daniel solow
east' westf'rn rf'St'nf' university
10 9
to my late father • • •
ANATOLE A. SOWW
and to my mother • • •
RUTH SOLOW
foreword
['. s.
contents
12. 8umrnary ~2
Index IG9
xIIi
xlv CONTENTS
TABLES
Table 1. The Truth of" " Impl ies E" 5
DEFINITIONS
Definitions 1  10 24
Definition 11 24
Defini tion 12 35
Definition 13 ~5
Definition 14 t.2
Definition 15 42
Definition 16 6('
Definition 17 1 ('II
Definition H~ 109
how to read and do proofs
an introduction to mathematical thought process
1 the truth of it aU
B II IJI'lFl ies E
*************************************
6 THE TRUTH OF IT ALL
Exercises
x Y
82: x  y = 0
Statement Reason
*****************************************************
A ~.~
,.. .. ' ... ~~ ,"
/0= BaCkwar~ )~
I Forward • B ,\
( \
A Forward •
I II
I~II

 ~
U B Backward •

~
 ~


Exercises
Exercises
aX 1 + bY1 • e, cx 1 + dY1 • f,
aX I + bYI • e, ex I + dyz • f,
Exercises
In
Proof Cut
machine ~~
Exercises
of Fxercise 5. 'Y.)
(c) The square root of the product of any two
nonne9ative real numbers p and q is always ~
their sum divided by 2.
(d) If x and yare real numbers such that x < y,
then there is a r~tional number r such that
x < r < y.
5.5. For each of the followin9 statements, indicate
which proof techniques you woulc use (choose
and/or construction) .3nd in which order. Also,
explain how the technique would be applied to
the particular problem, that is, what would you
construct, what would you choose, etc.
(a) There is a real number ~ > 0 such that, for
all elements x in the set S of real numbers,
Ixl ~ ~.
(b) For all real numbers M > 0, there is an
element x in the set S of real numbers such
that Ixl > M.
(c) V real numbers & > 0, 3 a real number
8 > 0 ~ V real numbers x anCl y wi th
Ix  yl < 8, If(x)  fey) I < & (where f is a
function of one variable) •
5.6. For the sets S anCl T of Fxamrle 5, prove that
T S; s.
2
P(2) Lk 2(2+1)/2 or 1+2 =3
k=l
3
P(3) Lk = 3 (3+1)/2 or 1+2+3 = 6
k=l
pen) n(n+l)/2
n+1
P(n+1): Lk (n+lH(n+l) + 11/2 (n+1) (n+2)/2
k=l
Tn
Proof machine
Out
2
n(n+1)/2 + (n+1) :: (n + n)/2 + 2(n+1)/2
2
:: (n + 3n + 2)/2
:: (n+1) (n+2)/2
In summary,
1+ ••• +(n+1) :: (1+ ••• +n) + (n+l)
:: n(n+l)/2 + (n+l)
= (n 2 + 3n + 2)/2
:: (n+1) (n+2)/2
Your ability to relate P(n+l) to pen) so as to use
the induction hypothesis that pen) is true will
determine the success of the proof by induction. If
you are unable to relate P(n+l) to PIn), then you
might wish to consider a different proof technique.
Proof of Example 6. The statement is clearly true for
n :: 1. Assume that it is true for n (i.e., that
l+ ••• +n :: n(n+l)/2). Then
1+ ••• +(n+l):: 11+ ••• +n) + (n+l)
:: n(n+l)/2 + 2(n+l)/2
2
:: (n + 3n + 2)/2
= (n+l) (n+2)/2
which is P(n+l).//
When using the method of induction, it is not
necessary that the first value for n has to be 1.
For instance, the statement "for all integers n ~ 5,
2 > n 2" can also be proved by induction. The only
n
modification is that, in order to start the proof
machine, you must verify PIn) for the first possible
value of n. In this case, that first value would be
n = 5, so you will have to check that 2 5 > 52 (which,
58 INDUCTION
5
of course, it is since 2 = 32 while 52 = 25). The
second step 0 f the induction proof would remain the
same. You would still have to show that i f P (n) is
true (i.e., 2 n > n 2), then P (n+l) is al so true (I.e.,
2n+1 > (n+l)2). In so doing, you can also use the
fact that n ~ 5, i f necessary.
Exercises
6.2. (a) Why and when would you want to use induction
instead of the choose method?
(b) Wny is it not possible to use induction on
statements of the form: For every "object"
with a "certain property," "something
happens?"
Exercises
forward backward
Forward
Backward
A}> <B
Contra At forward
diction BJ> • • • * (contradiction)
NOT
Exercises
Con tra
positive forward backward
NOT B}> <NOT A
Contra
diction
NOT
AB}:~~~:~~> ••• * (contradiction)
Contra A
positive forward backward
NOT B}> (NOT A
Fig. 11. ForwardBackward method versus
contradiction method versus
contrapositive method.
