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PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by

SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 0


WEEK 1
(Lessons 1 & 2; pages 2 – 10)

Reminder: There are three TASKS (Tasks 1 – 3) you need to comply this WEEK 1.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 1
LESSON 1 – NATURE OF INQUIRY, INVESTIGATION, IMMERSION
AND RESEARCH

OBJECTIVES:

At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to:


1. demonstrate their understanding about the overview of the research subjects offered in the
senior high school curriculum; and
2. explain the importance of inquiry, investigation and immersion in conducting a research.

Overview of the Senior High School Research Subjects

o Practical Research 1 – Qualitative Research


o Practical Research 2 – Quantitative Research (Our Subject this first semester)
o Inquiries, Investigations and Immersion – Culminating Research Subject (Actual Conduct
of Research and afterwards Final Defense of your research output) (Your subject in the
second semester of the new normal School Year 2020-2021)
o Research Capstone – Actual Conduct of Science Investigatory Project (SIP) (For STEM
students only)
o Qualitative Research – making “kuwento” without “kuwenta” of a certain event or
phenomenon
o Quantitative Research – doing “kuwenta” with “kuwento” of a certain event or
phenomenon
o Research = Inquiry + Investigation + Immersion
o Quantitative Research = Statistics + Language

Practical Research 1 (Qualitative Research) has no prerequisite. It is usually offered in the


second semester of the Grade 11 curriculum. This means that students have already taken up some
English and Filipino subjects before Practical Research 1 is offered. The foundation of writing a
qualitative research is expertise in Language. Qualitative research is a scientific method of
observation to gather non-numerical data. It refers to the meanings, concepts, characteristics,
metaphors, symbols and description of phenomena, and not to their counts or measures.
Qualitative research is making “kuwento” without “kuwenta” of an event or phenomenon. This
means that a researcher is going to give meanings to the topic that interests him most. Giving
meanings to a particular problem requires expertise in writing composition. Thus, qualitative
research uses textual form in making “kuwento”. This research doesn’t apply statistical tools.

Practical Research 2 (Quantitative Research) has a prerequisite which is Statistics and


Probability. It is usually offered in the first semester of the Grade 12 curriculum. It is expected that
students are already equipped with simple and complex writing of compositions following the basic
and advanced grammar rules particularly the subject-verb agreement, tenses of the verb, changing
from active voice sentences into passive voice sentences or vice versa. Students are also expected
that they are already knowledgeable in sampling techniques, descriptive and inferential statistical
tools such as standard deviation, frequency, percentage, weighted mean, t-test, z-test, analysis of
variance (ANOVA), Pearson Product Moment Correlation (Pearson r) and Regression. A student is
not allowed to take up Practical Research 2 if he has not yet taken up Statistics and Probability
since Practical Research 2 is applying the concepts of Statistics in sampling techniques and
hypothesis testing as well as in data analysis and interpretation. The foundations in writing a
quantitative research are Language and Statistics. Statistical software such as Microsoft excel and
Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) are very applicable in quantitative research.
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 2
Computer software gives only the statistical findings. It doesn’t analyze nor interpret the data.
Analysis and interpretation of statistical data lies on the expertise of a researcher with the help of
his research consultants.

Inquiries, Investigations and Immersion is the third research subject offered to all students
from different tracks or strands of the senior high school curriculum. Its prerequisites are Practical
Research 1 and Practical Research 2. It is offered in the second semester of the Grade 12
curriculum. It is the culminating research subject since final defense of the completed researches
will be conducted. Students will be going to defend their research outputs before the examining
committee and the invited panel of adjudicators. Students have the option which of the Practical
Research 1 or Practical research 2 proposals they are going to continue for their Inquiries,
Investigations and Immersion subject. They can have also the mixed methods of qualitative and
quantitative researches to have best research outputs.

Research Capstone is a research subject exclusively offered for students from STEM
curriculum. Its prerequisites are Practical Research 1 and Practical Research 2. It is offered in the
second semester of the Grade 12 curriculum. This means that STEM students have two research
subjects in the second semester of their Grade 12; to wit: (1) Inquiries, Investigations and
Immersion; and (2) Research Capstone. Pure Science topics will be the focus of the Research
Capstone. Actual conduct of Science Investigatory Project (SIP) will be observed in Research
Capstone. STEM students should really exert efforts so that they can produce two very good
researches in Inquiries, Investigations and Immersion and Research Capstone.

What is an Inquiry? an Investigation?

INQUIRY is an act of asking questions. It is a process that has the aim of augmenting
knowledge, resolving doubt or solving problem. In dictionary, “INQUIRY” is synonymous with the
word “INVESTIGATION”. However, investigation has a deeper meaning if we are talking about
research process. It is a systematic examination of a certain event or phenomenon. It is closely
related to “RESEARCH”. What makes research different from investigation is that the former
undergoes “IMMERSION”.

Examples of inquiries are (1) What is your ambition in life? (2) Who is your favorite teacher?
(3) How much is the monthly amortization of your loan? (4) Why is research important in improving
person’s life? (5) How does research help the teachers for their career development?

Examples of questions that need further investigations are (1) Who is the prime suspect of
this major violation of the school policy? (2) What are the reasons why a group of students led the
creation of first-ever gang in the school? (3) Why does this bullying incidence occur in the school?
(4) Why did student A physically hurt student B which resulted to the minor fracture of the latter’s
leg? (5) Who is behind the stealing of the school’s closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage?

What is an Immersion?

IMMERSION is a process whereby a researcher immerses (deeply involves) himself in the


data gathering activities and the data he has gathered are carefully read or examined by him in
details. Orientation as to the objectives of the study and distribution of survey questionnaires to the
respondents are part of immersion activities of a quantitative researcher. Conducting the interviews
and focus group discussions (FGDs) as well as participatory rapid appraisal (PRA) are part of

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 3
immersion activities of a qualitative researcher. Combining the idea of “inquiry”, “investigation”
and “immersion”, the concept of “research” comes in.

What is a Research?

RESEARCH is a systematic and refined technique of thinking, employing specialized tools,


instruments, and procedures in order to obtain a more adequate solution to a problem. It starts with
a problem; going to the collection of data; analysis and interpretation of incontrovertible facts and
evidences, which are critical to reach decisions based on actual observations. It ends with a
problem. Research tools such as interview and focus group discussion (FGD) guide questions,
participatory rapid appraisal (PRA), tape or voice recorder and video camera are used in data
gathering activities for qualitative research. Research instruments such as checklist, survey
questionnaire and multiple-choice paper-pencil test are employed in collection of data for
quantitative research. Examples of research questions are (1) How is bullying related to teenage
depression? (2) What is the psychological effect of COVID-19 pandemic to the teachers and
students? (3) What are the effects of teenage rebellion to the students’ studies and family
relationship? (4) Is there a significant relationship between teachers’ commitment and their teaching
performance? (5) Why are Maguindanaon able to preserve their cultural heritage despite the
invasion of modern world?

Inquiries are questions or situations that can be answered instantly. Investigations are
questions or situations that cannot get instant answers. They need further verification and validation
from several people before arriving at valid conclusions. Many settings of questioning process are
manifested in conducting an investigation before getting the reliable information. Investigation
sometimes uses tools such as checklist and interview guides to have a systematic flow of the
questioning. Research is more complex compared with inquiry and investigation. A researcher
needs to undergo immersion just to reliably get the answers of his research questions. He definitely
uses tools or instruments in data gathering activities. He needs to personally engage in the data
gathering activities to know more about his respondents or participants. Inquiry, investigation and
immersion are all under the umbrella of research. In conducting a research, ordinary asking of
questions that need instant answers is very useful. Deeper analysis of a phenomenon plays a huge
part to get more comprehensive results of the study. Getting involved with the participants of the
study is needed to get their innate feelings or emotions towards a research subject.

General Reminder:
Students are really required to answer all the ESSAY QUESTIONS in paragraph forms. This
is a training for them to improve their writing skills and eventually, they can write their own
researches. They are expected to have their full competence in basic writing composition following
the correct grammar rules particularly the subject-verb agreement and tenses of the verb since they
have already taken up many Language subjects. They are required to write first the essay questions
before the answers. In every task, they need to write their name, section, name of their teacher.
They have to submit their answers to the TASKS given to them in the drop points in their localities.
They are advised to observe the SAMPLE ANSWER of an ESSAY QUESTION in paragraph form.

ESSAY QUESTION: Why do we need to consider ethical standards in conducting a research?

ANSWER:
Following ethical standards in conducting a research is very important because our
credibility might be ruined if we will not consider the research ethics. We might be charged of
intellectual piracy or plagiarism if we won’t consider the proper in-text citation and referencing.
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 4
Ethical standards in research will serve as our guides in conducting a research in a religious
manner so that we can come out with valid and reliable research findings and our credibility as a
researcher will boost.

TASK 1: Answer the following questions in paragraph form (1 whole sheet of paper). Indicate your
name, subject and name of your teacher. Submit your answer in the drop point in your locality.

1. How does ‘inquiry’ differ from ‘investigation’?


2. Compare and contrast ‘investigation’ and ‘research’.
3. How is immersion done in conducting a research?
4. Differentiate the two research subjects: “Inquiries, Investigations and Immersion” and
“Research Capstone”.
5. Elaborate this statement: “Qualitative research is making ‘kuwento’ without ‘kuwenta’ of a
certain phenomenon.
6. Explain this equation: Quantitative Research = Statistics + Language.
7. Give two questions which are classified as: inquiries, investigations and researches.
(two for inquiries, two for investigations and two for researches)

LESSON 2 – CHARACTERISTICS OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH AND STEPS IN


CONDUCTING A RESEARCH

OBJECTIVES:

At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to:


1. identify the characteristics of a quantitative research; and
2. explain the seven steps in conducting a research.

Characteristics of Quantitative Research

1. Empirical - Research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher. The


collection of data relies on practical experience. This means that research is learning by
doing. A person who has NO EXPERIENCE in conducting a research means that he is NOT
YET EXPERT in the research process. Researcher’s expertise in the research process can
be manifested through his research outputs being utilized by his workplace and other
agencies or through his online publications. If a person has no name yet in the internet with
his research publication, he is not yet born as RESEARCHER. He is a certified researcher
if he has already published at least one research in a prestigious international research
publication. It is normal that conducting a research for the first time is very difficult. However,
if a person is used to conduct researches, then it makes him a habit in which he will find all
ways to look solutions to the existing problems that surround him or his workplace.
Familiarizing the research process can only be done if there is an actual conduct of research.
Learned research concepts and principles can easily be forgotten if not applied in actual
conduct of research.

2. Logical - Research is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive
methods of data analysis. It is also based on valid procedures and principles. Scientific
investigation is done in an orderly manner, so that researcher has a confidence in the results.
A researcher has the ability to generalize idea from specific investigations of a particular
phenomenon. He has also the expertise in breaking down the big idea into smaller parts to
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 5
let the readers understand what is really imparted by the findings of the research. A
researcher is able to answer the Why, What and How of the phenomenon through the
findings of his research. A senior high school research (SHS) students’ output is expected
to have a logical reasoning based on the minimum standards of SHS curriculum. There are
many Language subjects offered in the SHS curriculum. Thus, SHS researches must be of
high quality compared with that of junior high school (JHS) researches. “Research is logical”
also means that research is free from grammatical and conceptual errors and it is done in
accordance with highest ethical standards in research.

3. Cyclical – Research undergoes a cyclical process. It starts with a problem and ends with
a problem. Hence, research is repeated. A researcher conducts a study to answer his doubt
about a certain topic. If a person is always curious about the existence of a particular
phenomenon, then he can potentially generate a research problem out of that curiosity.
Since he is interested to the Why, What and How of a phenomenon, he already starts with
the process of inquiries and investigations. He proceeds with the collection of data relevant
to that phenomenon. If he already has enough information about that phenomenon, he
begins analyzing and interpreting the gathered data. After giving meanings to that
phenomenon, he makes conclusions. Then, he proceeds with the recommendation where
another problem which is potential for further investigation by other future researchers is
found. Research doesn’t simply stop at finding the solution of one problem. A researcher
recommends a problem that needs to be investigated by another researcher. All researchers
end their research process with a recommendation. As long as there is a recommendation
in the part of the research, then there is still a potential problem that needs to be investigated
by other researchers. Thus, research is cyclical.

