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What is GPRS?

Whilst GSM (2G) networks are excellent for voice calls, they are limited when it comes to sending and receiving data.
GSM phones use a technology called CSD (Circuit Switched Data) to transfer data. CSD requires the phone to make a
special connection to the network before it can transfer data (like making a voice call) which can take up to 30 seconds.
Once connected, the data is sent or received and the user is billed for the time spent online. Data transfer is relatively slow:
14.4 kbps (kilobits per second) for GSM 1800 networks (Orange and T-Mobile) and 9.6 kbps for GSM 900 networks
(Vodafone and O2).

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is a method of enhancing 2G phones to enable them to send and receive data more
rapidly. With a GPRS connection, the phone is "always on" and can transfer data immediately, and at higher speeds:
typically 32 - 48 kbps. An additional benefit is that data can be transferred at the same time as making a voice call. GPRS
is now available on most new phones.

GPRS is part of a series of technologies that are designed to move 2G networks closer to the
performance of 3G networks. The key characteristic of a 3G network is its ability to transfer large
amounts of data at high speed (up to 2 Mbps), enabling applications like video calling, video
downloads, web browsing, email, etc. By increasing the speed of a 2G network, some of these
applications become possible, e.g. web browsing and sending or receiving emails with large
attachments. These technologies are called 2.5G and include enhancements to the CSD
technology, such as HSCSD and EDGE.

GPRS Class Types


The class of a GPRS phone determines the speed at which data can be transferred. Technically
the class refers to the number of timeslots available for upload (sending data from the phone) or
download (receiving data from the network). The timeslots used for data are in addition to the
slot that is reserved for voice calls. These timeslots are available simultaneously, so the greater
the number of slots, the faster the data transfer speed. Because GPRS transmits data in packets,
the timeslots are not in use all the time, but are shared amongst all users of the network. That
increases the overall data capacity of the network, and it also means that you are billed for the
quantity of data transmitted, not the time that you are online. It may mean that during busy
times, data transfer rates slow down, because the network will give priority to voice calls.

The most common GPRS classes in use are as follows:

GPRS Class Slots Max. data transfer speed


Class 2 3 8 - 12 kbps upload / 16 - 24 kbps download
Class 4 4 8 - 12 kbps upload / 24 - 36 kbps download
Class 6 4 24 - 36 kbps upload / 24 - 36 kbps download
Class 8 5 8 - 12 kbps upload / 32 - 40 kbps download
Class 10 5 16 - 24 kbps upload / 32 - 48 kbps download
Class 12 5 32 - 48 kbps upload / 32 - 48 kbps download

Generally speaking, the higher the GPRS class, the faster the data transfer rates.
HSCSD
HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data) enables data to be transferred more rapidly than the standard GSM (Circuit
Switched Data) system by using multiple channels. The maximum number of timeslots that can be used is four, giving a
maximum data transfer rate of 57.6 kbps (or 38.4 kbps on a GSM 900 network). HSCSD is more expensive to use
than GPRS, because all four slots are used simultaneously - it does not transmit data in packets.
Because of this, HSCSD is not as popular as GPRS and is being replaced by EDGE.

EDGE
EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) or EGPRS provides data transfer rates
significantly faster than GPRS or HSCSD. EDGE increases the speed of each timeslot to 48 kbps
and allows the use of up to 8 timeslots, giving a maximum data transfer rate of 384 kbps. In
places where an EDGE network is not available, GPRS will automatically be used instead. EDGE
offers the best that can be achieved with a 2.5G network, and will eventually be replaced by 3G.
GPRS Class Type

The class of the device determines the speed at which GPRS can be used.

For example, the majority of GPRS terminals will be able to download data at speeds of up to 24Kbps (kilobytes
per second). At the higher end, speeds are theoretically possible up to 171.2 kbit/sec when 8 slots are assigned
at the same time to a single user. In reality 40-50Kbps.

PC cards capable of GPRS will send data up to speeds of 48Kbps.

Compare this to current data speeds available:

Type Uplink (Sending) Downlink (Receiving)


GPRS 14 kbps 28-64 kbps
GSM CSD 9.6-14 kbps 9.6-14 kbps
HSCSD 28 kbps 28 kbps
Dial-UP 56 kbps 56 kbps
ISDN Standard 64 kbps 64 kbps
ADSL 256 kbps 512 kbps
Broadband 2 Mbps 2 Mbps

GPRS Multislot Classes

Multislot classes are product dependant, and determine the maximum achievable data rates in both the uplink
and downlink directions.

Written as (for example) 3+1 or 2+2, the first number indicates the amount of downlink timeslots (what the
mobile phone is able to receive from the network).
The second number indicates the amount of uplink timeslots (how many timeslots the mobile phone is able to
transmit).

The active slots determine the total number of slots the GPRS device can use simultaneously for both uplink and
downlink communications.

Multislot Class Downlink Slots Uplink Slots Active Slots

1 1 1 2

2 2 1 3

3 2 2 3

4 3 1 4

5 2 2 4

6 3 2 4

7 3 3 4

8 4 1 5

9 3 2 5

10 4 2 5

11 4 3 5

12 4 4 5

Futher Examples:

Class 2 Class 4
One Up, Two Down - (2+1) One Up, Three Down - (3+1)
8-12Kbps Send - 16-24Kbps Receive 8-12Kbps Send - 24-36Kbps Receive
Mororola Accompli A008 Motorola TimeportT260
Trium Mondo, Sirius

Class 6 - Configurable between Class 8


Two Up, Three Down One Up, Four Down
16-24Kbps Send - 24-36Kbps Receive 8-12Kbps Send - 32-40Kbps Receive
Or Three Up, Two Down Ericsson T39, R520
Motorola v60i, v66i
24-36Kbps Send - 16-24Kbps Receive
Samsung Q200, S100
Nokia 6310, 6510, 8310 Siemens S45, ME45, M50
Trium Eclipse

Class 10- Configurable between Class 12- Configurable between


One Up, Four Down One Up, Four Down
8-12Kbps Send - 32-48Kbps Receive 8-12Kbps Send - 32-48Kbps Receive
Or Two Up, Three Down Or Two Up, Three Down
16-24Kbps Send - 24-36Kbps Receive 16-24Kbps Send - 24-36Kbps Receive
Philips Fisio 820 Or Three Up, Two Down
24-36Kbps Send - 16-24Kbps Receive
Or Four Up, One Down
32-48Kbps Send - 8-12Kbps Receive
Sierra Wireless Aircard 750
GSM/GPRS PC Card

Class A, Class B & Class C?

