Sei sulla pagina 1di 9

Online Appendix

Supplementary material to: von Soest, Christian & Grauvogel, Julia (2017): Identity, procedures and performance: How authoritarian regimes
legitimize their rule. Contemporary Politics.

Appendix A: Survey Results for Regime Spells (Regime Legitimation Expert Survey)

Country Regime Regime Founda- Ideology Person- Proce- Perfor- Interna- Overall Number Experts’
start end tional alism dures mance tional of assess- level of
myth engage- ments confi-
ment dence
Afghanistan 2004 2010 0.67 1.33 1.00 4.00 2.67 0.33 6.00 3 3.67
Albania 1991 2001 5.00 4.00 4.00 5.00 5.00 4.00 5.00 2 4.50
Algeria 1999 2010 4.67 3.67 3.50 4.33 3.67 3.00 3.67 3 4.33
Angola 2008 2010 4.00 2.50 3.50 3.50 5.00 2.00 4.00 2 5.00
Armenia 1994 2010 4.50 4.00 1.50 4.00 4.00 2.00 4.00 2 4.50
Azerbaijan 1993 2010 1.00 2.25 3.25 3.00 4.00 1.25 3.75 4 4.00
Bahrain 1991 2010 2.00 1.00 3.00 4.67 3.33 0.67 4.00 3 3.00
Bangladesh 1999 2010 3.67 2.67 2.00 3.33 2.67 1.67 3.67 3 4.00
Belarus 1994 2010 2.75 3.50 3.50 3.50 4.00 2.00 3.25 4 3.25
Bhutan 2008 2010 1.50 4.00 4.00 1.50 3.50 1.50 3.00 2 4.00
Burkina Faso 1991 2010 3.00 2.33 4.67 3.33 3.67 4.33 4.33 3 3.67
Burundi 2005 2010 3.00 2.00 3.50 3.50 2.67 2.00 3.00 3 4.00
Cambodia 1993 2010 4.50 3.50 4.00 4.50 4.00 1.50 4.50 2 4.50
Cameroon 1992 2010 1.50 2.00 3.00 1.50 3.00 2.00 3.00 2 3.50
CAR 2003 2010 2.00 1.50 1.50 2.50 2.50 1.00 2.00 2 3.00
Chad 1996 2010 1.00 0.00 2.00 2.00 2.50 0.50 2.50 2 4.00

1
China 1991 2010 5.00 4.75 2.00 3.50 4.75 3.00 4.75 4 4.00
Colombia 1999 2004 1.75 1.25 0.00 4.25 4.00 1.00 3.00 4 4.25
Congo 2002 2010 3.00 1.00 4.00 5.00 4.50 4.00 4.50 2 3.00
Cote d’Ivoire 2000 2010 2.50 4.00 2.50 2.50 2.00 0.00 4.00 2 3.50
Croatia 1991 1999 2.00 2.00 2.00 4.00 2.50 1.00 4.00 2 4.00
Cuba 2008 2010 5.00 5.00 2.50 4.50 4.00 4.00 5.00 2 4.50
DRC 1997 2010 1.50 1.50 2.50 2.00 4.00 0.50 3.00 2 4.00
Egypt 1991 2010 3.25 1.75 2.50 4.25 4.00 3.25 4.00 4 4.50
Equatorial 1993 2010 3.00 0.50 4.00 3.50 2.00 4.50 4.50 2 4.50
Guinea
Eritrea 1993 2010 5.00 3.75 3.25 1.75 3.75 0.75 2.25 4 3.00
Ethiopia 1995 2010 4.40 4.00 4.00 3.80 4.80 4.40 3.80 5 4.40
Fiji 2006 2010 2.75 3.25 1.50 3.25 3.00 1.75 3.25 4 3.67
Gabon 1991 2010 2.33 1.67 2.00 3.33 3.67 2.00 3.67 3 4.00
Gambia 1997 2010 4.00 5.00 4.00 5.00 4.00 3.50 4.00 2 5.00
Georgia 2004 2010 4.00 3.67 2.33 3.67 4.67 3.67 4.00 3 3.67
Ghana 1991 1992 1.67 2.33 3.33 3.67 4.33 3.67 4.00 3 3.67
Guatemala 2009 2010 0.50 1.00 1.50 4.00 4.00 0.00 4.00 2 5.00
Guinea 2010 2010 1.00 0.50 4.00 2.50 2.00 0.50 2.00 2 2.50
Guinea-Bissau 2010 2010 4.00 0.00 0.00 2.50 1.00 1.00 2.00 2 4.00
Haiti 2006 2010 3.50 0.50 2.00 4.50 4.00 1.50 3.50 2 4.00
Honduras 2010 2010 2.67 3.67 0.67 5.00 3.00 0.67 4.33 3 3.67
Indonesia 1991 1998 4.25 4.00 4.00 4.25 5.00 3.50 4.75 4 4.25
Iran 1991 2010 4.50 5.00 2.50 4.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 2 4.00
Iraq 2005 2010 5.00 4.50 5.00 1.50 3.00 3.50 5.00 2 3.50
Jordan 1991 2010 3.00 3.00 3.67 4.00 3.00 3.67 4.00 3 3.67
Kazakhstan 1991 2010 1.67 3.00 4.67 4.00 4.00 3.50 3.67 3 3.33
Kenya 2009 2009 1.40 0.60 3.20 4.20 3.40 1.00 3.80 5 4.00
Kuwait 1991 2010 2.40 2.00 2.20 4.20 3.20 2.00 3.40 5 4.20