4. Analytical - Research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering data, whether


historical, descriptive, and experimental or any alternative research methods. A researcher
has the ability to use facts or evidences already available, and he is able to analyze these
data to make a critical evaluation of the research output. He has the ability to establish why
it is that way or how it came to be. Analytical skills in research are very important since they
allow the researcher to find solutions to common problems and make decisions about what
actions to take next. Understanding problems and analyzing the situation for viable solution
is a key skill in conducting a research. If research findings are comprehensively analyzed,
based from valid reasoning and factual evidences, they are said to be logical. This means
that both logical and analytical process involves the inductive and deductive approaches in
data analysis and interpretation. If a research finding is analyzed in a wrong way, it definitely
arrives at invalid conclusion.

5. Replicable - The research design and procedures are replicated to enable the researcher
to arrive at valid and conclusive results. The more replicated the researches are, the more
valid and conclusive the results would be. Research can be replicated any time in a different
setting, but its findings are never duplicated. Replicability is one of the beauties of
quantitative research. For instance, a researcher conducted a study about the relationship
between emotional intelligence and leadership competence of school administrators. His
finding revealed that there is a strong relationship between the two involved variables
(emotional intelligence and leadership competence). Another researcher can conduct a
research using the same research objective but uses a different setting, he will definitely
arrive at different findings compared with the former researcher. One research problem has
two different findings if it is conducted in two different settings. Quantitative research cannot
generate new concept or theory. It just only refines or recycles the old idea to make it
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 6
relatable or appealing to the modern society. Quantitative research can be conducted to
prove or disprove the previously established idea or theory. Conducting a research to
validate the already constructed idea is a form of replicability. “Research is cyclical” means
that “research is replicable”. In layman’s terms, the two characteristics “cyclical” and
“replicable” are closely related to each other and they signify that research is repeated.

6. Critical - Research exhibits a careful and precise judgment. A researcher must be critical in
treating his hypothesis. A higher level of confidence must be established, i.e., at 99% or 97%
or 95% level of confidence. If the level of confidence is 99%, level of significance (margin of
error) is 1%. The commonly employed confidence level is 95% (significance level is 5%).
This means that a researcher is 95% certain that his research finding is valid and reliable.
Most quantitative research always starts with a hypothesis. Hypothesis is the tentative
solution to a certain problem. Statistical analysis is very critical particularly in accepting or
rejecting the null hypothesis. Testing a hypothesis is very crucial since a researcher’s
decision is definitely affected if he accepts the null hypothesis, in fact, he has to reject it.
“Research is critical” means that a researcher is equipped with so much expertise in
Statistics and Language. The soul of the quantitative research is Statistics and its body is
Language. That’s why, if a researcher is not expert in Statistics, then he has to hire
Statistician to critically analyze his data. How expert a researcher in Statistics and Language,
he still needs a “Third Eye” to check his work. A research which is critically done is a
research that is free from statistical, grammatical and conceptual errors. Both beginning and
experienced researchers need consultants to check the veracity of their research outputs.

Main Features of Quantitative Research

The overarching aim of a quantitative research is to understand events, count them, and
construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed. The following are the main
features of Quantitative Research:

1. The data are usually gathered using structured research instruments.


2. The results are based on larger sample sizes that are randomly chosen as
representatives of the population.
3. The research can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability.
4. The researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are
sought.
5. All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data are collected.
6. Data are in the form of numbers and statistics.
7. Data are presented through tables, graphs, figures or other non-textual forms and
followed by textual analysis and interpretation.
8. Project can be used to generalize concepts more widely, predict future results, or
investigate causal relationships.
9. The researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or computer software, to collect
numerical data.
10. Findings are reusable.

Steps in Conducting a Research

Research is an organized and systematic method of finding answers to questions. It is


organized because there is a planned structure used to reach reliable results. It is systematic

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 7
because it undergoes a process broken up into clear steps that lead to valid conclusions. The
following are the seven steps of the research process.

The Seven Steps of the Research Process

Defining and Developing a Problem/Topic


(WORKING TITLE)

Finding Background Information about a


Chosen Problem/Topic
(REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE)

Planning a Research Design and Sample


(METHODOLOGY)

Gathering Necessary Data using Specialized


Tools/Instruments
(DATA GATHERING ACTIVITIES)

Presenting, Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Formulating New Insights (For Qualitative


Research) or Conclusions (For Quantitative
Research)

Defining a New Problem

STEP 1. Research doesn’t start from a TITLE. It starts from a RESEARCH PROBLEM.
HOW CAN A RESEARCHER GENERATE A RESEARCH PROBLEM? He looks for a particular
phenomenon where he is doubtful or curious about. Doubt brings curiosity. Curiosity leads to inquiry.
Inquiry leads to investigation. Investigation leads to research. If a researcher has already found a
topic in which he is curious about it, then he now begins scanning all the available materials both
online and printed sources to look a related information to this topic. If a teacher stated that research
starts from a review of related literature (RRL), then he is definitely correct. Looking for a research
problem can only be done by series of reading. Many researchers look at the research title; going
to the research objectives and then proceed to the reference list. From this technique, they can
generate potential research problems (working titles). That’s why, defining and developing a
problem or topic is also doing RRL.

STEP 2. After having a research problem, a researcher now starts the rigid readings to
collect a background information to the chosen problem. He has a NOTEPAD where he writes all
the relevant information about the research topic. He writes the research title, author, publisher,
year of publication, volume number, issue number, pages and uniform resource locator (URL) or
digital object identifier (DOI) (for online sources). URL specifies the location of digital information on
the internet and can be found in the address bar of the internet browser. DOI is a string of numbers,
letters and symbols used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web. It
will help the readers easily locate a document for citation purposes using American Psychological
Association (APA) format. RRL is very useful in writing the BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY since
every paragraph of this section must contain at least one citation to make it more credible. Writing
the background of the study follows the deductive method. It starts from the general idea going to
the specific details of the research topic. Significance of the study can be included in the background
of the study. Last paragraph of this section must contain the major objective of the study and the
convincing statement why there is a need to conduct this particular research. RRL is based from
the research variables or objectives of the study. A researcher doesn’t go beyond his research
objectives in collecting RRL. RRL plays a vital role in the data analysis and interpretation to support
or to oppose the current findings of the research. A researcher makes sure that every research

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 8
objective he has, there is a corresponding RRL which he can use to support his findings in that
particular research objective during the data analysis and interpretation.

STEP 3. After all needed RRL are collected, a researcher starts planning his research design
and sampling technique. This research section involves Statistics already. Research design is the
blueprint of the research process. It is based from the major objective of the study. In other words,
the major research objective of the study determines what particular research design will be
applicable. Statistical tools can be determined using the specific research objectives. If a research
objective hardly determines its statistical tool, it needs to be revised and it should undergo the
revision of the research experts particularly the statistician. Methodology refers to the systematic
procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyze information about a topic.
It allows the readers to critically evaluate a study’s overall validity and reliability as well as the
research parameters used in the study. Determining the sample is also a part of methodology.
Sample should be systematically done using mathematical formula. Quantitative research has a
large population. Thus, sampling technique is very necessary. Construction of the research
instrument is a part of methodology together with the testing of its validity and reliability. Testing the
validity means that research experts are invited to check the overall content of the research
instrument if it will answer what the study intends to answer. Valid research instrument is an
instrument that can generate the solution of the research problem. Research problem is also known
as research objective or research question or statement of the problem (SOP). Testing the reliability
means that initial respondents of the study will be invited to answer the research instrument to check
the accuracy or closeness of the responses of the respondents. Checking the validity and reliability
of the research instrument applies Statistics.

STEP 4. After all plans of the research process are laid down in the methodology, data
gathering activity follows. However, this activity cannot be pursued if there is no research instrument
already validated by research experts. Research instrument is a measurement tool designed to
obtain data on a topic of interest from research subjects. Interview, focus group discussion,
participatory rapid appraisal and tape or video recorder are some of the research tools used in
gathering qualitative research data. Checklist, survey questionnaire and multiple-choice paper-
pencil test are the research instruments used for data collection in quantitative research. Research
ethics should be observed all the times particularly the informed consent, human rights
protection, anonymity and privacy during the data gathering activities.

STEP 5. After all the needed data are collected, presentation of quantitative data through
tables, graphs or figures follow. Presentation of data is based from the order of the research
objectives. In quantitative research, data analysis is usually done in deductive approach. In
deductive approach, overall mean is discussed first before tackling the indicators receiving the
lowest and highest means. After the detailed discussion of the overall mean, the lowest and the
highest means, RRL is used to support or contradict the current research findings. Then, implication
of the results will be given. In qualitative research, data analysis is done in inductive approach.
Presentation of the picture or photo is done first. Writing a short caption about the picture follows.
Then, detailed explanation of the event or phenomenon depicted in the picture (photo) comes next.
Verbatim quotes from the participants are explained without any alteration. Contradicting ideas
should be explained and afterwards, a resolution should be given. Presentation of data without
analysis and interpretation is dull.

STEP 6. After all data are presented, analyzed and interpreted, conclusions are formulated
based from the summary of findings. Summary of findings is based from the order of the research
questions. Conclusions are applicable only in quantitative research. Quantitative research is
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 9
conducted to validate the already constructed theory. Major conclusion is based from the major
objective or hypothesis of the research. Thus, conclusion is needed. Insights gained are applied in
qualitative research. Qualitative research is conducted to generate new theory and is often times
original in nature. Thus, new insights gained are appropriate in qualitative research.

STEP 7. After drawing conclusions or laying down the new insights gained, recommendation
of the current researcher should be formulated based from the conclusions or insights gained. From
this recommendation, new problem is found. Thus, another research starts defining his research
problem based from the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the previous research. New
researcher might replicate the previous research using other setting or larger population. Thus,
research is repeated (cyclical).

WORRY NO MORE because in this subject, Practical Research 2 (Quantitative Research),


senior high school students will end up with the methodology since the last three steps in the
research process will be done in their Inquiries, Investigations and Immersion (2nd Semester).
Before a student can have his final grade in Practical Research 2, he has to submit his research
proposal before the 2nd Quarter examination. He has the option to continue his research proposal
in this subject for Inquiries, Investigations and Immersion or to pursue his research proposal in
Practical Research 1 (Qualitative Research). Students are advised to anchor their research
proposal in the new normal setting since we are facing COVID-19 pandemic.

TASK 2: Identify what characteristic of a quantitative research is described by each statement


(Answers only).

_______________1. Research is based on direct experience and observation by the researcher.


_______________2. Research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering data.
_______________3. The collection of data relies on practical experience.
_______________4. Research is based on valid procedures and principles.
_______________5. Research is repeated.
_______________6. Research establishes the level of significance, i.e., at 1%, 3% or 5% level of
significance.
_______________7. How good a researcher is in research concepts, but, he doesn’t yet experience
conducting a research by himself, he cannot be expert in research.
_______________8. Scientific investigation is done in an orderly manner, so that a researcher has
the confidence in the results.
_______________9. The research design and procedures are replicated to enable the researcher
to arrive at valid and conclusive results.
_______________10. Results of the research are based on correct and valid information taken from
the respondents.

TASK 3: Answer the following questions in paragraph form (1 whole sheet of paper). Indicate your
name, subject and name of your teacher. Submit your answer in the drop point in your locality.

1. How important are the inquiry, investigation and immersion in doing an actual research?
2. Define research. What is its importance in improving people’s quality of life?
3. Expound this statement. “RESEARCH STARTS WITH A PROBLEM AND ENDS WITH A
PROBLEM.”
4. Explain in details the steps in conducting a research.
5. Give two characteristics of a research and explain each.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 10
WEEK 2
(Lessons 3 & 4, pages 12 – 28)
Reminder: There are seven TASKS (Tasks 4 – 10) this WEEK 2. Submit only three TASKS
(Tasks 5, 7 & 8). Other tasks serve as your exercises at home.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 11
LESSON 3 – STRENGTHS OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH, APPROACHES IN CONDUCTING
A RESEARCH AND SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AND
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

OBJECTIVES:
At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to:
1. describe the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative research;
2. explain the approaches in conducting a research; and
3. compare and contrast quantitative research and qualitative research.

