OR
CONVERSIONS:
1 foot = 0.3048 meters
km/h > m/s = divide by 3.6
Specific fuel consumption. To get in metric, divide by 1980000 then
0.3048.
BASICS (CH4 SUMMARY):
Equation of state:
For compressible flow:
For incompressible flow (V < 100m/s OR M < 0.3):
Mach number at altitude:
where p1 is ambient air pressure (from table) and p0 is
pressure at wing (ie measured by pitot tube or similar). p181 Anderson.
ISENTROPIC RELATIONSHIP:
temperatures in kelvin, found in ISA table below.
OR
SKIN FRICTION:
and
Incompressible turbulent boundary layers:
ZERO LIFT DRAG COEFFICIENT:
Theoretical prediction of transition from laminar to turbulent layers is very difficult. Experimentation is needed.
Critical reynold's number finds the theoretical transition point between laminar and turbulent air flow.
LIFT:
At higher speeds:
(c_l,0 is found from the NACA charts)
DRAG:
MOMENT:
STALLING:
is higher for greater weight
is lower for greater
is lower for greater wing area
is lower for greater air density
MAXIMUM VELOCITY:
PRESSURE COEFFICIENT:
Describes how pressure on surface of wing deviates from freestream pressure.
Cp is plotted upside down, with negative axis pointed up.
For
QUARTER CHORD MOMENT:
COEFFICIENT OF DRAG (FINITE WING)
(e is Oswald efficiency factor)
COEFFICIENT OF LIFT (FINITE WING)
(steady, level flight)
LIFT SLOPE FOR A FINITE WING:
Total Force Normal:
STEADY AND LEVEL FLIGHT:
Inverted:
for lift to drag ratio.
POWER REQUIRED
POWER AVAILABLE:
For prop planes:
where P is total power available from both engines.
For jets:
THRUST REQUIRED:
ALTITUDE EFFECTS:
so
p1 is ambient pressure (from table), p0 is pressure on
wing (ie from pitot tube) page181
RATE OF CLIMB:
GLIDING FLIGHT:
Where theta is glide angle, W is weight.
RADAR:
RANGE (get ready):
(props)
c = specific fuel consumption (must be in N/(J/s) (s))
(jets)
ENDURANCE:
Maximum endurance is found at maximum
(props)
(jet)
LIFT OFF ROLLING DISTANCE:
where
Remember, b is wingspan. h is height of the wing above ground.
Get Vlo first, then multiply by 0.7. Calculate drag and lift from this velocity, then sub into the equation above.
IF THRUST IS LARGE:
LIFT OFF VELOCITY
TOUCHDOWN VELOCITY:
where V(infinity) is 0.7Vt
Then
MAXIMUM AERODYNAMIC RATIOS (TO FIND MAX RANGE AND MAX ENDURANCE):
These replace
in the range and endurance equations given above.
CD0 and Cl maxes:
WEIGHT OF FUEL:
Avgas doesn't have the same density as water, so you cannot just multiply by 9.81 to get its weight. You must multiply it by its density, which is 5.64lb per US gallon. Convert this by multiplying by 0.264172052 then 0.4536 to get metric.
LONGITUDINAL STABILITY AND BALANCE:
1. The aircraft has longitudinal static stability when:
2. The aircraft is balanced when the trim angle of attack
range.
falls within reasonable flight
// IMPORTANT
NEUTRAL POINT:
The neutral point is where the aircraft is statically neutral, the cg location for hn for which gradient is zero.
LEVEL TURNS:
In this situation, balance the weight.
is bank angle. To stay level, the lift produced at this bank angle must
For circular turns:
where R is radius of turn.
The higher the lift to weight ratio is, the tighter the turn.
The rate of turn is angular velocity:
high load factor and low velocity both produce high rates of turn and tight turns.
PULLUP MANOUEVRE:
This is like a level turn, but on the vertical axis. Pulling up on the stick.
and
again, where n is the load factor. See above for its equation.
PULL DOWN MANOUEVRE:
Seen in high performance aircraft, where n is very large.
MAXIMUM LOAD FACTOR:
ISA table:
Elevation  z  
Temperature  T  
Pressure  p  (bar NOT TO BE USED FOR Cp) 
RelativeDensity  ρ/ρo  
Kinematic Viscosity  ν  x 10 ^{}^{5} (m ^{2} /s) 
Thermal Conductivity  k  (kW/m K) 
Speed of Sound  c  (m/s) 

