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Understanding Culture, Society and Politics – 11/12

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First Quarter – Module 2: Defining Culture, Society and Politics
First Edition, 2020

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Understanding Culture, Society and
Politics

Quarter 1- Module 2

Defining Culture, Society and Politics

This instructional materials was collaboratively developed and


reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and
or/universities. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to
email their feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of
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Department of Education. Republic of the Philippines


Table of Contents

Module 2- Defining Culture, Society and Politics 1

What I Need to Know 1


What I know 2
Lesson 1 – The Concept of Culture, Society and Politics 3
Activity 1.1 Exploring Community Wonders! 4
Activity1.2 Culture Imagi-hibit! 5
Lesson Concept 6
Activity1.3 Think, Pair and Share 7
Activity 1.4 Draw or Pics? 8
Activity1.5 Essay Writing 9
Lesson 2 – Perspective to the Study of Culture, Society and Politics 10

Activity 2.1 Fill It! 11


Activity 2.2 Share-Perience 12
Activity 2.3 Meet Up! 14
Activity 2.4 Just Saying.. 15
Activity 2.5 React-Say! 15
Activity 2.6 Let’s Reflect 16
Activity 2.7 Trip Ko to! 17
What I have Learned 18
Assessment 19
Glossary 20
Answer Key 21
References 22-24
Defining Culture, Society and Politics

What I Need to Know


Learners, how’s your day? I hope you will be excited to scrutinized, read and
learn the best that you could at your convenience. Did you ever heard the news in
your local TV station or heard in radio station about what’s happening in your
society? Can you think what was that? Do you ever wonder the reason behind why it
happened or you just don’t care at all? Perhaps, the answers will be on this module
to give you an idea about it. Let’s work it on together.
This module will definitely give you an idea about the concept, perspective
and approaches to the study of culture, society and politics. How they are connected
to come up a kind of society whom you lived. You will learn also the different aspects
of culture and be aware of why and how cultural relativism mitigates ethnocentrism.
Society has a culture, no matter how simple that culture may be. Day-to-day
we interact with each other and develop social relationships. He needs other people
who can provide him with the needed opportunities so he can translate these
potentialities into realities called achievement. These accomplishments not only help
him achieve self-actualization but also make him a contributing member of his
society (Zulueta & Maglaya, 2005 p.50).

Lastly, it will help you to be more tolerant and appreciative of other people the
way they are both physically and culturally, thus, appreciation of diversity follows.

By the end of the lesson, you will have been able to:
 explain anthropological and sociological perspectives on culture and society
 describe society and culture as a complex whole
 identify aspects of culture and society
 raise questions toward a holistic appreciation of cultures and societies
 become aware of why and how cultural relativism mitigates ethnocentrism

To attain the goals of this module, please do the following;


 Read and understand the lessons carefully
 Instruction should be follow in each given task
 Tests and activities should be answer diligently and patiently
 Familiarize yourselves with the terms given

1
What I Know

As an initial activity, you will be assess on your understanding of defining


culture, society and politics.
Directions: Read carefully and write the correct answer on your notebook.

____ 1. It is a study that focus in society.


a. Anthropology b. Society c. Sociology d. Zoology

____ 2. It refers to a group of people sharing a common culture within a defined


territorial boundaries.
a. Society b. Culture c. Politics d. Community

____ 3. A belief that all cultures as equally complex.


a. Cultural Relativism b. Ethnocentrism
c. Folkways d. Essentialism

____ 4. It is called the scientific study of patterned, shared human behaviour.


a. Anthropology b. History c. Sociology d. Psychology

____ 5. Which of the following are not examples of material culture?


a. Tools b. Economic Goods
c. Attitudes d. Vehicles
____ 6. It consists of tangible things such as technological tools, architectural
structures, fashion and accessories, and food.
a. Non-material Culture b. Folkways
c. Cultural Shock d. Material Culture
____ 7. The following statement are the aspects of culture except
a. Shared and contested b. Cumulative
c. Patterned social interactions d. Transmitted through socialization