The class indicates the mobile phone capabilities.

Class A
Class A mobile phones can be connected to both GPRS and GSM services simultaneously.

Class B
Class B mobile phones can be attached to both GPRS and GSM services, using one service at a time. Class B
enables making or receiving a voice call, or sending/receiving an SMS during a GPRS connection. During voice
calls or SMS, GPRS services are suspended and then resumed automatically after the call or SMS session has
ended.

Class C
Class C mobile phones are attached to either GPRS or GSM voice service. You need to switch manually between
services.

GPRS

- General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a packet-based wireless


communication service that promises data rates from 56 up to 114 Kbps and continuous
connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users. The higher data rates
allow users to take part in video conferences and interact with multimedia Web sites and
similar applications using mobile handheld devices as well as notebook computers.
GPRS is based on Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication and complements
existing services such circuit-switched cellular phone connections and the Short
Message Service (SMS).

In theory, GPRS packet-based services cost users less than circuit-switched services
since communication channels are being used on a shared-use, as-packets-are-needed
basis rather than dedicated to only one user at a time. It is also easier to make
applications available to mobile users because the faster data rate means that
middleware currently needed to adapt applications to the slower speed of wireless
systems are no longer be needed. As GPRS has become more widely available, along
with other 2.5G and 3G services, mobile users of virtual private networks (VPNs) have
been able to access the private network continuously over wireless rather than through a
rooted dial-up connection.

GPRS also complements Bluetooth, a standard for replacing wired connections between
devices with wireless radio connections. In addition to the Internet Protocol (IP), GPRS
supports X.25, a packet-based protocol that is used mainly in Europe. GPRS is an
evolutionary step toward Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE) and Universal
Mobile Telephone Service (UMTS).

GPRS Networks
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is a packet based wireless communication service that offers
data rates from 9.05 up to 171.2 Kbps and continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone
and computer users. GPRS is based on GSM communications and complements existing services
such as circuit switched cellular phone connections and the Short Message Service (SMS).

GPRS represents the bridge between 2G and 3G mobile telecommunications and is commonly
referred to as 2.5G.

GPRS implementation requires modification of existing GSM networks, because GSM is a circuit
switched technology while GPRS is packet oriented. GPRS enables packet data (the same as is used
by an Ethernet LAN, WAN or the Internet) to be sent to and from a mobile station - e.g. mobile
phone, PDA or Laptop.

WAP and SMS can also be sent using GPRS and individuals working with GPRS need to learn and
understand how the mobile stations, the air interface, network architecture, protocol structures and
signaling procedures must be modified.

GPRS offers much higher data rates than GSM and can be combined with 3G technologies such as
EDGE (Enhanced Data-Rates for GSM Evolution) to give even higher bit-rates. It offers many
benefits for customers and network operators: such as volume (rather then time) dependent billing
and more efficient use of network resources.

Due to the worldwide delay in implementing 3G solutions such as CDMA and UMTS the demand for
GPRS is still growing.

GPRS Networks:

• Offers detailed information ranging from standards to practical implementation


• Answers 'how' and 'why' rather than just simply re-stating GPRS specifications
• Provides comprehensive coverage in a single volume

Essential reading for all telecommunications project managers, field engineers, technical staff in
network operator and manufacturing organizations, GPRS application and service developers,
Datacom/IT engineers.

The comprehensive coverage also makes this a superb reference for students of computer science,
telecommunications and electrical engineering.
GPRS: General Packet Radio Service
Now you can get accurate, crystal clear information on lightning fast, always-on GPRS, the 2.5G
technology that's setting the pace today in handheld Internet access. You'll find it in GPRS: General
Packet Radio Service, the first and only guide to answer such fundamental questions as "What is
GPRS?" "How does it work?" and "How much is it going to cost me?" The author, telecom expert
and best-selling writer R.J. "Bud" Bates, reveals GPRS's features, functions, and architecture,
information crucial whether you're providing or applying GPRS. His straightforward, abundantly
illustrated, step-by-step presentation of how GPRS works, how it connects the Internet, and how to
implement it will help you put GPRS in place quickly and profitably as you explore:

• The complete layout of GPRS system architecture


• The function of GPRS elements
• Interfaces--radio and MS-PCUSN, MS-SGSN, PCUSN-SGSN, SGSN-GGSN, and GGSN-PDN

GPRS Demystified
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is global mobile data technology. More important it is a step
en route to next-generation wireless, or 3G, for many networks in the US and most networks in Asia
and Europe. Questions like "when can we expect European take-up of GPRS?", "what kind of
roaming will the standards bodies adopt?", "what functionality will first-generation terminals
provide?", or "how will GPRS change the basic business practices of GSM operators?" all need to be
answered before implementations proceed. This book helps the wireless industry gets its arms
around the issues with contributions from many of the pioneering companies in the mobile data
industry. GPRS Demystified equips professionals with plain English explanations of technology,
markets, billing systems, terminals and management challenges.
GPRS in Practice: A Companion to the Specifications
Professionals quickly discover that, although the technical specifications for GPRS (General Packet
Radio Service) cover all parts of the engineering functions in detail and depth, they are lacking in
one important feature; the conceptual framework within which the specifications sit - GPRS in
Practice fills this gap. By beginning with an explanation of why GPRS is necessary and describing the
core concept of GPRS operations, the TBF (Temporary Block Flow), a revision section then covers
the GSM Air Interface with its Radio, Physical and Logical channels and this progressively leads to
the GPRS logical channels - what they do and how they do it. GPRS in Practice then moves on to a
brief introduction of the GPRS protocol stack which provides a launch pad for a detailed trip into all
the layers of this stack, with detailed diagrams and explanations of each layer integrated into an
overall understanding of how the GPRS service operates in practice.