(m) 
(K) 

2000 
301.2 
1.2778 
1.2067 
1.253 
2.636 
347.9 

1500 
297.9 
1.2070 
1.1522 
1.301 
2.611 
346.0 

1000 
294.7 
1.1393 
1.0996 
1.352 
2.585 
344.1 

500 
291.4 
1.0748 
1.0489 
1.405 
2.560 
342.2 

0 
288.15 
1.01325 
1.0000 
1.461 
2.534 
340.3 

500 
284.9 
0.9546 
0.9529 
1.520 
2.509 
338.4 

1000 
281.7 
0.8988 
0.9075 
1.581 
2.483 
336.4 

1500 
278.4 
0.8456 
0.8638 
1.646 
2.457 
334.5 

2000 
275.2 
0.7950 
0.8217 
1.715 
2.431 
332.5 

2500 
271.9 
0.7469 
0.7812 
1.787 
2.405 
330.6 

3000 
268.7 
0.7012 
0.7423 
1.863 
2.379 
328.6 

3500 
265.4 
0.6578 
0.7048 
1.943 
2.353 
326.6 

4000 
262.2 
0.6166 
0.6689 
2.028 
2.327 
324.6 

4500 
258.9 
0.5775 
0.6343 
2.117 
2.301 
322.6 

5000 
255.7 
0.5405 
0.6012 
2.211 
2.275 
320.5 

5500 
252.4 
0.5054 
0.5694 
2.311 
2.248 
318.5 

6000 
249.2 
0.4722 
0.5389 
2.416 
2.222 
316.5 

6500 
245.9 
0.4408 
0.5096 
2.528 
2.195 
314.4 

7000 
242.7 
0.4111 
0.4817 
2.646 
2.169 
312.3 

7500 
239.5 
0.3830 
0.4549 
2.771 
2.142 
310.2 

8000 
236.2 
0.3565 
0.4292 
2.904 
2.115 
308.1 

8500 
233.0 
0.3315 
0.4047 
3.046 
2.088 
306.0 

9000 
229.7 
0.3080 
0.3813 
3.196 
2.061 
303.8 

9500 
226.5 
0.2858 
0.3589 
3.355 
2.034 
301.7 

10000 
223.3 
0.2650 
0.3376 
3.525 
2.007 
299.8 
10500 
220.0 
0.2454 
0.3172 
3.706 
1.980 
297.4 
11000 
216.8 
0.2270 
0.2978 
3.899 
1.953 
295.2 
11500 
216.7 
0.2098 
0.2755 
4.213 
1.952 
295.1 
12000 
216.7 
0.1940 
0.2546 
4.557 
1.952 
295.1 
12500 
216.7 
0.1793 
0.2354 
4.930 
1.952 
295.1 
13000 
216.7 
0.1658 
0.2176 
5.333 
1.952 
295.1 
13500 
216.7 
0.1533 
0.2012 
5.768 
1.952 
295.1 
14000 
216.7 
0.1417 
0.1860 
6.239 
1.952 
295.1 
14500 
216.7 
0.1310 
0.1720 
6.749 
1.952 
295.1 
15000 
216.7 
0.1211 
0.1590 
7.300 
1.952 
295.1 
15500 
216.7 
0.1120 
0.1470 
7.895 
1.952 
295.1 
16000 
216.7 
0.1035 
0.1359 
8.540 
1.952 
295.1 
16500 
216.7 
0.09572 
0.1256 
9.237 
1.952 
295.1 
17000 
216.7 
0.08850 
0.1162 
9.990 
1.952 
295.1 
17500 
216.7 
0.08182 
0.1074 
10.805 
1.952 
295.1 
18000 
216.7 
0.07565 
0.09930 
11.686 
1.952 
295.1 
18500 
216.7 
0.06995 
0.09182 
12.639 
1.952 
295.1 
19000 
216.7 
0.06467 
0.08489 
13.670 
1.952 
295.1 
19500 
216.7 
0.05980 
0.07850 
14.784 
1.952 
295.1 
20000 
216.7 
0.05529 
0.07258 
15.989 
1.952 
295.1 
22000 
218.6 
0.04047 
0.05266 
22.201 
1.968 
296.4 
24000 
220.6 
0.02972 
0.03832 
30.743 
1.985 
297.7 
26000 
222.5 
0.02188 
0.02797 
42.439 
2.001 
299.1 
28000 
224.5 
0.01616 
0.02047 
58.405 
2.018 
300.4 
30000 
226.5 
0.01197 
0.01503 
80.134 
2.034 
301.7 
Geo potential Altitude above Sea Level  h  (m) 
Dynamic 