____ 8. The following are examples of non-material culture except one:


a. Behaviour b. Thoughts c. Feelings d. Artifacts

____ 9. It is called the totality of what man has learned as a member of society.
a. Politics b. Physiology c. Sociology d. Culture

____ 10. What do you call about judging other cultures by the standards of your own,
assuming your own culture to be the best.
a. Cultural Variation b. Enculturation
c. Ethnocentrism d. Sociological Imagination

2
Lesson 1
LLl
The Concepts of Culture, Society and
Politics
1. The concepts of culture, society and politics
2. Perspectives in approaches to the study of culture,
Content Standard
society, and politics (i.e., comparative, historical,
structural-functional, interpretive, critical)
1. Appreciate the nature of culture and society from the
perspective of anthropology and sociology
2. Demonstrate a holistic understanding of culture and
Performance Standard
Society
3. Value cultural heritage and express pride of place
without being ethnocentric
1. Explain anthropological and sociological perspectives
on culture and society
Learning Competency
2. Describe society and culture as a complex whole

3
What is Culture?
- is a composite or multifarious areas that comprise beliefs, practices, values,
attitudes, laws, norms, artifacts, symbols, knowledge, and everything that a person
learns and shares as a member of society (Baleña, Lucero & Peralta, 2016 p. 17).

What is it?
Activity 1.1 Exploring Community-Wonders!!!
Directions: Write down what you have been observed in your society
when it comes to the following enumerated below.

Examples
Working Schedules 1.
Songs 2. S
Clothes and
3.
C Dressing O
Religion 4.
U C
Manners 5.
L
Food 6. I
T
Celebrations 7.
U E

R Folk Art 8. T
E
Trends 9. Y

Y
Medical care 10.

Forms of Culture
 Material (Tangible) – formed by the physical objects that people create
ex. cars, clothing, books, buildings, computers, tools, economic
goods, property, artifacts, non-symbolic
 Non-material (Intangible) – abstract human creations (can’t touch it)
ex. language, family patterns, work practices, ideas, rules,
values, ideals, symbols, patterns of thinking, political and
economic system

4
What’s More?
Activity 1.2 Culture Imagi-hibit!
Directions: Identify what forms of culture enumerated below.
Put a check ( / ) inside the column where it belonged.
Tangible Intangible
1. A reincarnation belief
2. House and lot
3. Suffrage
4. Rizal’s Monument
5. Democracy

Diagram 1 Concept Map Analysis


It shows the contained ideas about culture…

Habits

People
Beliefs, Knowledge Lifestyle, Politics

Laws Groups Society Institution Customs

Behavior, Morals Faith, Values, Art


Organizations

CULTURE

5
Lesson Concept
Society
– refers to a group of people sharing a common culture within a defined
territorial boundaries. Society should have rules of conduct, customs,
traditions, folkways and mores, and expectations that ensure appropriate
behaviour among members. Thus, every society is unique in terms of culture
(Baleña, Lucero & Peralta, 2016 p. 17).

Anthropology
- study man in his entirely
- is the branch of knowledge which deals with the scientific study of mankind,
his works, his body, his behaviour and values, in time and space (Palipis, 2007 p. 6).
Also, it includes man’s physical, social, and cultural development that describes and
explains the phenomenon of human life. In short, anthropology studies man and
analyses his behaviour as a member of society (Zulueta & Maglaya, 2005 p. 40).

Sociology
- focus study is society
- is the scientific study of patterned, shared human behaviour. It analyses
human interaction which is essential in understanding man’s cultural make-up. It may
focus its attention on all kinds of social interactions: social arts, social relationships,
social organization, social structures, and social processes (Palispis, 2009 p. 3)

Politics
- any activity involving human beings associated together in relationship
of power and authority where conflicts occurs (Robert Dahl, 1984 p. 13).
- means compromises, but these compromises “ must in some sense be
creative of future benefits --- that each exists for a future purpose.” Or at least, some
purpose, like “ enabling orderly government to be carried on at all” (Crick 1982, 21-
22).