• Provides descriptions of why procedures are specified and then clearly explains how the
specifications work in practice
• Provides a layered view of the GPRS protocol and deals in detail with each layer separately
• Includes numerous acronyms and abbreviations accompanied by their full meaning

GPRS in Practice is an invaluable resource for Mobile network operators, Development and
deployment engineers and Handset designers.

Introduction to GPRS and EDGE: Technology, Operation, and


Services
Introduction to GPRS and EDGE: Technology, Operation, and Services explains how the GSM system
has been modified to provide GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), EDGE (Enhanced Data-Rates for
GSM Evolution), and EGPRS (Enhanced General Packet Radio Service) mobile packet data services.
Explained are the GPRS and EGPRS packet control channels and gateways to the GSM system to
provide a maximum delivered packet data transmission rate of approximately 474 kbps. You will
learn how EDGE is an evolved version of the GPRS radio channel that uses new phase modulation
and packet transmission to provide for advanced high-speed EGPRS data services. The GPRS
system allows cellular service providers to upgrade one or more GSM radio channels (with changes)
to provide broadband medium-speed and high-speed data services to their customers. GPRS and
EGPRS technology is an "always-on" system that allows users to browse the Internet without
complicated dialup connections.
You will discover that the key types of GPRS and EGPRS devices include external radio modems,
wireless PCMCIA cards, embedded radio modules, and mobile telephones. External radio modems
allow the customer to simply plug in their GPRS device to their USB or Ethernet data port to their
desktop or laptop computer. GPRS PCMCIA cards can be added to most laptop computers or
embedded radio modules allow devices such as PDAs and Laptops to integrate high-speed wireless
without adding PCMCIA cards. Some mobile telephones include both GSM (voice and low speed
data) and GPRS (high-speed packet data) capability.

Because the requirements of voice and data communication are different, the operation of the GSM
radio channel is different. GPRS devices can have single mode (only GPRS/EGPRS) or dual mode
(both GSM voice and GPRS data) capability. You will discover how the GPRS system was modified
using EDGE technology to increase the 171.2 kbps GPRS maximum data transmission rate to 474
kbps EGPRS data transmission rate.

This book provides the basic technical components and operation of GPRS technology. You will learn
the physical radio channel structures of the GPRS system along with the basic frame and slot
structures. Described are the logical channels and their functions. Explained are the key GPRS
network components and how they communicate with each other.

Explained is the fundamental capabilities and operation of the GPRS and EGPRS radio channel
including asymmetric data rates, modulation types (GMSK, 8-PSK), and how GPRS devices can use
either GSM or GPRS control channels to setup and manage packet data communication sessions.
You will discover how a packet control unit (PCU) coordinates the allocation of GSM voice channels
and GPRS/EGPRS packet data channels and how a single GSM radio channel can provide up to 8
simultaneous data sessions and how many other users (possibly 80 per channel) can be added who
have a 10% usage activity factor.

GPRS for Mobile Internet


This new, leading-edge book offers you a comprehensive, in-depth presentation of GPRS (general
packet radio service). The book helps you understand how this system is used as a major building
block technology for the emerging mobile Internet. You explore the most critical aspects of GPRS in
great detail, and gain a real-world understanding of the inevitable implementation challenges you
will face in the field.

After a general overview of the GSM and GPRS systems, the book provides you with detailed
coverage of a wide range of important topics, including the radio interface, Gb interface, BSSGP,
signaling plane, user plane, and RLC (radio link control) principles. Case studies throughout present
simple approaches to implementation problems that arise during the development process, along
with proposed resolutions. This unique resource is an essential reference for engineers working in
the field, and also serves well as a text for advanced graduate and post-graduate students in
related courses.
Overview of GPRS
GSM has the lion's share of the world's wireless market. GSM has currently deployed circuit
switched data which will provide (theoretically) a data rate of 14.4 kbps. In the age of mobile data,
circuit switched data does not meet the bandwidth demands of the Internet's data hungry
applications. The answer to GSM's "need for speed" is the General Packet Radio System (GPRS).
GPRS provides an architecture that will allow for higher data rates. This overview of GPRS presents
the architecture of GPRS including the motivation for GPRS, the key features in GPRS and the
achievable data rates of GPRS. Since GPRS is on the evolutionary path of GSM to UMTS, the
evolutionary requirements are also presented.

GPRS Packet Data Operations


General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is the packet data evolution to GSM. It supports the capability
to efficiently provide packet data services to subscribers over the existing GSM air interface. GPRS
also provides a new packet data network that supports the subscriber's packet data services. This
course discusses the key procedures that are performed in the GPRS packet data network, including
those that are performed by the mobile to make its presence known in the network, to initiate a
data session and to deactivate the data session. A step-by-step analysis of different packet data
operations is included in the course. The GPRS protocol stack is explained in order to show the roles
of the different protocols in packet data operations. The course also discusses the issue of
addressing in GPRS networks. As the GPRS network is an IP based network, the details of how
information flows between the different GPRS components are described in detail. The concepts of
the data session establishment are solidified with a series of real-world examples.

Comprehensive information about GPRS and Edge

GPRS, General Packet Radio Services

GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) is a packet-based wireless


communication service that, when available in late 2000, promises data rates
from 56 up to 114 Kbps and continuous connection to the Internet for mobile
phone and computer users. The reality will be around 33 Kbps (2+1 or 3+1 @
CS2, 4+1 for fixed modem). GPRS is based on "regular" GSM (with the same
modulation) and will complement existing services such circuit-switched
cellular phone connections such as SMS or cell broadcast. Voice over Ip over
GPRS is also explored.

In theory, GPRS packet-based service should cost users less than circuit-
switched services since communication channels are being used on a shared-
use, as-packets-are-needed basis rather than dedicated only to one user at a
time. It should also be easier to make applications available to mobile users
and Wap or i-mode should far more attractive for the user. In addition to the
Internet Protocol GPRS supports X.25, a packet-based protocol that is used
mainly in Europe.

