Sei sulla pagina 1di 15

Gurdaspur public school

Gurdaspur

PROJECT REPORT
TOPIC- determination of the rates of
evaporation of different liquids

SUBMITTED TO SUBMITTED
BY

MR. SACHIN SHARMA ASSEEM


ANAND

TEACHER OF CHEMISTRY ROLL NO-


……….
CERTIFICATE
Certified that this is bonafied work of ASSEEM
ANAND of 12th(NM) of GURDASPUR PUBLIC
SCHOOL. He has performed well in the
completion of this project . Project has got
aesthetic presentation, visual appeal and
neatness. This content is accurate , vreative and

orignal.

PRINCIPAL’ SIGNATURE TEACHER’S SIGNATURE

SCHOOL SEAL
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I ASSEEM ANAND student of Gurdaspur Public School has


prepared a project report on the determination of rate of
evaporation of different liquids.The of this project is collected
through internet, our chemistry textbook and through our
chemistry lab manual. It is completed with the help of our
chemistry teacher MR.SACHIN SHARMA . The whole project is
prepared under good guidance of him. I also thank our lab
assistant who helped me to conduct various tests related to the
project. I am also thankfull to my friends who helped me for
completing this project.

I am very thankfull to every single person involved in this project.

ASSEEM ANAND
Rate of Evaporation of Different Liquids

Objective of the Project


This project is of the rate of evaporation of different liquid,
in which we also discuss the factors which affect the rate of
liquid.

Introduction

What is evaporation ? whenever a liquid is placed in an open


vessel , it slowly escapes into the atmosphere, i.e.,changes into
vapours, eventually leaving the vessel empty. The process of
change of a liquid into its vapour is called evaporation.

How does the evaporation occur ? For molecules of a liquid to


evaporate, they must be located near the surface, be moving
in the proper direction, and have sufficient kinetic energy to
overcome liquid-phase intermolecular forces.Only a small
proportion of the molecules meet these criteria, so the rate
of evaporation is limited. Since the kinetic energy of a
molecule is proportional to its temperature, evaporation
proceeds more quickly at higher temperatures. As the faster-
moving molecules escape, the remaining molecules have lower
average kinetic energy, and the temperature of the liquid thus
decreases. This phenomenon is also called evaporative cooling.

Evaporation causes cooling. This is due to the reason that the


molecules, which undergo evaporation, are high-energy
molecules; therefore the kinetic energy of molecules which
are left behind is less. Since the remaining molecules have
lower average kinetic energy therefore, temperature must be
lower. If the temperature is kept constant the remaining
liquid will have the same distribution of molecular kinetic
energies and the high-energy molecule will keep on escaping
from the liquid into the gas phase. If the liquid is taken in an
open vessel, evaporation will continue until whole of the liquid
evaporates.

Factors affecting the rate of evaporation.

Concentration of the substance evaporating in the air


If the air already has a high concentration of the
substance evaporating, then the given substance will
evaporate more slowly.
Concentration of other substances in the air
If the air is already saturated with other substances, it
can have a lower capacity for the substance evaporating.
Concentration of other substances in the liquid
(impurities)
If the liquid contains other substances, it will have a
lower capacity for evaporation.
Flow rate of air
This is in part related to the concentration points above.
If fresh air is moving over the substance all the time,
then the concentration of the substance in the air is less
likely to go up with time, thus encouraging faster
evaporation. This is the result of the boundary layer at
the evaporation surface decreasing with flow velocity,
decreasing the diffusion distance in the stagnant layer.

Inter-molecular forces
Most liquids are made up of molecules, and the levels of
mutual attraction among different molecules help explain why
some liquids evaporate faster than others. Attractions
between molecules arise because molecules typically have
regions that carry a slight negative charge, and other regions
that carry a slight positive charge. These regions of electric
charge are created because some atoms in the molecule are
often more electronegative (electron-attracting) than others.
The oxygen atom in a water (H2O) molecule is more
electronegative than the hydrogen atoms, for example,
enabling the oxygen atom to pull electrons away from both
hydrogen atoms. As a result, the oxygen atom in the water
molecule carries a partial negative charge, while the hydrogen
atoms carry a partial positive charge. Water molecules share a
mutual attraction—positively charged hydrogen atoms in one
water molecule attract negatively charged oxygen atoms in
nearby water molecules.
Intermolecular attractions affect the rate of evaporation of
a liquid because strong intermolecular attractions hold the
molecules in a liquid together more tightly. As a result, liquids
with strong intermolecular attractions evaporate more slowly
than liquids with weak intermolecular attractions. For
example, because water molecules have stronger mutual
attractions than gasoline molecules (the electric charges are
more evenly distributed in gasoline molecules), gasoline
evaporates more quickly than water
Pressure
Evaporation happens faster if there is less exertion on
the surface keeping the molecules from launching
themselves.