Strengths of Quantitative Research

What makes quantitative research more credible, appealing and scientific compared to
qualitative research is talking about the strengths of quantitative research.

• Quantitative research can test and validate the already constructed theories about how and
why phenomena occur. Before a quantitative research is conducted, a researcher has
already the target answer to his research question. What he needs to do is to validate only
his tentative answer to his problem. Quantitative research is conducted to refresh or recycle
the obsolete idea to make it applicable to the current situation of the community. Unlike with
qualitative research, a researcher starts with a SCRATCH. It cannot test and validate the
existing theories because its main goal is to generate new theory which is later on potential
topic for a quantitative research. If a qualitative researcher is able to generate a new theory
and sooner the principle is made available online or in printed material, a quantitative
researcher can validate its truthfulness to refine what needs to be improved in that theory.
To validate theory means to check whether it is very true, partially true or it needs
improvement.

• Quantitative research tests hypotheses that are constructed before the data are collected.
Highly credible quantitative researches have hypotheses. However, not all quantitative
researches have hypotheses. Descriptive research has no hypothesis but still applies
statistical tools which are purely descriptive such as standard deviation, frequency,
percentage and mean. Inferential quantitative researches require hypotheses which can be
tested using t-test, z-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-square, Spearman’s Rho,
Pearson r and regression. All qualitative researches don’t require hypothesis. Thus, they
don’t test hypothesis. Testing hypothesis is one that can be done only by quantitative
research but never be done by qualitative research.

• Quantitative research can generalize research findings and it can be replicated on many
different populations and sub-populations. One research problem can generate different
solutions from one setting to another. Quantitative research can make a generalization out
of these different ideas coming from various research locales. For instance, a researcher
conducted a research on the implementation of special education (SPED) curriculum in
Sultan Kudarat. Another researcher is interested in the finding of that research. He wants to
replicate it using a wider scope, for example, regional level. The latest researcher can make
a generalization using his current research findings and the results of previous researchers.
If there is a research finding available online and that interests a researcher, he can replicate
the research using different settings with proper citation and of course, using many other
references.

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• Quantitative research is useful for obtaining data that allow quantitative predictions about
significant events. Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services
Administration (PAG-ASA) and Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
(PHILVOCS) are some of the government agencies that conduct quantitative researches
that predict the occurrence of natural calamities since Philippines is always hit by typhoons
due to its geographical location which produce heavy rains and flooding of large areas and
also strong winds which result in heavy casualties to human life and destructions to crops
and properties. Lately, Mindanao was struck by consecutive earthquakes that damaged
several infrastructures and agricultural products. Not because of the quantitative
researchers from PAG-ASA and PHILVOCS, many casualties are evident every time that
there is a natural calamity that hits our country. Department of Agriculture (DA) and Bureau
of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) are also doing quantitative researches to predict
what appropriate modern techniques to be employed to increase the production of
agricultural and aquatic resources for human consumption.

• Quantitative research provides precise, quantitative, numerical data. Research data which
are presented in quantitative forms such as tables, graphs and figures are more precise
compared with data presented through words, sentences or paragraphs. Data in the
guidance office are presented in figures. Although, there is no explanation of the data, it is
understandable. However, many research data presented through tables, graphs or figures
are not comprehensible without verbal explanation. But this verbal explanation is just precise
but complete.

• Quantitative research may have higher credibility with many people in power (administrators,
politicians, people who fund the research programs). A quantitative researcher can lay down
the expected results of his research proposals that can attract the funding agencies to give
funds to the research proposals. Unlike with qualitative research, a researcher cannot lay
down the target result of his study since he starts with a SCRATCH. He doesn’t know yet
the possible outcome of his study since the research process undergoes changes as it
progresses. Most of the researches approved for funding by Region XII-Basic Education
Research Fund (BERF) are quantitative researches. Quantitative researches have direct
benefits to the workplace or funding agency. Qualitative researches have benefits to the
community as a whole since the main target of qualitative research is the cultural
appreciation, reflection and preservation (CARP) of cultural heritage. Quantitative research
findings are very beneficial to the decision-making process of the workplace or funding
agency.

• Quantitative research involves data analysis which is relatively less time consuming since it
can use statistical software such as Microsoft excel and Social Package for Social Sciences
(SPSS). Analysis and interpretation of quantitative data is relatively quick and precise. No
flowering words are manifested in the quantitative data analysis and interpretation. Unlike
with qualitative research, data analysis and interpretation are lengthy. Qualitative data are
not tet presented unless they become SATURATED. Saturation of data requires longer
period of time and wider research settings. HOW CAN DATA BE SATURATED? When
asking one qualitative research question to several participants of the study from different
times and settings generates same or similar answer, then data are already SATURATED.
This means that no more new information is obtained. It’s now time to present, analyze and
interpret data. If participants have different answers to one guide question, that guide
question should be revisited and it needs further validation and reliability test before

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administering again to the identified participants. A guide question that cannot saturate data
is not valid and reliable.

• Quantitative research involves data collection using some quantitative methods which are
relatively quick. Research instruments such as checklist, survey questionnaire and multiple-
choice paper-pencil test are the main reasons why collection of quantitative data is relatively
quick. Collection of quantitative data only requires one to two settings. First setting involves
the orientation of the objectives of the study as well as the distribution of the research
instrument to the respondents. After one hour of answering, research instrument can be
retrieved. There are some instances that retrieval of the research instrument happens after
one to two weeks only. Unlike in qualitative research, data collection is relatively long since
multiple research methods such as interview, focus group discussion, participant
observation, participatory rapid appraisal, document analysis and scanning archived
materials are all employed to give detailed meanings and metaphors to the phenomenon. In
research, phenomenon is anything that happens in the classical and contemporary society
that has a great impact on the life of the people. It is a fact or situation that is observed to
exist or happen, especially one event whose cause or explanation is in question.

Weaknesses of Quantitative Research

What makes quantitative research behind compared with qualitative research is talking
about the weaknesses of quantitative research.

• Quantitative research involves difficulty in data analysis. It is also known as Statistical


research. Statistical treatment of data can only be done by Statistician. If a quantitative
researcher has no exposure in statistical computation, then he will definitely get difficulty in
data analysis. Software gives only the summary of statistical findings but it doesn’t analyze
and interpret them. Analysis and interpretation of data lie on the hands of the researcher.
Testing hypothesis is very difficult particularly in accepting or rejecting the null hypothesis.
Unlike with qualitative research, it doesn’t apply statistical treatment. Data analysis is purely
done in words, phrases, sentences and compositions. As long as a researcher is able to
explain the phenomenon in words, he can do the analysis of qualitative data. There is a
minimal use of numbers in qualitative research. These numbers don’t need analysis and
interpretation. WHEN DO NUMBERS OCCUR IN QUALITATIVE DATA? If a researcher
wants to describe the physical feature, awards and recognition of Esperanza National High
School, then he needs to mention the total number of teachers and students. Specifying the
number of teachers and students require numbers but these numbers don’t need further
elaboration.

• Quantitative research requires extra resources to analyze the findings/results. Since


analysis of statistical finding is difficult, a researcher needs to hire a statistician who requires
a professional fee. He also needs to hire tabulator, critic reader and other research
consultants who need snacks, meals and professional fees. Unlike with qualitative research,
data gathering activities are all personally engaged. This means that it is the researcher who
deeply immerses with his participants. He doesn’t need to hire tabulator and statistician
since no quantitative data are taken from the guide questions. Qualitative researcher is the
key instrument in data gathering activities. He doesn’t need extra resources to analyze the
findings/results.

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• Quantitative research is expensive and it requires a lot of time to perform the statistical
treatment and analysis. Credible statistician and research consultant have a high
professional fee. Aside from the expenses needed for the reproduction of research
instrument, a researcher needs to collect many review of related literatures (RRL) to support
the findings of the research. Collection of RRL requires strong internet connection which
requires a subscription fee. Sometimes, a quantitative researcher needs to go the physical
libraries of different schools to collect needed RRL to make his research more valid and
reliable. If there are no available statistician to interpret the statistical finding, a researcher
needs to consult many experts just to give justice to his quantitative data. All of these
scientific research processes require material and human resources. Unlike with qualitative
research, it often times doesn’t require RRL. Data can be recorded using tape or video
recorder with the permission of the participants. A researcher should ask the approval of the
participants before he can record the interview and focus group discussion. Qualitative
research process is less expensive compared with quantitative research.

• Quantitative research has limited outcomes since it involves structured questionnaire with
close-ended questions. A quantitative researcher cannot explore the analysis and
interpretation of data beyond his statistical finding which is just only taken from limited
options of the closed-ended questionnaire. He cannot also use other research parameters
not specified in the methodology. In other words, research parameters and statistical results
are scripted already in the table, graph or figure. A researcher needs not to mention
something which is not indicated in the data presentation. Unlike with qualitative research,
a researcher has all the chances to generate different ideas from many participants. All
differing ideas coming from the participants should be explained in details. All verbatim
quotes of the participants should be analyzed and interpreted. Wider scope of data analysis
and interpretation is evident in qualitative research.

• Quantitative research involves a lot of resources for data collection. Large number of
respondents is evident in quantitative research. Most scientifically done quantitative
research has a minimum number of more than 300 respondents. Reproduction of research
instrument (e.g. checklist or survey question) requires many bond papers. It also needs
printer and inks. Mobilization fund for the data gathering activities is really necessary.
Minimum health standards in collection of data should really be followed since the
Philippines is hit by COVID-19 pandemic. Unlike with qualitative research, a researcher can
have only one copy of guide questions that can be used in all settings of the interviews and
focus group discussions. Interview can be done via email, messenger or phone calls
particularly face-to-face conduct of school-related activities are discouraged due to this
pandemic.

• Quantitative research data are prone to manipulation. There are instances that quantitative
research findings don’t conform to the tentative solution of the problem already constructed
before the research is conducted. There are cases that a researcher questions the gathered
data since they don’t agree to the actual situation. What the researcher does is to manipulate
the data in order to conform to the expected result he wants to generate. Manipulation of
data should not be tolerated in any reason or in any form since it is a violation of the ethical
standards in research. There are factors why the current research findings don’t conform to
the gathered review of related literatures (RRL). One of these factors is the concentration or
condition or mode of the respondents during the data gathering activities. These
respondents might not be guided accordingly as to the process of answering the survey
questionnaires. Some respondents just only give their answers to the questionnaire without
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reading and interpreting the message of the statement. Another factor why current research
finding doesn’t agree with the actual situation is the lack of validity and reliability of the survey
questionnaire. Unlike with qualitative research, “What you hear, what you see is what you
write.” This means that qualitative data are not manipulated since participants’ answers to
the research questions are based on their actual experiences. If qualitative data are
manipulated, it is easily identified since actual scenario is observed during the data gathering
activities. If quantitative data are manipulated, only the researcher knows the reality. As long
as there is a strong support of the RRL, manipulation of data is never detected. Manipulation
of data is one of the three research misconduct (The other two are falsification and
fabrication of data). Research misconduct degrades the credibility of the researcher as well
as his workplace that might be barred from availing future research funds.

Approaches Applied in Conducting a Research

Inductive Approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the
specific data to general idea. It is often times associated with qualitative research. It starts with the
observations and theories are proposed towards the end of the research process as a result of
personal reflection. However, inductive approach can also be applied in data analysis for
quantitative research. IN WHAT WAY IS QUALITATIVE RESEARCH INDUCTIVE? Qualitative
Research is inductive since the researcher starts with the observations and the new theory or
insight is generated towards the end of the research process. The researcher starts from a
SCRATCH, a completely open mind without any preconceived ideas of what will be found. In
Qualitative Research, the researcher begins from gathering all the small or specific details of the
subject before he will give his generalization towards the end of the research process. This means
that NO CONCLUSION will be formulated. NEW INSIGHTS OR THEORIES GAINED will be used
instead of conclusions.