Temperature  t  ^{o} C) ( 
Acceleration of Gravity  g  (m/s ^{2} ) 
Absolute Pressure  p  (10 ^{4} N/m ^{2} ) 
Density  ρ  (10 ^{}^{1} kg/m ^{3} ) 
Viscosity  μ  (10 N.s/m ^{2} ) 5 

1000 
21.50 
9.810 
11.39 
13.47 
1.821 

0 
15.00 
9.807 
10.13 
12.25 
1.789 

1000 
8.50 
9.804 
8.988 
11.12 
1.758 

2000 
2.00 
9.801 
7.950 
10.07 
1.726 

3000 
4.49 
9.797 
7.012 
9.093 
1.694 

4000 
10.98 
9.794 
6.166 
8.194 
1.661 

5000 
17.47 
9.791 
5.405 
7.364 
1.628 

6000 
23.96 
9.788 
4.722 
6.601 
1.595 

7000 
30.45 
9.785 
4.111 
5.900 
1.561 

8000 
36.94 
9.782 
3.565 
5.258 
1.527 

9000 
43.42 
9.779 
3.080 
4.671 
1.493 

10000 
49.90 
9.776 
2.650 
4.135 
1.458 

15000 
56.50 
9.761 
1.211 
1.948 
1.422 

20000 
56.50 
9.745 
0.5529 
0.8891 
1.422 
25000 
51.60 
9.730 
0.2549 
0.4008 
1.448 
30000 
46.64 
9.715 
0.1197 
0.1841 
1.475 
40000 
22.80 
9.684 
0.0287 
0.03996 
1.601 
50000 
2.5 
9.654 
0.007978 
0.01027 
1.704 
60000 
26.13 
9.624 
0.002196 
0.003097 
1.584 
70000 
53.57 
9.594 
0.00052 
0.0008283 
1.438 
80000 
74.51 
9.564 
0.00011 
0.0001846 
1.321 
BOOK SOLUTION PAGES AND THE QUESTIONS THEMSELVES:
CH4  Basic Aerodynamics:
SUMMARY PAGE 247.
p164  Compute mach number given altitude, velocity.
p165  nozzle flow
p168  mercury manometer in a subsonic wind tunnel. Calculate airflow velocity.
p178  pitot tube on cessna wing. Given air temp, pressure in pitot tube, altitude. Compute airspeed.
p181  pitot tube question, calculate Mach number of aircraft, given metric numbers for ambient air temp, pressure in pitot tube, altitude.
p187  isentropic flow over airfoil. Given freestream pressure, velocity, density and pressure at point A of airfoil. What is mach # and velocity at point A?
p196  design a supersonic wind tunnel that has mach 2 flow @ sea level conditions in test section. What area ratio is required.
p198  isentropic flow in a rocket engine. Given temperature, pressure, specific gas constant R and gamma plus area of nozzle. Find velocity at exit + mass flow through nozzle.
p212  boundary layer thickness and drag force on plate, assuming laminar flow. Given flow velocity and dimensions of plate.
p213  calculate local shear stress at locations 1 and 5cm from leading edge of plate given in question above.
p216  same flow over same plate, now assume boundary layer COMPLETELY TURBULENT. Calc boundary layer thickness at trailing edge and drag force on plate.
p219  Supersonic fighter. Assume infinitely thin wing. altitude given, boundary layer is turbulent. Estimate shear stress 2ft downstream of leading edge.
p222  Find skin friction drag of wright flyer, given S, V(infty) and transition reynolds number.
p229  Given name of airfoil, mointed in test section of wind tunnel. Spans entire tube. Given length and width. Induced drag is zero, Velocity of wind is given, profile drag given (angle of attack is zero). Calculate drag on airfoil due to skin friction. Calc profile drag due to flow separation.
CH5  Airfoils, Wings and Other Aero dynamic Shapes:
SUMMARY PAGE 390.
p275  Model wing in wind tunnel. Given airfoil number and chord length. Velocity in tunnel
is given and is at sea level. If wing is at 4 degrees angle of attack,
the lift, drag and moments around the quarter chord, per unit span.
p276  same wing in same flow, pitched to angle such that lift per unit span is 700N. What
is 
the angle of attack, and what angle of attack must the wing be pitched to to obtain 
L 
= 0 Newtons? 
p276  Airfoil number given, again, flush with the walls. At zero angle of attack, drag = 34.7N. Flow velocity is 97m/s, standard sea level conditions. Chord = 0.6m, wingspan = 1m. Hence 34.7N is drag per unit span. Calculate drag coefficient.