6
What’s In?

Activity 1.3 Think, Pair and Share


Directions: Write down on the table your observation or perspective
about anthropological and sociological study on culture and society based on
what you have understood about the contained ideas in the Concept Map
Analysis in Diagram 1 on page 5.

Anthropological
Sociological Perspective
Perspective

CULTURE

SOCIETY

7
Culture - is a complex whole which include knowledge, belief, art, law, morals,
customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.

Types of Society
Primitive Rural Urban
it means belonging to a a society in which there is a a society that is typical of
society in which people low ratio of inhabitants to modern industrial
live in a very simple open land and in which the civilization and
way, usually without most important economic heterogeneous in cultural
industries. activities are the production of tradition, that emphasizes
foodstuff, fibres, and raw secular values, and that is
materials individualized rather than
integrated contrasted with
folk society

What’s New?
Activity 1.4 Draw or Pics?
Directions: As defined above, draw or take pictures of the 3 types of each
society according to your observation or what you’ve seen of the kind of culture they
have. Describe the difference.

Rubrics
Creativity 20
Thoughts and ideas 20
Presentation 10
Total 50 pts.

8
Elements of Culture
Knowledge – refers to any information received and perceived to be true
Beliefs – the perception of accepted reality
reality - refers to the existence of things whether material or
non-material
Social Norms – these are established expectations of society as to how a
person is supposed to act depending on the requirements of
the time, place, or situation.

What I have Learned?


Activity 1.5 Essay Writing
Directions: As shown in your drawing or pictures on page 08,
describe the culture of each society. Why does each society had a different culture
from one another? What makes them a complex whole? If given a chance to choose
where would you rather live, in an urban, rural or primitive society? Why?

Rubric in Essay Writing


Form, Content and Insight - 10
Presentation and Style - 5
Accuracy - 8
Fairness - 5
Methodology - 7
Total 35 pts.

9
Lesson 2
Perspective to the Study of Culture,
Society and Politics

1. The concepts of culture, society and politics


2. Perspectives in approaches to the study of culture,
Content Standard
society, and politics (i.e., comparative, historical,
structural-functional, interpretive, critical)
1. Appreciate the nature of culture and society from the
perspective of anthropology and sociology
2. Demonstrate a holistic understanding of culture and
Performance Standard
Society
3. Value cultural heritage and express pride of place
without being ethnocentric

1. Raise questions toward a holistics appreciation of


cultures and societies
Learning Competency 2. Become aware of why and how cultural relativism
mitigates Ethnocentrism
3. Identify forms of tangible and intangible heritage and
the threats to these

What are the ASPECTS OF CULTURE?


Below are collage pictures showing the reality of an aspects of culture that
support the development of man’s social interaction.
1. Culture are dynamic, flexible, and adaptive
2. Culture are shared and contested
3. Culture are learned through socialization or enculturation
4. Culture is patterned social interaction
5. Culture is integrated and at times unstable
6. Culture is transmitted through socialization
7. Culture requires language and other forms of communication

10
Image source: https//www.googleimages.com

What is It!
Activity 2.1 Fill It!
Directions: Identify the following aspects of culture if it is visible or
non-visible, put (/) to the column where it belonged
Visible Non-Visible
1. Food
2. Ethics
3. Festivals
4. Beliefs
5. Values

11
What’s More!
Activity 2.2 Share-Perience!
Directions: Give your own experience or observation to describe the aspects
of culture in column A, write your answers in column B as your evidence.

Column A Column B
(Aspects of Culture) (Prevalent in Society)

ex. Father showing his son how to catch


1. Transmitted through socialization
fish.

2. Shared and contested

3. Dynamic, flexible and adaptive

4. Requires language and other forms


of communication.

5. Patterned social interactions

6. Learned through socialization or


Enculturation

7. Integrated and at times unstable

12
What I can Do?
Activity 2.3 Meet Up!
Directions: An individual research, interview a nearest person to you
who is a member of IP or a Meranao and ask them about how they cope up
modernity as they entered a new phase of their lives as for their work,
creating a family and lifestyle. Have it documented through visual or audio
recorded and share it in the class.