Operator should deploy GPRS very fast as most of the interoperability test
between the network and the Handset are now finished (September'00) and
because GPRS is mainly a software upgrade for the BTS, BSC and servers.

GPRS avec different coding schemes. We may just see CS2 in the market.

Table of rate per slot according to coding schemes

CS1 : 9,05 kbit/s


CS2 : 13,4 kbit/s
CS3 : 15,6 kbit/s
CS4 : 21,4 kbit/s

Net rate: - 10 %

SPECTRUM EFFICIENCY

Packet switching means that GPRS radio resources are used only when users are
actually sending or receiving data. Rather than dedicating a radio channel to a
mobile data user for a fixed period of time, the available radio resource can be
concurrently shared between several users. This efficient use of scarce radio
resources means that large numbers of GPRS users can potentially share the
same bandwidth and be served from a single cell. The actual number of users
supported depends on the application being used and how much data is being
transferred. Because of the spectrum efficiency of GPRS, there is less need to
build in idle capacity that is only used in peak hours. GPRS therefore lets
network operators maximize the use of their network resources in a dynamic
and flexible way, along with user access to resources and revenues.

GPRS should improve the peak time capacity of a GSM network since it
simultaneously:

allocates scarce radio resources more efficiently by supporting virtual


connectivity
immigrates traffic that was previously sent using Circuit Switched Data to
GPRS instead, and reduces SMS Center and signaling channel loading by
migrating some traffic that previously was sent using SMS to GPRS instead
using the GPRS/ SMS interconnect that is supported by the GPRS standards.

Relatively high mobile data speeds may not be available to individual mobile
users until Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) or Universal Mobile
Telephone System (UMTS) are introduced

EDGE, Enhanced Data GSM Environment

Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) is a radio based high-speed
mobile data standard. It allows data transmission speeds of 384 kbps to be
achieved when all eight timeslots are used. In fact, EDGE was formerly called
GSM384. This means a maximum bit rate of 48 kbps per timeslot. Even higher
speeds may be available in good radio conditions.

EDGE was initially developed for mobile network operators who fail to win
Universal Mobile Telephone System (UMTS) spectrum. EDGE gives incumbent
GSM operators the opportunity to offer data services at speeds that are near to
those available on UMTS networks.

EDGE can also provide an evolutionary migration path from GPRS to UMTS by
implementing now the changes in modulation that will be necessary for
implementing UMTS later. The idea behind EDGE is to eke out even higher data
rates on the current 200 kHz GSM radio carrier by changing the type of
modulation used, whilst still working with current circuit (and packet)
switches.

Implementation of EDGE by network operators has been designed to be simple.


Only one EDGE transceiver unit will need to be added to each cell. With most
vendors, it is envisaged that software upgrades to the BSCs and Base Stations
can be carried out remotely. The new EDGE capable transceiver can also
handle standard GSM traffic and will automatically switch to EDGE mode when
needed.

EDGE capable terminals will also be needed- existing GSM terminals do not
support the new modulation techniques and will need to be upgraded to use
EDGE network functionality. Some EDGE capable terminals are expected to
support high data rates in the downlink receiver only (i.e. high dates rates can
be received but not sent), whilst others will access EDGE in both uplink and
downlinks (i.e. high data rates can be received and sent). The later device
types will therefore need greater terminal modifications to both the receiver
and the transmitter parts.
In addition, the TDMA industry association, the Universal Wireless
Communications Corporation, has introduced what it calls EDGE Compact. This
a spectrum efficient version of EDGE that will support the 384 kbits mandated
packet data rates but will require only minimum spectral clearing and
therefore could work for network operators with limited spectrum allocations.
In fact, as a result of this, EDGE has been renamed Enhanced Data Rates for
GSM and TDMA Evolution. (See the TDMA section below for more details).
Source:mobileipworld.com

EDGE is planned to be commercially available end of year 2001 (FOA).

High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD)

GSM Circuit Switched Data supports one user per channel per time slot. High
Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) gives a single user simultaneous access to
multiple channels (up to four) at the same time. As such, there is a direct
trade-off between greater speed and the associated cost from using more radio
resources- it is expensive for end users to pay for multiple simultaneous calls.

Assuming a standard Circuit Switched Data transmission rate of 14.4 kilobits per
second (kbps), using four timeslots with High Speed Circuit Switched Data
(HSCSD) allows theoretical speeds of up to 57.6 kbps. This is broadly equivalent
to providing the same transmission rate as that available over one ISDN B-
Channel. Some Mobile Switching Centres (MSCs) are limited to 64 kbps
maximum throughput- this restriction is removed with GPRS.

In networks where HSCSD is deployed, GPRS may only be assigned third


priority, after voice as number one priority and HSCSD as number two. In
theory, HSCSD can be preempted by voice calls- such that HSCSD calls can be
reduced to one channel if voice calls are seeking to occupy these channels.
HSCSD does not disrupt voice service availability, but it does affect GPRS. Even
given preemption, it is difficult to see how HSCSD can be deployed in busy
networks and still confer an agreeable user experience- i.e. continuously high
data rate. HSCSD is therefore more likely to be deployed in start up networks
or those with plenty of spare capacity- since it is relatively inexpensive to
deploy and can turn some spare channels into revenue streams. High Speed
Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) is however easier to implement in mobile
networks than General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) because some GSM vendor
solutions require only a software upgrade of base stations and no new
hardware. This is not the case with D-AMPS networks and some GSM vendor
solutions.

There are a couple of reasons why HSCSD may be the preferred bearer for
certain applications when compared to GPRS. The fact that associated packets
can be sent in different directions to arrive at the same destination should in
theory make the transmission more robust since there are many different ways
of achieving the end result. However, this nature of packet transmission means
that packets are subject to variable delay and some could be lost. Whilst
packet retransmission is incorporated into the GPRS standards, naturally this
process does take time and in the case of applications such as video
transmission can cause poor quality images.

