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Problem set no 5:

Conversion of angular Units


1 degree = 60 minutes
1 minute = 60 seconds
1 degree = 3600 seconds
1 revolution = 2rad = 360° = 400grads = 6400mils
Problem no. 1
Convert the following angles into their equivalents in decimal degrees:
35 44
a. 5°35′44" = 5° + + = 5.59556°
60 3600
18 30
b. 24°18′30" = 24° + + = 24.30833°
60 3600
Problem no. 2
Convert the following angles into their equivalent values in grads, mils and radians
a. 29°53′54"
2𝜋𝑟𝑎𝑑
29°53′54" 𝑥 = 0.522𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑛
360°
400𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑
29°53′54" 𝑥 = 33.22𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑠
360°
6400𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑
29°53′54" 𝑥 = 49.831𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑠
360°
b. 110°03′46"
2𝜋𝑟𝑎𝑑
110°03′46" 𝑥 = 1.921𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑛
360°
400𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑
110°03′46" 𝑥 = 122.292𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑠
360°
6400𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑
110°03′46" 𝑥 = 1956.672𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑠
360°
Problem no 3
Convert the following angles into their equivalent values in degrees, mils and radians
a. 234.336419grads
2𝜋𝑟𝑎𝑑
234.336419grads x = 3.681radians
400grads

360°
234.336419grads x = 210.903°
400grads
6400𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑠
234.336419grads x = 3749.383mils
400grads
b. 33.2206grads
2𝜋𝑟𝑎𝑑
33.2206grads x = 0.522radians
400grads

360°
33.2206grads x = 33.2206°
400grads
6400𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑠
33.2206grads x = 531.53mils
400grads
Problem no 4:
Convert the following angles into their equivalents in grads, degrees and radians
a. 420mils
400𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑠
420mils x = 26.25grads
6400mils
360°
420mils x = 23.625°
6400mils
2𝜋𝑟𝑎𝑑
420mils x = 0.412radians
6400mils
b. 1885.50mils
400𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑠
1885.50mils x = 117.844grads
6400mils
360°
1885.50mils x = 106.06°
6400mils
2𝜋𝑟𝑎𝑑
1885.50mils x = 1.85radians
6400mils
ANGLES FROM BEARINGS
Problem no 8:
Determine the angles APB, CPD, EPF, GPH, IPJ and KPL from the magnetic bearings:
a. PA, N32025’E
PB, N73040’E
c. PE, S78010’E
PF, S18035’E
Solution:

Angle APB = 
𝜃 = 73°40′ − 32°25′ = 41°15′

Angle EPF = 𝛽
𝛽 = 78°10′ − 18°35′ = 59°35′

DETERMINING BEARINGS AND AZIMUTHS


PROBLEM NO. 9
In the accompanying sketch the bearing of line AB IS N52033’E. Determine the bearing and the azimuth from south
of lines BC, BD, BE and BF.
GIVEN:
SOLUTION:
Step 1 : Determine the bearing of each line
Note : reference meridian is magnetic north
Line MAGNETIC
BEARING
BA SW
BC NE
BD N𝛽E
BE NE
BF SE

Values of , , 𝛽, , 
 = 52033’
 +  + 39030’ = 1800
 = 87057’
1800+ 𝛽 = 110025’ + 39030’ + 
𝛽 = 22028’
 = 64030’ + 𝛽
 = 86028’
𝛽 + 64030’+380 +  = 1800
 = 55002’
Step 2: convert bearing to azimuth from south

Line BEARING MAGNETIC


AZIMUTH from
South
BA SW  = 52 33’
0

BC NE 180- = 92003’


BD N𝛽E 180+𝛽 = 202028’
BE NE 180+ = 266028’
BF SE 360- = 304058’
DETERMINING AZIMUTHS
PROBLEM NO. 12
In the accompanying figure, determine the azimuth from north of line BC, CD, DE and EF if the azimuth from south
AB IS 235022’
GIVEN:

Solution:
Step 1: compute the bearing of each line

Line BEARING
BC NE
CD NE
DE S𝛽E
EF NE
34038’ +  = 81030’
 = 46052’
 + 168015’ = 1800 + 
 = 58037’
 + 𝛽 = 113005’
𝛽 = 54028’
𝛽 +  =109045’
 = 55017’
Step 2 : convert bearing to azimuth from north
Line BEARING AZIMUTH
FROM
NORTH
BC NE  = 46052’
CD NE  = 58037’
DE S𝛽E 180-𝛽 =
125032’
EF NE 55017’

CONVERTING BEARINGS TO AZIMUTHS


PROBLEM NO. 14
Convert the following bearings to azimuths (reckoned from south)
Given
BEARING
N17043’E
Due West
S25031’E
Answer:

BEARING AZIMUTH
FROM
SOUTH
N17043’E 197043’
Due West 900
S25031’E 25031’

CONVERTING AZIMUTHS TO BEARINGS


PROBLEM NO. 15
The following lines have their azimuths reckoned from north
Determine their bearings
Given:

AZIMUTH
FROM
NORTH
AB, 52021’
BC, 1800
CD, 337015’
DE, 219056’
Answer:

AZIMUTH BEARING
FROM
NORTH
AB, 52021’ N52021’E
BC, 1800 Due South
CD, 337015’ N22045’W
DE, 219056’ S39056’W

MAGNETIC DECLINATION

PROBLEM NO 16:
At a given place the magnetic bearing of six lines radiating from a given point are:
AB, N43024’E
AC, N78053’W
AD, S64042’ E
AE, S88052’W
Determine the true bearing of each line if the magnetic declination at the time of observation was 3025’ west.
SOLUTION:
 = 3025’

LINE MAGNETIC TRUE BEARING


BEARING
AB N43024’E N(43024’ -  = 39059’)E
AC N78053’W N(78053’ +  = 82018’)W
AD S64042’ E S(64042’ +  = 68007’)E
AE S88052’W S(88052 ’-  = 85027’)W

PROBLEM NO 17:
The following magnetic azimuths of an open compass traverse are reckoned from north. Determine the
corresponding true bearings if the magnetic declination within the locality is 4030’ east.

LINE Magnetic azimuth from north


AB 182007’
BC 277043’
AD 320000’
DE 314024’
EF 00026’
FG 325015’

SOLUTION:
Convert magnetic azimuth from north to magnetic bearing

LINE Magnetic azimuth from north Magnetic bearing


AB 182007’ S2007’W
BC 277043’ N82017’W
CD 320000’ N40000’W
DE 314024’ N45036’W
EF 00026’ N00026’E
FG 325015’ N 34025’W

Convert magnetic bearing to true bearing

LINE MAGNETIC BEARING TRUE BEARING


OB N𝛽E N (𝛽 + )E
OC NW N ( -  )W
OD SE S(-)E
OE SW S (  +  )W

NOTE:
 - EAST DECLINATION
Reference axis of magnetic bearing – magnetic meridian( MN and MS)
Reference axis of true bearing – true meridian (TN or TS)
LINE Magnetic azimuth from north Magnetic bearing True bearing
AB 182007’ S2007’W S(2 07’+4030’= 6037’) W
0

BC 277043’ N82017’W N(82017’ - 4030’= 77047’)W


CD 320000’ N40000’W N(40000’ - 4030’= 35030’)W
DE 314024’ N45036’W N(45036’ - 4030’= 41006’)W
EF 00026’ N00026’E N(00026’ + 4030’= 4056’)E
FG 325015’ N 34025’W N( 34025’ - 4030’= 29055’)’W
 = 4030’

PROBLEM NO 19:
IN 1960 a line had a magnetic bearing of N80023’E. At that time the magnetic declination was 3025’ west. In a new
survey performed in 1987, the declination in the same locality changed to 2050’E. Determine the magnetic bearing
and the true bearing of the line based on the new survey.
Solution:

In 1960 In 1987
True bearing True bearing - N76058’E
N(80023’ – 3025’ = 76058’)E new Magnetic meredian
N76058’E N(76058’ – 𝛽’ = 74008’)E
N74008’E - new magnetic meridian
OPEN COMPASS TRAVERSE
PROBLEM NO 22:
The following are the observed data for an open compass traverse. Adjust the observed directions and tabulate
values accordingly.

LINE Length Observed bearings


forward back
AB 452.50m S40025’W N40030’E
BC 405.62 N55040’W S55050’E
CD 495.05 N36015’W S35055’E
DE 284.15 N73010’W S73030’E
EF 367.29 S44045’W N44045’E
FG 217.73 N 20030’E S 21000’W
SOLUTION:

Step 1 : identify the best line

Best line – LINE EF

STEP 2: Compute the interior or exterior angles of each station

Step 3 : adjust each station


LINE Length Adjusted bearings Adjusted bearings
forward back forward back
SW NE
0
AB 452.50m S 40 40’ W N 40040’ E
BC 405.62 NW SE N 55015’ W S 55015’ E
0
CD 495.05 N𝛽W S𝛽E N36 15’W S 36015’ E
NW SE
0
DE 284.15 N 73 30’ W S 73030’ E
EF 367.29 S44045’W N44045’E S44045’W N44045’E
N E S W
0
FG 217.73 N 20 30’E S 20030’ W
118015’=  + 44045’
 = 73030’
114045’ = 44045’ +  = 1800
 = 20030’
1800 + 𝛽 = 142045’ +
𝛽 = 36015’
92005’ = 𝛽 +
 = 55015’
 +164050’= 1800+ 
 = 40040’

CLOSED COMPASS TRAVERSE


PROBLEM NO 24:
Given in the accompanying sketch are the observed forward and back bearings of a closed compass traverse.
Adjust the observed directions and tabulate the values
accordingly.
SOLUTION:
Step 1 : identify the best line

Best line – LINE AB

STEP 2: Compute the interior angle of each station

STEP3: Error

Summation of observed interior angles = 82045’+87015’+2150+116055’+64035’+153010’

Summation of observed interior angles = 719040’


Known summation of interior angles (n-2)*180 = 7200
Error = 7200 - 719040’ = 0020’
Correction per station
Correction = 0020’/6 = 003’20”
Step 4: Adjust the interior angles

Step 5 : adjust the forward and back bearing


LINE Adjusted bearings
forward back
AB N 14045’ E S 14045’W
BC S 87018’ 20”E N 87018’ 20”W
0
CD N 72 23’ 20”E S 72023’ 20”W
DE S 44035’ E N 44035’ W
0
EF S 70 46’ 40”E N 70046’ 40”W
FA N 82026’ 40”W S 82026’ 40”E