according to the procedure, prescribed by an Act of Congress.

(3) The House of Representatives shall consider the estimates submitted under clause (1)
together with the estimates submitted by the Congressional Service Commission and the Chief
Registrar of the Judiciary under Articles 121 and 169 respectively.

(4) Before the House of Representatives considers the estimates of revenue and expenditure, a
committee of the Assembly shall discuss and review the estimates and make recommendations
to the Assembly.

(5) In discussing and reviewing the estimates, the committee shall seek representations from
the public and the recommendations shall be taken into account when the committee makes its
recommendations to the House of Representatives.

(6) When the estimates of national government expenditure, and the estimates of expenditure
for the Judiciary and Congress have been approved by the House of Representatives, they shall
be included in an Appropriation Bill, which shall be introduced into the House of
Representatives to authorize the withdrawal from the Consolidated Fund of the money needed
for the expenditure, and for the appropriation of that money for the purposes mentioned in the
Bill.

(7) The Appropriation Bill mentioned in clause (6) shall not include expenditures that are
charged on the Consolidated Fund by this Constitution or an Act of Congress.

Article 207.

(1) If the Appropriation Act for a financial year has not been assented to, or is not likely to be
assented to, by the beginning of that financial year, the House of Representatives may authorize
the withdrawal of money from the Consolidated Fund on the basis of continuing the previous
financial year’s budget for a period of thirty days.

(2) Money withdrawn under clause (1) shall

(a) be for the purpose of meeting expenditure necessary to carry on the services of the
national government during that year until such time as the Appropriation Act is
assented to; and

(b) be included, under separate votes for the several services in respect of which they
were withdrawn, in the Appropriation Act.

(3) A continuing resolution under clause (1) may not be vetoed, it must be assented to by the
President upon receiving it within ten days.

(4) The budget, the pre budget statements, the President’s recommendation of the budget to
the Congress, the review and report produced every quarter of the year and every half of the
year and at the end of the fiscal year, and the Auditor General’s report and the Comptroller
General’s report, as well as the comprehensive revenue and expenditure data as consolidated
files, shall be machine readable and publicly released at the same time they are released to
Congress or otherwise at a specific time or point as established by the Constitution and any laws
establishing the procedure for the budget which do not contradict the Constitution. The same
information regarding these documents as they were produced for all previous budgets and
documents shall be also publicly provided.

(5) The budget, the pre budget statements, the President’s recommendation of the budget to
the Congress, the review and report produced every quarter of the year and every half of the
year and at the end of the fiscal year, and the Auditor General’s report and the Comptroller
General’s report shall have a simplified version for laymen produced and released at the same
time as the original documents are released, as well as all of these files for the previous ten
years or more, and both shall be public documents.

(6) The budget for a new fiscal year is submitted by the President on the proposal of the
Secretary of the Treasury at least ninety days prior to the end of the fiscal year, the date upon
which it is to be submitted and when the fiscal year ends and begins is to be prescribed by an
act of Congress, and must be assented by the House of Representatives in the form of an Act of
Congress to take effect.

(7) The budget the President proposes shall include the detailed revenue, expenditure, deficit,
and debt estimates, the macroeconomic assumptions on which the proposal is dependent on,
the historical budget figures and the projections for the two fiscal years succeeding the next
budget upon which the budget proposal for the present year is based upon, the policy decisions
and plans for which the budget proposal is dependent upon, and the estimates for the taxation
changes which the budget proposal is dependent on.
(8) The budget shall, at least thirty days prior to the introduction of the budget by the President
to the Congress, have the general policy statements, goals, and the total estimated revenue,
expenditure, debt, and deficit expected for the next budget and the two fiscal years succeeding
the end of the next budget, and include the macroeconomic forecasts upon which these
estimates are dependent on, released as a pre budget statement, for the public to view.

(9) The budget as it is approved by the House of Representatives and thusly is enacted as law
shall have the budget as it is approved publicly released within three days of the approval of the
budget.

(10) Within thirty days of the end of each quarter of the fiscal year, a report outlining the
progress in implementing the budget, the actual expenditure as divided up by departments and
agencies, with the endorsement of their respective comptroller, shall be publicly released.

(11) Within thirty days of the end of the second quarter of the fiscal year and at the end of the
fourth quarter, a report outlining the budget program and a comprehensive review of the
budget implementation as of the end of the second quarter and the end of the fourth quarter
respectively, containing updated forecasts and showing those forecasts and actual expenditures
and revenues and debt relative to the planned and actual expenditures, revenues, and debt, as
well as outlining the changes in the macroeconomic output of the United States and other
macroeconomic effects and any changes in policy or laws that relate to the budget and how
they have influenced the implementation of the budget. They shall include reports with
comprehensive narrative explanations of the reallocation of funds between administrative
departments and agencies, changes in salaries and benefits, changes in projects and contracts,
and economic and technical changes, as well as changes in inflation and unemployment, and the
influence of automatic stabilizers. The report shall outline recommendations for resolving any
issues the report may find, and a narrative explanation of those recommendations and who has
the authority to approve of those recommendations.

(12) Within sixty days of the end of each fiscal year, the Auditor General shall release a report
outlining the financial, compliance, and performance audits they have completed. The report
shall include the determination of whether the budget was implemented in the legal and
constitutional manner, implemented in the manner in which internal procedures intended and
expected the budget to be implemented, the estimated value for the money spent, the
performance of the revenue collection in accurately assessing and collecting revenue without
permitting illicit evasion, and shall subdivide their report by department and agency. The
Auditor General shall include any recommendations for which they deem it necessary to include
a recommendation, including both proposals for new means of procedures and laws and
recommendations as to whether individuals have completed their roles in the correct manner.

(13) The reports, documents, budgets, proposed budgets, and other outlines, for the pre budget
statements, for the President’s proposed budget, for the budget as it is enacted by Congress,
and the in year reviews and the quarterly review and the year end reviews, the report of the
Auditor General, and their citizen’s budget versions, shall also be grouped by the administrative
unit or department or agency which the document is related to, grouped by the functional
classification of what purpose the money is spent and what authority it is done under, the
programs which are included, and the classification of what the money is in fact spent on, and
this shall be the case for all departments, agencies, and administrative unit and for all
expenditures, revenues, and debt and deficit, and the subdivision of revenue including by source
of the tax or other individual and specific form of revenue or bond and the state and district in
which it was collected in. The debt and deficit shall also be classified into new net borrowing
during the fiscal year, the total outstanding debt, and the interest payments and the interest
rates, the maturity profile of the debt, the variability of the interest rates, the callability of the
debt, the currency of the debt, the profile of the creditors, analysis of the risks associated with
the debt, what the debt finances, and the internal and external holders of the debt. The
classification shall be organized into standards which permit the comparison between the
United States and other countries in relation to their own practices, and the process and
classifications listed shall have an explanation for why the classification is the way it is. This
clause shall also include when multi year and historical comparisons are provided for in the
document.

(14) The reports, documents, budgets, proposed budgets, and other outlines, for the pre budget
statements, for the President’s proposed budget, for the budget as it is enacted by Congress,
and the in year reviews and the quarterly review and the year end reviews, the report of the
Auditor General, and their citizen’s budget versions, shall also have the macroeconomic effects
include the nominal and real growth in gross domestic product, the consumer product index
inflation rate, the interest rates, the prices of primary commodities including energy
commodities, the labour force participation rate, the unemployment rate as those who do not
have employment and are or have been actively seeking employment within the previous four
weeks, the percentage of the labour force unemployed for fifteen weeks or more, the
percentage of the labour force who have lost jobs or completed temporary work, the rate of
which those who have ceased seeking employment due to a belief that there is no work to do,
those who have not in the previous four weeks sought employment but wish to seek it, and
those who are part time workers but desire full time employment but who cannot due to
economic reasons, the currency account, the exchange rates, the composition of the growth in
gross domestic product and the gross domestic product in general, the gross domestic product
deflator, the short and long term interest rates, and the division of the unemployment and
labour participation rates shall be divided up into the categories which are causes for why a
person cannot be discriminated against in finding employment or while working. Such analyses
shall each also provide for alternative assumptions which could plausibly occur and what those
assumptions, if changed, would cause to be different in the other elements in the budget
documentation and proposals.

(15) The reports, documents, budgets, proposed budgets, and other outlines, for the pre budget
statements, for the President’s proposed budget, for the budget as it is enacted by Congress,
and the in year reviews and the quarterly review and the year end reviews, the report of the
Auditor General, and their citizen’s budget versions, shall also have their estimates include all
the new policy proposals and their effect on revenue, expenditure, debt, and deficit, as they are
distinct from the previous status quo, in addition to a narrative explanation for why, and a
statement of the Congressional Budget Office for how new statutes have influenced these
factors.

(16) The reports, documents, budgets, proposed budgets, and other outlines, for the pre budget
statements, for the President’s proposed budget, for the budget as it is enacted by Congress,
and the in year reviews and the quarterly review and the year end reviews, the report of the
Auditor General, and their citizen’s budget versions, shall also describe and present the same
information regarding spending that was not provided for in an Appropriations Act but was
funded separately, including mandatory spending and where a law or program or other activity
formulaically transfers or spends money. It shall provide for all purposes and policy rationales
for such funds, the complete income, expenditure, the financing data, for both gross and
specific details, their economic, functional, and administrative classifications, narrative
explanations of the risks and benefits of the fund, and the legal authority upon which such funds
exist, are managed, are managed outside of the budget, who by, and the operations of the fund.
The same shall also devolve on the corporations which are majority or entirely owned or
controlled by the public. A general description shall also provide an assessment of the budget
and the extra budgetary funds together in context with each other. The same
comprehensiveness shall also be provided for the extra budgetary funds.

(17) The reports, documents, budgets, proposed budgets, and other outlines, for the pre budget
statements, for the President’s proposed budget, for the budget as it is enacted by Congress,
and the in year reviews and the quarterly review and the year end reviews, the report of the
Auditor General, and their citizen’s budget versions, and the extra budgetary figures, shall also
outline the influence of intergovernmental transfers, including project and block grants, which
are provided to states and local governments, with the same comprehensiveness as is required
for other elements of the budget. Any suspension in transfers for any reason shall have the
suspension outlined, both individually and in the aggregate, and the reasons for the suspension
shall also be explained.

(18) The reports, documents, budgets, proposed budgets, and other outlines, for the pre budget
statements, for the President’s proposed budget, for the budget as it is enacted by Congress,
and the in year reviews and the quarterly review and the year end reviews, the report of the
Auditor General, and their citizen’s budget versions, shall also provide the same information
related to quasi-fiscal activities, including the provision of below market rate loans or bonds or
provision of public goods or services below market rate, and an explanation for the source
funding of these programs or activities, the purpose of the activities, the financing data, the
economic, functional, and administrative classifications, the narrative explanation of the risks
and benefits of the activity, the legal authority for the quasi-fiscal activities and ensuring that
they are authorized by the Appropriations Act in question, the impact on the entity carrying out
the activity, the anticipated duration of the activity, the quantification of the activity and
assumptions involved in the estimates, and, the breakdowns by social and economic and other
groups protected by discriminatory laws and geographical breakdowns.

(19) The reports, documents, budgets, proposed budgets, and other outlines, for the pre budget
statements, for the President’s proposed budget, for the budget as it is enacted by Congress,
and the in year reviews and the quarterly review and the year end reviews, the report of the
Auditor General, and their citizen’s budget versions, shall also include supportive information on
the financial and other assets as well as liabilities incurred or controlled by the United States,
including a listing of all such assets and liabilities and the estimate of their value or liability, the
listing of insurance policies and the valuation and exceptions thereof, the vehicles and buildings
which are the property of the United States, their expected lifespans thereof, physical land and
resources, all bank accounts and other accounts, the cash, bonds, equities, the amounts due to
be paid due to lawsuits which the United States was found liable or which it settled, the overdue
payments and unfulfilled commitments to spend and narrative explanations thereof, contingent
liabilities including loan guarantees and insurance programs with listings of the purpose and
rational for such liabilities and narrative explanations, and how much is new in the new year,
and the total amount due, and a listing and explanation of the defaults, differences in reported
values and market rate values, and summaries on the total balance, as well as the methodology
in valuing such assets and liabilities.