Another preferred application for HSCSD could be the fact that whilst GPRS is
complementary for communicating with other packet-based networks such as
the Internet, HSCSD could be the best way of communicating with other circuit
switched communications media such as the PSTN and ISDN. HSCSD is mainly
supported by Nokia with little success.

Home > Application Areas > GPRS Technology

The Adax products are used to build Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN), Gateway GPRS
Support Nodes (GGSN), Mobile Switching Centers (MSC) and Base Station Systems (BSS) for
GPRS networks. The Adax signaling solutions deliver the high performance, total scalability and
rapid time to market benefits that are essential for OEMs and Operators to stay ahead in a
competitive and ever changing industry.

To meet the demanding signaling requirements for GPRS networks, communications controllers
need to provide high volume Frame Relay over T1/E1 and OC3/STM-1 interfaces, and
simultaneous Frame Relay and 64k/HSL (High Speed Links) SS7 MTP2 over T1/E1 and
Ethernet.

Adax have modular products with comprehensive and superior design, consistent APIs and ease
of use, and all the requirements for GPRS can be met with the Adax High Density Channelized
(HDC) Controller. The HDC has the ability to run up to 128 channels of multiple protocols over
four T1/E1 interfaces or two Ethernet interfaces. Protocol support includes SS7 (64k and 2Mb),
Frame Relay, SCTP, X.25 and LAPB/D/V5. The HDC is available in PCI, cPCI and PMC formats,
and across many operating systems, for maximum flexibility in platform choice. The efficiency of
the Adax cards ensure that minimal burden is taken off the host CPU, leaving most of the system
available for running GPRS applications.

Alternatively, where the SS7 protocol is not needed such as for the Gb interface, the Adax ACT
card provides a high density, yet cost effective solution for running protocols such as LAPB/D and
Frame Relay in GPRS networks. The ACT card provides access to all DSO's on an E1 or T1
trunk, and with 4 or 8 T1/E1 interfaces per card, it can provide up to 2,048 DSO's across multiple
cards on a single platform.

Adax has solutions for the major components in GPRS infrastructure, within the SGSN, GGSN,
MSC and BSS.

• SGSN - Serving GPRS Support Node


• GGSN - Gateway GPRS Support Node
• MSC - Mobile Switching Center

• BSS - Base Station System

Home > Application Areas > GPRS Technology > Serving GPRS Support Node
The Adax products provide the foundation for the Gb Interface between the SGSN and the BSS, and the
BSSAP+, MAP and GTP stacks within the SGSN.

Gb Interface
In a GPRS network, the Gb Interface provides the interconnection between the BSS and the SGSN. Within
the Gb Interface protocol stack, the Network Service (NS) entity provides network service primitives that
allow the transmission and reception of upper layer protocol data units between the BSS and SGSN. NS
runs over Adax Frame Relay.

Large numbers of BSS to SGSN connections need to be supported within the GPRS network. As a result,
multiple Frame Relay channels are required per SGSN for the NS. These are 64k SS7 connections over
T1/E1 lines and multiple connections can also be back-hauled via an intermediate Frame Relay network
over OC3/STM-1 to the SGSN.

Adax can support 2,048 Frame Relay channels and 10,000 DLCIs per system, enabling large numbers of
BSSs to be connected to a single SGSN. Signaling and User Plane Content can also be run over the same
links. As the system grows, the interface between the Adax Frame Relay software and the NS will remain
the same, as will the interface between the Gb Interface stack and the application. Consequently additional
Adax cards can be added at a future stage without any changes to the software interface, and vendor
investment in the application development is preserved.

The above is supported via the Adax ACT card, which offers one of the highest port densities in the industry,
providing up to 256 DSO connections over 8 T1/E1 links. For vendors who also want to run SS7 for
connection from the SGSN over the Gs Interface on the same card as the Frame Relay for the Gb Interface,
the Adax HDC multiple protocol card can be used. This high-density controller card provides up to 128
channels of multiple protocols over 4 T1/E1 connections. The ACT and HDC cards also have two 10/100
BaseT Ethernet ports for connection to the IP telephony networks.

BSSAP+
Within the BSSAP+ stack in an SGSN, third party SCCP and MTP-3 software is integrated with the Adax
MTP-2 on the HDC board. The Adax HDC board offers a high density and flexible foundation for the
BSSAP+ stack. It has the ability to run up to 128 channels of multiple protocols including 64k or 2Mb (SS7
high speed links) signaling over four T1/E1 interfaces. The same card can also provide for SS7 over IP
(SIGTRAN stacks) where Adax SCTP/T is integrated to higher layer M3UA over T1/E1 or two 10/100 BaseT
Ethernet ports for connection to IP networks. With uniform APIs the higher layers and application stay the
same, regardless of the desired protocol, increasing the flexibility of the solution for infrastructure
developers.

MAP
The Adax HDC multiple protocol controller can run a combination of up to 128 channels of either SS7 MTP2
(64k and 2Mb) or SCTP for the MAP stack in an SGSN. With uniform APIs, no changes are necessary to
higher layers or application, representing a cost effective and efficient solution for infrastructure developers.
The Adax SS7 MTP2 software integrates to higher layer MTP3, or the Adax SCTP integrates to M3UA for a
SS7 over IP solution. The HDC has four T1/E1 interfaces or two 10/100 BaseT Ethernet ports for connection
to IP networks and is available in PCI, cPCI or PMC format for maximum flexibility in platform choice.

The Adax SCTP has been adapted specifically for use in the telecommunications environment, therefore
aptly named SCTP/T. Adax has brought its years of experience in traditional SS7, to an IP protocol which
lacked the robustness of its older SS7 counterparts. Adax therefore has developed an SCTP product, which
provides the equivalent level of reliability for the IP world as expected in the PSTN.

GTP
The GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) within the SGSN interfaces to the Adax Frame Relay software, which
can run along side the other stacks (MAP, BSSAP+) in an SGSN, on the same HDC multiple protocol
controller. The Adax HDC card can support up to 128 channels of Frame Relay over 4 T1/E1 connections,
which amounts to thousands of DLPIs. For connection to the PLMNs two 10/100 BaseT Ethernet ports
provide IP connection.

