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Points for Review for

Readings in Philippine History

Summative Assessment

1. Setting
a. Countries and seas forming the boundaries of the Philippines
b. Mountain ranges, volcanoes, river systems
c. Common and regional traits of Filipinos
2. Before the conquest
a. Theories on how the Philippines became inhabited
i. Land bridges theory
ii. The theories of Voss, Beyer and Jocano
b. Entry of Islam into the Philippines
c. Ten Bornean Datus
i. Code of Kalantiaw
3. Early customs
a. Social classes in pre-Spanish era
b. Role of women in pre-Spanish era
c. Government structure, branches and laws in pre-Spanish era
d. Economic life in pre-Spanish Philippines
4. Pre-colonial culture
5. Under imperial Spain
a. The Iberian powers
b. Reasons behind the race for colonies
c. Magellan’s voyage and its Impact on the world
d. Changes in the Philippine political structure under Spain
6. Institutional mpact of Spanish rule
a. Reduccion
b. The economic institutions
i. Taxation
ii. Polo
iii. Encomienda
iv. Galleon trade
c. Social and educational transformation
7. From Indio to Filipino
8. The campaign for reforms
a. Emergence of the new middle class
 19th century, the economic development of the Philippines led to the rise of the
Filipino middle class.
 In previous centuries, the middle class was composed by the Spanish and
Chinese mestizos
 The Spanish authorities looked down upon them
b. Carlos Maria dela Torre and the Assimilation agenda
 Carlos Maria dela Torre
February 27, 1809
December 2,1879
Governor-General from 1869-1871
Whom the middle class saw as an ally
 Assimilation agenda
The movement has no clamor for the independence it only aims for
the assimilation of the Philippines to Spain
c. Jaena, del Pilar, Rizal and masonry
December 18, 1856- January 20, 1896
Born in Jaro, Iloilo
Studied at seminary of Jaro and at University of Valencia
Author of Fray Botod
Secretly left for Spain and enrolled in medicine at University of
Masonry or Freemasonry
It was introduced in the Philippines in 1856
Civic movement promoting fraternity and good works
Filipino propagandists in Spain were affiliated with Masonic lodges
d. The La Liga Filipina
The Manila chapter of the Propaganda Movement
e. Reasons behind the failure of the reform movement
They would enjoy all rights and privileges Of Spanish Citizens.
They would also be obliged to discharge
The duties of Spanish citizens.
The Filipinos could not be treated cruelly by
The friars and the Spanish civil authorities.
9. Bonifacio and the Katipunan
a. Bonifacio
Andres Bonifacio was born on November 30, 1863 in a small hut at
Calle Azcarraga, presently known as Claro M. Recto Avenue in Tondo,
b. Structure and membership of the Katipunan
Though the organizational structure of the Katipunan was constantly in
flux, it is generally believed that they formed small branches, governed
by the sangguniang balangay, and these small branches would form
larger provincial councils, governed by the sangguniang bayan.
New recruits to the secret society underwent a rigorous initiation
process, similar to Masonic practices.
c. Premature discovery
Rizal turned out to be against the revolution, believing it to be
premature. The purported discovery of Bonifacio's remains has also
been questioned.
10. The revolution: first phase
a. Power struggle within the Katipunan
 Magdalo group of Aguinaldo versus the Magdiwang group of Bonifacio
b. Failure of the Biak na Bato truce
Failure of the Biak-na-Bato truce was mainly due to lack of trust on both
the Spanish and Filipino sides
11. The revolution: second phase
a. Symbolism behind the tearing of the cedula
Symbolism behind Bonifacio’s tearing of the cedula was Filipino defiance
against oppressive Spanish rule
b. The impact of the Naik military agreement
The Naik Military Agreement created two (2) governments for the
Filipino revolutionaries at the time, one by Aguinaldo (which was the
legitimately elected government) and the other by Bonifacio (which
was illegal)
c. How the explosion of the Maine triggered the Spanish-American War
The mysterious explosion of the battleship USS Maine resulted in the US
declaring war against Spain; the US believed the Spaniards were guilty of
causing the Maine’s destruction.
d. Roosevelt’s agenda
Roosevelt’s three-pronged agenda: create a military base in the
Philippines; establish a Philippine base for Protestant missionaries in Asia
and open economic trade between the Philippines and the United States
e. The secret agreement between Dewey and Jaudenes
The secret agreement between Dewey and Jaudenes was that the
Spaniards would  secretly surrender to the Americans while pretending to
continuing to fight against the Americans in order to save face
12. The Malolos Republic
a. What kind of constitution was created
A short-lived dictatorial, revolutionary government. Only lasting from
January 21, 1899 to March 23, 1901 with the capture of Aguinaldo
b. What kind of legislature was established
Revolutionary government
c. Other changes in the government structure
An Electoral College, an indirect democracy where people did not
directly elect leaders but their town chiefs did
13. The Filipino-American hostilities
a. Mckinley’s Benevolent Assimilation
i. Its three-pronged agenda
 Economic interest in the expansion of American businesses in the
Asia Pacific
 Naval and military interest in making the Philippines as the first line
of American defense
 Religious interest in making the Philippines as the base for
American Protestant missionaries
b. The Fall of Mabini and the assassination of Luna
 Mabini removed from power by Aguinaldo
 Luna assassinated by his own men
c. How the Americans conquered the Visayas
 Cebu fought
 Negros did not
d. How the Americans conquered Mindanao
i. The Bates Treaty and its effect on Mindanao-US relations
 Also known as Kiram-Bates Treaty
 The treaty functioned to prevent the entry of the Sulu
Sultanate into the Philippine-American War while the
United States concentrated its forces in northern Luzon
 US sovereignty is recognized but the rights and dignities
of the Sultan and his datus shall be fully respected
e. Heroism at Tirad Pass
 Yet another betrayal
f. Capture and end of Aguinaldo
 He would later on wear a black bow in public to mourn his lost
republic This effectively ended the Malolos Republic (March 23,
g. Malvar, Lukban, Sakay and Ola
 Miguel Malvar, Vicente Lukban and Makario Sakay
i. The howling wilderness of Samar
 Lukban and Samar, a howling wilderness
ii. The Balangiga Bells
 Three church bells that were taken by the US Army from the
Church of San Lorenzo de Martin in Balangiga, Eastern Samar
as war trophies after reprisals following the Balangiga massacre
in 1901.
 Put on display at military bases in the US, they were finally
returned to the Philippines on 11 December 2018, after 117
14. Religious schism
a. Factors that triggered the religious schism (division)
i. GomBurZa
 Execution of Fathers Gomez, Burgos and Zamora
 Discrimination against Filipino priests Abuses against
Filipinos by the Spanish friars
b. The role of Isabelo de los Reyes
 First Filipino labor union
 Philippine Independent Church
c. The great sacritifice of Gregorio Aglipay
 The choice he had to make
 Excommunication