(20) The reports, documents, budgets, proposed budgets, and other outlines, for the pre budget
statements, for the President’s proposed budget, for the budget as it is enacted by Congress,
and the in year reviews and the quarterly review and the year end reviews, the report of the
Auditor General, and their citizen’s budget versions, shall also present information on the longer
term sustainability of the finances of the United States, including the sovereign debt,
commitments to pay, the demographic changes to be expected, changes in interest rates and
inflation rates and unemployment rates, changes in retirement and pensions due, the changes
in the birthdate and raising of children, globalization and longer term statements about the
location of enterprises and relocations for tax purposes, tariffs, automation, and other
macroeconomic effects which are used to assume the changes in that sustainability, over a
period of at least 20 years, and what would happen to that sustainability if plausible differences
in those assumptions were to occur, and the net result in the financial implications and risks due
to those projections.

(21) The reports, documents, budgets, proposed budgets, and other outlines, for the pre budget
statements, for the President’s proposed budget, for the budget as it is enacted by Congress,
and the in year reviews and the quarterly review and the year end reviews, the report of the
Auditor General, and their citizen’s budget versions, shall also provide narrative explanations
and assumptions of risks made in relation to when the rate of taxation is changed and in
particularly lowered and the changes that will have in the financial statements related to the
United States, and the distribution of who receives value, both relative to their income and as
absolute magnitudes, from such changes in tax rates and taxable items. The intended
beneficiaries are to be listed, along with a statement of rational and the estimate of the revenue
which is to be surrendered, and an estimate of what the revenue surrendered would be both
accounting for and not accounting for changes in macroeconomic activity.

(22) Any earmarked revenue and expenditures are to be listed in all of the reports, documents,
budgets, proposed budgets, and other outlines, for the pre budget statements, for the
President’s proposed budget, for the budget as it is enacted by Congress, and the in year
reviews and the quarterly review and the year end reviews, the report of the Auditor General,
and their citizen’s budget versions, in addition to a narrative explanation.

(23) The proposed budget presented by the President shall outline the nature of their proposal
in relation to their stated policy goals for the next budget year and the two succeeding fiscal
years to come, with a narrative explanation. Such policy goals shall include the methodology to
measure the goals and whether the outcomes have occurred, the resources assigned to achieve
the goals, the specific results of that investment, and the general goal which was intended to
occur due to the changes in investment and the actual outcomes of investment, and the
performance targets expected and how they have been deviated from. Such information shall
be provided for all the programs, departments, agencies, and projects within each of the same,
and laymen’s succinct summaries are to be provided, and the Auditor General shall issue a
report assessing whether such goals have in fact occurred, and a narrative explanation of why or
why not. The estimates and policies intended or expected to directly benefit the poorest and
most vulnerable populations shall be provided with a narrative explanation.

(24) The detailed budget timeline and the points along it at which the decisions made in
determining the budget and assessing it are to occur are to be outlined and described in a public
Act of Congress and refined by practice of the Treasury Department in public documents, and
shall outline minimums and performance targets for the inclusion of the people and civil society
in their budget.

(25) Upon the end of a budget year, subsequent estimates for expenditures, revenue, debt, and
deficit shall update reports, along with a clarification of what the estimate was, how much it has
changed, and the reason for the change, so as to reflect what the estimates for expenditure and
revenue now are.

(26) The reports, documents, budgets, proposed budgets, and other outlines, for the pre budget
statements, for the President’s proposed budget, for the budget as it is enacted by Congress,
and the in year reviews and the quarterly review and the year end reviews, the report of the
Auditor General, and their citizen’s budget versions, and the extra budgetary reports and the
intergovernmental transfers, shall also report on the breakdowns and differentiation by the
social and economic classes which this Constitution protects as having the right to be free of
discrimination, and outline such on the basis of geographic breakdown in absolute and per
capita bases, including by state and census metropolitan areas.
(27) On budget documents and files and reports made pursuant to those documents and files
and reports, relevant information shall be produced in a variety of mediums including
pictograms and infographics, written texts, summaries, narrative explanations, and a full
description, and the same shall be produced in mediums such that they can be accessed by
those with varying forms of disabilities.

(28) The President and the Cabinet Secretaries and the House of Representative’s and Senate’s
committees regarding the good accounting and auditing of the budget which their rules
prescribe shall within thirty days release an authentic and true statement reacting to the
findings of the Auditor General and the Comptroller General, and shall provide a statement of
their position to any negative or illegal findings thereof. They shall also provide a statement as
to what they are doing or are considering doing regarding the recommendations of the Auditor
General and the Comptroller General. Such statements in this clause shall be public documents
at the time of their release.

(29) The President, via the Treasury Department, shall, prior to the tabling of their budget
proposal in the Congress, participate in and accept an open process for the people and civil
society to provide feedback on the budget, to propose ideas for the budget and identify
problems and areas of need for the budget to consider, and shall provide additional
supplementary outlets for those who are vulnerable and protected by discriminatory laws, and
to provide for representation by geographic subdivisions of the United States. An appropriate
law and either an executive order or regulation shall provide for additional rules to provide for
the procedure in how this consultation process occurs. Such process shall openly advertise the
opportunity to participate in the budget process and solicit feedback from as many people and
civil society agencies as possible, and solicit people in working groups to consider jointly with
department officials proposals for the budget. A retired judge nominated by and responsible to
the Public Services Commission shall oversee this process and resolve disputes over who is to be
included.

(30) The public feedback and dialogue shall include the discussion of the macroeconomic issues,
the revenue forecasts, policies, and administration, the social spending policies, the debt and
deficit levels, the public investment projects, and public services, and discuss the report from
the previous audit report, and provide coverage regarding the purpose, the scope, the
constraints, the intended outcomes, and the process and timelines, of each aspect of the budget
process.

(31) The President, via the Treasury Department, shall after the end of the public comment
period, at least ten days prior to the tabling of the budget in the Congress and at least seven
days after the end of the consultation period, provide a public report as to what they have done
with the public comments, a list of the comments and feedback they have received and a
detailed report as to what has changed about their proposal due to them.
(32) The public reports and outlines as to what the budget process is shall include detailed
information as to when and how the public participation occurs.

(33) Within ten days of the publication of each quarterly and in year report, the President, via
the Treasury Department, shall hold the same steps as to the review of the implementation of
the budget and hold the same open dialogue over at least the same general topic areas, and be
presided over by the judge chosen by the Public Services Commissioner. The President via the
Treasury Department shall report publically as to the results of these public involvements within
thirty days after the publication of the quarterly and in year report.

(34) Each agency and department director shall provide for the same opportunities for the
people and civil society to participate as the President and the Treasury Department provide as
to the drafting of the budget requests for their department or agency.

(35) The House of Representatives may not introduce a budget bill without it first being
recommended by the President, and they may not introduce a proposal for taxation or revenue
collection without having first submitted the proposal to the President and the Cabinet and the
Cabinet has returned the proposal for revenue with a projection as to the feasibility, economic
impact, and legality of the revenue collection proposal. The House of Representatives may then
propose the revenue collection by means of an Act of Congress, proposed as a bill. If the Cabinet
refuses or neglects to return the proposal with their comments within sixty days of the House of
Representatives passing the resolution to request the comments, the House may initiate the
revenue collection bill without the dialogue of the Cabinet and President.

(36) The House of Representatives may not amend the President’s budget proposal without
having the proposal accepted and recommended positively by a committee of the House of
Representatives for the budget review and the committee overseeing the department or agency
to which the amendment would affect also recommending positively the amendment, and only
after a costing of the amendment by the Congressional Budget Office has been completed. The
committees may only recommend the amendment if they have held at least one hearing with a
representative from the agency or department in question as to the amendment proposal to
ascertain their opinion on the amendment, held at least two open hearing for deliberation on
the amendment of which one shall be reserved for deliberating on the input provided by the
public, and held at least one public hearing for the public to provide input into the budget
amendment development.

(37) The House of Representatives may not amend the President’s budget proposal unless the
total amount of money assigned to a department or agency is sufficient for them to perform the
duties which they are legally responsible for doing, and may not amend the budget such that it
causes the amount of deficit or debt to be incurred by the United States to exceed that which
the President has requested. The total amount of deficit may not exceed three percent of the
budget in any year which the expected or actual gross domestic product growth rate is not
negative. An appropriation may not specify a particular contractor or district or project in
Congress which an administrative assessment in accordance with identifying contractors and
projects to be completed by means of a merit based competitive contract bid has not
determined to be of good quality and public need and has assigned the contract and district
their project competitively.

(38) The House of Representatives shall hold at least two plenary debates in the two months
prior to the tabling of the President’s proposed budget regarding the budget and policy which is
to be passed for the next fiscal year, and at least one of those debates shall include the review
of the broad priorities and fiscal parameters as proposed by the pre budget statements, and at
least one of them shall include any proposed laws or bills which may be relevant to the financial
affairs of the United States. The Senate shall conduct the same debates regarding the same
information as they relate to how the budget and pre budget statements and other financial
policy affects state and local governments. Each House’s finance committees and budget
committees shall each hold at least two such debates on the same timescales and scope as their
plenary House.

(39) The House of Representatives may not vote on the budget proposal prior to the completion
of a period of at least thirty days where the committee on the budget in the House of
Representatives has discussed the budget, held at least two public hearings, held a deliberation
as to what to do with the public’s comments, and proposed and discussed any amendments to
the budget proposal, and submitted a report with their findings and recommendations, the
report which shall be publicly released prior to the vote on the budget and which shall be
released within two days of it being adopted by the committee in question. The House of
Representatives shall refer the budget proposal to the committee within fifteen days of
receiving the budget proposal from the President. The Senate shall also hold the same in their
own committee to deliberate and make recommendations as to the impact on the budget on
the states and local government.

(40) Each committee in the House of Representatives shall hold the same type of hearings which
the budget committee does in relation to the specific field, department, agencies, and other
things which the committee is by the rules of the House, responsible for overseeing, and the
Senate shall have their committees consider the same in relation to their specific field’s impact
on states and local governments. Each such committee shall have the same minimum period of
time to consider the budget proposal, and shall publish the same sort of report as the general
committee on the budget.

(41) Each such legislative budgetary committees, the Comptroller General, and the Auditor
General shall include the discussions and open hearings and comment periods with the public
and civil society organizations to include but not to be limited to macroeconomic issues,
revenue forecasts, policies, and administration, social spending policies, the deficit and debt
levels, the public investment projects, the public services, and audit policies, investigations and
scrutiny, and shall provide a written list of the comments and feedback received and what they
have done with those comments, and how those comments have amended their actions or
policies in a written document within thirty days of the end of the consultation period in a public
document.

(42) Each in year report and quarterly report and the report from the Auditor General and the
Comptroller General shall be discussed and deliberated on in a public hearing, and a second
hearing offering comments from the public, by at least one committee in each House, and
publish a public report on their findings and recommendations, within thirty days of the report
being issued.

(43) The House of Representatives shall hold a vote at least thirty days prior to the end of the
fiscal year as to whether or not to approve of the budget. If they do not vote in the affirmative,
they shall vote within twenty-four hours as to whether to approve of a continuing resolution.

