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# EE583A Wireless Communications

Lecture 12
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
(OFDM)

General Information
• Principle and motivation
• Channel Estimation
• Peak to Average Power Ratio
• Interference Mitigation

Principle
• Problems in high data-rate systems
– Equalization and rake reception becomes difficult
– Considering system bandwidth and maximum excess delay
• Because the maximum excess delay is decided by the environment,
the impulse response of the channel becomes very long when the
system bandwidth is large
• CDMA systems need chip equalizers
• Solution
– Transmit multiple data streams with lower rates on several
carriers
– Have carriers multiplexed in the most efficient possible way
• Signals on carriers can overlap and stay orthogonal

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Principle and Implementation
• Frequency spacing
f n = nW / N , W = N / TS
• Orthogonal carriers
( i +1)TS
cn ck ∫ exp( j 2πf nt ) exp( j 2πf k t )dt = cn ck δ n ,k
iTS

• FDMA

• OFDM

• Example
3

## Principle and Implementation

• Transmitted signal
∞ ∞ N −1
s(t ) = ∑ s (t ) = ∑∑ c
i = −∞
i
i = −∞ n = 0
n ,i g n (t − iTS )

## • With basis pulse

⎧ exp( j 2πnt / TS )
⎪ , 0 < t < TS
g n (t ) = ⎨ TS
⎪⎩ 0
• Transmitted signal
sampled at tk = kTS/N
1 N −1
⎛ j 2πnk ⎞
sk = s (t k ) =
TS
∑c
n =0
n,0 exp⎜
⎝ N ⎠

Example

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What is this?
Principle and Implementation
• Analog vs. digital implementation
– Analog implementation

– Digital implementation

## Principle and Implementation

• Cyclic prefix used in frequency-selective channels
– Repeat last samples at beginning of symbol
– Convert linear to circular convolution

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Principle and Implementation
• Performance in frequency-selective channels
g n (t ) = exp( j 2πnWt / N ), − Tcp < t < TˆS
N −1
rn = ∑ ck ∫ ⎡ ∫ h(τ ) g k (t − τ )dτ ⎤g n* (t )dt + nn
TSˆ TCP

0 ⎢⎣0 ⎥⎦
k =0

⇒ rn = H (nW / N )cn + nn
• Example

• Channel estimation
– Pilot-symbol-based methods
hnLS = rn / cn
• Least square channel estimate:
• Linear MMSE estimate: h LMMSE = R hh LS R h−1LS h LS h LS
– Methods based on scattered pilots

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• Peak-to-average ratio (PAR) problem
– The superposition of N sinusoidal signals on different
carriers (amplitude: Rayleigh distribution).
– Power amplifier

• Peak-to-average ratio problem
– Spectral growth due to the use of nonlinear amplifiers
– Interference due to out-of-band emissions

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• PAR Reduction Techniques
– Coding for PAR reduction
– Correction by multiplicative function
• Simple case: clipping
• Gaussian function
⎡ ⎛ s − A0 ⎞ ⎛ 2
⎞⎤
sˆ(t ) = s (t ) ⎢1 − ∑ max⎜⎜ 0, k ⎟ exp⎜ − t 2 ⎟⎥
⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎣⎢ n ⎝ sk ⎠ ⎝ 2σ t ⎠⎦⎥

## – Correction by additive factor

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• Inter-carrier interference
– Carrier frequency offset
• Oscillator
• Doppler frequency shift
– Carrier offset estimation

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• Inter-carrier interference
– OFDM sampling

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• Inter-carrier interference
– Pilot (QPSK) with timing offset
– Timing offset estimation

14
• Techniques to reduce ISI
– Optimize the carrier spacing and symbol duration
– Optimum choice of OFDM basis signals
– Self-interference cancellation
– Frequency-domain equalizers

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• Waterfilling
– Different powers should be allocated to the subcarriers
⎛ σ2 ⎞ N
Pn = max⎜ 0, ε − n 2 ⎟, where P = ∑ Pn
⎜ α n ⎟⎠
⎝ n =1

– Example

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• Multicarrier CDMA (MC-CDMA)
– A code symbol is mapped onto a transmit vector
– Transceiver structure

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OFDM
• Applications
– WLAN: ISM band
• 802.11a: 5.8GHz band, 20 MHz, 54 Mbps
• 802.11g: 2.4GHz band, 20 MHz, 54 Mbps (64 QAM)
• 802.11n: similar to g, 20 and 40 MHz, up to 300 Mbps.
– WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
Access)
• 802.16d: OFDMA, 10 Mbps over 2 Km
• 802.16e: Scalable-OFMDA, 70 Mbps at 20 MHz
– Others