2
Kyrgyzstan 2005 2010 1.33 1.00 0.33 2.67 1.67 1.00 1.33 3 4.00
Laos 1991 2010 3.00 3.33 0.67 2.33 2.00 0.67 2.33 3 3.00
Lebanon 1992 2010 2.50 1.50 0.50 1.50 0.50 0.50 1.50 2 4.00
Lesotho 1994 2001 3.50 3.00 4.00 4.00 4.50 2.00 5.00 2 4.00
Liberia 2005 2010 3.00 1.00 4.00 2.67 3.00 1.00 2.67 3 3.33
Libya 1991 2010 4.00 4.33 4.00 3.00 3.33 3.67 4.00 3 4.00
Macedonia 2000 2001 2.50 2.50 0.50 2.50 2.00 0.00 3.00 2 4.50
Madagascar 2009 2010 3.00 1.00 3.00 1.50 1.50 0.50 1.50 2 3.50
Malawi 2001 2010 1.25 1.25 3.25 3.50 4.75 2.50 4.00 4 4.00
Malaysia 1991 2010 2.20 3.40 1.60 4.60 4.80 2.80 4.60 5 3.80
Mauritania 2008 2010 1.00 4.00 4.00 4.50 n/n 0.00 4.00 2 4.00
Mexico 1991 1999 4.00 3.00 1.67 4.67 4.33 2.00 4.50 3 4.00
Moldova 2001 2010 3.00 3.00 1.50 3.50 2.00 1.50 2.50 2 3.50
Morocco 1991 2010 4.50 3.00 4.50 3.50 2.50 1.50 3.50 2 5.00
Mozambique 2009 2010 5.00 2.00 1.33 4.33 2.00 1.50 3.50 3 4.00
Myanmar 1991 2010 3.00 3.00 2.50 2.50 3.00 2.00 3.50 2 4.50
Nepal 2008 2010 4.50 4.50 4.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 4.50 2 4.00
Nicaragua 1992 1994 3.50 3.50 2.50 2.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 2 2.00
Niger 2007 2009 0.50 1.00 2.50 4.00 2.50 1.00 3.50 2 5.00
Nigeria 1999 2010 0.50 0.50 0.50 4.50 3.00 4.00 2.00 2 4.40
North Korea 1991 2010 5.00 5.00 4.67 2.00 1.67 0.33 4.67 3 3.33
Oman 1991 2010 4.50 0.00 5.00 1.00 4.00 2.00 4.50 2 4.50
Pakistan 1999 2010 0.67 1.00 0.33 3.33 2.00 1.67 2.33 3 3.00
Peru 1991 1999 0.33 1.00 2.67 4.33 5.00 0.33 4.00 3 3.67
Qatar 1991 2010 1.67 2.67 3.33 1.67 5.00 4.33 3.33 3 3.33
Romania 1991 1995 5.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 0.00 4.00 1 4.00
Russia 2000 2010 1.00 1.33 3.17 4.33 4.33 3.40 4.17 6 4.40
Rwanda 1994 2010 5.00 4.50 5.00 4.50 5.00 4.00 5.00 2 4.50
Saudi Arabia 1991 2010 4.50 5.00 5.00 0.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 2 4.00