(44) The Comptroller General and the Auditor General each shall, at least once in every sixty day
periods, testify before the committee of financial review as prescribed by the rules of the House
of Representatives, in the House of Representatives, and swornly provide their findings and
recommendations and the committee shall deliberate and issue a report on their assessment of
the officer in question’s answers. Such hearings are public.

(45) Each state and local government shall have, Mutatis Mutandis, the same process for their
own budgets and auditing processes as is provided for in this Chapter for the United States.

Article 208.

(1) Subject to clauses (2) to (4), the national government may spend money that has not been
appropriated if

(a) the amount appropriated for any purpose under the Appropriation Act is insufficient
or a need has arisen for expenditure for a purpose for which no amount has been
appropriated by that Act and consent has been received from a majority of the
committee on appropriations in the House of Representatives for the immediate use of
the money and

(b) money has been withdrawn from the Contingencies Fund.

(2) The approval of Congress for any spending under this Article shall be sought within two
months after the first withdrawal of the money, subject to clause (3).

(3) If Congress is not sitting during the time contemplated in clause (2), or is sitting but adjourns
before the approval has been sought, the approval shall be sought within two weeks after it
next sits.

(4) When the House of Representatives has approved spending under clause (2), an
appropriation Bill shall be introduced for the appropriation of the money spent.
(5) In any particular financial year, the national government may not spend under this Article
more than one per cent of the sum appropriated by Congress for that financial year.

Article 209.

On the basis of the Division of Revenue Bill passed by Congress under Article 23, each state government
shall prepare and adopt its own annual budget and appropriation Bill, and their state executive may not
spend money unless it is authorized to do so by a law of the state legislature or people or it utilizes a
contingency fund which amounts to not more than two percent of the amount of money that the state
appropriations law has appropriated for that year for an urgent and unforeseen circumstance which the
Comptroller General of budget for that state certifies is urgent and unforeseen and was not debated and
voted down in the state legislature within the eighteen months prior to the spending.

Part Six – Auditing and Control of Public Money


Article 210.

(1) An Act of Congress shall provide for the establishment, functions and responsibilities of the
national Treasury.

(2) Congress shall enact legislation to ensure both expenditure control and transparency in all
governments and establish mechanisms to ensure their implementation.

(3) Legislation under clause (2) may authorize the Cabinet Secretary responsible for finance to
stop the transfer of funds to a State organ or any other public entity

(a) only for a serious material breach or persistent material breaches of the measures
established under that legislation; and

(b) subject to the requirements of clauses (4) to (7).

(4) A decision to stop the transfer of funds under clause (3) may not stop the transfer of more
than fifty per cent of funds due to a state government.

(5) A decision to stop the transfer of funds as contemplated in clause (3) (a) shall not stop the
transfer of funds for more than sixty days; and may be enforced immediately, but will lapse
retrospectively unless, within thirty days after the date of the decision, Congress approves it by
resolution passed by both Houses.

(6) Congress may renew a decision to stop the transfer of funds but for no more than sixty days
at a time.

(7) Congress may not approve or renew a decision to stop the transfer of funds unless

(a) the Comptroller General of Budget has presented a report on the matter to
Congress; and
(b) the public entity has been given an opportunity to answer the allegations against it,
and to state its case, before the relevant Congressional committee.

Article 211.

(1) An Act of Congress shall provide for

(a) the keeping of financial records and the auditing of accounts of all governments and
other public entities, and prescribe other measures for securing efficient and
transparent fiscal management; and

(b) the designation of an accounting officer in every public entity at the national and
state level of government.

(2) The accounting officer of a national public entity is accountable to the House of
Representatives for its financial management, and the accounting officer of a state public entity
is accountable to the state legislature for its financial management.

(3) Subject to clause (4), the accounts of all governments and State organs shall be audited by
the Auditor General.

(4) The accounts of the office of the Auditor General shall be audited and reported on by a
professionally qualified accountant appointed by the House of Representatives.

(5) If the holder of a public office, including a political office, directs or approves the use of
public funds contrary to law or instructions, the person is liable for any loss arising from that use
and shall make good the loss, whether the person remains the holder of the office or not.

Article 212.

(1) When a State organ or any other public entity contracts for goods or services, it shall do so in
accordance with a system that is fair, equitable, transparent, competitive and cost effective.

(2) An Act of Congress shall prescribe a framework within which policies relating to procurement
and asset disposal shall be implemented and may provide for all or any of the following

(a) categories of preference in the allocation of contracts;

(b) the protection or advancement of persons, categories of persons or groups


previously disadvantaged by unfair competition or discrimination;

(c) sanctions against contractors that have not performed according to professionally
regulated procedures, contractual agreements or legislation; and

(d) sanctions against persons who have defaulted on their tax obligations, or have been
guilty of corrupt practices or serious violations of fair employment laws and practices.
Part Seven – Financial Officers and Institutions
Article 213.

(1) There shall be a Comptroller General of Budget who shall be nominated by the President on
the proposal of an advisory committee comprised of

(a) two designees each of the majority and minority parties in each Houses of Congress
elected by secret ballot of their members by majority vote,

(b) two members chosen by the Secretary of Finance,

(c) two accountants chosen by the Public Services Commission,

(d) two members chosen by the Chief Justice,

(e) two chosen by the Auditor General and

(f) one person chosen by the Vice President to act as the chairperson of the advisory
committee,

Preparing a list of three nominees of whom the President selects one to nominate, and with the
approval of the House of Representatives and the Senate by a two-thirds vote of each House,
appointed by the President, and other than the designee of the President, both nominees of the
other nominators may not be of the same gender.

(2) The advisory committee shall publicize a vacancy and accept applications, and shall hold
public interviews with the considered applicants, shall hold a public hearing with the public to
inquire as to the people’s comments and information as to possible candidates, and shall hold a
public meeting as to the deliberation of which candidates to accept on the list, and they shall
approve of the list only by a two-thirds vote of the advisory committee.

(3) To be qualified to be the Comptroller General, a person shall have extensive knowledge of
public finance or at least ten years’ experience in auditing public finance management.

(4) The Comptroller General shall, subject to Article 235, hold office for a term of ten years and
shall not be eligible for reappointment.

(5) The Comptroller General of Budget shall oversee the implementation of the budgets of the
national government by authorizing withdrawals from public funds under Articles 189, 191 and
192.

(6) The Comptroller General shall not approve any withdrawal from a public fund unless
satisfied that the withdrawal is authorized by law.

(7) Every three months, the Comptroller General shall submit to each House of Congress a
report on the implementation of the budgets of the national government.
(11) The budget of the Comptroller General shall be proposed by the Comptroller General to the
House of Representatives, and if the House of Representatives fails to approve of it, the
previous budget for the Auditor General shall be renewed until a new budget is approved. Such
budget may only be amended by a two-thirds vote of the House of Representatives and only
such that it retains the ability of the Comptroller General and their office to fulfill their
constitutional and statutory duties.

(12) The audit process and the control process of the Comptroller General shall be annually
audited by the Auditor General in a public review.

Article 214.

(1) There shall be an Auditor General who shall be nominated by the President and, with the
approval of the House of Representatives and the Senate by resolution passed by two-thirds of
both Houses, appointed by the President.

(2) The President nominates an Auditor General on the basis of a proposal of an advisory body
consisting of

(a) two designees each of the majority and minority parties in each Houses of Congress
elected by secret ballot of their members by majority vote,

(b) two members chosen by the Secretary of Finance,

(c) two accountants chosen by the Public Services Commission,

(d) two members chosen by the Chief Justice,

(e) two chosen by the Comptroller General of Budget, and

(f) one person chosen by the Vice President to act as the chairperson of the advisory
committee,

Preparing a list of three nominees of whom the President selects one to nominate to the
Congress.

(3) The advisory committee shall publicize a vacancy and accept applications, and shall hold
public interviews with the considered applicants, shall hold a public hearing with the public to
inquire as to the people’s comments and information as to possible candidates, and shall hold a
public meeting as to the deliberation of which candidates to accept on the list, and they shall
approve of the list only by a two-thirds vote of the advisory committee.

(4) To be qualified to be the Auditor General, a person shall have extensive knowledge of public
finance or at least ten years’ experience in auditing or public finance management.

(5) The Auditor General holds office, subject to Article 235, for a term of ten years and shall not
be eligible for reappointment.
(6) Within six months after the end of each financial year, the Auditor General shall audit and
report, in respect of that financial year, on

(a) the accounts of the national government;

(b) the accounts of all funds and authorities of the national government;

(c) the accounts of all courts;

(d) the accounts of every commission and independent office established by this
Constitution;

(e) the accounts of the House of Representatives and the Senate;

(f) the accounts of political parties funded from public funds;

(g) the public debt; and

(h) the accounts of any other entity that legislation requires the Auditor General to
audit.

(7) The Auditor General may audit and report on the accounts of any entity that is funded from
public funds.

(8) An audit report shall confirm whether or not public money has been applied lawfully and in
an effective way and provides fiscal audits, performance audits, and efficiency audits. .

(9) Audit reports shall be submitted to Congress or the relevant state legislature.

(10) Within three months after receiving an audit report, Congress or the state legislature shall
debate and consider the report and take appropriate action.

(11) The budget of the Auditor General shall be proposed by the Auditor General to the House
of Representatives, and if the House of Representatives fails to approve of it, the previous
budget for the Auditor General shall be renewed until a new budget is approved. Such budget
may only be amended by a two-thirds vote of the House of Representatives and only such that it
retains the ability of the Auditor General and their office to fulfill their constitutional and
statutory duties.

(12) The audit process of the Auditor General shall be annually audited by the Comptroller
General in a public review.

Article 215.

(1) There is established the Salaries and Remuneration Salaries and Commission.

(2) The Salaries and Remuneration Commission consists of the following persons appointed by
the President
(a) a chairperson appointed by the President by the approval of two thirds of both
Houses of Congress;

(b) two people who are each nominated by the following bodies from among persons
who are not members or employees of those bodies

(i) the Congressional Service Commission;

(ii) the Public Service Commission;

(iii) the Judicial Service Commission;

(iv) The House of Representatives;

(v) the Federal Bureau of Investigation Commission;

(vi) the Defence Council; and

(vii) the Senate, on behalf of the state governments;

(c) two people each nominated by

(i) an umbrella body representing trade unions;

(ii) an umbrella body representing employers; and

(iii) a joint forum of professional bodies as provided by legislation;

(d) two people each nominated by

(i) the Cabinet Secretary responsible for finance; and

(ii) the Attorney General; and

(e) two people who has experience in the management of human resources in the
public service, nominated by the Cabinet Secretary responsible for public service.

(3) The Commissioners under clause (1) (d) and (e) shall have no vote.

(4) The powers and functions of the Salaries and Remuneration Commission shall be to

(a) set and regularly review the remuneration and benefits of all State officers; and

(b) advise the national government on the remuneration and benefits of all other public
officers.

(c) not include any power to allow a salary or remuneration for a person who is an
independent officer or a member of a commission as defined in this constitution to be
any less than that of the salary and remuneration of the Attorney General.
(d) propose to the Congress the amount, which is not to be changed more than once in
any given six year period, of the pay and remuneration, including pensions, expenses,
covered plans and other common employee benefits systems, of the members of the
Congress, the staff of the Congress, and of the President, the Vice President, and the
Cabinet Secretaries and the Attorney General, and those schedules listing the same shall
not take effect until the next federal election occurs.

(5) In performing its functions, the Commission shall take the following principles into account

(a) the need to ensure that the total public compensation bill is fiscally sustainable;

(b) the need to ensure that the public services are able to attract and retain the skills
required to execute their functions;

(c) the need to recognize productivity and performance; and

(d) transparency and fairness.

Article 216.

(1) There is established the Central Bank of The United States.

(2) The Central Bank of The United States shall be responsible for formulating monetary policy,
promoting price stability, issuing currency and performing other functions conferred on it by an
Act of Congress.