Deductive Approach usually begins with a hypothesis. Its emphasis is generally on


causality. It starts with general idea to specific investigations of a certain phenomenon. It is usually
associated with quantitative research. Nevertheless, deductive approach can also be employed in
qualitative research. WHY IS QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DEDUCTIVE? Quantitative Research
is deductive as it starts from an already constructed theory or principle. The researcher begins with
a hypothesis or already constructed theory. He focuses on exploring the previously researched
phenomenon from different perspectives. The aim of quantitative research is to test hypothesis or
theory. In Quantitative Research, the researcher begins with an expected pattern “that is tested
against observations”. In other words, the researcher explores a known theory or phenomenon and
tests if that theory is valid in a given circumstance. The reasoning starts with a theory and leads to
a new hypothesis. This hypothesis is put into the test by confronting it with observations that either
lead to a confirmation or a rejection of the hypothesis.

In other words, inductive approach is not mutually exclusive to qualitative research.


Deductive approach is also not mutually exclusive to quantitative research.

DIRECTION: Place a check (√) on the columns provided whether a statement is an


inquiry or research.
Situations Inquiry Research
1. A landlady wants to know the occupants of one condominium. √

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2. A student wants to know the medical effects of guava leaves on √
some diseases.
3. Mr. Cruz wants to determine the techniques to make his electric fan √
function instantly.
4. Professor Gomez wants to discover the impact of social networking √
sites on students’ learning abilities.
5. Aling Rosa wants to know the reason behind the decrease of her √
sales for the day.
6. A businessman wants to find out the effect of marketing strategies √
on the increase of daily sales.
7. Mr. Abdullah aims to identify the impact of social media on students’ √
performance.
8. Mr. Mangakoy wants to know how much he will pay for the house √
rent.
9. Sarawat wants to see his final scores in the football game. √
10. Tine aims to get the attention of Sarawat. √

TASK 4: Place a check (√) on the columns provided whether a statement is an inquiry or research.

Situations Inquiry Research


1. A student wants to know the latest cell phone brands which are
sellable in the market.
2. A teacher wants to investigate the relationship between students’
problem-solving skills in Math and Science subjects.
3. A principal wants to get the complete list of all the students and
teachers.
4. A guidance counselor wants to investigate the effect of bullying on the
self-esteem of students.
5. Mr. Maliga wants to know the effects of COVID-19 pandemic to the
mental health of nurses.
6. Mr. Simpal wants to determine the final grades of his students.
7. Mrs. Santiago aims to examine the effect of online and modular
learning modalities to the academic performance of students.
8. A student wants to know the likes and dislikes of his teacher.
9. Mr. Abubakar wants to know the best students in his class.
10. Dr. Legaste wants to determine the level of psychological resilience
of teachers amid COVID-19 pandemic.

TASK 5: Answer the following questions in paragraph forms.

1. Why are quantitative data prone to manipulation?


2. If you want to generate new theory, what type of research is applicable? Quantitative
research or qualitative research? Why?
3. If you want to validate the previously constructed theory, what type of research is applicable?
Quantitative research or qualitative research? Why?
4. Differentiate “inductive approach” and “deductive approach” in conducting a research.
5. Explain. “Research can be replicated any time but its findings can never be
duplicated.”

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Nature of Quantitative Research

Quantitative research emphasizes the expressions such as numerical forms, objective


measurements, statistical or mathematical methods of collecting data through polls, closed-ended
questionnaires and surveys. Numbers, scales, hypotheses, calculations, computations and
statistics are applied in quantitative research. Quantitative Research is objective as it only seeks
precise measurements and analysis of target concepts to answer inquiries. The researcher employs
standard criteria in analyzing data. He doesn’t go beyond what is found in the set research
parameters. He employs closed-ended research instrument in gathering data. Conclusion is
formulated towards the end of the research process.

One word that reflects the true nature of qualitative research is numerical or statistical.
Quantitative research is also known as Statistical Research. CLOSED-ENDED QUESTIONS are
questions that can only be answered by selecting from a limited number of options, usually “multiple-
choice”, “yes or no”, or a rating scale (e.g. from strongly agree to strongly disagree). They are the
foundation of all statistical analysis techniques applied on questionnaires and surveys for
quantitative research.

Quantitative Research versus Qualitative Research

Quantitative research uses numbers and figures to denote a particular phenomenon. It


requires the researcher to focus his full attention on the objectives of his study. By doing this, he
tends to exclude his own thoughts and feelings about the subject or topic. That’s why, quantitative
research is described as objective research. In contrast to Qualitative research which is subjective,
Quantitative research is characterized by objectives, in which only the real or factual, not the
emotional condition or existence of the object matters.

Qualitative research uses verbatim quotes of the participants and it employs thematic
analysis or clustering of ideas. Researcher’s prior knowledge and experience can be used by him
in discussing the data. He can also use his personal views on the topic. He can be part of the
participants of the study. He is the key instrument in gathering data.

Quantitative research is more specific compared with qualitative research. Qualitative


research is broader compared with quantitative research. Quantitative research can only validate
the already established theory. Qualitative research has a wider scope compared with quantitative
research. The former can generate new theory. Every time that there is a new completed qualitative
research, there is an addition of new theory to the existing theories.

Qualitative research is primary exploratory research. It is used to gain understanding of


underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. It provides insights into the problem or it helps to
develop ideas or hypotheses for potential quantitative research. Quantitative research is used to
quantify the problem using rating scale and other research parameters. It is used to quantify
reasons, opinions and motivations.

Similarities and differences of quantitative research and qualitative research are


comprehensively discussed in the following table.

Research Aspects Qualitative Research Quantitative Research

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Mental survey of reality Results from social interactions; Exists in the physical world
Superstitious beliefs, folk (can be seen, touched, tasted,
narratives, folklores, fables, smelled or felt); Has scientific
legends, and the like can be basis
subjects of qualitative research.
Researcher’s Subjective; Always personally Objective; Least involvement
involvement with the engaged by the researcher
object or subject of the
study.
Focus Often studies unknown or little- Always studies well-known
known phenomena; Development phenomena; Tests hypotheses
of hypotheses and theories and theories
Research Plan Takes place as the research Research aspects are all
proceeds gradually planned before collecting data.
Behavior toward Preservation or conservation of Control or manipulation of
research aspects/ the natural setting of research research conditions by the
conditions features or cultural appreciation, researcher; Scope and
reflection and preservation delimitation of the study
(CARP)
Research method in Multiple methods such as Scientific method (one to two
obtaining knowledge interview, focus group discussion, methods only) such as
participant observation, descriptive or descriptive
participatory rapid appraisal comparative or descriptive
(immersion), etc. correlational
Purpose Makes social interactions Determines the extent of the
understandable; Explores program implementation;
complex issues and interactions Evaluates objectives and
between humans; Discusses examines cause-effect
reasons for the existence of
phenomena
Data analysis techniques Data gathering and analysis occur Data are gathered first before
simultaneously; Thematic analysis and interpretation;
analysis; Clustering of ideas; Statistically-based methods;
usually inductive approach; Usually deductive approach;
Context (text, audio and video RRL is used to support or
footage); Data are reported in the contradict the research
language of the informants before findings; Data are analyzed
translating them in international through numerical comparisons
language (English). and statistical inferences; Data
are reported through statistical
analysis
Style of expression Lack of formality; Come what may Impersonal (personal views
and opinions are not allowed),
scientific, or systematic
Sampling technique More inclined to purposive Random sampling as the most
sampling technique or use of preferred technique in choosing
chosen samples based on some the individual respondents;
personal criteria; “to who you Using math formulas in
obtaining the sample size

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know” are potential participants of
the study
Expression of data, data Verbal language (words, visual Numerals, statistics, tables,
analysis, and findings aids, objects, simulation) graphs, figures, words

TASK 6: Tell whether or not each of the following statements is TRUE. Write TRUE or FALSE.

________1. Deductive approach of data analysis is breaking down the general principle into specific
details of the phenomenon.
________2. Inductive approach is usually associated with quantitative research.
________3. Quantitative data are presented through tables, graphs or figures only and no textual
description is done.
________4. Quantitative research is broader compared with qualitative research.
________5. Research starts with a title and ends with a conclusion.
________6. Qualitative research is conducted to validate the theory already constructed by the
previous researchers.
________9. Research problem can be found from rigid review of related literature.
________10. Qualitative research methods are well-planned.

TASK 7: Answer the following questions in paragraph forms.

1. What are the strengths of quantitative research?


2. Specify two weaknesses of quantitative research and explain each.
3. Why qualitative research is personally engaged?
4. Quantitative research is also known as statistical research. Why?
5. Compare and contrast quantitative research and qualitative research.

LESSON 4 – IMPORTANCE OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ACROSS DIFFERENT FIELDS,


KINDS OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH AND KINDS OF VARIABLES

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to:


1. illustrate the importance of quantitative research across different fields;
2. identify the kinds of quantitative research; and
3. differentiate kinds of research variables and their uses.

Importance of Quantitative Research across Fields

A progress cannot exist without inquiry. Doubt is often times better than overconfidence.
Doubt leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention. Invention brings progress to the modern
community (Hudson Maxim; 1853-1927).

Quantitative Research and Anthropology

Anthropology is the scientific study of humans, their behavior and societies in the past.
Quantitative researches have given huge contributions to the improvement of human life.
Anthropology is concerned with simultaneously exploring of connections of human kinds amidst
their cultural differences, alternatives and identity. In the contemporary academic, socio-cultural
and political climate, these connections have immense symbolic implications. Because of
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quantitative research, there are so many discoveries such as human behavior in the society, racial
conflicts and human evolution. We are able to trace back the sacrifices of our ancestors because
of anthropology.

Anthropologists study the concept of culture and its relationship to human life in different
times and places. They deal with other societies to gain clearer perspectives to trace back the past
to help interpret the present and the future. They measure the sizes of the fossils such as skulls,
bones, shells and exoskeletons.

The following pictures (credited to the owners) depict the relationship of quantitative
research and anthropology.

Figure 1 Figure 2

Figure 3 Figure 4

In Figure 1, an anthropologist measures the skull and other bones of ancient people to
determine their struggles and sacrifices for survival in the caves, mountains and coastlines. They
compare their findings with the lived experiences of the modern people invaded by industrialization
and technologies. Comparative researches are conducted by the anthropologists to give meanings
and implications of the past, present and future activities of human kinds.

Figure 2 reminds us that human kinds originated from apes such as gibbon (first picture),
orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee, bonobo and human (last picture). This theory of human evolution
was realized due to quantitative research that analyzes the fossils (remains of the past) such as
stone imprints of humans and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) remnants. Measuring the remains of the
past to interpret the future is a product of quantitative research.

Shown in Figure 3 is the evolution of modern humans. Human evolution is the lengthy
process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Fourth photo shows that
ancient people were able to discover sword to defend themselves against wild animals and other
opponents or invaders. Fifth photo (2 nd to the last photo) reveals that our ancestors were able to
defend themselves without using traditional swords or weapons. Last photo signifies that modern
humans are already invaded by modern technologies and they use these technologies to
communicate each other from far places. Facebook is the widely employed social media platform.
All of these modern technologies are discovered because of anthropologists who are curious about
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the past, present and future activities of humans. Their curiosity creates quantitative researches
that try to understand how people interact in social relationships.

Figure 4 illustrates the different dimensions of anthropology that are of potential research
subjects. In the Philippines, our cultural diversity serves as our strengths. Many foreigners are
attracted with the diverse and beautiful cultures in Mindanao as well as in Luzon and Visayas. There
are quantitative researches conducted to determine the extent of the cultural appreciation, reflection
and preservation (CARP) of traditional practices of the minorities.

The above figures illustrate how quantitative research plays a significant role in the history
and development human activities.

Quantitative Research and Communication

Communication is the act of conveying meanings from one entity or group to another
through the use of mutually understood signs, symbols, and semiotic rules. Every communication
involves at least one sender, a message and a recipient.

The primary purpose of communication research is to help people understand


communication phenomena and direct their communication towards accomplishing individual and
organizational goals. The following figures (credit to the owners) explain the importance of
quantitative research in the development of communication.