15. Continuing resistance

a. American strategy in occupying the country
i. Diplomacy, co-option, bribery, reconcentration
b. Three sectoral perspectives or resistance
i. Christian, Muslim and Tribal resistance against the Americans
ii. Literature of resistance
1. Abad, Tolentino, Osmeña and Palma
16. Compromise with colonialism
a. How the Bates Treaty evolved into the Carpenter-Kiram Agreement
and its subsequent changes
b. Significance of the Jones Law
c. Unfair trade laws
i. Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act
ii. Underwood-Simmons
iii. Tyding’s McDuffie
17. Colonial politics
a. Purpose of the Wood-Forbes mission
b. Comparing and contrasting between governor generals Francis .
Leonard Wood and Henry L. Stimson
18. The campaign for independence
a. Distinguishing between the Fairfield, Hare-Hawes Cutting and Tydings-
McDuffie bills and laws
19. Transition to independence
a. Significance of the Tydings-McDuffie Law
b. Characteristics of the 1935 Constitution
c. Impact of the Sakdal uprising
d. How the Communist Party began
e. Socio-economic and political changes in the country
20. Results of the American occupation
a. Positive and negative impact of American rule
21. The Japanese occupation
22. The liberation
23. Post war problems
a. Why post-war Philippine independence was both a blessing and a
b. Principles of the Osmeña, Roxas and Quirino governments
c. Reasons behind the division within the Nacionalista Party
i. Differentiating between the Nacionalista and Liberal parties,
then and today
d. How the post-war Philippine government dealt with the collaboration
24. The Hukbalahap; movement
a. How the quality of peasant life in Spanish-era Philippines gave birth to
the Huk movement
b. Distinguishing socialism from communism
c. The three-pronged agenda of the Huks
d. How the Huks went from friend of the Republic to an enemy of the
25. The recognition of the tao
26. The continuing crisis
27. Profile of the economy
28. External economy
29. The cultural and social scene
30. Under martial law
a. Proclamation 1081 and its immediate impact on the government and
lives of the Filipinos
b. Describe the New Society envisioned by Marcos to justify his martial
c. The various human rights violations and abuses committed by the
Marcos government against the Filipinos
d. Effects of martial law on the economy

Note: shaded items will no longer be included.