(3) The Central Bank of The United States shall not be under the direction or control of any
person or authority in the exercise of its powers or in the performance of its functions.

(4) Notes and coins issued by the Central Bank of The United States may bear images that depict
or symbolize The United States or an aspect of The United States but shall not bear the portrait
of any individual.

(5) The Board of Governors of the Central Bank of the United States, numbering fifteen
Governors serving a non=renewable 14 year term, electing their own chair for a non-renewable
five year term, shall be appointed by the President on the recommendation of an advisory body
consisting of

(a) two designees each of the majority and minority parties in each Houses of Congress
elected by secret ballot of their members by majority vote,

(b) two members chosen by the Secretary of Finance,

(c) two members chosen by the Public Services Commission,

(d) two members chosen by the Chief Justice,


(e) two members chosen by an umbrella organization representing all credit unions in
the United States, and

(f) person chosen by the Vice President to act as the chairperson of the advisory
committee

(6) the advisory committee Preparing a list of three nominees of whom the President selects
one to nominate to the Congress, who are nominated to the Congress and appointed by
resolution of two-thirds of each House assenting to the nomination.

(7) The advisory committee shall publicize a vacancy and accept applications, and shall hold
public interviews with the considered applicants, shall hold a public hearing with the public to
inquire as to the people’s comments and information as to possible candidates, and shall hold a
public meeting as to the deliberation of which candidates to accept on the list, and they shall
approve of the list only by a two-thirds vote of the advisory committee.

(8) An Act of Congress shall provide for the composition in further detail and the powers,
functions and operations of the Central Bank of The United States.

Chapter Thirteen – The Public Service


Part One – Values and Principles of Public Service
Article 217.

(1) The values and principles of public service include

(a) high standards of professional ethics;

(b) efficient, effective and economic use of resources;

(c) responsive, prompt, effective, impartial and equitable provision of services;

(d) involvement of the people in the process of policy making;

(e) accountability for administrative acts;

(f) transparency and provision to the public of timely, accurate information;

(g) subject to paragraphs (h) and (i), fair competition and merit as the basis of
appointments and promotions;

(h) representation of The United States’ diverse communities; and

(i) affording adequate and equal opportunities for appointment, training and
advancement, at all levels of the public service, of
(i) those of each gender;

(ii) the members of all ethnic groups; and

(iii) persons with disabilities.

(j) the ensuring that:

(i) only competitively bidded for contracts are awarded or considered during
procurement and budgeting procedures,

(ii )those refused a contract have the right to appeal that decision including to a
court if necessary,

(iii) only those who have not been convicted of corruption or violating the
procurement laws in the previous ten years participate in procurement,

(iv) the contractor’s employees are protected under the same labour and
protection conditions, including ethical conditions, as those which apply to the
public service,

(v) the results of the bidding process and the reasoning and contract or
contracts thereof are publicly released within seventy-two hours of the results
being decided,

(vi) the regulations and laws and codes related to procurement are publicly
published on open data forums within three days of them being adopted and
draft such documents are released within three days of them being proposed.

(2) The values and principles of public service apply to public service in

(a) all State organs in both levels of government; and

(b) all State owned corporations.

(3) Congress shall enact legislation to give full effect to this Article.

Part Two – The Public Service Commission


Article 218.

(1) There is established the Public Service Commission.

(2) The Public Service Commission consists of a chairperson, a vice chairperson and nine other
members appointed by the President with the approval of two thirds of the House of
Representatives; the President nominating the candidates to the House of Representatives on
the recommendation of an advisory body consisting of
(a) two designees each of the majority and minority parties in each Houses of Congress
elected by secret ballot of their members by majority vote,

(b) two members chosen by the Secretary of Labour,

(c) two members chosen by the Chief Justice,

(d) two members chosen by an umbrella organization representing all the trade unions
representing federal employees, and

(e) one member chosen by the Judicial Services Commission

(f) one person chosen by the Vice President to act as the chairperson of the advisory
committee,

Preparing a list of three nominees of whom the President selects one to nominate.

(3) The advisory committee shall publicize a vacancy and accept applications, and shall hold
public interviews with the considered applicants, shall hold a public hearing with the public to
inquire as to the people’s comments and information as to possible candidates, and shall hold a
public meeting as to the deliberation of which candidates to accept on the list, and they shall
approve of the list only by a two-thirds vote of the advisory committee.

(4) Subject to clause (5), a person is not eligible for appointment as a member of the
Commission if the person

(a) has, at any time within the preceding five years, held office, or stood for election as

(i) a member of Congress or of a state legislature; or

(ii) a member of the governing body of a political party; or

(b) holds any State office;

(c) is, or has at any time been, a candidate for election as a member of Congress or of a
state legislature; or

(d) is, or has at any time been, the holder of an office in any political organization that
sponsors or otherwise supports, or has at any time sponsored or otherwise supported, a
candidate for election as a member of Congress or of a state legislature.

(5) Clause (4) (c) and (d) cease to apply to a person after two general elections for Congress have
been held since the person ceased to be such a candidate or office holder.

(6) There shall be a secretary to the Commission.

(7) The secretary


(a) is the chief executive of the Commission; and

(b) shall be appointed by the Commission for a term of five years, and is ineligible for
reappointment.

Article 219.

(1) The functions and powers of the Commission are as set out in this Article.

(2) The Commission shall

(a) subject to this Constitution and legislation

(i) establish and abolish offices in the public service; and

(ii) appoint persons to hold or act in those offices, and to confirm appointments;

(b) exercise disciplinary control over and remove persons holding or acting in those
offices;

(c) promote the values and principles mentioned in Articles 8 and 217 throughout the
public service;

(d) investigate, monitor and evaluate the organization, administration and personnel
practices of the public service;

(e) ensure that the public service is efficient and effective;

(f) develop human resources in the public service;

(g) review and make recommendations to the national government in respect of


conditions of service, code of conduct and qualifications of officers in the public service;

(h) evaluate and report to the President and Congress on the extent to which the values
and principles mentioned in Articles 8 and 217 are complied with in the public service;

(i) hear and determine appeals in respect of the national governments’ public service;
and when disputes are made against the Public Service by employees or other aggrieved
parties for redress or violation of employment laws, contracts, or collective bargaining
contracts.

(j) ensure that no person convicted of corruption is retained as an employee in the


Public Service, or the Public Service in any other area or jurisdiction of the United States

(k) perform any other functions and exercise any other powers conferred by national
legislation.

(3) Clauses (1) and (2) shall not apply to any of the following offices in the public service
(a) State offices;

(b) an office of high commissioner, ambassador or other diplomatic or consular


representative of the Republic;

(c) an office or position subject to

(i) the Congressional Service Commission;

(ii) the Judicial Service Commission;

(iv) the Federal Bureau of Investigation Commission; or

(d) an office in the service of a state government.

(4) The Commission shall not appoint a person under clause (2) to hold or act in any office on
the personal staff of the President or a retired President, except with the consent of the
President or retired President.

(5) The Commission may delegate, in writing, with or without conditions, any of its functions and
powers under this Article to any one or more of its members, or to any officer, body or authority
in the public service.

Article 220.

A state government is responsible for

(a) establishing and abolishing offices in its public service;

(b) appointing persons to hold or act in those offices, and confirming appointments; and

(c) exercising disciplinary control over and removing persons holding or acting in those
offices.

Article 221.

A public officer shall not be

(a) victimized or discriminated against for having performed the functions of office in
accordance with this Constitution or any other law; or

(b) dismissed, removed from office, demoted in rank or otherwise subjected to


disciplinary action without due process of law.
Chapter Fourteen – National Security
Part One – National Security Organs
Article 222.

(1) National security is the protection against internal and external threats to The United States’
territorial integrity and sovereignty, its people, their rights, freedoms, property, peace, stability
and prosperity, and other national interests.

(2) The national security of The United States shall be promoted and guaranteed in accordance
with the following principles

(a) national security is subject to the authority of this Constitution and Congress;

(b) national security shall be pursued in compliance with the law and with the utmost
respect for the rule of law, democracy, human rights and fundamental freedoms;

(c) in performing their functions and exercising their powers, national security organs
shall respect the diverse culture of the communities within The United States; and

(d) recruitment by the national security organs shall reflect the diversity of the American
people in equitable proportions.

Article 223.

(1) The national security organs are

(a) the United States Defence Forces;

(b) the Central Intelligence Agency

(c) the National Security Agency; and

(d) the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(2) The primary object of the national security organs and security system is to promote and
guarantee national security in accordance with the principles mentioned in Article 222 (2).

(3) In performing their functions and exercising their powers, the national security organs and
every member of the national security organs shall not

(a) act in a partisan manner;

(b) further any interest of a political party or cause or for any individual; or

(c) prejudice a political interest or political cause that is legitimate under this
Constitution or violate civil rights or international treaties and agreements or undermine
negotiation of international treaties and agreements.
(4) A person shall not establish a military, paramilitary, or similar organization that purports to
promote and guarantee national security which is not responsible to a democratic authority of
those they protect.

(5) The national security organs are subordinate to civilian authority.

(6) Congress shall enact legislation to provide for the functions, organization and administration
of the national security organs.

Article 224.

(1) There is established a National Security Council.

(2) The Council consists of

(a) the President;

(b) the Vice President;

(c) the Defense Secretary;

(d) the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force

(e) the Secretary of State;

(f) the Cabinet Secretary responsible for Homeland Security;

(g) the Attorney General;

(h) the Chair and Vice Chair of the Joint Chief of Staff of The United States Defence
Forces;

(i) the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency,

(j) the Director of the National Security Agency,

(k) the Director of National Intelligence,

(l) the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation,

(m) one member elected by the majority and minority parties in each House of Congress
by secret ballot for a two year term which may be renewed and who may be removed
by majority vote by secret ballot among those who elected them

(n) one member elected by the majority of the committee on national security in each
House by secret ballot and one member elected by the members of the minority group
in each committee by secret ballot, and one member elected by the committee in
plenary by secret ballot, each chosen for a two year term which may be renewed, each
of whom may be removed by a majority vote by secret ballot among those who elected
them

(o) one retired judge who is appointed by the Chief Justice, serving at the pleasure of
the Chief Justice

(3) The Council shall exercise supervisory control over national security organs and perform any
other functions prescribed by national legislation.

(4) The President shall preside at meetings of the Council.

(5) The Council shall appoint its secretary by secret ballot by majority vote, and may be removed
by majority vote in a secret ballot.

(6) The Council shall

(a) integrate the domestic, foreign and military policies relating to national security in
order to enable the national security organs to cooperate and function effectively; and

(b) assess and appraise the objectives, commitments and risks to the Republic in respect
of actual and potential national security capabilities.

(7) The Council shall report annually to Congress on the state of the security of The United
States.

(8) The Council may

(a) with the consent of two thirds of the members of each house of Congress, deploy
national forces outside The United States

(i) for regional or international peace support operations; or

(ii) for other support operations;

(iii) for a period not exceeding one year as is to be prescribed by the resolution
of Congress, and if this period elapses, a new resolution of Congress passed by
the same majorities shall accompany each extension and shall prescribe the
details and scope of the deployment, the funding allotted to that deployment,
and the maximum length of the mission which shall not exceed one year.

(iv) for a period of time and scope that shall be reduced or terminated
immediately and forces withdrawn upon the passage of a resolution by a simple
majority of the House of Representatives or by a simple majority of the Senate
that demands the end of the operation or mission or other deployment.