The GGSN is connected to the SGSN via the Gn Interface using the GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP).
Within the GGSN, GTP interfaces to the Adax Frame Relay software. Using the Adax High Density
Controller (HDC) up to 128 channels of Frame Relay is supported over 4 or 8 T1/E1 connections. The HDC
has two 10/100 BaseT Ethernet ports for connection to IP networks. With multiple protocol capabilities the
HDC can also run SS7 MTP2 for the MAP stack on the Gc interface, the connection between the GGSN and
the Home Location Register (HLR). The Adax MTP2 integrates to third party MTP3 and higher layers for a
complete MAP stack solution.

Home > Application Areas > GPRS Technology > Mobile Switching Center

The MSC is connected to the SGSN via the Gs Interface using the BSSAP+ stack, for which Adax provides
the lower layers. Third party MTP-3 software is integrated to the Adax SS7 MTP-2 on the High-Density
Channelized (HDC) controller. The Adax HDC board offers a high density and flexible foundation for the
BSSAP+ stack. It has the ability to run up to 128 channels of multiple protocols including 64k or 2Mb (high
speed links) signaling over four T1/E1 interfaces. The same card can also provide for SS7 over IP
(SIGTRAN stacks) where Adax SCTP/T is integrated to higher layer M3UA over T1/E1 or two 10/100 BaseT
Ethernet ports for connection to IP telephony networks. With uniform APIs the higher layers and application
stay the same, regardless of the desired protocol, increasing the flexibility of the solution for infrastructure
developers

Home > Application Areas > GPRS Technology > Base Station System

Within the BSS Adax provides the Gb interface. The Gb Interface provides the interconnection between the
BSS and the SGSN. Within the Gb Interface protocol stack, the Network Service (NS) entity provides
network service primitives that allow the transmission and reception of upper layer protocol data units
between the BSS and SGSN. NS runs over Adax Frame Relay.

Large numbers of BSS to SGSN connections need to be supported within the GPRS network. As a result,
multiple Frame Relay channels are required per SGSN for the NS. These are 64k signaling connections
over T1/E1 lines and multiple connections can also be back-hauled via an intermediate Frame Relay
network over OC3/STM-1 to the SGSN.

Adax can support 2,048 Frame Relay channels and 10,000 DLCIs per system, enabling large numbers of
BSSs to be connected to a single SGSN. Signaling and User Plane Content can also be run over the same
links. As the system grows, the interface between the Adax Frame Relay software and the NS will remain
the same, as will the interface between the Gb Interface stack and the application. Consequently additional
Adax cards can be added at a future stage without any changes to the software interface, and vendor
investment in the application development is preserved.

The above is supported via the Adax ACT card, which offers one of the highest port densities in the industry,
providing up to 256 DSO connections over 8 T1/E1 links per slot, and multiple cards in a system can deliver
up to 2,048 links. For vendors who also want to run SS7 MTP2 for connection from the SGSN over the Gs
Interface, on the same card as the Frame Relay for the Gb Interface, the Adax HDC multiple protocol card
can be used. This high-density controller card provides up to 128 channels of multiple protocols over 4
T1/E1 connections. The ACT and HDC cards also have two 10/100 BaseT Ethernet ports for connection to
the IP networks.

This book explains how the GSM system has been modified to provide GPRS, EDGE,
and EGPRS mobile packet data services. Explained are the GPRS and EGPRS packet
control channels and gateways to the GSM system to provide a maximum delivered
packet data transmission rate of approximately 474 kbps. You will learn how EDGE is an
evolved version of the GPRS radio channel that uses new phase modulation and packet
transmission to provide for advanced high-speed EGPRS data services.

The GPRS system allows cellular service providers to upgrade one or more GSM radio
channels (with changes) to provide broadband medium-speed and high-speed data
services to their customers. GPRS and EGPRS technology is an "always-on" system that
allows more....

Sample Diagrams
There are 20 explanatory diagrams in this book

GPRS Protocol Layers

This figure shows how a GSM system can be upgraded to offer GPRS services. This
diagram shows that an existing GSM channel is removed, replaced, or upgraded to have
GPRS and EDGE/EGPRS modulation and transmission capability. This diagram shows
that packet control unit (PCU) must be added to the base station controller (BSC) and
packet data switching nodes and gateways must also be added to allow data packets to be
routed between mobile devices and data networks (e.g. the Internet).

GPRS Addressing

This figure shows how a GPRS system uses multiple addresses to allow IP datagram
packet to transfer between the end user an Internet web sites. This example shows that the
end user mobile data device uses its IMSI to communicate with the SGSN. The SGSN
links this IMSI to a private IP address that routes the data packets to a gateway router.
When the data packets reach the GGSN, they are linked (mapped) to a public Internet
address that allows the packet to reach its destination.

Table of Contents
Introduction to GPRS and EDGE

Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)


General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
Enhanced Data for Global Evolution (EDGE)
Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS)
Compact GPRS

Upgrading GSM to GPRS and EDGE

GPRS and EGPRS Industry Specifications

Packet Data Services

Mobile Services (M-Services)


Stream Prioritization
Enhanced Messaging Service (EMS)
Multicast Services
Asynchronous Channels
Asymmetric Channels
Quality of Service (QoS)
-Conversation Class
-Streaming Class
-Interactive Class
-Background Class
Short Messaging Services
SMS and GPRS
Location Based Services (LBS)
Packet Data Service Measurement Types
-Data Throughput
-Packet Loss
-Latency
-Jitter

GPRS and EGPRS Devices (Mobile Stations)

Mobile Device Classes


-Class A – Simultaneous Voice and Data
-Class B – Automatic Transfer of Voice and Data
-Class C – Single System Selection
-Dual Transfer Mode (DTM)
-Multi-slot Class
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
External Modems (USB or Ethernet)
PCMCIA Air Cards
Embedded Radio Modules
Mobile Telephones
Dual Mode Capability