Exercises
Exercises
X 2) + b (y1  Y2 ) ) (), c nc
X
2) + d(Yl  Y2») = o.
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES 85
S
++[13+ Real line
o x
S
[ 3 Real line
o x
S
+1+[+3+ neal line
o x
s
~1~[~3+ neal line
o x
Exercises
*****************************************************
SUMMARY 97
*****************************************************
*****************************************************
98 SUMfillARY
*****************************************************
Proof
Technique When to Use It What to Assume
*****************************************************
SUMMARY 99
*****************************************************
*****************************************************
100 SUMMARY
Exercises
109
110 APPENDIX B
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
J/~
J;S~ st~
ssss sst stst
1//31 ~
ssssssss ts st sssst
1\
sstsst
1\
stststst
(c) A : s given
AI: ss rule 1
A 2: ssss rule 1
B1: sssst rule 4
B tst rule 3
(d) A s given
AI: tst frOM part c
A,}: tsttst rul e 1
A:I· tsst rule '}
114: tssttsst rule 1
B1: tsssst rule 2
B : ttst rule 3
2.11. Outline of proof. In this problem one has:
A: The right triangle XYZ is isosceles.
B: The area of triangle XYZ is z2/ 4•
An abstraction question for E is "How can I
show that the area of a triangle is equal to a
particuler value?" Cne answer is to use the
formula for computing the area of a triang Ie to
show that
El: z2/ 4 = xy/2
Working forwar~ from the hypothesis that
triangle XYZ is isosceles, one has:
A] : x = y
12: x  y 0
2
A6: X + Y2 = 2xy
Substituting A: into A6 yields
",7: z2 = 2xy
~ividing both sides by 4 finally yields the
desired result:
A8: z2 /~ = xy/2
Proof. From the hypothesis, one knows that
x = y, or equivalently, that x  y = o.
Performing some algebraic manipulations, one
obtains x2 + y2 = 2xy. By the Pythagorean
theorem, z2 = x 2 + y2 and on substituting z2
for x 2 + y2, one obtains z2 = 2xy, or
equivalently, z2/ A = y.y/2. From the formula
for the area of a right triangle, the area of
XYZ = xy/2. Hence z2/4 is the area of the
triangle.//
2.12. Outline of proof. ~n abstraction question
associated with the conclusion is "How can I
show that a triangle is equilateral?" One
answer is to show that all three sides have
equal leng_th, specifically, ~ = ~ = IT''f. To
see that ~ = ~, one can work forward from the
hypothesis to establish that triangle RSU is
congruent to triangle SUT. Specifically, by
the hypothesis, 1m = IJ'f and, in addition,
angle RUS = angle SUT = 90 degrees. Of course
~ = ~, so the sideangIeside theorem states
that the two triangles are congruent. Finally,
to see that ~ =~, work forward from the
~pothesis to obtain the conclusion that
RS = 21m = 1m + O'T = rrf.
Chapter 3
(d)
,6.
A : sin(X) '" cos(X).
AI: x/z = y/z (or, x = y).
( e) A : a, b, c are integers for which a
divides band b divides c.
AI: b = pa and c '" qb, where p and q are two
integers and, a ~ 0, b ~ o.
3.3. (T '" true, F = false)
(a) Truth table for converse of "~ implies 8."
A B "A Impl ies e" "B Impl ies A"
T T T T
T F F T
F T T F
F F T T
A B "'It OR B"

T T T
T F T
F T T
F F F
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F F
T F T T T
T F F F F
F T T T T
F T F T T
= 4m 2 + 4m + 1
= 2(2m 2 + 2m) + 1
Thus the desired value for k is (2m 2 + 2m), and
since m is an integer, (2m 2 + 2m) is an integer.
Hence it has been shown that n 2 can be expressed
as 2 times some integer plus 1, which completes
the proof.
Proof. Since n is an odd integer, there is an
integer m for which n = 2m + 1, and therefore,
n2 = (2m + 1)2
= 4m 2 + 4m + 1
2
= 2(2m + 2m) + 1,
and hence n 2 is an odd integer./ /
3.6. Outline of proof. Proceeding by the
forwardbackward method, one is led to the
abstraction question "Pow can I show an integer
(namely mn) is odd?" By using the definition of
an odd integer, this question can be answered by
showing that mn can be expressed as 2 times some
integer plus 1. We now turn to the forward
process to find out which integer.
Since m is an odd integer and n is an odd'
integer, one has m = 2b + 1 for some integer b,
and n = 2c + 1 for integer c. 'Iherefore,
mn = (2b + 1) (2c + 1)
= 4bc + 2b + 2c + 1
= 2(b + c + 2bc) + 1.
130 SOLUTIONS
= 2(b + c + 2bc) + 1.
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
= t'f(x') + (1  t')f(y').
