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Coordinates: 5°S 120°E

Republic of Indonesia

Republik Indonesia (Indonesian)

Flag of Indonesia


National emblem of Indonesia

National emblem

Motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Old Javanese)

(English: "Unity in Diversity")

National ideology: Pancasila[1][2]

Anthem: Indonesia Raya

(English: "Great Indonesia")


Indonesia (orthographic projection).svg


and largest city


6°10′S 106°49′E

Official language

and national language Indonesian

Regional languages

Over 700 languages[3]

Ethnic groups Over 300 ethnic groups[4]

Religion (2018)[5]

86.70% Islam

10.72% Christianity

1.74% Hinduism
0.77% Buddhism

0.03% Confucianism

0.04% Folk

Demonym(s) Indonesian

Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic

• President

Joko Widodo

• Vice President

Ma'ruf Amin

• DPR Speaker

Puan Maharani

• Chief Justice

Muhammad Syarifuddin

Legislature People's Consultative Assembly (MPR)

• Upper house

Regional Representative Council (DPD)

• Lower house

People's Representative Council (DPR)


• Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms

2nd century

• Islamic sultanates

13th century

• Dutch East India Company

20 March 1602

• Dutch East Indies

1 January 1800

• Japanese occupation

9 March 1942

• Independence proclaimed

17 August 1945
• Recognition

27 December 1949

• Unitary republic

17 August 1950


• Land

1,904,569[6] km2 (735,358 sq mi) (14th)

• Water (%)



• 2018 estimate

Increase 267,670,543[7][8]

• 2010 census

237,641,326[9] (4th)

• Density

138/km2 (357.4/sq mi) (88th)

GDP (PPP) 2020 estimate

• Total

Decrease $3.328 trillion[10] (7th)

• Per capita

Decrease $12,345[10] (95th)

GDP (nominal) 2020 estimate

• Total

Decrease $1.089 trillion[10] (15th)

• Per capita

Decrease $4,038[10] (108th)

Gini (2018) Positive decrease 37.8[11]


HDI (2018) Increase 0.707[12]

high · 111th

Currency Indonesian rupiah (Rp) (IDR)

Time zone UTC+7 to +9 (various)

Date format DD/MM/YYYY

Mains electricity 220 V–50 Hz

Driving side left

Calling code +62

ISO 3166 code ID

Internet TLD .id

Indonesia (/ˌɪndəˈniːʒə/ (About this soundlisten) IN-də-NEE-zhə), officially the Republic of Indonesia
(Indonesian: Republik Indonesia [reˈpublik ɪndoˈnesia] (About this soundlisten)),[a] is a country in
Southeast Asia and Oceania, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It consists of more than
seventeen thousand islands, including Sumatra, Java, Borneo (Kalimantan), Sulawesi, and New
Guinea (Papua). Indonesia is the world's largest island country and the 14th-largest country by land
area, at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles). With over 267 million people, it is the
world's 4th-most-populous country as well as the most-populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the
world's most-populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.

The sovereign state is a presidential, constitutional republic with an elected legislature. It has 34
provinces, of which five have special status. The country's capital, Jakarta, is the second-most
populous urban area in the world. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East
Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam,
the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large
population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support one
of the world's highest levels of biodiversity.

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when
Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent.
Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign influences from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist
kingdoms flourished. Sunni traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while Europeans introduced
Christianity through colonisation. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese, French and
British, the Dutch were the foremost colonial power for much of their 350-year presence in the
archipelago. The concept of "Indonesia" as a nation-state emerged in the early 20th century[13] and
the country proclaimed its independence in 1945. However, it was not until 1949 that the Dutch
recognised Indonesia's sovereignty following an armed and diplomatic conflict between the two.

Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest one
being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed with the motto "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity
in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious
pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it.
The economy of Indonesia is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and 7th by GDP at PPP. The
country is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the United Nations, World Trade
Organization, International Monetary Fund, G20, and a founding member of Non-Aligned
Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia
Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.