Rubric in Essay Writing


Form, Content and Insight - 10
Presentation and Style - 5
Accuracy - 8
Fairness - 5
Methodology - 7
Total 35 pts.

13
Ethnocentrism Cultural Relativism
It is a perception that arises from the fact The attempt to judge behaviour according
that cultures differ and each culture defines to its cultural context.
reality differently. The principle that an individual person’s
Judging another culture solely by the beliefs and activities should be understood
values and standards of one’s own culture by others in terms of that individual’s own
culture

Image source: https.//www.googleimages.com

What Is It?
Activity 2.4 Just Saying!
Directions: Identify the following if it showing an idea/acting of
ethnocentrism or cultural relativism. Write your answers on the space
provided.
--------------------- 1. Even if she’s not fair complexion, black is still beautiful!
____________ 2. Were right, everyone else is wrong. Were better than you!
____________ 3. Mmmm… perfect! Really, our menu is the best among the rest.
____________ 4. We are destined to spread the word of God not them.
____________ 5. Our heroic ancestors, the best among the rest!
____________ 6. Prostitution is illegal in our country yet legal in Germany.
____________ 7. Abortion in the Philippines is illegal while in Singapore is legal.
____________ 8. We are the richest and influential country in the world!
____________ 9. Exclusive for Filipinos only!
___________ 10. Fried worms is disgusting in our taste but I now understand why
they loved it!

14
What I have Learned?
Activity 2.5 React-Say!
Directions: Write your answer in the box-space provided. A minimum of 100
words. Is there such a superior or inferior culture? Why?

Rubric in Essay Writing


Form, Content and Insight - 10
Presentation and Style - 5
Accuracy - 8
Fairness - 5
Methodology - 7
Total 35 pts.
15
What I can Do?
Activity 2.6 Let’s Reflect!
Directions: Inside the box, write your reflection by completing the open-
ended phrase on what you’ve learned about the difference between ethnocentrism
and cultural relativism. How valuable to inculcate cultural relativism in a diverse
culture we have. Why?

I learned that …

I realized that …

In the future …

Rubric in Essay Writing


Form, Content and Insight - 10
Presentation and Style - 5
Accuracy - 8
Fairness - 5
Methodology - 7
Total 35 pts.

16
What I can Do?
Activity 2.7 Trip Ko To!
Directions: You are going to roam around within your community observe
and list down of tangible and intangible heritage. Take sample pictures so that
you can review the happenings during the trip, you can use it in making your
reflection. After the trip make a narrative report with picture for submission to
the teacher.

Words need to define?


Tangible – easily seen or recognized, able to be touched or felt
Intangible – not made of physical substance: not able to be touched: not
tangible
Heritage – the traditions, achievements, beliefs, that are part of history of a
group or nation
Threats – the possibility that something bad or harmful could happen

Assessment: Reflective essay (100 words)


Directions: You are going to write a reflective essay on the threats of tangible
and intangible heritage based on your trip experience. Write in A4 size bond paper.
Rubrics:
Relevance to the topic ----------------15
Thoughts and Ideas -------------------15
Total 30 pts.

17
SUMMARY

Each society differ from one another when it comes to culture. People that
make up a society usually share a common culture like language, traditions, beliefs,
laws, customs, and may use the same technologies. The shared culture will defined
that society, it will be the basis of the kind of society whom they lived. To ensure that
members of the society will behave appropriately there should be rules of conduct,
customs, traditions, folkways and mores so that there will be a peaceful and
harmonious living, thus members are felt secured and will continue to find ways to
survive. It should also be noted that there’s no such superior or inferior culture
because the people living in a society will definitely adopt themselves to the kind of
society whom they belonged in order for them that they can survived and continue
living away from any danger and famine.