Thus the inequality holds.11
Chapter 6
In!) + • .. + n(n!) + (n + 1) (n + 1) !
:: (n + I)! (n + 2)  1
(n + 2)!  1.
Thus PIn + 1) is true, compJ eting the proof.1 I
pen) 2n > n2
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
2
which 2is of the form n = 2p + 1, where
p • 2k + 2k. '!'hus n 2 is odd, and this
contradiction establishes the result.
Proof. Assume, to the contrary, that n is odd
and n 2 is even. Hence, there is an integer k
such that, n = 2k + 1. Consequently,
n2 = f2k + l) 2
= ~k2 + 4k + 1
= 2 f2k2 + 2k) + l.
and hence n 2 is odd, contradicting the initial
assumpt ion./ /
8.4. Outline of Proof. We proceed by assuming that
there is a chord of a circle that is longer than
its diameter. Starting with this assumption,
and using the properties of a circle, we should
arrive at a contradiction in order to provide a
valid proof.
Let AC be the chord of the circle that is
longer than the diameter of the circle. Let AB
be a diameter of the circle. '!'his construction
is valid since, by definition, a diameter is a
line passing through the center terminating at
the perimeter of the circle.
2
No w for n ~ 6, n (n  6) ~ C, wh 11 e fo r n > 6,
n 2 (n  6) > 2. Hence there is no integer n for
wh i c h n 2 (n  6) = 2.
Proof. Assume that (n  1), n, and (n + 1) are
three consecutive integers such that
(n  1)3 + n3 = (n + 1) 3 •
'!ben,
n 3  3n 2 + 3n  1 + n 3 = n3 2
+ 3n + 3n + 1
or
n 3 _ 6n 2 =2
or 2
n (n  6) = 2.
Fo r n ~ 6 , n 2 (n  6) ~ 0, wh 11 e for n > 6,
n 2 (n  6) > 2. Hence, there is no integer n for
which n 2 (n  6) = 2.//
B.P. Outline of proof. By the contradiction methoc,
it can be assumed that the number of primes is
finite. If so, t~en there will be a prime
number that is larger than all the other prime
numbers. Let n be such a number. Consider the
number n! + 1, and let p be any prime number
that divides n! + 1. ~ contradiction will be
reached by showing that p ~ nand p > n.
Since n is the largest prime, p ~ n. We
use the fact that p divides n! + 1 to show that
p ~ 1, P ~ 2, • • • , p ~ n, and hence it must
be that p > n. When nl + 1 is divided by 2,
there is a remainder of 1 since,
nl + 1 = rn(n1) ... (2)(1)] + 1
Similarly, when n! + 1 is divided by r, where
1 < r ~ n, there is a remainder of 1. Indeed,
one has that
(n! + l)/r = n!/r + l/r
Hence n! + 1 has no prime factor between and
n. But by assumption, it has a pr ime factor.
SOLUTIONS 155
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
S empty set 42
~ not 30
~ such that 36
A and 24
V or 24
167
index
·A implies B," 3, 30
abstraction process, 10
abstraction question, 9
alternative definition, 25
AND, 24, 81
assumption,S, 51, 53, ~~, 72
axiom, 28
backward process, 9
definition, 23
defining property (of a set), 41
doing proofs, 3
either/or method, ~~
empty set 42
equivalence, 2r;
equivalent definitions, 25
equivalent statements, 2~
existence, 35
existential quantifier, 3d
169
170 INDEX
forwardbackward method, 8, 16
forward process, 9, 12
"for all," for any," "for each, "for every, 34, 40
for which, 36
hypothesis, ?
lemma, 27
matching up of notation, 29
mathematical induction, 50
mathematical terminology, 23
mathematics as a language, 1
max/min method, 'e7
membership in a set, ~o
negation, 78
negation in quantifiers, 7e
"no, not in conclusion, 67
NOT A, :0, 7f'
NOT B, 7P
NOT B implies NOT A," 30
"NOT A implies NOT B," 30
NOTS of quantifiers, 7P
only if, ?O
OR, el
proof, 1
proof by contradiction, 64
INDEX 171
Q.E.D., 1.IJ
quantifiers
choose method (for all), ~o
construction method (there exists), :4
existential, :4
"hidden," 37, i13
induction method, 50
specialization method, ~9
universal, ?i1
set, .lJO
empty, ~2
set builder notation, ~l
setdefining property, ~l
set equality, 42, 45
something happens, :5, 43
specialization method, 59
special proof techniques, 83
statement, 2, f!
changing form of, IP7
subset, i12
symbolic notation, :
theorem, n
"there are," "there exists," "there is," 34
truth table, 5
"A implies F," 5
"NOT B implies NOT A," 31
172 INDEX
uniqueness, 83
uniqueness method, 83
universal quantifier, ~4
working backward, g
working forward, 9, 12