GPRS and EGPRS Radio

RF Channel Types
Frequency Bands
Frequency Reuse
Frequency Hopping
RF Power Control
Dynamic Time Alignment
Channel Structure
Multi-frame
Coding Schemes (CS)
Encryption
Modulation
Data Packet Encapsulation
Packet Data Channel Sharing

Channels
Physical Channels
-Packet Data Channel (PDCH)
Logical Channels
Traffic Channels
Control Channels
GSM Logical Channels
-Broadcast Channels (BCH)
-Common Control Channels (CCCH)
-Dedicated Control Channels
-General Logical to Physical Channel Mapping for GSM
GPRS Logical Channels
-Packet Broadcast Control Channel (PBCCH)
-Packet Common Control Channels (PCCCH)
-Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH)
-Packet Dedicated Control Channels (PDCCH)
-Compact Mode of GPRS

GPRS and EDGE/EGPRS Network

Base Stations
-Packet Control Unit (PCU)
-Communication Links
Switching Centers
-Mobile Switching Centre (MSC)
-Serving General Packet Radio Service Support Node (SGSN)
-Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)
Network Databases
-Home Location Register (HLR)
-Visitor Location Register (VLR)
-Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
-Charging Gateway (CG)
-Billing Center (BC)
-Authentication Center (AuC)
-SMS Service Center (SC)
Wireless Network System Interconnection
-Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
-Public Packet Data Network (PPDN)
-Interworking Function (IWF)
IP Backbone Network
-GPRS Roaming Exchange (GRX)

Addressing

Mobile Device
-Mobile Station ISDN (MSISDN)
-International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
-International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMEI)
-Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)
-Temporary Block Flow (TBF)
-Temporary Flow Identifier (TFI)
Infrastructure Addressing
-Access Point Naming (APN)
-GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP)
-Tunneling End Point Identifier (TEID)
IP Addressing
-Static and Dynamic (DHCP) Addressing

GPRS and EDGE/EGPRS System Operation

Initialization
Standby State
Initial Assignment/Access
Ready State (Connected Mode)
-Dynamic Allocation
-Extended Dynamic Allocation
-Fixed Allocation
-Packet Acknowledgement
Always-on Condition
Registration Area Updates
GPRS Roaming
Voice Call and Data Session Transfer Operation
Data to Voice (GPRS to GSM)
Transfer Between GPRS and IS-136

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Layers

Physical Layer
Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer
Radio Link Control (RLC) Layer
Logical Link Control (LLC) Layer
Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP)

Future Evolution

Third Generation GSM (3GSM)


About the Authors
Mr. Lawrence Harte has over 29 years of experience in the electronics industry including
company leadership, product management, development, marketing, design, and testing
of telecommunications (cellular), radar, and microwave systems. He has been issued
patents relating to cellular technology. He has authored over 75 articles on related
subjects and has been a speaker and panel moderator at industry trade events. Mr. Harte
earned executive MBA at Wake Forest University and received his Bachelors degree
from University of the State of New York. During the TDMA digital cellular standard
development process, Mr. Harte served as an editor and voting company representative
for the Telecommunications Industries Association (TIA) TR45.3, digital cellular
standards committee. As of 2003, Mr. Harte had authored and co-authored over 20 books
relating to telecommunications technology. He has served as a consultant and expert
witness for leading companies including Ericsson, Siemens, VLSI, AMD, Casio,
Samsung, Sony, ATT, Nokia, Hughes and many others.

Bryan Hashim Strange has performed a wide range of technical and managerial roles for
12 years at Wray Castle. This began with four years lecturing on a variety of engineering
and academic modules for HND students, as a trainer and course developer for short
courses based on European second and third generation technologies. These courses
include UMTS System Overview, UMTS Air Interface, UMTS Cell Planning, GSM Air
Interface, GSM Cell Planning, GSM Optimisation, GSM Indoor Coverage Planning,
GSM Applied Cell Planning and GPRS. He has also developed and presented courses
covering other global technologies such as cdmaOne, CDMA2000, TETRA, APCO 25,
iDEN, WLAN and Bluetooth. Mr. Strange was educated in the United Kingdom at
Clayesmore School (1976-1984) and Wray Castle College (1987-1990) and Lancaster
University (1999 -2000). He also specializes in HNC Electronics and Communications
Engineering and he has a Marine Radio General Certificate. Bryan Strange also holds 3
‘A’ Levels; Maths, Physics, Engineering Drawing and Design plus 9 ‘O’ Levels; inc.
Maths, English, Physics.

back to top

Description
This book explains how the GSM system has been modified to provide GPRS, EDGE,
and EGPRS mobile packet data services. Explained are the GPRS and EGPRS packet
control channels and gateways to the GSM system to provide a maximum delivered
packet data transmission rate of approximately 474 kbps. You will learn how EDGE is an
evolved version of the GPRS radio channel that uses new phase modulation and packet
transmission to provide for advanced high-speed EGPRS data services.

The GPRS system allows cellular service providers to upgrade one or more GSM radio
channels (with changes) to provide broadband medium-speed and high-speed data
services to their customers. GPRS and EGPRS technology is an "always-on" system that
allows users to browse the Internet without complicated dialup connections.

You will discover that the key types of GPRS and EGPRS devices include external radio
modems, wireless PCMCIA cards, embedded radio modules, and mobile telephones.
External radio modems allow the customer to simply plug in their GPRS device to their
USB or Ethernet data port to their desktop or laptop computer. GPRS PCMCIA cards can
be added to most laptop computers or embedded radio modules allow devices such as
PDAs and Laptops to integrate high-speed wireless without adding PCMCIA cards. Some
mobile telephones include both GSM (voice and low speed data) and GPRS (high-speed
packet data) capability.

Because the needs of voice and data communication are different, the operation of the
GSM radio channel is different. GPRS devices can have single mode (only
GPRS/EGPRS) or dual mode (both GSM voice and GPRS data) capability. You will
discover how the GPRS system was modified using EDGE technology to increase the
171.2 kbps GPRS maximum data transmission rate to 474 kbps EGPRS data transmission
rate.