(b) with the consent of two thirds of the members of each house of Congress, approve
the deployment of foreign forces in the United States.
(c) with the consent of two thirds of the members of each house of Congress prior to a
sale, approve the sale or lease or otherwise giving away or transferring weapons or
other military supplies made in the US or by enterprises or other entities owned by the
US or majority owned by American citizens, to foreign governments and armed forces
that are not under the direct control of the United States, with the contractor to make
and deliver the weapons being competitively bidden for and the exchange and contract
details publicly disclosed, and only if the Congress and the Council has strong confidence
that the weapons and other military supplies will not be used to further an authoritarian
regime, a regime of corruption, bribery, embezzlement, contract fraud, or other forms
of corruption, terrorism, a theocracy, to deny the democratic self-determination of a
people or to retain control over an area seeking such self-determination if those people
in that area are consistently repressed and are capable of forming their own more
democratic and free nations, or to commit war crimes or crimes against humanity as
defined by the treaties which the United States is a party to.

(d) with the consent of two thirds of the members of each house of Congress within
forty-five days after a delay imposed by this section, delay or suspend an approved or
earmarked provision of funds or other resources or weapons or other military supplies
to another foreign government or country or armed force not under the direct control
of the United States on the grounds of suspected corruption, war crimes or crimes
against humanity or the intent to commit such crimes, failure to approve of the
agreement by the means which are lawful in their own country or system of operation
by their own democratic process, failure to abide by the contract of the agreement,
provided that a report of the relevant department’s inspector general provides sworn
testimony or sworn evidence that there is reason to believe such causes have occurred.

(9) The Council must, prior to the declaration or invocation of powers of a State of Emergency,
concur with the need and scope of the powers to be invoked under the law and this
Constitution, including a consultation with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, with the
majority and minority leaders of each House of Congress, with the Speaker of the House of
Representatives and with the President of the Senate, with the chair and vice chair of the
committees of public safety in each House of Congress, each member of the Cabinet and the
Attorney General, and with the chief executive of any states where the emergency applies.

(10) The Council shall for each vacancy in the position of any commissioned officer at or above
the rank of Colonel, and for each vacancy in the positions of the Undersecretaries in the
Department of Defense serving under the Defense Secretary, and for each vacancy to select
commanders of each command of the United States Armed Forces, on consideration from a list
of three people chosen by the Defense Council, select one of those candidates and select one to
nominate to the committees of the armed forces in the House of Representatives and Senate,
who are appointed if the vote of two thirds of each committee approves of the nominee.
Part Two – American Defense Forces
Article 225.

(1) There are established the United States Defence Forces.

(2) The Defence Forces consist of

(a) the United States Army;

(b) the United States Air Force; and

(c) the United States Navy.

(3) The Defence Forces

(a) are responsible for the defence and protection of the sovereignty and territorial
integrity of the Republic;

(b) shall assist and cooperate with other authorities in situations of emergency or
disaster, and report to the House of Representatives and the Senate whenever deployed
in such circumstances; and

(c) may be deployed to restore peace in any part of The United States affected by unrest
or instability only with the approval of the House of Representatives and the Senate.

(4) The composition of the command of the Defence Forces shall reflect the regional and ethnic
diversity of the people of The United States.

(5) There is established a Defence Council.

(6) The Council consists of

(a) the Defense Secretary, who is the chairperson, and who may not have in the
previous twenty years, been a member of the United States Armed Forces in any
capacity;

(b) the Chair and Vice Chair of the Joint Chief of the United States Defence Forces;

(c) the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and the Air Force and

(d) the Principal Secretary in the department responsible for defence.

(e) one member elected by the majority of the committee on national security in each
House by secret ballot and one member elected by the members of the minority group
in each committee by secret ballot, and one member elected by the committee in
plenary by secret ballot, each chosen for a two year term which may be renewed, each
of whom may be removed by a majority vote by secret ballot among those who elected
them

(f) two additional individuals who are chosen by vote of the remainder of the Defense
Council, who are eligible to be a State Officer but who is not currently a member of any
national intelligence, security, policing, or armed forces community or agency and has
not been in such a position for the previous fifteen years

(7) The Council

(a) is responsible for the overall policy, control, and supervision of The United States
Defence Forces; and

(b) performs any other functions prescribed by national legislation.

(8) The commanders of the defence forces, including the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and the
Air Force, the chair and vice chair of the joint chief of staff, the chiefs of staff, and the directors,
deputy directors, and assistant directors of agencies of the military shall be appointed by the
President, who nominates the candidates to the House of Representatives and Senate on the
recommendation of an advisory body consisting of

(a) two designees each of the majority and minority parties in each Houses of Congress
elected by secret ballot of their members by majority vote,

(b) two members chosen by the Secretary of Defense,

(c) two members chosen by the Chief Justice,

(d) two members elected by secret ballot by the committee of defense in each House,
and

(e) one member chosen by the Public Services Commission

(f) one person chosen by the Vice President to act as the chairperson of the advisory
committee,

Preparing a list of three nominees of whom the President selects one to nominate, and
each House shall approve of the nomination only by a two thirds vote in both Houses.

(6) The advisory committee shall publicize a vacancy and accept applications, and shall
hold public interviews with the considered applicants, shall hold a public hearing with
the public to inquire as to the people’s comments and information as to possible
candidates, and shall hold a public meeting as to the deliberation of which candidates to
accept on the list, and they shall approve of the list only by a two-thirds vote of the
advisory committee.
Part Three – Central Intelligence Service
Article 226.

(1) There is established the Central Intelligence Agency.

(2) The Central Intelligence Agency is

(a) responsible for security intelligence and counter intelligence to enhance national
security in accordance with this Constitution; and

(b) performs any other functions prescribed by national legislation.

(3) The director of the Central Intelligence Agency, the deputy and assistant directors, and the
same of all departments and agencies within the Central Intelligence Agency shall be appointed
by the President, who nominates the candidates to the House of Representatives and Senate on
the recommendation of an advisory body consisting of

(a) two designees each of the majority and minority parties in each Houses of Congress
elected by secret ballot of their members by majority vote,

(b) two members chosen by the Secretary of Homeland Security,

(c) two members chosen by the Chief Justice,

(d) two members elected by secret ballot by the committee of national security in each
House, and

(e) one member chosen by the Public Services Commission

(f) one person chosen by the Vice President to act as the chairperson of the advisory
committee,

Preparing a list of three nominees of whom the President selects one to nominate, and
each House shall approve of the nomination only by a two thirds vote in both Houses.

(4) The advisory committee shall publicize a vacancy and accept applications, and shall hold
public interviews with the considered applicants, shall hold a public hearing with the public to
inquire as to the people’s comments and information as to possible candidates, and shall hold a
public meeting as to the deliberation of which candidates to accept on the list, and they shall
approve of the list only by a two-thirds vote of the advisory committee.

(5) The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency holds their position for a non-renewable term
of four years subject to being removed on proposal of the President with the assent of the
House of Representatives by resolution, or being removed in the same manner on the proposal
of the House of Representatives by the means of a tribunal assembled as would be provided for
in the case of the proposed removal of a Cabinet member. The deputy and assistant directors
and the heads of the departments and agencies within the Central Intelligence Agency shall be
appointed and may be removed in the same manner as the Director of the Central Intelligence
Agency, however they may serve up to two consecutive terms.

(6) The Central Intelligence Agency has no law enforcement authority and may not carry arms or
possess any lethal or less than lethal equipment.

Part Four – Federal Bureau of Investigation and other Federal Law


Enforcement and Protection Agencies
Article 227.

(1) There is established the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(2) The Federal Bureau of Investigation is a national service and shall function throughout The
United States.

(3) Congress shall enact legislation to give full effect to this Article.

Article 228.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall

(a) strive for the highest standards of professionalism and discipline among its
members;

(b) prevent corruption and promote and practice transparency and accountability;

(c) comply with constitutional standards of human rights and fundamental freedoms;

(d) train staff to the highest possible standards of competence and integrity and to
respect human rights and fundamental freedoms and dignity; and

(e) foster and promote relationships with the broader society.

Article 229.

(1) There is established the office of the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation who
shall exercise independent authority over the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and perform any
other functions prescribed by national legislation.

(2) The Director is appointed by the President from among those who would be eligible to be
appointed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation Commission, who nominates the candidates to
the House of Representatives and Senate on the recommendation of an advisory body
consisting of

(a) two designees each of the majority and minority parties in each Houses of Congress
elected by secret ballot of their members by majority vote,
(b) two members chosen by the Attorney General,

(c) two members chosen by the Chief Justice,

(d) two members elected by secret ballot by the committee of justice in each House,
and

(e) one member chosen by the Public Services Commission

(f) one person chosen by the Vice President to act as the chairperson of the advisory
committee,

Preparing a list of three nominees of whom the President selects one to nominate, and
each House shall approve of the nomination only by a two thirds vote in both Houses.

(3) The advisory committee shall publicize a vacancy and accept applications, and shall hold
public interviews with the considered applicants, shall hold a public hearing with the public to
inquire as to the people’s comments and information as to possible candidates, and shall hold a
public meeting as to the deliberation of which candidates to accept on the list, and they shall
approve of the list only by a two-thirds vote of the advisory committee.

(4) The Attorney General may lawfully give a direction to the director of the Federal Bureau of
Investigation with respect to any matter of policy for the Federal Bureau of Investigation, but no
person may give a direction to the director with respect to

(a) the investigation of any particular offence or offences;

(b) the enforcement of the law against any particular person or persons; or

(c) the employment, assignment, promotion, suspension or dismissal of any member of


the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(5) Any direction given to the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation by the Attorney
General and any direction given to the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation by the
Director of Public Prosecutions under Article 153 (4) shall be in writing and published in the
Federal Register.

(6) All deputy and assistant directors of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the heads of
departments and agencies within the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall be appointed for the
same period of time and in the same manner and procedure as the Director, not able to be
reappointed in the same manner as the Director, and is subject to removal in the same manner
as the Director.

(6) The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall be appointed for a single ten year
term, and is not eligible for reappointment. On recommendation of the Federal Bureau of
Investigation Commission, the President shall communicate a message of that recommendation
to the Congress, which upon the ratification of that recommendation by resolution of the House
of Representatives, shall authorize the President to dismiss the Director. The Congress on
initiative of the House of Representatives may remove the Director in the same manner as
though they were to remove a Cabinet Secretary.

Article 230.

(1) There is established the Federal Bureau of Investigation Commission.

(2) The Commission consists of

(a) the following persons, each appointed by the President

(i) a person who is qualified to be appointed as a District Court Judge to serve as


chairperson,

(ii) a designee of the Attorney General;

(ii) two retired senior Federal Bureau of Investigation officers chosen by the
Director of Public Prosecutions; and

(iii) three persons of integrity who have served the public with distinction on the
nomination of the Vice President;

(b) the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation;

(c) four persons who are elected by secret ballot by each of the Majority and Minority in
each House of Congress such that each Majority and Minority chooses one person, and

(d) one person elected by secret ballot by the committees of national security in each
House.

(3) The Commission shall

(a) recruit and appoint persons to hold or act in offices in the service, confirm
appointments, and determine promotions and transfers within the Federal Bureau of
Investigation;

(b) observing due process, exercise disciplinary control over and remove persons
holding or acting in offices within the Service; and

(c) perform any other functions prescribed by national legislation.

(4) The composition of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall reflect the regional and ethnic
diversity of the people of The United States.

Article 231.
(1) The Secret Service, to be tasked with enforcing Congressional laws regarding the counterfeiting
of currency and assigned to protect the President, the Deputy President, the Cabinet, and
candidates for elected office of high profile or risk of threat upon their acceptance of the
protection, in a manner prescribed by law of Congress, shall have their directors, assistant
directors, and deputy directors, and the heads of their agencies and departments within the
Secret Service, appointed and removed in the same manner as the Director of the Central
Intelligence Agency for the same term and term limit, but shall not be included under the
veneer of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Secret Service may carry arms and less than lethal
equipment but no more such equipment than the Federal Bureau of Investigation is authorized
to have, and may not have riot control equipment or cannons or missiles.