18
Assessment

Directions: Read carefully and write the correct answer on your notebook.
____ 1. It is a study that focus in society.
a. Anthropology b. Society c. Sociology d. Zoology

____ 2. It refers to a group of people sharing a common culture within a defined


territorial boundaries.
a. Society b. Culture c. Politics d. Community

____ 3. A belief that all cultures as equally complex.


a. Cultural Relativism b. Ethnocentrism
c. Folkways d. Essentialism

____ 4. It is called the scientific study of patterned, shared human behaviour.


a. Anthropology b. History c. Sociology d. Psychology

____ 5. Which of the following are not examples of material culture?


a. Tools b. Economic Goods
c. Attitudes d. Vehicles
____ 6. It consists of tangible things such as technological tools, architectural
structures, fashion and accessories, and food.
a. Non-material Culture b. Folkways
c. Cultural Shock d. Material Culture
____ 7. The following statement are the aspects of culture except
a. Shared and contested b. Cumulative
c. Patterned social interactions d. Transmitted through socialization

____ 8. The following are examples of non-material culture except one:


a. Behaviour b. Thoughts c. Feelings d. Artifacts

____ 9. It is called the totality of what man has learned as a member of society.
a. Politics b. Physiology c. Sociology d. Culture

____ 10. What do you call about judging other cultures by the standards of your own,
assuming your own culture to be the best.
a. Cultural Variation b. Enculturation
c. Ethnocentrism d. Sociological Imagination

19
GLOSSARY

Anthropology
- study man in his entirely
- is the branch of knowledge which deals with the scientific study of mankind,
his works, his body, his behaviour and values, in time and space (Palipis, 2007 p. 6).
Also, it includes man’s physical, social, and cultural development that describes and
explains the phenomenon of human life. In short, anthropology studies man and
analyses his behaviour as a member of society

Beliefs – the perception of accepted reality


Culture - is a composite or multifarious areas that comprise beliefs, practices,
values, attitudes, laws, norms, artifacts, symbols, knowledge, and
everything that a person learns and shares as a member of society
Knowledge – refers to any information received and perceived to be true
Politics - any activity involving human beings associated together in relationship
of power and authority where conflicts occurs
means compromises, but these compromises “ must in some sense be
creative of future benefits --- that each exists for a future purpose.” Or
at least, some purpose, like “ enabling orderly government to be
carried on at all.”
Reality - refers to the existence of things whether material or non-material
Social Norms – these are established expectations of society as to how a person is
supposed to act depending on the requirements of the time,
place, or situation.
Society – refers to a group of people sharing a common culture within a defined
territorial boundaries. Society should have rules of conduct, customs,
traditions, folkways and mores, and expectations that ensure appropriate
behaviour among members. Thus, every society is unique in terms of
culture
Sociology
- focus study is society
- is the scientific study of patterned, shared human behaviour. It analyses
human interaction which is essential in understanding man’s cultural make-
up. It may focus its attention on all kinds of social interactions: social arts,
social relationships, social organization, social structures, and social
processes

20
Answer Key

Pre Test/Post Test


1. B
2. A
3. A
4. C
5. C
6. D
7. B
8. D
9. D
10. C

Activity 1.2 p. 5 Culture Imagi-hibit!


Tangible Intangible
1. A reincarnation belief /
2. House and lot /
3. Suffrage /
4. Rizal’s Monument /
5. Democracy /

Activity 2.1 p. 11 Fill It!


Visible Non-Visible
1. Food Food
2. Ethics Ethics
3. Festivals Festival
4. Beliefs Beliefs
5. Values Values

21
REFERENCES

Books
Czarina Saloma, Anne Lan Candelaria and Jose Jowel Canuday “Understanding
Culture, Society and Politics.” (DepEd 2016)

Ederlina D. Baleña, Dolores M. Lucero and Arnel M. Peralta


Consultant: Adelina A. Sebastian “Understanding Culture, Society and Politics.”
(Educational Resources Corporation 2016)

Francisco M. Zulueta and Elda M. Maglaya “Foundations of Education.”


(National Bookstore 2005)

Gerry M. Lanuza and Sarah S. Raymundo “Understanding Culture, Society and


Politics.” (Rex Book Store 2016)

Websites
https://www.collinsdictionary.com
https://www.britannica.com
https://merriam.webster.com
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zvWmrpBwbKhIJbnFESRxJvLQRV0M7D1iX22gqEgkqu1Szgyx3jBGdFTAFjRcFLyoSCbDGc2p0Pom
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22
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