This book provides the basic technical components and operation of GPRS technology.
You will learn the physical radio channel structures of the GPRS system along with the
basic frame and slot structures. Described are the logical channels and their functions.
Explained are the key GPRS network components and how they communicate with each
other.

Explained is the fundamental capabilities and operation of the GPRS and EGPRS radio
channel including asymmetric data rates, modulation types (GMSK, 8-PSK), and how
GPRS devices can use either GSM or GPRS control channels to setup and manage packet
data communication sessions. You will discover how a packet control unit (PCU)
coordinates the allocation of GSM voice channels and GPRS/EGPRS packet data
channels and how a single GSM radio channel can provide up to 8 simultaneous data
sessions and how many other users (possibly 80 per channel) can be added who have a
10% usage activity factor.

Mobile Terminal Solutions - GPRS & EDGE:


Strong History

Agere's chipsets, software and support enabled the launch of the World's First Class 8 GPRS Handset at the GSM
Congress in France, 2000. Since then, we've grown to become one of the leading and respected suppliers of both
GPRS and EDGE technology into mobile handsets.

By employing Agere's proven mobile technology, our customers gain market access rapidly and with confidence,
eliminating the substantial costs and risks associated with developing, testing, and manufacturing a new base
platform.

Agere has supported customers to successfully launch innovative GPRS and EDGE handsets covering a huge
range of features including i-mode, Windows Mobile, Symbian, Software Multimedia, MP3 and HiFi audio players,
ultra thin phones, digital cameras, camcorders, Mobile TV and many more.

Broad Portfolio

Agere has a proven track record of providing innovative products for GPRS and EDGE, from generations of our
Sceptre™ family to products using our new Vision™ architecture, Agere supports a broad range of GPRS and
EDGE mobile handset markets. These include:

• Basic and emerging markets


• Entry-level Phones
• Feature Phones
• Smart Phones
• PDA Phones and high end Smart Phones

Unique & Innovative Architecture

Our Vision™ architecture forms the core for a number of new products to support these markets. Vision™ based
products still take full advantage of our proven communications systems and software, with the added advantage
of a unique multi-core architecture. Benefits are many and include:

• Integrated & dedicated applications processor for multimedia


• Higher processing performance at lower clock speeds. Intelligent and efficient
• Inherent designed-in security with protected communications
• Lower power consumption for extended battery life
• Integrated power management for reduced BOM (bill of materials)
• Faster development cycles with proven communications engine and flexible applications core
• Advanced packaging options for the sleekest of phone designs
• High degree of flexibility
• Driving down cost, size and power

More details about Agere's range of innovative GPRS and EDGE products and the architecture can be found here.

EDGE is key for 3G

EDGE (or EGPRS) allows network operators to optimize network management and performance, and increase
throughput using flexible time-slot configurations. With EDGE, service providers gain three times the data capacity
and can handle three times more subscribers than GPRS alone. They can triple the data rate per subscriber, or
add extra capacity to voice communications. EDGE is a 3G wireless technology that addresses the market's ever-
increasing demand for bandwidth. Essentially, EDGE enables ordinary GSM/GPRS wireless networks to deliver
broadband-like data speeds (384 kbits/s and faster) and features to mobile devices.

More and more network operators are committing to EDGE technology and EDGE is an essential ingredient for 3G
deployment. Successful 3G networks are and will increasingly need to be based on solid EDGE implementations.
Agere's Vision™ architecture, with its strong EDGE pedigree, confidently provides this for our customers.
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m of Form Bottom of Form

EWS

mble Introduces
adband GSM GPRS
sion of the TrimTrac
cator
Writers
ale CA (SPX) Mar 13, 2006
e introduces its newest member of the
rac locator product family. The TrimTrac 1.5 File image: A Trimble TrimTrac
r is a small, lightweight asset-monitoring Locator.
e that requires little, if any, installation when
n its battery-powered configuration.

ware and setting options allow the device to be configured to meet a


y of demanding installation and operational requirements. Like the original
rac locator, motion-based reporting continues to be an important tool in
izing power consumption and recurring communication costs.

e's TrimTrac 1.5 locator, along with offerings from multiple location-based
ation Service Providers (ASPs) that are compatible with the original
rac locator, will be showcased at CeBIT, the world's largest trade fair for
IT and telecommunication solutions, March 9-15 in Hanover, Germany.

effective, Universally Available Communications

rimTrac 1.5 locator supports all GSM frequencies (900/1800MHz and


900 MHz) to take full advantage of cost-effective GPRS data rate plans
e near universal roaming capability of SMS text messaging. The TrimTrac
cator takes advantage of both technologies by automatically selecting
wherever such service is available, while relying upon SMS text
ages as backup when outside GPRS coverage. This helps minimize
ng communication costs while allowing the greatest coverage possible.

ware Options, Expanded Capabilities

ety of hardware options are available to enhance the suitability of the


rac 1.5 locator to particular application requirements. These options
e optional plug-in modules plus a miniature external GPS antenna that
for more discrete, protected installation of the TrimTrac 1.5 locator.

ptional plug-in modules are offered: vehicle adapter and control modules.
modules provide connection to external 9-32 VDC power to eliminate the
o change batteries and can monitor inputs of three different priority levels.
ontrol module also provides two outputs that can be used to control other
ard devices or systems, such as door locks, immobilizers and remote start
ms.

nced Functional Capabilities

on reporting triggered by motion continues to be an important attribute of


mTrac 1.5 locator and it is backward compatible with applications
oped for the first generation TrimTrac; however, a range of powerful new
onal enhancements now augment this basic capability with the TrimTrac
cator. These functional enhancements include 1 Hz GPS operation, on-
geofence enforcement, scheduled hours of operation, multiple runtime
s, start/stop reporting mode, and more.

Links

EWS
Getting Lost May Soon Become A Thing Of The Past
Vista CA (SPX) Mar 13, 2006
It may be true that real men don't ask for directions, but the time is
coming when they won't need to. No one will ever be lost again,
because everyone will have a Nav system. At least, that's how it's
starting to look, when portable Nav systems can be had for little
more than the price of a couple of iPods ... and they can play MP3s