Surface area
A substance that has a larger surface area will evaporate
faster, as there are more surface molecules that are
able to escape.

Temperature of the substance


If the substance is hotter, then its molecules have a
higher average kinetic energy, and evaporation will be
faster.

Density

The higher the density the slower a liquid evaporates

Experiment no. 1
Aim : To compare the rates of evaporation of acetone,
benzene and chloroform.

Apparatus:

1· Three Petri dishes of diameter 10 cm with covers

2· 10 ml pipette

3· Stop watch

Chemicals:

1· Acetone

2· Benzene

3· Chloroform

PROCEDURE
1. Clean and dry the Petri dishes and mark them as A, B, C.
2. Pipette out 10 ml of acetone to Petri dish A and cover
it.
3. Pipette out 10 ml of benzene in Petri dish B and cover it.
4. Pipette out 10 ml of chloroform in Petri dish C and cover
it.
5. Uncover all the three Petri dishes simultaneously and
start the stop-watch.
6. Note the respective time when the liquids evaporate
completely from each Petri dish.
OBSERVATIONS

Petri Time taken for


Liquid
dish complete
Taken
Mark evaporation

A Acetone 53 min

B Benzene 42 min

C Chloroform 30 min

CONCLUSION

The rate of evaporation of the given three liquids is in the


order:

Chloroform > Benzene > Acetone

Experiment no. 2
Aim:-To study the effect of surface area on the rate of
evaporation of Diethyl ether.
Requirements
Three Petridishes of diameter 2.5 cm,5 cm, and 10 cm with
covers ,10 ml pipette and stopwatch.
Procedure
1. Clean and dry the petridishes and mark them as A,B,C.
2. Pipette out 10 ml of Diethyl ether in each of the
petridishes a,band C cover them immediately.
3. Uncover all the three petridishes simultaneously
and start the stopwatch.
4. Note the time when diethyl ether evaporates completely
from each petridish.
Observation Table

Petridish Mark Diameter of Time taken for


petridish complete evaporation

A 2.5 cm 11min 45sec

B 5.0 cm 8min 45sec

C 7.5 cm 6min 30sec

Result
It will be observed that maximum evaporation occurs in
petridish with largest diameter followed by smaller
and the smallest petridish. It is therefore , concluded that
rate of evaporation increases with increase in surface area.

Experiment no. 3

Aim : To study the effect of temperature on the rate of


evaporation of acetone.

Requirement : Two Petri dishes of 5 cm. diameter each stop


watch, 10 ml. pipette, thermometer, thermostat.

Procedure :

1. Wash and Clean, dry the Petri dishes and mark them as A, B.

2. Pipette out of 10 ml. of acetone to each of Petri dishes A


and B and cover them with lids.

3. Set up a thermostat at a temperature of about 15-20°C


higher than the room temperature.

4. Remove the lid from petridish A and place it in the


thermostat and start the stop watch immediately.
5. Uncover the petridish B and place it at the room
temperature and start the stop watch immediately

6. Note the reading.

Observation :

Time : 10 min. = 600 Sec.

Petri
Time Temperature Volume Taken Evaporated
dishes
(Sec.) (0C) (ml.) volume (ml.)
Marked
A 10 30 10 10
B 20 40 10 10

Results : The order of evaporation of acetone in two Petri


dishes as given

Room Temperature < Heating.

Conclusion : Observation clearly shows that the evaporation


increases with temperature.

Experiment no. 4
Aim : To study the effect of air current on the rate of
evaporation of acetone.

Requirement : Two Petri dishes of same size , two stop


watches and a 10ml pipette.

Chemicals required : Acetone

Procedure :

1. Clean and dry the Petri dishes of acetone and mark them as
A and B.

2. Pipette out 10 ml of acetone in petridish A and keep it


before a table fan . Start the stop watch immediately.

3. Pipette out 10 ml of acetone in petridish B and place it


where there is no table fan. Start the stop watch
immediately.

4. Note the time taken for complete evaporation of acetone in


both the petri dishes.

Observation :

Initial Volume 10 ml. of Acetone.

Petri dishes Conditions Time (Sec.) volume


Marked Evaporated
(ml.)
A With fan 40 10
B without fan 50 10

Results : The order of evaporation of acetone in two Petri


dishes as given

With fan > Without Fan..

Conclusion : The rate of evaporation of liquid increases with


the increase in rate of flow of air current.

Summary :

From the experiments 1-4 it is clear that the rate of


evaporation depends upon

 The nature of the liquid.

 The surface area of the liquid.

 Temperature.

 Air currents flowing over the surface of the liquid.