(2) The Director of the National Security Agency and the Director of National Intelligence, and the
deputies and assistant directors of the same, shall be appointed in the same manner as the
Director of the Central Intelligence Agency

(3) The Director of the US Marshals Service, the deputy and assistant directors of the US Marshals
Service, the heads of departments and agencies within the US Marshals, as well as the Marshal
in each federal judicial district shall be appointed by the same procedure and for the same
period of time and subject to removal in the same manner as the Federal Bureau of
Investigation, and has the same qualifications.

(4) Congress may enact legislation establishing other police services under the supervision of the
Federal Bureau of Investigation Commission and the command of the director of the Federal
Bureau of Investigation or an independent director or command commission, who shall be
appointed for the same term length and by the same procedure and is subject to removal in the
same manner as the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Chapter Fifteen – Commissions and Independent Offices


Article 232.

(1) This Chapter applies to the commissions specified in clause (2) and the independent offices
specified in clause (3), except to the extent that this Constitution provides otherwise.

(2) The commissions are

(a) the United States National Human Rights and Equality Commission;

(b) the National Land Commission;

(c) the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission;

(d) the Congressional Service Commission;


(e) the Judicial Service Commission;

(f) the Commission on Revenue Allocation;

(g) the Public Service Commission;

(h) the Salaries and Remuneration Commission;

(i) the Board of Governors of the Central Bank of the United States; and

(j) the Federal Bureau of Investigation Commission.

(k) the Commodities Futures Trading Commission

(l) the Securities and Exchanges Commission

(m) the Federal Communications Commission

(n) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

(o) the Federal Trade Commission

(p) the General Services Administration

(q) the International Trade Commission

(r) the National Labour Relations Board

(s) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

(t) the Postal Regulatory Commission

(u) the Small Business Administration

(v) the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement

(w) the Smithsonian Institute

(x) the Social Security Administration Commission

(y) the Surface Transportation Board

(z) the National Transportation Safety Board

(aa) the Board of the Corporation of Public Broadcasting

(ab) the Board of the United States Agency for Global Media

(ac) the Board of the National Endowment for the Humanities


(ad) the Board of the National Endowment for the Arts

(ae) The Board of the Centre for Disease Control

(af) the Board of the National Science Foundation

(ag) the United States Sentencing Commission

(ah) the board which is responsible for overseeing the postal service

(ai) a commission for the purpose of and with the powers related to naming the
institutions and other objects owned or managed by the United States.

(3) The independent offices are

(a) the Auditor General;

(b) the Comptroller General of Budget and

(c) The special prosecutors appointed in the event that someone has alleged to the
Public Services Commission a serious reason, citing the factual basis for their claim, for a
need for a special prosecutor, where a regular prosecutor is likely to have conflicts of
interest or bias or otherwise would be insufficiently independent, and if the Public
Services Commission concurs, the Attorney General shall appoint a special prosecutor
from a list of three individuals nominated by the Judicial Services Commission to
investigate the case until its conclusion.

(d) the Director of the Environmental Protection Agency

(e) the Inspectors General for each department and agency

(f) The General Counsels for each department and agency

(g) the Director of the office of the Surgeon General

(h) the Director of the Bureau of Labour Statistics

(i) the Director of the Census Bureau

(j) the Director of the United States Mint

(k) the Director of the Internal Revenue Service

(l) the Director of the Office of Government Ethics

(m) the Director of the Food and Drug Administration

(n) the Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, who shall be a registered Indian
(o) The Director of the Bureau of Economic Analysis

(p) The Director of the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention

(q) The Postmaster General

(r) The Director of the Internal Revenue Service

(s) The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development

(t) The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency

(u) the Director of the Congressional Research Service

(v) the Director of the Congressional Budget Office)

(w) the Commissioner of the Social Security Administration

(w) All deputy directors and assistant directors of the independent officers listed in this
subsection

(4) All advisory bodies convened under this constitution or under any Act of Congress in order to
nominate candidates for the appointment of officials for which dismissal at will is prohibited and
which are responsible only to the law, but also including all advisory bodies convened when the
advisory body’s existence is prescribed by this Constitution, are also considered to be
commissions during the period from their initial formation after a vacancy occurs to the time
when the vacancy is filled up with a confirmed appointment.

(5) All advisory bodies convened under this constitution or under any Act of Congress in order to
nominate candidates for their appointment of officials shall publicly solicit open applications
from interested candidates who submit a public resume, disclosures, and a record of their
qualifications and statements by at least two references, hold at least one public interview and
hearing with each candidate, hold a public hearing to solicit the public’s feedback on each
candidate called for by the advisory body, hold a public deliberation period over each candidate
interviewed, and a public deliberation meeting to consider which individuals to finally nominate,
and present a list of three candidates they consider most qualified. If the person to which they
nominate the candidates rejects all candidates, they shall repeat the process with new
candidates and the person to which the list is nominated shall select from among the second list
and may not request another list.

(6) Tribunals and commissions or other multi member bodies constituted under this
Constitution shall hold their deliberations in public, except when as is deemed by two-thirds of
the body, it is necessary for the privacy of a witness or subject, is necessary for national security,
and in either case is demonstrated to be necessary for the public interest to be preserved, they
vote to hold the proceedings for the day in camera. They vote as individuals and with each
member’s vote recorded, except for when they elect their chair, vice chair, secretary, or other
officers and a director general of their staff or administration, and a motion to declare such
positions vacant.

(7) When a tribunal as is required or may be constituted under this Constitution is to be


assembled, the vote of two-thirds of their members shall be required to find that the facts and
law support the need of the recommendation they ultimately deliver, voting as a recorded vote.

(8) When a tribunal as is required or may be constituted under this Constitution is to be


assembled, the public shall have at least one hearing to provide their comments and opinions to
the tribunal, the accused or if they elect, their counsel, shall be offered at least one hearing to
provide their input and opinions, and a hearing to provide for witnesses, evidence, and
testimony to be brought forth shall be provided, and a public deliberation shall be held so as to
permit the people to know what reasoning, laws, facts, and opinions were involved in the
decision as to what to do about the case at hand.

(9) An Act of Congress may also create an independent commission which is subject to this Part,
and if they do, they shall prescribe which Cabinet Secretary makes an appointment to the
nomination committee to examine and recommend candidates for the commissioners or the
independent officer to be created by statute, and if they prescribe an associated society which is
non-profit and democratically controlled by its members to also make appointments to the
nomination committee, they shall prescribe which associated society’s governing board or a
nominating committee established by the rules of that civil society association shall make the
appointment.

Article 233.

(1) The objects of the commissions and the independent offices are to

(a) protect the sovereignty of the people;

(b) secure the observance by all State organs of democratic values and principles; and

(c) promote constitutionalism.

(2) The commissions and the holders of independent offices

(a) are subject only to this Constitution and the law; and

(b) are independent and not subject to direction or control by any person or authority,
and executive orders and regulations only apply to them if they are applicable generally
to the entire government in an identical manner or if they are applicable to them
equally to their application to those outside the government as private citizens and the
statute authorizing the regulation or executive order power to be exercised by the
Executive Branch or any officer expressly includes the commission or independent
officer in question.
(c) shall report to the people and to the Congress and to the Supreme Court of any
action or attempted action or omission or attempted omission of any official or person
in the service or responsible to an official who illegally or in violation of any professional
or preexisting code of conduct, unethically, interferes or retaliates with their
constitutional and statutory duties and the duties which they retain by regulation or
executive order or court order or by treaty.

(3) Congress shall allocate adequate funds to enable each commission and independent office to
perform its functions and the budget of each commission and independent office shall be a
separate vote.

(4) The budget of the office or agency of an independent officer or commission shall be
proposed by the head who is the independent officer or by the majority of the commission to
the House of Representatives, other than the Central Intelligence Agency, other national
intelligence agencies, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the other law enforcement
departments of the United States, and if the House of Representatives fails to approve of it, the
previous budget for that independent body shall be renewed until a new budget is approved.
Such budget may only be amended by a two-thirds vote of the House of Representatives and
only such that it retains the ability of the independent body and their office to fulfill their
constitutional and statutory duties. Each such independent body’s head or commission has the
same responsibility as the President and Treasury Department incurs in publicizing their
proposals for the budget and in accepting and involving public comment and feedback as if they
were the President and Treasury Department authoring the budget.

Article 234.

(1) Each commission, when not otherwise prescribed in this constitution, shall consist of at least
seven, but not more than thirteen, members who serve for nonrenewable seven year terms.

(2) The chairperson and each member of a commission, and the holder of an independent
office, shall unless otherwise provided for in this constitution, be

(a) identified and recommended for appointment in a manner prescribed by national


legislation;

(b) approved by the House of Representatives; and

(c) appointed by the President, when not otherwise specified in this Constitution.

(3) To be appointed, a person shall have the specific qualifications required by this Constitution
or national legislation.

(4) Appointments to commissions and independent offices shall take into account the national
values mentioned in Article 10, and the principle that the composition of the commissions and
offices, taken as a whole, shall reflect the regional and ethnic diversity of the people of The
United States.

(5) The vote in the Congress to approve of the nomination of the commissioners and
independent officers requires the assent of at least two-thirds of the members present and
voting in each House. Each House shall have a question and answer period with at least four-
tenths of the time dedicated to questions from the Minority Party and at least the same time
dedicated to questions from the Majority Party, at least half of the time dedicated to the
Majority and Minority dedicated exclusively to those who are not officers of any party nor are
the Majority or Minority Leader and are not members of the Congressional Service Commission,
and a public debate as to the result of the recommendation of the committee which oversees
the nominee, and each House shall have a committee delineated in the Rules of the House in
question to hold a similar question and answer period and to hold a public hearing on the
matter with the presence of the nominee, as well as a public hearing with the public as to their
opinions and concerns related to the appointment, a public deliberation as to what to do with
the opinions and concerns and how they influence the committee’s decision, and a public
deliberation in that committee as to whether to recommend that the House assent or dissent to
the appointment.

(6) The vote on the nominees is a privileged matter in each House such that it must be included
on the agenda in a reasonable time frame and the procedures of the vote and the interviews,
questions and answering period, plenary deliberations, and the committee hearings and
deliberations, and reviewing the report of the committee shall also be completed within a
reasonable time period and upon the request of any twenty percent of the members of either
House, is included on the agenda within ninety days of the nomination being made.

(7) The President selects a nominee from a list submitted to them within sixty days of the list
being presented to them, and if they fail to make that selection, the Chief Justice shall choose
someone from the list within thirty days of the President failing to make their selection and the
nomination shall be just as valid as if it were made by the President. If the Chief Justice fails to
make such a selection, the Supreme Court shall by secret ballot administered by their clerk
through exhaustive voting select one within fourteen days of the Chief Justice failing to make a
choice.

(8) A member of a commission or an independent officer established by statute of Congress may


serve on a part-time basis if that statute establishing it prescribes it to be a part time position;

(9) The members of a commission, other than one convened specifically to examine
appointments to a body or office and then dissolves after the appointment is made, shall have
their appointments staggered as evenly as possible so that one-third of their members expires
one-third of the duration of a term.

(10) A member of a commission, or the holder of an independent office


(a) unless ex officio, shall be appointed for a single term of eight years or a longer period
fixed by law but any changes in the law do not affect existing members, and is not
eligible for reappointment; and

(b) unless ex officio or part-time, shall not hold any other office or employment for
profit, whether public or private.

(11) The remuneration and benefits payable to or in respect of a commissioner or the holder of
an independent office shall be a charge on the Consolidated Fund.

(12) The remuneration and benefits payable to, or in respect of, a commissioner or the holder of
an independent office shall not be varied to the disadvantage of that commissioner or holder of
an independent office, and shall be fixed by law and not amended more than once in any given
six year period.