p277  Split flap question, deflected at 60 degrees.
p283  Pressure point on wing given, velocity of aircraft given, altitude given. Find pressure coefficient of this point on wing.
p283  Low subsonic wind tunnel. Flow velocity given and pressure at a point on airfoil given. What is the pressure coefficient.
p283  Flow velocity is increased so that the freestream Mach number is 0.6.
p284  aircraft flying at velocity of 100m/s at standard altitude of 3km. Pressure coefficient at a point on plane is 2.2. What is pressure at this point?
p284  Two different points on surface of airplane wing at 80m/s. Pressure coefficient given for point one, flow velocity given. Pressure coefficient at point 2 given. Incompressible flow. Calc velocity at point two.
p289  Airfoil with chord length c and running distance x. Leading edge located at x/c = 0, trailing edge at x/c = 1. PRessure coefficient variations over upper and lower surfaces are given (three equations with limits). Calculate the normal force coefficient.
p291  NACA 4412 airfoil at angle of attack 4 degrees. If freestream mach number is 0.7, what is the lift coefficient?
p298  Airfoil given, plus graph of pressure coefficient distribution over its surface, at Re = 3.65e6. What is the critical mach number of this airfoil at zero angle of attack?
p315  Thin supersonic airfoil with chord length c = 5 ft in a Mach 3 freestream at altitude 20,000ft. Angle of attack is 5 degrees. Calculate lift and wave drag coefficients, and lift and wage drag per unit span.
p317  Supersonic fighter; S = 19.5m squared. Steady, level flight (L=W). Weight is 7262kgf. Calculate its angle of attack at Mach 2 at sea level and 10km altitude.
p318  Flying at steady, level flight, mach 2 at an altitude of 10km, pilot suddenly pitches the airplane to an angle of attack of 10 degrees. Calculate instantaneous lift exerted on the airplane. This also shows the g forces on the pilot.
p328  Fighter airplane with S = 170ft^2. Generates 18,000lb of lift. Flight velocity is 250mi/h at sea level. Calculate the lift coefficient.
p329  Wingspan of plane in previous question is 25.25ft. Calculate the induced drag coefficient and induced drag. Assume e = 0.8.
p329  A flying wing with wing area of 206m^2, AR = 10, e=0.95, and NACA 4412 airfoil. Weight of plane given as 7.5e5N. Density altitude is 3km and flight velocity is 100m/ s. calculate total drag on aircraft.
p330  North american p51 mustang. NACA airfoil given. Weight given. S given. Wing span given. e = 0.99. Altitude given. Max velocity given. At this altitude and velocity, calculate and compare the induced drag and profile drag of the wing. At sea level, calculate the induced drag and profile drag at 140mph
p335  AR = 10, NACA airfoil given. Assume Re = 5e6. e = e1 = 0.95. If wing at 4 degrees angle of attack, calculate CL and CD (finite wing).
p336  Given V = 30mi/h, calculate the induced drag on the wings, Assume e = 0.93.
p355  Full load of fuel, airplane weighs 10,258kg. Empty weight is 6071 kg. S = 18.21m^2. Thin wing, CLmax = only 1.15 because of thin wings. Calculate stalling speed at standard sea level, when fuel tanks are full and empty.
p357  Boeing 727 with low stalling speed. Max lift coefficient of 3, weight of 160,000lb, S = 1650ft^2. Calculate stalling speed.\
p370  Can an airfoil produce lift when it is flying upside down? Yes, but not effectively. Two naca airfoils shown. For an angle of attack of 6 degrees, obtain the lift coefficient for each.
CH6  Elements of Airplane Performance:
SUMMARY PAGE 522.
p410  Calculate the Thrust Required Curves at Sea Level for these two planes given.
p415  Calculate the maximum velocity of CJ1 at sea level.