Figure 1 Figure 2

Figure 3 Figure 4

Figure 1 shows that through quantitative research, people are able to communicate each
other from distant places because of telephones and internet connection. Once upon a time, it was
very hard to send messages to our love ones abroad. We send letters or voice tapes via post office
and we’ll wait for three months or more before our love ones receive the letters or voice tapes.
However, as of this moment, just only 1 click to the messenger or email, we can send our greetings
and important messages to our close friends, family and relatives abroad. Quantitative researches
lead to invention of these modern ways of communication.

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Figure 2 illustrates that essential communication skills necessary for personal and
professional growth and development such as listening, friendliness and open-mindedness are
developed because of quantitative researches. Determining the extent of these essential
communication skills leads to design a program of action to further improve the said skills. Without
quantitative research, we are not given an idea how to enhance our essential communication skills.

Figure 3 reveals that leading people of diverse backgrounds needs valuable interpersonal
skills such as leadership, caring, active listening, teamwork, responsibility and motivation. Teachers
conduct quantitative researches to improve the level of interpersonal skills for career development.
They use the findings of their researches to design capability-building activities to enhance their
interpersonal skills. Communication is our link to humanity. Interpersonal communication is the
ongoing, ever-changing process that occurs when we interact with other people. It is about human
relationships. Enhancing communication skills is one of the most researched topics for quantitative
research.

Figure 4 shows two persons who are communicating each other using different
communication platforms such as mobile phone, social media and other modern devices. It unveils
the various sources of information such as newspapers, television, radio and social networking
sites. It also presents modern technologies that transmit messages such as satellite dishes,
headset, tower, megaphone and other devices useful for conveying messages from one person to
another. Invention of modern communication devices is a product of quantitative researches.

Quantitative Researches and Medicine

Medicine is the science and practice of establishing the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment,
and prevention of disease. It encompasses a variety of health care practices to maintain and restore
health by the prevention and treatment of illness.

Medical research aims to advance our knowledge to prevent and cure health problems. It
can provide important information about disease trends and risk factors, outcomes of treatment or
public health interventions.

The importance of quantitative research in medicine is shown by the following figures (credit
to the owners):

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The previous photos show that most medical or health care researches are based on
quantitative methods in which, by definition, information is quantifiable. That is, the variables used
in medical researches are measured and recorded as numerical data that can be analyzed by
means of statistical tools. After the effects of a given drug or treatment have been tested on a
sample population, the statistic record of the observed outcomes will provide objective results
generalizable to larger populations. Determining which drugs and medical procedures are best for
treating diseases, quantitative research is irreplaceable function of quantitative research.

Medical researchers (as shown previous page) tend to use similar statistical methods,
experiments and trials performed in different institutions and at different times and places. Their
findings can be aggregated together in large meta-analysis to accumulate a body of evidence
regarding the effectiveness of different treatments. Medical scientists design and conduct
quantitative studies to investigate human diseases, and methods to prevent and treat them. They
conduct researches aimed at improving overall human health. They often use clinical trials (as
shown in the previous) and other investigative methods to reach their findings which are beneficial
to treat infectious disease like the COVID-19. They conduct biomedical research to advance
knowledge of life processes and of other living organisms that affect human health, including
viruses, bacteria, and other infectious diseases. As of this moment, there are several medical
researchers who conduct studies to discover the vaccine for COVID-19. Without quantitative
research, there is no hope that this COVID-19 will be cured.

Quantitative Research and Psychology

Psychology is the scientific study of the human mind and behavior. It is a multifaceted
discipline which includes many sub-fields of study such as human development, social behavior
and cognitive process.

Quantitative psychologists study and develop the methods and techniques used to
measure human behavior and other attributes. Their work involves the statistical and mathematical
modelling of psychological processes and analysis of psychological data.

The following figures (credit to the owners) illustrate the importance of quantitative research
in psychology.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 24
The previous figures show that psychologists study the mental process and human behavior
by interpreting and recording how people relate to one another and the environment. They assess,
diagnose, and treat the mental problems and the behavioral dysfunctions resulting from, or related
to physical and social health status of a person. In addition, they play a major role in the promotion
of healthy behavior, preventing mental diseases and improving person’s quality of life. Quantitative
psychologists collect information through checklists and surveys. They conduct studies of clients’
brain function and behavior, identifying behavioral and emotional patterns in clients, diagnosing
disorders, setting treatment plans and making referrals. Without quantitative research, our mental
and emotional problems will not be properly attended.

Quantitative Research and Social Science

Social Science is the study of society and the manner in which people behave and influence
the world around them. It tells them about the world beyond their immediate experience, and can
help explain how their own society works. It provides vital information for governments and
policymakers, local authorities and non-governmental organizations.

Social science research is the activity of gathering, analyzing and interpreting information
for a variety of social, economic, educational and political purposes. It is the scientific study of
human society and social relationships. Social sciences include cultural or social anthropology,
sociology, social psychology, political science, history, linguistics, archeology, and economics.

The importance of quantitative research in social sciences is explained by the following


figures (credit to the owners):

Figure 1 Figure 2

Figure 3 Figure 4

Figure 1 shows that there are numerous quantitative researches conducted to determine the
extent of leadership competence of organizational leaders. Relationship of leadership to other
dimensions of social science such as emotional intelligence, social competence, decision-making
skills, and organizational productivity has been conducted to help leaders determine their strengths
and weakness. Quantitative researches about leadership give education planners a concrete idea

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 25
in designing a capability-building for school heads to improve their leadership competence that is
really needed by the schools to boosts their performance indicators.

Figure 2 reveals that one of the widely researched social science topics is commitment.
Commitment is a strong self-promise to carry out a course of action. It is a binding pledge which
obligates an individual to do something good to a certain person or an organization. The success
or failure of an organization is closely related to the effort and motivation of its employees. The
motivation of employees is the product of their commitment towards their job or career. Work
commitment is an extremely important research topic for the organization to succeed. Quantitative
research that investigates the impact of work commitment on the organizational performance plays
a gigantic role to sustain the positive sides of an organization that make its employees more
committed to their work.

Figure 3 illustrates that role and responsibilities of team members are of great significance
to provide clarity, alignment, and expectations to those executing the work. Role and responsibilities
enable effective communications among team members. There are quantitative researches
conducted to determine the extent of the execution of the role and responsibilities of team members
to enable them to concentrate on the least performed responsibilities. There are team members
who don’t have a clear sense of their respective role and responsibilities. They don’t intuitively
understand which responsibilities need immediate execution for the welfare of the team.
Quantitative research lets these team members to execute their role and responsibilities to the best
of their abilities.

Figure 4 shows that absenteeism is another widely conducted quantitative research topic to
help struggling students cope with their subject deficiencies. Researchers are motivated to conduct
the factors of student absenteeism as a basis for developing intervention program to help these
students-at-risk of dropping out (SARDOs) embrace the importance of formal education. Without
quantitative research, problems on student absenteeism cannot be resolved. There are many
DepEd programs to address the problems of schools on student absenteeism. These programs are
based from the findings of quantitative researches conducted by the teachers.

Two Kinds of Quantitative Research


1. Experimental Research
2. Non-experimental Research

Three Kinds of Experimental Research


1. True-experimental Research
2. Quasi-experimental Research/Ex post facto Research/Causal-comparative research
3. Pre-experimental Research

Three Kinds of Quasi-experimental Research


1. Matched-comparative-group Research
2. Time-series Research
3. Single-subject Research

Three Common Types of Non-experimental Research/Survey Research


1. Descriptive Research
2. Comparative Research
3. Correlational Research

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 26
Kinds of Research

Qualitative Research Quantitative Research

Experimental Research Non-experimental Research

True-experimental Descriptive Research


Research
Comparative Research
Quasi-experimental
Research
Correlational Research
Matched-comparative-group
Research Pre-experimental
Research
Time-series Research

Single-subject Research

What is an Experimental Research?

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH is a quantitative research that treats or deals with the object
or subject of the research in a definite or exact manner and it determines the extent of the effect or
influence of the treatment on the object or subject, then discovers the causes of such effect. It
involves an experimentation to test the impact of the independent variable to the dependent
variable. Research variable is given a special name that only applies to experimental and
correlational investigations.

What is a Research Variable?

RESEARCH VARIABLE is a changing quality, attribute or characteristic of a person, a


group, an educational system, or any topic that is of interest in a study. Examples of research
variables are intelligence, social competence, bullying, stress management, commitment,
performance, achievement, study habits, absenteeism, etc.

Three Common Types of Variables

1. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE is the variable the researcher/experimenter changes or


controls and is assumed to have a direct effect on the dependent variable. It gives effect to the
dependent variable. In other words, it is the cause of the effect to the dependent variable. It is the
variable that is stable and unaffected by the other variables. It also refers to the condition of an
experiment that is systematically manipulated by the investigator.

2. DEPENDENT VARIABLE is the variable being tested and measured in an experiment,


and is ‘dependent’ on the independent variable. It receives the effect caused by the independent
variable.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 27
3. INTERVENING VARIABLE is a hypothetical variable used to explain causal links
between variables. Intervening variables cannot be observed in an experimental research. Usually,
it can be observed in correlational research. That’s why, they are hypothetical. Examples of
intervening variables are age, gender, income, religion, tribe, educational qualification,
experience and nationality (demographic profile of respondents).

TASK 8: Answer the following questions in paragraphs.

1. Explain the importance of quantitative research across the following fields:


a. Anthropology
b. Communication
c. Medicine
d. Psychology
e. Social Science

2. Give one academic discipline or field and explain the importance of quantitative research
in that discipline or field.

TASK 9: Check (√) all words that can operate as a RESEARCH VARIABLE and place an (X) for
the word/s that cannot be (1 whole sheet of paper). Indicate your name, subject and name of your
teacher. Submit your answer in the drop point in your locality.

1. ___ water 11. ___ goals


2. ___ skills 12. ___ life plans
3. ___ self-esteem 13. ___ academic contests
4. ___ experience 14. ___ academic grades
5. ___ air quality 15. ___ aspirations
6. ___ expectations 16. ___ curriculum
7. ___ reading comprehension 17. ___ intelligence
8. ___ cultural heritage 18. ___ economic status
9. ___ commitment 19. ___ competence
10. ___ social media 20. ___ resilience

TASK 10: Identify the answer of each statement.

______________1. It is the study of society and the manner in which people behave and influence
the world around them. It is concerned with simultaneously exploring of connections of human kinds
amidst their cultural differences, alternatives and identity.
______________2. It is a multifaceted discipline which includes many sub-fields of study such as
human development, social behavior and cognitive process. It is the scientific study of the human
mind and behavior.
______________3. It is the science and practice of establishing the diagnosis, prognosis,
treatment, and prevention of disease. It encompasses a variety of health care practices to maintain
and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness.
______________4. It is the act of conveying meanings from one entity or group to another through
the use of mutually understood signs, symbols, and semiotic rules.
______________5. It is a quantitative research that aims to advance our knowledge to prevent and
cure health problems. It can provide important information about disease trends and risk factors,
outcomes of treatment or public health interventions.
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
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WEEK 3
(Lesson 5; pages 30 – 35)
Reminder: There are four TASKS (Tasks 11 – 14) you need to comply this WEEK 3.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 29
LESSON 5 – GROUPS INVOLVED IN AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AND
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to:


1. identify the two groups involved in conducting an experimental research;
2. demonstrate their understanding about a correlational research; and
3. identify the independent and dependent variables of experimental and correlational
researches given the research titles.

Two Groups Involved in an Experimental Research

1. Experimental Group. In this group, treatment or influence is applied. For educational


experimental research, modern teaching strategy is treated in this group. Students assigned
in this group are exposed to new instructional approach aside from the interactive lecture
method. A researcher-developed activity sheets are given to the students.

2. Control Group. This group does not receive any treatment or manipulation. For educational
experimental research, traditional teaching strategy (pure chalk and talk instructional
approach) is subjected in this group. No activity sheets are distributed to the students who
belong to this group. Pure chalkboard exercises and seatwork are given to the students.

How to Conduct an Experimental Research?

First, pre-test will be given to two groups to examine the initial knowledge of both groups in
relation to certain topics covered in a study. Pre-test will be given to ensure that the two groups
under experimentation are comparable in terms of academic performance/achievement. If pre-test
results reveal that there is a significant difference in the academic preparation of experimental and
control groups, experimentation using these group must not pursue. Selection of another two groups
for experimentation will be done. That’s why, it is suggested that before giving the two groups with
pre-test, standardized test or IQ test will be given to the two groups in order to ensure that there is
no significant difference in the initial knowledge of students in experimental and control groups.