(13) A member of a commission, or the holder of an independent office, is not liable for
anything done in good faith in the performance of a function of office.

(14) The members of a commission shall elect a chairperson and a vice chairperson from among
themselves for a one year term by majority vote with a secret ballot

(a) at the first sitting of the commission;

(b) whenever it is necessary to fill a vacancy in the office of the chairperson and vice
chairperson, unless the appointment of either is already provided for by this
Constitution; and

(c) whenever any 1/4 of the members of the commission motion for a vote to declare
the chair or vice chair vacant, whereupon a secret ballot shall be held, and a majority of
the current membership of the commission approves of the motion.

(15) The chairperson and the vice chairpersons may not succeed themselves in the three years
after their term as chairperson or vice chairperson respectively has been completed.

(16) The chairperson and vice chairperson of a commission shall not be of the same gender.

(17) There shall be a Secretary to each commission who shall be

(a) appointed and removed by the commission

(b) not of the same gender as the chairperson of the commission; and

(c) the chief executive officer of the commission.

(18) When the end of the term of a commissioner or independent officer will occur within eight
months, including upon any unexpected or unplanned end of terms including terminal illness as
may be disclosed by the officer in question or resignation announced to occur at a given time,
the process of accepting applications and naming an advisory body to provide advisement on
the successor shall begin immediately, such that there is at least thirty days for which people
may enter their applications after the beginning of the publication of the upcoming vacancy. In
the event of the nomination process not being finalized in this period, they may serve for a
period of up to six months after the end of their term, and they cease performing their functions
upon the inauguration of their successor or until the end of this six month period, whichever is
sooner.

(19) Each commissioner and independent officer shall

(i) have at least fifteen years of practical experience, including at least half of that experience
which is the practical experience served in the public sector,

(ii) have at least a bachelor’s degree or equivalent in that practical field,

(iii) be a citizen and a resident of the United States for at least ten years,

(iv) not have been an elected official at any level of government for at least thirty years nor a
member of the executive bodies or national or state or local committees of any political party,
not been a person appointed to the staff of any elected official to any level of government in the
last twenty years nor have been nominated for election at any level, nor in the last fifteen years
not been a member of any political party nor made any donation of any sum of money which
exceeds two percent of the median gross national income of the United States to any political
party, any party campaign fund, any candidate for election, any third party or political action
committee, nor any such committee advancing or refuting the cause of any referendum or
initiative,

(v) not have been or are currently a paid consultant nor a registered lobbyist,

(vi) not been the spouse or conjugal partner nor any person who is in the first or second degree
of consanguinity of those who would be excluded by this section,

(vii) not have been an employee or an executive director or officer or any member of a board of
directors or held more than one percent of the stock shares in any industry which the regulatory
commission or independent officer regulates,

(viii) not in the twenty years after their term nor during their term run for or hold positions
which would cause them to be excluded from being appointed to the commission or
independent office which they held in accordance with this subsection or any other article in
this Constitution,

(ix) not, during the time when they hold their position as an independent officer or
commissioner, hold any other State Office.
(20) Each commissioner and independent officer shall, on the form prescribed by law which they
have formally applied for their position shall have at least twenty-five people who are
themselves qualified for the position sign a letter of reference to attest to their qualification,
competence, loyalty to the Constitution and the principles of ethics and accountability, and
good service to the public, and of them, at least four of them selected at random shall testify
before the advisory committee to attest personally under oath or affirmation to their support
for the candidate, and of them, at least sixteen selected at random, of whom at least eight did
not testify before the advisory committee, and at least eight who did testify before the advisory
committee, shall testify under oath or affirmation to the committee in each House, and of them,
and of them, at least four who were chosen at random who did testify before the advisory
committee and four chosen at random who did not shall testify before the committee in the
Senate and the same number and type shall testify before the committee in the House of
Representatives.

(21) During any nomination advisory committee meeting and any hearings or interviews by the
Congress or either House or a committee thereof to select executive, security, military, policing,
prosecutorial, judicial, and independent officers and commissions and boards, the members of
the advisory body, the committees, and those appearing before it shall during the meetings of
the body and the hearings and interviews shall be on oath or affirmation and face perjury,

Article 235.

(1) A member of a commission other than an ex officio member, may be removed from office
only for

(a) serious violation of this Constitution or any other law,

including a contravention of Chapter Six;

(b) gross misconduct, whether in the performance of the member’s or office holder’s
functions or otherwise;

(c) physical or mental incapacity to perform the functions of office;

(d) incompetence; or

(e) bankruptcy.

(2) A person desiring the removal of a member of a commission or of a holder of an


independent office on any ground specified in clause (1) may present a petition to the House of
Representatives setting out the alleged facts constituting that ground.

(3) The House of Representatives shall consider the petition and, if it is satisfied that it discloses
a ground under clause (1), shall send the petition to the President.

(4) On receiving a petition under clause (3), the President


(a) may suspend the member or office holder pending the outcome of the complaint;

(b) shall appoint a tribunal in accordance with clause (5).

(5) The tribunal shall consist of

(a) a person who holds or has held office as a judge of a superior court, who shall be the
chairperson, on proposal of the Chief Justice;

(b) at least two persons who are qualified to be appointed as District Court judges, with
one of them elected by the committees of oversight in each House,

(c) one person designated by the Speaker of the House of Representatives and one
person designated by the President of the Senate); and

(d) one other member who is qualified to assess the facts in respect of the particular
ground for removal on recommendation of the Public Services Commission unless it is a
member of the Public Services Commission which is the subject of the tribunal, in which
case the person shall be recommended by the Judicial Services Commission.

(6) The tribunal shall

(a) investigate the matter expeditiously and vociferously,

(b) hold at least one public hearing on the matter inviting their opinions, information,
and comments,

(c) hold at least one public hearing with the subject of the tribunal having the right to
attend and have counsel,

(d) hold one public meeting where they deliberate on their facts and findings and what
to report, report on the facts and

(e) make a binding recommendation to the President, who shall act in accordance with
the recommendation within thirty days, with the consent to remove or penalized by
both Houses of Congress by majority vote in each.

(7) A person suspended under this Article is entitled to continue to receive three quarters of the
remuneration and benefits of the office while suspended.

Article 236.

(1) Each commission and each holder of an independent office

(a) may conduct investigations on its own initiative or on a complaint made by a


member of the public;

(b) has the powers necessary for conciliation, mediation and negotiation;
(c) shall recruit its own staff; and

(d) may perform any functions and exercise any powers prescribed by legislation, in
addition to the functions and powers conferred by this Constitution.

(2) A complaint to a commission or the holder of an independent office may be made by any
person entitled to institute court proceedings under Article 20 (1) and (2).

(3) Commissions and independent officers have the power to issue a summons to a witness to
assist for the purposes of its investigations.

Article 237.

Each commission and each independent office

(a) is a body corporate with perpetual succession and a seal; and

(b) is capable of suing and being sued in its corporate name.

(c) has the power to initiate proceedings and initiate investigations and conduct
activities which it believes will further the implementation of its mandate and further
the public interest

(d) may introduce into the legislature a bill to advance the effectiveness or
independence of the independent officer or commission to make it better at fulfilling it’s
mandate

(e) shall report at least monthly on their findings, activities, programs, mandate,
investigations, and actions taken against those they enforce rules against

Article 238.

(1) As soon as practicable after the end of each financial year, each commission, and each holder
of an independent office, shall submit a report to the President and to Congress.

(2) At any time, the President, the House of Representatives or the Senate may require a
commission or holder of an independent office to submit a report on a particular issue.

(3) Every report required from a commission or holder of an independent office under this
Article shall be published and publicized.

Chapter Sixteen – Amendment of the Constitution


Article 239.

(1) A proposed amendment to this Constitution shall be enacted in accordance with Article 240
or 241, and approved in accordance with clause (2) by a referendum
(2) A proposed amendment shall be approved by a referendum under clause (1) if

(a) at least twenty per cent of the registered voters in each of at least half of the states
vote in the referendum; and

(b) the amendment is supported by a simple majority of the citizens voting in the
referendum and a majority of the voters in three-fifths of the states approve of the
amendment.

Article 240.

(1) A Bill to amend this Constitution

(a) may be introduced in either House of Congress;

(b) may not address any other matter apart from consequential amendments to
legislation arising from the Bill;

(c) shall not be called for second reading in either House within ninety days after the
first reading of the Bill in that House; and

(d) shall have been passed by Congress when each House of Congress has passed the
Bill, in both its second and third readings, by not less than two thirds of all the members
of that House.

(2) Congress shall publicize any Bill to amend this Constitution, and facilitate public discussion
about the Bill.

(3) After Congress passes a Bill to amend this Constitution, the Speaker of the House of
Representatives and the President of the Senate shall jointly submit to the Archivist of the
United States

(a) the Bill, for certification and publication; and

(b) a certificate that the Bill has been passed by Congress in accordance with this Article.

(c) The President does not have to assent to a bill to amend the Constitution.

Article 241.

(1) An amendment to this Constitution may also be proposed by Amendment by a popular


initiative signed by a number of people equal to ten percent of those who voted in the most
recent election for President, or by the initiative of the legislatures of the states numbering at
least one quarter of the total number of states with at least ten percent of the population of the
United States in the aggregate.
(2) A popular initiative for an amendment to this Constitution must be in the form of a
formulated draft Bill.

(3) The promoters of a popular initiative shall deliver the draft Bill and the supporting signatures
to the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission, which shall verify that the initiative is
supported by the petitioners requisite. If it is so supported by the petitioners or the state
legislatures, then a referendum shall occur as though it were a bill proposed by the Congress.

Chapter Seventeen – General Provisions and Interpretation


Article 242.

(1) Every person has the right to institute court proceedings, claiming that this Constitution has
been contravened, or is threatened with contravention.

(2) In addition to a person acting in their own interest, court proceedings under clause (1) may
be instituted by

(a) a person acting on behalf of another person who cannot act in their own name;

(b) a person acting as a member of, or in the interest of, a group or class of persons;

(c) a person acting in the public interest; or

(d) an association acting in the interest of one or more of its members

Article 243.

(1) This Constitution shall be interpreted in a manner that

(a) promotes its purposes, values and principles;

(b) advances the rule of law, and the human rights and fundamental freedoms in the Bill
of Rights;

(c) permits the development of the law; and

(d) contributes to good governance.

(2) If there is a conflict between different language versions of this Constitution, the English
language version prevails.

(3) Every provision of this Constitution shall be construed according to the doctrine of
interpretation that the law is always speaking and, therefore, among other things

(a) a function or power conferred by this Constitution on an office may be performed or


exercised as occasion requires, by the person holding the office;
(b) any reference in this Constitution to a State or other public office or officer, or a
person holding such an office, includes a reference to the person acting in or otherwise
performing the functions of the office at any particular time;

(c) a reference in this Constitution to an office, State organ or locality named in this
Constitution shall be read with any formal alteration necessary to make it applicable in
the circumstances; and

(d) a reference in this Constitution to an office, body or organization is, if the office,
body or organization has ceased to exist, a reference to its successor or to the
equivalent office, body or organization.

(4) In this Constitution, unless the context otherwise requires

(a) if a word or expression is defined in this Constitution, any grammatical variation or


cognate expression of the word or expression has a corresponding meaning, read with
the changes required by the context; and

(b) the word “includes” means “includes, but is not limited to”.

(5) In calculating time between two events for any purpose under this Constitution, if the time is
expressed

(a) as days, the day on which the first event occurs shall be excluded, and the day by
which the last event may occur shall be included;

(b) as months, the time period ends at the beginning of the day in the relevant month

(i) that has the same number as the date on which the period began, if that
month has a corresponding date; or

(ii) that is the last day of that month, in any other case; or

(c) as years, the period of time ends at the beginning of the date of the relevant year
that corresponds to the date on which the period began.