p420  Calculate the powerrequired curves for the CP1 at sea level and the CJ1 at an altitude of 22,000ft.
p429  Given a power required curve at 22,000 ft, obtain the CJ1 powerrequired curve at sea level.
p436  Calculate Rate of Climb (R/C) versus velocity at sea level for the CP1 and CJ1.
p440  The maximum lifttodrag (L/D) ratio for the CP1 is 13.6. calculate the minimum glide angle and the maximum range measured along the ground covered by the CP1 in
a power off glide that starts at an altitude of 10,000ft.
p442  For the CP1, calculate the equilibrium glide velocities at altitudes of 10,000 and 2000ft, each corresponding to the minimum glide angle.
p444  Calculate the absolute and service ceilings for the CP1 and the CJ1.
p447  Calculate and compare the time required for the CP1 and CJ1 to climb to
20,000ft.
p454  Calculate the maximum range and maximum endurance for the CP1.
p459  Calculate the maximum range and maximum endurance for the CJ1 (jet).
p463  calculate (CL/CD)max and (CL^(3/2)/CD)max for the CP1.
p463  calculate (CL^(1/2)/CD)max and (CL/CD)max for the CJ1.
p469  Airplane with C_D,0 = 0.0025, AR = 7.37 and e=0.8. Aircraft is flying such that CL
= 0.228. Calculate the ratio of lift to drag (L/D) at this condition.
p474  Estimate the liftoff distance for the CJ1 at sea level. Assume paved runway ( ). Assume CL,max during ground roll is limited to 1.0. The wings are 6ft above
the ground.
p478  Estimate the landing ground roll distance at sea level for the CJ1. No thrust reversal used, though spoilers are used so that L=0. Spoilers increase CD,0 by 10%. Fuel tanks are empty, so neglect weight of fuel. Max lift coefficient with flaps fully deployed is
2.5.
p502  Using CP1 airplane of previous examples, lets assume that its been changed to a UAV. Less weight. In this case, evaluate Vmax at sea level, maximum R/C at sea level,
maximum range, maximum endurance at sea level. Weights of people and equipment removed total 880lb.
p505  Conventional plane (L/D)max = 9, UCAV (L/D)max = 25. At the same flight velocity, compare the turn radius and turn rate for these two aircraft.
CH7  Stability and Control
SUMMARY PAGE 586.
p550  Given wingbody combination, aerodynamic centre (ac) lies 0.05 chord length ahead of the CG. The momenbt coefficient about the aerodynamic center is 0.016. If CL is 0.45, calculate the moment coefficient about the center of gravity.
p551  L=0 at angle of attack 1.5 degrees. At 5 degrees angle of attack, CL = 0.52. @ 1.0 degrees and 7.88 degrees, CMs about CG are measured as 0.01 and 0.05 respectively. CG is located at 0.35c. Calculate the location of the aerodynamic center and the value of
p556  Aerea and chord of wing are 0.1m^2 and 0.1m respectively. Assume horizontal tail is added to model. Distance from CG to tac is 0.17m. St = 0.002m^2. Tail setting angle is 2.7 degrees, tail lift slope is 0.1 per degree. Epsilon zero is 0, partial epsilon, partial alpha = 0.35. If angle of attack is 7.88 degrees, calculate
p558  Consider wingbodytail wind tunnel model in previous question. Does this model have longitudinal static stability and balance?
p560  From the model in previous questions, calculate the neutral point location.
p561  From previous question's model, calculate the static margin.
p570  Full size airplane with the same aerodynamic characteristics as the model in the previous questions, S = 19m^2, W = 2.27e4N, elevator control effectiveness is 0.04. Calculate the elevator deflection angle necessary to trim airplane at vel of 61m/s at sea level.
p576  Consider airplane in example 7.8. Its elevator hinge moment derivs are XYZ. Assess the stickfree static stability of this airplane.
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