Second, new treatment (modern teaching strategy) will be exposed to the experimental
group. No treatment (traditional teaching strategy) will be assigned to the control group. Treatment
refers to the new teaching strategy being tested for its effectiveness. Two sections under
experimentation must not be beside each other to avoid the contamination of the teaching strategies
employed to them. As much as possible, these two sections must be located in two different
buildings to minimize the leakage of the pedagogies employed to them. Same set of competencies
and learning objectives should be observed in both sections. Only the teaching strategies differ from
one group to another.

Third, post-test will be given to both groups after a minimum of six (6) weeks of
experimentation to determine the effect or influence of the treatment or condition applied on
experimental group. If the results of the post-test reveal that there is a significant difference in the
academic achievement of students in favor experimental group, we can definitely say that the new
teaching approach applied to experimental group is more effective than traditional approach.
However, if the post-test results show that there is no significant difference in the academic
achievement of students in two groups, we can conclude that the new teaching approach is as
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
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effective as traditional approach. When a new teaching approach is proven more effective than
traditional approach, dissemination of the results should be done so that other teachers can apply
the new instructional strategy to improve the academic performance of students.

What is a Correlational Research?

Correlational Research is a type of non-experimental research in which the researcher


measures the two variables and investigates the statistical relationship between them.

Non-experimental Research particularly Correlational Research is dynamic. Statistical


patterns between two variables that result from correlational research are ever-changing.
Correlational results change depending upon to the setting of the study. For instance, previous
research reveals that there is a relationship between bullying and teen depression. However,
another research shows that teen depression is not influenced by bullying. It further indicates that
there are several factors of teen depression. But bullying is not among them. This only means that
the relationship generated from previously investigated research variables are not stable. They vary
from one setting to another. For instance, positive relationship may turn into negative relationship
or no relationship at all depending upon to the respondents, locale and some other factors.

Essentially, there are three (3) types of correlational research, to wit: (1) Positive
Correlational Research; (2) Negative Correlational Research; and (3) No Correlational Research.

What is a Positive Correlational Research? A Negative Correlational Research?

Positive Correlational Research is a type of correlational research in which an


increase/decrease in independent variable is associated with an increase/decrease also in
dependent variable. In other words, both the independent and dependent variables move in the
same direction.

Negative Correlational Research is a type of correlational research whereby an increase


in independent variable is associated in a decrease in dependent variable.

If no relationship is obtained from the two or more investigated variables, we cannot make
predictions. If there is a relationship between the two variables, we can make predictions about one
from another.

Examples of Positive Correlational Research

1. Research Title: Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Qualities of School Principals

“If the extent of emotional intelligence of school principals increases, then the extent of their
leadership qualities also increases. In layman’s language, the better the emotional intelligence of
school heads, the better their leadership qualities are.”

2. Research Title: Impact of School-Based Mentoring Program on the Performance of


Teachers

“If there is a better implementation of school-based mentoring program, then there is a big
opportunity for the teachers to improve their teaching performance.”

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


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Examples of Negative Correlational Research

1. Research Title: Effect of Online Games on Students’ Study Habits

“The higher the level of students’ addiction to online games, the lesser the level of their study
habits.”

2. Research Title: Parenting Styles and Disruptive Behavior of Students

“The better the parenting styles of parents, the lesser the disruptive behavior of their
children.”

Experimental Research Titles and the Variables Involved

1. Practical Work Approach Using Supplemental Learning Materials for Effective Teaching in
Statistics and Probability
Independent variables – Experimental Group (Practical Work Approach)
Control Group (Traditional Approach)
Dependent variable – Academic Achievement (Pre-Test & Post-Test)

2. Use of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring in Teaching Gas Laws: Its Effect on Problem-Solving
Performance and Attitudes of Grade 10 Students in Chemistry
Independent variables – Experimental Group (Reciprocal Peer Tutoring)
Control Group (Traditional Approach)
Dependent variables – Problem-Solving Performance and Attitudes

3. Use of Visual Representation and Peer-Assisted Approach in Developing Students’ Mental


Models in Solving Physics Problems
Independent variables – Experimental Group (Visual Representation and Peer-Assisted Approach)
Control Group (Traditional Approach)
Dependent variable – Problem-Solving Performance

4. Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction in the Learning Performance of Students


Independent variables – Experimental Group (Computer-Assisted Instruction)
Control Group (Traditional Approach)
Dependent variable – Learning Performance

Examples of Non-experimental Research Titles (Correlational Researches) and the


Variables Involved

1. Extracurricular Activities and Self-Efficacy of Senior High School Students


Independent variable – Extracurricular Activities
Dependent variable – Self-Efficacy

2. Emotional Intelligence, Social Competence and Transformational Leadership Qualities of


School Heads
Independent variables – Emotional Intelligence and Social Competence
Dependent variable – Transformational Leadership Qualities

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


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3. Financial Literacy, Spending Practices and Teaching Performance of Public High School
Teachers
Independent variable – Financial Literacy
Dependent variables – Spending Practices and Teaching Performance
Intervening Variables – Age, Gender, Number of Dependents, Educational Attainment,
Monthly Gross Income and Monthly Take Home Pay

4. Utilization of Financial Resources and Development of School Facilities and Services for
Students and Teachers
Independent variable – Utilization of Financial Resources
Dependent variables – Development of School Facilities and Services

5. The Impact of Student Absenteeism on Academic Performance


Independent Variable – Student Absenteeism
Dependent Variable – Academic Performance

6. Students’ Exposures to Social Media and their Academic Performance in Araling Panlipunan
Independent variable – Exposures to Social Media
Dependent variable – Academic Performance

7. Organizational Commitment and Productivity of Teachers of Esperanza National High School


Independent variable – Organizational Commitment
Dependent variable – Productivity

8. Use of Social Networking Sites and Study Habits of Students in English


Independent variable – Social Networking Sites
Dependent variable – Study Habits

9. Impact of Team Building Activity on the Self-Efficacy of Teachers


Independent variable – Team Building Activity
Dependent variable – Self-Efficacy

10. Impact of Indigenous Peoples Education (IPEd) on Cultural Appreciation, Reflection and
Preservation (CARP) of Traditional Practices of Teduray of Esperanza, Sultan Kudarat
Independent variable – Indigenous Peoples Education (IPEd)
Dependent variables – Cultural Appreciation, Reflection and Preservation (CARP) of
Traditional Practices

TASK 11: Given the research title, identify the independent and dependent variables. Copy and
answer. Then, classify whether the research title is experimental research or correlational research.

1. Teachers’ Productivity and Students’ Performance in Academic Contests


Independent variable –
Dependent variable –

2. Perceived External Prestige (PEP) of Esperanza National High School and Teachers’
Organizational Commitment
Independent variable –
Dependent variable –

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


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3. Business Strategies and Growth of Hair Salon Enterprises in Esperanza, Sultan Kudarat
Independent variable –
Dependent variable –

4. Work-Related Attitudes and Job Performance of the Employees of Business Enterprises in


Esperanza, Sultan Kudarat
Independent variable –
Dependent variable –

5. Use of Supplemental Learning Materials in Improving the Academic Achievement of Students


in Pre-calculus
Independent variables –
Dependent variable –

6. Effect of Organic Fertilizer in the Growth of Eggplants


Independent variable –
Dependent variable –

7. Blended Leaning Approach, Parents’ Support and Academic Performance of Students in the
Midst of COVID-19 Pandemic
Independent variables –
Dependent variables –

8. Students’ Study Habits, Attitudes and Academic Achievement in Chemistry


Independent variables –
Dependent variable –

9. Implementation of Child Protection Policy (CPP) and Students’ Academic Performance and
Behavior
Independent variable –
Dependent variables –

10. Aspirations and Challenges of Students in the Conflict Areas of Maguindanao


Independent variable –
Dependent variable –

11. Impact of Child-Friendly School Environment on School Performance and Behavior of Students
Independent variable –
Dependent variables –

12. Learning Modalities amid COVID-19 Pandemic, Problem-Solving Skills and Attitudes of Grade
11 Students in General Mathematics
Independent variables –
Dependent variables –

13. Effect of Modular Learning Approach (MLA) on the Learning Performance of Students
Independent variable –
Dependent variable –

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


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14. Technology-Enhanced Learning Approach (TELA): Its Effect on the Academic Achievement of
Students
Independent variables –
Dependent variable –

15. School-Based Feeding Program (SBMP) of Esperanza National High School: Its Impact on the
Performance of Malnourished Students
Independent variable –
Dependent variable –

TASK 12: Identify the answer of each of the following statements (Answers only).
_____________1. It is a research variable which is the giver of effect in an experimental research.
_____________2. It is a type of correlational research in which an increase in independent variable
is associated with an increase also in dependent variable.
_____________3. It is a type of correlational research whereby an increase in independent variable
is associated in a decrease in dependent variable.
_____________4. It is a type of test to determine the initial knowledge of students in control and
experimental groups before the administration of the pre-test.
_____________5. It is a group of experimental research that is treated with new teaching approach.
_____________6. It is a research variable that is considered the receiver of the effect in an
experimental research.
_____________7. The examples of this research variable are age, gender, religion and tribe.
_____________8. It is a group of experimental research that receives no treatment.
_____________9. It is a type of non-experimental research in which the researcher measures the
two variables and investigates the statistical relationship between them.
_____________10. It is a changing quality, attribute or characteristic of a person, a group, an
educational system, or any topic that is of interest in a study.

TASK 13: Answer the following questions in paragraph forms.

1. How is educational experimental research conducted?


2. What is the difference between non-experimental research and survey research?
3. How does independent variable differ from dependent variable?
4. How important is the conceptual framework before proceeding to the rigid writing of a
research?
5. What is the role of intervening variable in experimental and correlational researches?

TASK 14: Determine whether or not each statement is TRUE. Write TRUE of FALSE (Answers
only).

_________1. Positive correlational research states that the increase of the values of independent
variable corresponds also to the decrease of the values of dependent variable.
_________2. All non-experimental researches are survey researches.
_________3. There are experimental researches which can be classified as qualitative researches.
_________4. Quantitative research is better than qualitative research.
_________5. Quantitative research is conducted to generate very fresh idea or theory.
_________6. Testing the effectiveness of a modern teaching approach is an example of
correlational research.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


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WEEK 4
(Lesson 6; pages 37 – 41)
Reminder: There are three TASKS (Tasks 15 – 17) you need to comply this WEEK 4.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


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LESSON 6 – IDENTIFYING THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES OF
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCHES GIVEN THE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM (SOP),
CONSTRUCTING SOP GIVEN THE RESEARCH VARIABLES AND CLASSIFICATIONS OF
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AND QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to:


1. identify the independent and dependent variables of correlational researches given the
statement of the problem (SOP);
2. construct SOP or research question given the research variables; and
3. give the classifications of experimental research and quasi-experimental research.

DIRECTION: The following are the research questions of a Correlational Research. Identify the
independent and dependent variables in each SOP or research question. Write your answers in the
right columns.
Research Questions Independent Dependent Variable
Variable
1. Is the academic performance affected by student student absenteeism academic performance
absenteeism?
2. What is the influence of Korean Novelas on the Korean Novelas Filipino value system
Filipino value system?
3. Does collaborative learning increase collaborative communicative
communicative competence? learning competence
4. To what extent does texting decrease student’s texting student’s grammatical
grammatical competence? competence
5. What corrupt practices trigger one’s resignation? corrupt practices Resignation

TASK 15: The following are the research questions of a Correlational Research. Identify the
independent and dependent variables in each SOP or research question. Write your answers in the
right columns. Copy and answer.
Research Questions Independent Dependent
Variables Variables
1. What is the impact of emotional intelligence on the
leadership skills of school principals?
2. Is there a significant relationship between reading
comprehension and problem-solving skills of students?
3. How is students’ depression related to their bullying
experiences?
4. What is the impact of school principals’ transformational
leadership qualities to the teachers’ performance?
5. Is there a significant association between teachers’
financial literacy and their teaching performance?