3
Senegal 1991 1999 1.33 1.33 0.67 5.00 2.33 1.33 2.67 3 4.00
Serbia and 1992 2000 2.00 3.67 3.33 3.67 0.67 1.00 2.67 3 4.67
Montenegro
Sierra Leone 2002 2006 2.67 2.67 2.33 0.67 1.33 0.00 2.00 3 4.00
Singapore 1991 2010 2.00 2.00 1.00 5.00 4.00 0.00 5.00 1 5.00
South Africa 1991 1993 3.50 4.00 2.50 4.00 4.00 2.00 4.00 2 5.00
Sri Lanka 2006 2010 4.67 4.00 4.33 3.67 4.33 1.67 4.33 3 4.00
Sudan 1991 2010 3.33 4.67 1.67 3.67 1.67 2.33 4.00 3 4.00
Swaziland 1991 2010 3.50 5.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 4.50 2 4.00
Syria 1991 2010 4.50 4.00 4.00 2.00 3.00 0.50 3.50 2 4.00
Tajikistan 1992 2010 3.33 2.33 3.00 2.67 4.33 0.67 3.67 3 4.00
Tanzania 1995 2010 3.20 3.00 2.00 5.00 4.25 1.60 4.40 5 4.00
Thailand 2006 2010 1.00 3.00 0.50 4.50 1.50 2.00 2.50 2 4.50
Togo 2005 2010 2.50 2.50 2.50 3.50 2.00 2.00 2.50 2 4.00
Tunisia 1991 2010 2.50 2.50 2.00 4.00 4.00 1.00 3.00 2 4.00
Turkey 1993 2001 3.33 3.67 3.83 4.00 3.83 2.83 4.67 6 2.75
Turkmenistan 1991 2006 4.50 4.50 5.00 2.50 4.50 1.00 4.50 2 4.00
Uganda 2009 2010 4.67 3.00 4.33 4.00 4.33 4.00 4.50 3 5.00
Ukraine 2010 2010 0.00 0.25 0.75 3.25 2.75 0.50 2.00 4 4.00
United Arab 1991 2010 4.00 4.50 4.00 2.00 4.50 3.00 4.50 2 4.00
Emirates
Uzbekistan 1991 2010 3.25 4.25 3.25 3.67 4.25 2.00 3.75 4 3.25
Venezuela 1999 2010 4.75 4.25 4.50 4.25 3.50 4.50 4.50 4 4.25
Vietnam 1991 2010 4.50 4.50 0.50 5.00 4.50 1.50 4.50 2 4.00
Yemen 1993 2010 4.67 4.00 4.00 3.67 3.33 2.00 3.67 3 2.50
Zambia 1996 2007 1.50 1.00 4.00 4.00 4.50 1.50 3.50 2 4.67
Zimbabwe 1991 2010 4.75 4.00 4.25 4.25 3.75 2.25 4.00 4 4.00

4
Appendix B: Questions Regime Legitimation Expert Survey (RLES)

• To what extent does the regime refer to a foundational myth (e.g. a revolution, an anti-colonial struggle or a liberation movement)?
• To what extent does the regime promote a specific ideology or societal model (e.g. ‘its own socialism’, nationalism, religious underpinning)?
• To what extent is the incumbent depicted as being endowed with an extraordinary personality and/or leadership capabilities (e.g. as father or
mother of the nation, particularly charismatic)?
• To what extent is the regime disproportionately engaged internationally (e.g. via leadership in international or regional organizations or as an
advocate for a specific group of countries in international negotiations)?
• To what extent does the regime promote procedural mechanisms (such as elections or other rule-based mechanisms) in order to enhance its
legitimacy?
• To what extent does the regime refer to its performance/development (such as economic growth or reduction of poverty) in order to enhance
its legitimacy?

For all questions: Please indicate based on a scale from 0 = hardly to 5 = routinely.