(6) If a period of time prescribed by this Constitution for any purpose is six days or less, Sundays
and public holidays shall not count when calculating the time.

(7) If, in any particular circumstances, the period of time prescribed by this Constitution ends on
a Sunday or a public holiday, the period extends to the first subsequent day that is not a Sunday
or public holiday.

(8) If a particular time is not prescribed by this Constitution for performing a required act, the
act shall be done without unreasonable delay, and as often as occasion arises.
(9) If any person or State organ has authority under this Constitution to extend a period of time
prescribed by this Constitution, the authority may be exercised either before or after the end of
the period, unless a contrary intention is expressly mentioned in the provision conferring the
authority.

(10) Except to the extent that this Constitution provides otherwise, if a person has vacated an
office established under this Constitution, the person may, if qualified, again be appointed,
elected or otherwise selected to hold the office in accordance with this Constitution.

(11) If a function or power conferred on a person under this Constitution is exercisable by the
person only on the advice or recommendation, with the approval or consent of, or on
consultation with, another person, the function may be performed or the power exercised only
on that advice, recommendation, with that approval or consent, or after that consultation,
except to the extent that this Constitution provides otherwise.

Article 244.

In this Constitution, unless the context requires otherwise “adult” means an individual who has attained
the age of eighteen years; “affirmative action” includes any measure designed to overcome or
ameliorate an inequity or the systemic denial or infringement of a right or fundamental freedom; “child”
means an individual who has not attained the age of eighteen years; “contravene” includes fail to
comply with; “state legislation” means a law made by a state government or under authority conferred
by a state constitution; “disability” includes any physical, sensory, mental, psychological or other
impairment, condition or illness that has, or is perceived by significant sectors of the community to
have, a substantial or long-term effect on an individual’s ability to carry out ordinary day-to-day
activities; “document” includes

(a) any publication, or any matter written, expressed, or inscribed on any substance by
means of letters, figures or marks, or by more than one of those means, that is intended
to be used or may be used for the purpose of recording that matter; and

(b) electronic files;

“effective date” means the date that this Constitution came into force; “fail” includes refuse; “financial
year” means the period of twelve months ending on the thirtieth day of June or other day prescribed by
national legislation, but the initial financial year of any entity is the period of time from its coming into
existence until the immediately following thirtieth day of June, or other day prescribed by national
legislation; “Federal Register” means the United States Federal Register published by authority of the
national government, or a supplement to the United States Federal Register; “guarantee” means any
absolute or conditional promise, commitment or undertaking by the national government to partially or
completely repay any loan to a state government or any person; “judicial officer” means a registrar,
deputy registrar, magistrate, or the presiding officer of a court established under Article 166 (1) (d);

“land” includes
(a) the surface of the earth and the subsurface rock;

(b) any body of water on or under the surface;

(c) marine waters in the territorial sea and exclusive economic zone;

(d) natural resources completely contained on or under the surface; and

(e) the air space above the surface;

“legislation” includes

(a) an Act of Congress, or a law made under authority conferred by an Act of Congress;
or

(b) a law made by a state government, or under authority conferred by such a law;

“loan” includes any form of borrowing, lending or deferred payment in respect of which money from a
public fund may be used, or is required to be used, for payment or repayment; “marginalized
community” means

(a) a community that, because of its relatively small population or for any other reason,
has been unable to fully participate in the integrated social and economic life of The
United States as a whole;

(b) a traditional community that, out of a need or desire to preserve its unique culture
and identity from assimilation, has remained outside the integrated social and economic
life of The United States as a whole;

(c) an indigenous community that has retained and maintained a traditional lifestyle and
livelihood based on a hunter or gatherer economy; or

(d) pastoral persons and communities, whether they are

(i) nomadic; or

(ii) a settled community that, because of its relative geographic isolation, has
experienced only marginal participation in the integrated social and economic
life of The United States as a whole;

“marginalized group” means a group of people who, because of laws or practices before, on, or after
the effective date, were or are disadvantaged by discrimination on one or more of the grounds in Article
25(4); “national legislation” means an Act of Congress, or a law made under authority conferred by an
Act of Congress; “natural resources” means the physical nonhuman factors and components, whether
renewable or nonrenewable, including

(a) sunlight;
(b) surface and groundwater;

(c) forests, biodiversity and genetic resources; and

(d) rocks, minerals, fossil fuels and other sources of energy;

“older member of society” means a person who has attained the age of sixty years; “person” includes a
company, association or other body of persons whether incorporated or unincorporated; “political
party” means an association contemplated in Part 3 of Chapter Seven; “property” includes any vested or
contingent right to, or interest in or arising from

(a) land, or permanent fixtures on, or improvements to, land;

(b) goods or personal property;

(c) intellectual property; or

(d) money, choses in action or negotiable instruments;

“public officer” means

(a) any State officer; or

(b) any person, other than a State Officer, who holds a public office;

“public office” means an office in the national government, a state government, a municipal or county
government, or the public service, if the remuneration and benefits of the office are payable directly
from the Consolidated Fund or directly out of money provided by Congress; “public service” means the
collectivity of all individuals, other than State officers, performing a function within a State organ;
“Republic” means the Republic of The United States; “State”, when used as a noun, means the
collectivity of offices, organs and other entities comprising the government of the Republic under this
Constitution; “State office” means any of the following offices

(a) President;

(b) Vice President;

(c) Cabinet Secretary;

(d) Member of Congress;

(e) Judges and Magistrates;

(f) member of a commission to which Chapter Fifteen applies;

(g) holder of an independent office to which Chapter Fifteen applies;


(h) member of a state legislature, governor or deputy governor of a state, or other
member of the executive cabinet of a state government;

(i) Attorney General;

(j) Director of Public Prosecutions;

(k) Secretary to the Cabinet;

(l) Principal Secretary;

(m) Chair and Vice Chair of the Joint Chiefs of the United States Defence Forces;

(n) commander of a service of the United States Defence Forces;

(o) Director of the Central Intelligence Agency;

(p) the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation; or

(q) an office established and designated as a State office by national legislation or is


established by this constitution;

“State officer” means a person holding a State office;

“State organ” means a commission, office, agency or other body established under this Constitution;
“writing” includes printing, photography, lithography, typewriting, Braille, and any other means of
representing or reproducing words in a visible form; and “youth” means the collectivity of all individuals
in the Republic who

(a) have attained the age of eighteen years; but

(b) have not attained the age of thirty-five years.

“State” shall, for the purpose of political suffrage and the right to representation in Congress and
consideration in constitutional amendments, include the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.

Schedule to the Constitution – Division of Powers


Article 245.

(1) The powers of the Union solely belonging to it are:

(a) Foreign affairs, foreign policy and international trade

(b) The use of international waters

(c) Immigration and citizenship

(d) National defence and the use of the national defence services
(e) Monetary policy, currency, banking (including central banking), the incorporation
and regulation of banking, insurance and financial corporations

(f) Intellectual property rights

(g) The post office and the postal system

(h) To regulate commerce between states that directly related to the maintenance of
the United States as a single customs union and one zone through which products,
services, capital, and people may move freely

(i) The metric system and the system of measures and time standardization

(j) Application of international law in relations to the United States and its people and
the international laws of piracy or crimes against or committed by its people.

(2) The concurrent functions are:

(a) Language policy and the promotion of official and local languages

(b) Police services, including:

(i) the setting of standards of recruitment, training of police and use of police
services

(ii) criminal law and

(iii) correctional services

(c) Courts, including the prosecution of federal crimes by state authorities who are
imprisoned in state prisons, where the federal laws do not expressly reserve to federal
authorities the prosecution of specific types of federal crimes to the federal courts and
prosecutors, and except where under no federal statute it is determined that a
particular state has the rightful standing to prosecute such crimes.

(d) National economic policy and planning

(e) National statistics and data on population, the economy and society generally

(f) Labour standards

(g) Consumer protection, including standards for social security and professional
pension plans

(h) Education policy, standards, curricula, examinations and the granting of university
charters
(i) Universities, tertiary educational institutions and other institutions of research and
higher learning and primary schools , special education, secondary schools and special
education institutions

(j) Promotion of sports and sports education

(k) Transport and communications, including in particular:

(i) road traffic on national trunk roads

(ii) the construction and operation of national trunk roads and the
standardization of signage on roadways

(iii) standards for the construction and maintenance of other roads by states

(iv) railways

(v) pipelines

(vi) marine navigation;

(vii) civil aviation

(viii) space travel

(ix) postal services

(x) telecommunications and

(xi) radio and television broadcasting

(l) National public works

(m) Housing policy

(n) General principles of land planning and the coordination of planning by the states

(o) Protection of the environment and natural resources with a view to establishing a
durable and sustainable system of development, including in particular:

(i) fishing, hunting and gathering

(ii) protection of animals and wildlife

(iii) water protection, securing sufficient residual water, hydraulic engineering


and the safety of dams

(iv) energy policy, and


(v) Control of air pollution

(p) National referral health facilities

(q) Disaster management, quarantine, and epidemiology

(r) Ancient and historical monuments of national importance

(s) National elections

(t) Health policy

(u) Agricultural policy and animal rights and welfare

(v) Energy policy including electricity and gas reticulation and energy regulation

(w) Capacity building and technical assistance to the states

(x) Public investment

(y) National betting, casinos and other forms of gambling

(z) Tourism policy and development.

(aa) The administration and implementation of federal laws where no other specific
procedure or category of exceptions apply as enshrined by federal statue, by state and
local authorities.

(3) The functions and powers of the states are any matters not falling under federal jurisdiction,
but for greater certainty includes

(a) Agriculture, including:

(i) crop and animal husbandry

(ii) livestock sale yards

(iii) state abattoirs

(iv) plant and animal disease control and

(v) fisheries.

(b) state health services, including in particular

(i) state health facilities and pharmacies

(ii) ambulance services

(iii) promotion of primary health care


(iv) licensing and control of undertakings that sell food to the public

(v) veterinary services

(vi) cemeteries, funeral parlors and crematoria, and

(vii) refuse removal, refuse dumps and solid waste disposal

(c) noise pollution, other public nuisances and outdoor advertising

(d) Cultural activities, public entertainment and public amenities, including:

(i) betting, casinos and other forms of gambling

(ii) racing

(iii) liquor licensing

(iv) cinemas

(v) video shows and hiring

(vi) libraries

(vii) museums

(viii) sports and cultural activities and facilities; and

(ix) state parks, beaches and recreation facilities

(e) state transport, including:

(i) state roads

(ii) street lighting

(iii) traffic and parking

(iv) public road transport and

(v) ferries and harbours, excluding the regulation of international and national
shipping and matters related thereto

(f) Animal control and welfare, including:

(i) licensing of animals, but licensing of exotic animals are a concurrent power
and

(ii) facilities for the accommodation, care and burial of animals


(g) Trade development and regulation, including:

(i) markets

(ii) trade licenses

(iii) fair trading practices

(iv) local tourism and

(v) cooperative societies

(h) State planning and development, including:

(i) statistics

(ii) land survey and mapping

(iii) boundaries and fencing

(iv) housing; and

(v) electricity and gas reticulation and energy regulation

(i) Preprimary education, village polytechnics, home craft centres and childcare facilities

(j) Implementation of specific national government policies on natural resources and


environmental conservation, including:

(i) soil and water conservation and

(ii) forestry

(k) State public works and services, including:

(i) storm water management systems in built up areas and

(ii) water and sanitation services

(l) Firefighting services and disaster management

(m) Regulation of drugs and pornography

(o) Ensuring and coordinating the participation of communities and locations in


governance at the local level and assisting communities and locations to develop the
administrative capacity for the effective exercise of the functions and powers and
participation in governance at the local level.