TASK 16: The following are the independent and dependent variables. Indicate in your research
questions the main respondents of your study. Write the research questions in the left column.
Number 1 is provided for you as your guide. Copy and answer.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


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Research Questions Independent Dependent
Variables Variables
1. Is there a significant relationship between Absenteeism academic
absenteeism and academic performance of performance
students?
(Other acceptable answers would be: (1) What is the
effect of absenteeism to the academic performance
of students? (2) Is the academic performance of
students significantly influenced by absenteeism? (3)
Is the academic performance of students significantly
related to absenteeism?)
2. parental guidance discipline

3. parental support educational


aspirations
4. teaching National
performance Achievement Test
(NAT)
5. organizational job performance
commitment
6. financial literacy teaching
performance

Classifications of Experimental Research

1. TRUE-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH - Random assignment of the two groups under study


is applied. True-experimental research uses random selection of respondents who among
them to be included in experimental group or control group. In other words, randomization
is applicable.

Example: There are 10 sections involved in the study and only two groups/sections
will be taken as sample groups. Students assigned to be in two groups should be
randomly selected from all other sections. This means that all students are given a
chance to be chosen as respondents of the study.

2. QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH – adopts a comparative technique in choosing the


subjects. Randomization is not applicable. In other words, either random assignment or
random selection is absent or both are not applied.

Example 1: There are only two groups available for the study (No other sections
except the two).

Example 2: A researcher writes the names of the 8 sections of the Grade 12-HUMSS
and puts them in a box. If he selects two out of 8 sections wherein all sections are
given a chance to be selected, then he applies the random assignment. Afterwards,
all students from the two sections automatically become respondents of the study
and students from other sections are not given a chance to be part of the study. In
this particular situation, random selection of respondents is NOT applied. Thus, the
research is quasi-experimental research.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


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3. PRE-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH – follows some basic steps in experimental research
but fails to include a control or comparison group. It is considered “pre” to indicate that it is
just only a preparatory or prerequisite to true-experimental research or quasi-experimental
research.

Examples: One-Shot Case Study & One Group Pre-Test – Post-Test Study

Types of Quasi-Experimental Research

1. Matched-comparative-group research - The treatment group (experimental group) has


similarities with another group (control group). The examples of this research are the
experimental researches conducted by the teachers to test the efficacy or effectiveness of
the teaching strategy. For instance, the two sections under the study are taken from the
STEM curriculum and these sections have the same level of academic preparation.

2. Time-series research - It applies series of pre-tests and post-tests to test the effectiveness
of the program. The example of this research is the implementation of the K to 12 Program.
Time-series research undergoes pre-experimental stage, pilot-implementation stage and
finally the full implementation stage of the program.

3. Single-subject research - It is also known as one-group post-test design. It controls


treatment and condition applied to just one individual or a group. It is conducted to determine
the effectiveness of the treatment in one individual or a group.

LESSON 7 – NON-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AND SURVEY RESEARCH

OBJECTIVES:

At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to:


1. demonstrate their understanding about non-experimental research and its characteristics;
and
2. explain the concept of survey research, its purposes, strengths and weaknesses.

What is a Non-Experimental Research?

Non-experimental research is aimed at finding truth about a subject by describing the


collected data and determining the extent of the subject’s variables or investigating the relationship
or connection of two or more variables. It is also known as Survey Research since it applies
checklist or survey questionnaire as a research instrument to gather data. No treatment or
condition is involved in this type of research. All qualitative researches are examples of non-
experimental research. However, they cannot be classified as survey researches since no survey
questionnaire is distributed to the participants.

Characteristics of Non-Experimental Research

1. It involves 3 types of data:


a. Primary Data – data collected by the researcher himself. For instance, photograph or
video of an event is an example of primary data. Information taken from an interview or focus
group discussion is another example of primary data. Important message taken from a very
good speaker is also an example of primary data.
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
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b. Secondary Data – data collected by other people. For example, data taken from the
interpretation of other people from the primary sources of data. Archival footage of an event
is usually considered secondary data.
c. Tertiary Data – data taken from the summary or synthesis of secondary sources of data.
Data taken from textbooks, theses, dissertations, journals, magazines and online references
are considered tertiary data.
2. It uses research method that is applicable to both quantitative and qualitative data.
3. It collects data through checklist, survey questionnaire, and observation, historical analysis,
case studies, documentary analysis, archived materials and other qualitative research methods.

What is a Survey Research?

SURVEY RESEARCH is a method of non-experimental research that aims to determine


what a big number of people think and feel about some social issues affecting people’s lives and
the community.
The individuals randomly selected from the group of people serve as “representatives” or
“respondents” who will explain or describe the society’s thoughts, attitudes and feelings towards
environmental issues.
TAKE NOTE: We’ll use the word “respondents” for quantitative research and
“participants” for qualitative research. Neither of the two will be used if the research involves plants
and animals. “Subjects” will be used for this kind of research.

Purposes of Survey Research

1. To obtain information about people’s opinions and feelings about an issue.


2. To identify present condition, needs, or problems of people in a short span of time.
3. To seek answers to social issues.
4. To give school officials pointers on curricular offerings, decision-making techniques,
guidance and counseling services and teacher-evaluation feedbacks.

How to conduct a Survey Research?

1. Specify the research problem or working title clearly.


2. Formulate research questions or statement of the problem (SOP) and hypotheses (if any) to
determine the extent of subject’s variables or to predict relationship of the variables.
3. Determine the exact kind of data referred to by research questions and hypotheses.
4. Assure the population or group of people to which the checklist or survey questionnaire will
be distributed.
5. Finalize the sampling method for selecting the respondents.
6. Identify the method in collecting data; that is, whether it is survey questionnaire, or through
phone, via computer or face-to-face contact with the respondents.

Strengths of Survey Research

1. Versatility. Survey research can tackle any issue affecting society. There are so many
challenges, issues and concerns happening in our community. Problems on child labor,
poverty, peace and order, COVID-19 pandemic, teenage rebellion, occurrence of natural
calamities and high cost of basic commodities can be potential topics of survey research. In
other words, anything under the heat of the sun can be a subject of survey research.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


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2. Efficiency. Survey research is not costly in terms of money and time, assuming that there
is excellent communication or postal system. This type of research is less expensive
compared with scientifically-based quantitative research (e.g. Medical research, agricultural
research and science investigatory project (SIP)). How wide the scope of survey research,
if there is an effective communication to the concerned authorities, expenses will be
minimized. However, if a researcher lacks initiatives and interpersonal relationship, survey
research becomes expensive.

3. Generality. Survey research can get a good representation or sample of large group of
people. If there is a systematic way of getting the sample, big population can be represented
by a small sample. For instance, the surveys conducted by Social Weather Stations (SWS)
and Pulse Asia Research give general perceptions of 110 million Filipinos. They have only
a total sample of more than 2,000 and this number is very small compared to 110 million
Filipinos. Yet, their results reflect the true insights of Filipinos because they have a
systematic sampling technique.

4. Confidentiality. Survey research is capable of safeguarding the privacy or anonymity of the


respondents. Respondents need not to disclose their names in the survey questionnaire. In
most survey questionnaires distributed to the respondents, there is a written note “Name
(Optional)”. This means that survey research holds the highest level of anonymity or privacy
of the respondents. Most topics in survey research are not sensitive and don’t disclose
personal information. They also don’t expose other people’s privacy or anonymity.

Weaknesses of Survey Research

1. It cannot provide a sufficient evidence about the relationship of variables.


2. It cannot examine the significance of some issues affecting diverse group of people.
3. It cannot consider man’s naturalistic tendencies as the basis of human behavior unless his
ways or styles of living are related to his surroundings.
4. It cannot deeply generate vast ideas from one or two respondents.
5. Respondents may not feel encouraged to provide accurate, honest answers.
6. Respondents may not feel comfortable providing answers that present themselves in an
unfavorable manner.
7. Respondents may not be fully aware of their reasons for any given answer because of lack
of memory on the subject, or even boredom.

TASK 17: Answer the following questions in paragraph forms.

1. Differentiate experimental research from non-experimental research.


2. Are all non-experimental researches considered survey researches? Why? Why Not?
3. What are the strengths of survey research? Explain each strength in your own words. Don’t
copy the explanation in this module.
4. Explain the purpose of pre-test and post-test in conducting an experimental research.
5. Explain the characteristics of non-experimental research.
6. What are the weaknesses of survey research?
7. What are the purposes of survey research?
8. Explain the weaknesses of survey research.
9. Differentiate the following: primary data, secondary data and tertiary data.
10. What particular social issue that interests you most for your future research proposal? What
are you interested in that particular issue?
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WEEK 5
(Lesson 7; pages 43 – 53)
Reminder: There is a major TASK (Task 18) you need to comply this WEEK 5.

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LESSON 7 – CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

OBJECTIVES:
At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to:
1. explain the conceptual framework of a study;
2. construct a conceptual framework of a study using their working title; and
3. construct statement of the problem (SOP) out the conceptual framework they have done.

What is a Conceptual Framework?

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK is a schematic structure which illustrates the variables and


their indicators to be studied. It is a research paradigm which can best explain and represent how
the variables might relate to each other. It is linked with the concepts, empirical researches and
important theories used in promoting and systemizing the knowledge espoused by the researcher.
It serves as a “map” or “rudder” that will guide the researcher towards realizing the objectives of
the study.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK should be constructed before beginning to constructing


research objectives. Research objective serve as a basis in devising a research instrument needed
in collecting data. It has two parts: (1) Textual Description; and (2) Visual Representation.

Conceptual Framework (Visual Representation) Illustrating the Variables of the Study


1.

Research Title: Game-Based and Activity Oriented Instruction, Academic Achievement and
Attitudes of Students in Mathematics
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2.

Research Title: Comparative Assessment on the Full Implementation of Senior High School
Curriculum among Private and Public High Schools in Sultan Kudarat

INPUT

3.
• Materials of the study
• Ingredients
• Tools
• Equipment
• Evaluation Sheet

PROCESS

• Preparation of materials, tools


and Equipment
• Processing of the formulated
recipes
• nutrient analysis

OUTPUT

Developed Maja Blanca Into Nipa Palm


Starch enhanced with Butterfly Pea

Research Title: Acceptability of the Developed Food Products Made up of Nipa Palm Starch
(natek) into Maja Blanca Enhanced with Butterfly Pea
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
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4.

Research Title: Use of Social Media and Academic Performance of Grade 9 Students in Araling
Panlipunan

5.

Research Title: Emotional Intelligence and Social Competence: Antecedents of School


Administrators’ Transformational Leadership Qualities
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6.