5
Appendix C: Differentiating between Authoritarian Regimes

Country Regime start Regime end Regime type


Afghanistan 2004 2010 competitive authoritarian
Albania 1991 2001 competitive authoritarian
Algeria 1999 2010 competitive authoritarian
Angola 2008 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Armenia 1995 2010 competitive authoritarian
Azerbaijan 1992 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Bahrain 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Bangladesh 1999 2010 electoral democracy
Belarus 1993 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Bhutan 2008 2010 competitive authoritarian
Burkina Faso 1991 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Burundi 2005 2010 electoral democracy
Cambodia 1993 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Cameroon 1992 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
CAR 2003 2010 competitive authoritarian
Chad 1996 2010 competitive authoritarian
China 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Colombia 1999 2004 electoral democracy
Congo 2002 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Cote d'Ivoire 2000 2010 competitive authoritarian
Croatia 1991 1999 competitive authoritarian
Cuba 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
DRC 1997 2010 competitive authoritarian
Egypt 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Equatorial Guinea 1993 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Eritrea 1993 2010 closed authoritarian

6
Ethiopia 1995 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Fiji 2006 2010 closed authoritarian
Gabon 1991 2010 competitive authoritarian
Gambia 1997 2010 competitive authoritarian
Georgia 2007 2010 electoral democracy
Ghana 1992 2010 competitive authoritarian
Guatemala 2009 2010 electoral democracy
Guinea 2010 2010 competitive authoritarian
Guinea-Bissau 2010 2010 electoral democracy
Haiti 2006 2010 competitive authoritarian
Honduras 2010 2010 electoral democracy
Indonesia 1991 1998 competitive authoritarian
Iran 1991 2010 competitive authoritarian
Iraq 2005 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Jordan 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Kazakhstan 1994 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Kenya 2009 2009 competitive authoritarian
Kuwait 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Kyrgyzstan 1991 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Laos 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Lebanon 1992 2010 electoral democracy
Lesotho 1994 2001 electoral democracy
Liberia 2005 2010 electoral democracy
Libya 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Macedonia 2000 2001 electoral democracy
Madagascar 2009 2010 competitive authoritarian
Malawi 2001 2010 electoral democracy
Malaysia 1991 2010 competitive authoritarian
Mauritania 2008 2010 competitive authoritarian

7
Mexico 1991 1999 competitive authoritarian
Moldova 2008 2008 electoral democracy
Morocco 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Mozambique 2009 2010 electoral democracy
Myanmar 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Nepal 2008 2010 electoral democracy
Nicaragua 1992 1994 electoral democracy
Niger 2007 2009 electoral democracy
Nigeria 1999 2010 competitive authoritarian
North Korea 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Oman 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Pakistan 1999 2010 closed authoritarian
Peru 1991 1999 competitive authoritarian
Qatar 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Romania 1991 1995 competitive authoritarian
Russia 1991 2010 competitive authoritarian
Rwanda 1994 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Saudi Arabia 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Senegal 1991 1999 competitive authoritarian
Serbia and Montenegro 1992 2000 competitive authoritarian
Sierra Leone 2002 2006 competitive authoritarian
Singapore 1991 2010 competitive authoritarian
South Africa 1991 1993 competitive authoritarian
Sri Lanka 2006 2010 electoral democracy
Sudan 1991 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Swaziland 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Syria 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Tajikistan 1991 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Tanzania 1995 2010 hegemonic authoritarian

8
Thailand 2006 2010 competitive authoritarian
Togo 2005 2010 competitive authoritarian
Tunisia 1991 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Turkey 1993 2001 electoral democracy
Turkmenistan 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Uganda 2009 2010 competitive authoritarian
Ukraine 2000 2004 electoral democracy
United Arab Emirates 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Uzbekistan 1995 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Venezuela 1999 2010 competitive authoritarian
Vietnam 1991 2010 closed authoritarian
Yemen 1993 2010 hegemonic authoritarian
Zambia 1996 2007 competitive authoritarian
Zimbabwe 1991 2010 competitive authoritarian

Appendix D: Levels of Autocracy and Claims to Legitimacy

IFHPOL < 1.75 IFHPOL < 3.5 IFHPOL < 5.25 IFHPOL < 7
Foundational myth 3.88 2.85 2.57 2.81
Ideology 3.69 2.92 2.23 2.37
Personalism 3.37 3.15 2.26 2.60
Procedures 2.90 3.55 3.64 3.62
Performance 3.59 3.37 3.07 3.43
International engagement 2.31 1.95 1.69 1.87
N 20 regime spells 24 regime spells 18 regime spells 36 regime spells