Research Title: Impact of Indigenous Peoples Education (IPEd) Curriculum on the Socio-
Economic and Cultural Development of Teduray at Esperanza, Sultan Kudarat

Example of Full Conceptual Framework of Educational Experimental Research


Research Title: Learning Modalities amid COVID-19 Pandemic, Problem-Solving Skills and
Attitudes of Grade 10 Students in Physics

Conceptual Framework

Mathematics and Science instruction is the major target of incessant changes in the
Philippine educational system. As part of the reform plan and a step towards globalizing the quality
of basic education, the Philippines, for the first time in 2018, joined the Programme for International
Student Assessment (PISA) to evaluate the status of the country’s educational system in
Mathematics, Science and Reading. PISA results revealed that the Philippines scored 353 in
Mathematics, 357 in Science, and 340 in Reading; all belong to the bottom three (3) of the
participating countries. Due to these very dismal results, the Department of Education (DepEd) is
now leading the national effort for quality of basic education through Sulong EduKalidad by
implementing aggressive reforms to improve the quality of instruction and to foster positive attitudes
towards Mathematics, Science and Reading (DepEd, 2018; Abdullah, 2020).
Due to this COVID-19 pandemic, most students are expected to get difficulties to adjust with
the teacher’s pedagogical approaches particularly in Physics. In order to promote active
participation of students, Physics teachers should modify their strategies in doing new normal class
activities to more learner-centered styles. As stated by Paghubasan (2017), the process of
developing students’ knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA) should require independent learning
styles and this can be effectively done through student-centered teaching approaches. Simpal
(2016) and Abdullah (2020) identified technology learning approach (TLA) using online video
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presentation and modular learning approach (MLA) using self-instructional module (SIM) as two of
the learner-centered teaching approaches that make sense to the students.
Figure 1 shows the two groups under the study. The exposure of the two groups to
technology learning approach (TLA) using online video presentation and modular learning approach
(MLA) using self-instructional module (SIM) is an important aspect of the present study. The group
exposed to TLA using online video presentation will be designated as experimental group and the
group subjected with MLA using SIM will be regarded as control group. The effect of these two
pedagogical approaches in improving students’ problem-solving skills and attitudes towards Physics
will be determined by the pre-test/post-test and survey questionnaire, respectively.
Thus, the experimental group that will be exposed to TLA using online video presentation
and control group which will be subjected to MLA using SIM will serve as the independent variable
of the study. On the other hand, problem solving skills and attitudes of Grade 10 students in Physics
will be determined using the result of their pre-test/post-test and survey questionnaire before and
after the experimentation, respectively. For the experimental group, pre-test/post-test and survey
questionnaire will be answered online. For the control group, pre-test/post-test and survey
questionnaire will be delivered to their houses following the minimum health standards set by the
Department of Health (DOH) and local Inter-Agency Task Force (IATF). The results of the tests and
survey questionnaire served as the dependent variables of the study.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLES

Problem Solving Skills of Grade 10 Students in


Physics

- Boyle’s Law
- Charles’ Law
- Gay-Lussac’s Law
- Avogadro’s Law
- Combined Gas Law
Groups under - Ideal Gas Law
Experimentation
Attitudes of Grade 10 Students towards
Physics
- Experimental Group
- Dependence on Procedures
- Control Group
- Importance of Formulas
- Exploration in Problem Solving
- Use of Technology
- Relation to Real World
- Positivity
- Confidence in Learning
- Independence in Learning

Figure 1. Research Paradigm

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine the effect of technology learning approach (TLA) using online
video presentation and modular learning approach (MLA) using self-instructional module (SIM) as
the two major learning modalities amid COVID-19 pandemic in improving students’ problem solving
skills and attitudes towards Physics at President Quirino National High School for the new normal
School Year 2020-2021. Specifically, this study will answer the following questions:

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1. To what extent is the Physics achievement of students in experimental and control groups
before and after the experimentation relative to:
1.1 Boyle’s Law;
1.2 Charles’ Law;
1.3 Gay-Lussac’s Law;
1.4 Avogadro’s Law;
1.5 Combined Gas Law; and
1.6 Ideal Gas Law.
2. To what extent are the attitudes of students towards Physics in experimental and control
groups before and after the experimentation in terms of:
2.1 Dependence on Procedures;
2.2 Importance of Formulas;
2.3 Exploration in Problem Solving;
2.4 Use of Technology;
2.5 Relation to Real World;
2.6 Positivity;
2.7 Confidence in Learning; and
2.8 Independence in Learning.
3. Is there a significant difference in the Physics achievement of students in experimental
and control groups before and after the experimentation?
4. Is there a significant difference in the attitudes of students towards Physics in
experimental and control groups before and after the experimentation?

Example of Full Conceptual Framework of Correlational Research


Research Title: Schools in Change: An Evaluation of the Implementation and Outcome of the
Technical-Vocational and Livelihood Track of Senior High Schools in Sultan Kudarat

Conceptual Framework

Adapting change management to meet the needs of the school environment is central to
improve school and faculty productivity. Change management does not operate in a vacuum. In
many schools, change ecosystem includes numerous groups all pursuing the goal of increasing the
effectiveness of the program implementation and students’ outcomes in times of transition period
(Creasey, 2016). At the heart of change management is the inevitable occurrence of the problem.
School administrators use various approaches to effect schools in change.
The global educational trend has embarked the Philippines to have the most ambitious
reform to align its education system with other structures around the world and to raise national
competitiveness. The Philippine government considered the Senior High School curriculum
particularly the Technical-Vocational Livelihood (TVL) as a vital educational reform for ensuring that
all Filipinos are equipped with the basic livelihood skills required to play a full and productive role in
society. Former DepED Secretary Luistro averred that TVL track is a globally competitive program
that could help solve the problem of unemployment, keep up global standards, and help Filipino
students to have advanced knowledge, skills and attitudes to choose the career that best suits their
interest.
The following diagram illustrates how the change management strategies employed by the
school administrators are related to the implementation and outcome of Technical-Vocational
Livelihood (TVL) track.
The first box is composed of the four (4) change management strategies of school
administrators such as environmental-adaptive, empirical-rational, normative-re-educative and

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power-coercive strategies. The change management strategies of school heads serve as the
independent variables of the study.
The second box consists of the implementation of TVL track relative to laboratory equipment,
teaching strategy, instructional materials, library resources, financial resources and allocation and
parent involvement, and outcome of TVL track in terms of promotion rate, graduation rate, percent
of NC II passers and academic performance. The implementation and outcome of TVL track serve
as the dependent variables of the study.
The third box deals with the qualifications of TVL teachers in terms of educational
background, National Certificates (NC) earned, teaching experience and related trainings. This
serves as the intervening variables of the study.

Figure 1. Research Paradigm

Statement of the Problem

This study generally aims to determine the effect of the change management strategies
employed by the school administrators on the implementation and outcome of Technical-Vocational
Livelihood (TVL) track.
Specifically, this study will seek answers to the following questions:
1. What are the qualifications of Technical-Vocational Livelihood (TVL) teachers in terms of:
1.1 Educational Background,
1.1.1 Baccalaureate Degree, and
1.1.2 Post-Graduate Education,
1.2 National Certificates Earned,
1.3 Teaching Experience, and
1.4 Related Trainings?

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2. To what level are the change management strategies of school administrators relative to:
2.1 Environmental-Adaptive,
2.2 Empirical-Rational,
2.3 Normative-Re-educative, and
2.4 Power-Coercive?
3. To what level is the implementation of Technical-Vocational Livelihood (TVL) track in terms
of:
3.1 Laboratory Equipment,
3.2 Teaching Strategies,
3.3 Instructional Materials,
3.4 Library Resources,
3.5 Financial Resources and Allocation, and
3.6 Parent Involvement?
4. To what level is the outcome of Technical-Vocational Livelihood (TVL) track in terms of:
4.1 Promotion Rate,
4.2 Graduation Rate,
4.3 Percent of National Certificates (NC II) Passers, and
4.4 Academic Performance?
5. Are the implementation and outcome of Technical-Vocational Livelihood (TVL) track related
to the change management strategies of public school administrators in Sultan Kudarat?
6. Is the outcome of Technical-Vocational Livelihood (TVL) track influenced by the
qualifications of teachers?

Example of Full Conceptual Framework of Descriptive Research


Research Title: Status of the Implementation of the K to 12 Science Technology Engineering and
Mathematics Curriculum in the Division of Sultan Kudarat

Conceptual Framework

Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) revealed that the
Philippines is at the bottom ranking compared to other countries in terms of Science learning. In
fact, the Philippines ranked 43 rd out of 48 participating countries in Second Year High School
Science. For Grade 4, it ranked 23 rd out of 25 countries. In 2008, even with only the Science High
Schools participating in the Advanced Mathematics and Science category, the Philippines ranked
lowest among 10 countries (The Manila Times, 2014).
The implementation of Engineering and Science Education Program (ESEP), now Science,
Technology and Engineering (STE), is the immediate response to the country’s deteriorating result
in science achievement for secondary education to cater to intellectually inclined junior high school
students in Science and Mathematics. The STE curriculum envisions highly responsible, morally
upright, globally competitive, and work-ready learners from schools offering relevant and innovative
Science, Technology and Engineering program. Committed to its vision, the STE high schools shall
be the centers of excellence in Science, Technology and Engineering education in the schools
division that aims to develop the full potential of students along these areas (DepEd Order No. 41,
s. 2004; DepEd Order No. 36, s. 2012).
In a world that’s becoming increasingly complex and where success is driven not only by
what people know, but by what they can do with what they know, it’s more important than ever for
the young generations to be equipped with the knowledge and skills to be used to solve tough
problems, gather and evaluate evidence, and make sense of information. These are the types of
skills that students learn by the implementation of Science, Technology, Engineering, and
Mathematics (STEM) curriculum in the senior high school. The current status of Science education

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in the country, particularly in the basic education level, is not at par with that of the other countries,
as seen in the results of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends
in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The Philippine education system had a
low performance among peers in East Asia and the Pacific. The Philippines’ scores during the 2003
PISA and TIMSS were below 400-level. Since then, Philippines didn’t participate in the said
international competitions. Yet, it has the plan to participate in the said contests this 2019 (The
Manila Times, 2014).
Top-performing schools spend efficiently and effectively on infrastructure and teachers’
competence and benefits (Abdullah, 2020). Teachers’ qualifications in terms of educational
background, teaching experience and related trainings are major components in the implementation
of the STEM curriculum. Likewise, internal and external stakeholders play a significant role in the
realization of the school’s goals and objectives. The level of parents’ involvement in terms of student
learning process, financial support, planning and preparation and decision-making was determined
to maximize the support of all the stakeholders in the implementation of the STEM curriculum.
Teachers’ qualifications and parents’ involvement were evaluated to enhance what needs to be
improved.
The extent of the implementation of STEM curriculum relative to curriculum, instructional
supervision, physical plant and facilities, equipment, learning resources, teaching strategies,
utilization of library resources, financial allocation and expenditures and administrative support was
determined to enhance further the teaching-learning process.
The following conceptual framework depicts the variables that play a significant role in the
successful implementation of K to 12 STEM Curriculum of the senior high schools in Sultan Kudarat.
The four problems of the research such as teachers’ qualifications, parents’ involvement, senior
high school STEM curriculum and the gaps observed in the implementation of senior high school
STEM curriculum are illustrated in the diagram.

Implementation of K to 12 STEM Curriculum

Teachers’ Qualifications Parents’ Involvement Senior High School STEM Observed Gaps in the
Curriculum Implementation of
- Educational Background - Student Learning Senior High School
- Teaching Experience Process - Curriculum STEM Curriculum
- Related Trainings - Financial Support - Instructional Supervision
- Professional Regulation - Planning and - Physical Plant and
Commission (PRC) Preparation Facilities
License - Decision-Making - Equipment
- Learning Resources
- Teaching Strategies
- Utilization of Library
Resources
- Financial Allocation and
Expenditures
- Administrative Support

Figure 1. Research Paradigm

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Statement of the Problem

This study generally aimed to describe the of implementation of the K to 12 Science,


Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) curriculum of the public senior high schools in
the Division of Sultan Kudarat, Region XII, Philippines. Specifically, it sought to answer the following
questions:
1. What are the qualifications of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)
teachers in terms of:
1.1 Educational Background;
1.2 Teaching Experience;
1.3 Related Trainings; and
1.4 Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) License?
2. What is the level of parents’ involvement in the implementation of the Science, Technology,
Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) curriculum in terms of:
2.1 Student Learning Process;
2.2 Financial Support;
2.3 Planning and Preparations; and
2.4 Decision-Making?
3. What is the extent of the implementation of the Science, Technology, Engineering and
Mathematics (STEM) curriculum along with the following:
3.1 Curriculum;
3.2 Instructional Supervision;
3.3 Physical Plant and Facilities;
3.4 Equipment;
3.5 Learning Resources;
3.6 Teaching Strategies;
3.7 Utilization of Library Resources;
3.8 Financial Allocation and Expenditures; and
3.9 Administrative Support?
4. What are the observed gaps in the implementation of the Science, Technology, Engineering
and Mathematics (STEM) curriculum?

Tips on Writing the Textual Description of Conceptual Framework

Actually, visual representation of the conceptual framework is constructed first before writing
the textual description. Writing the textual description of conceptual framework is just writing the
background of the study. It follows the deductive method of writing a composition. Specific
government programs or laws (if any) regarding the subject of the research should be emphasized.
Important concepts, theories or literatures that a researcher wants to include in the background of
the study but due to limited pages, they are not included, he can include them in the textual
description of his conceptual framework.

Textual description of conceptual framework should represent the researcher’s synthesis of


literature on how to explain a phenomenon. Conceptual framework should map out the actions
required in the course of study given the researcher’s previous knowledge of other researchers’
point of view and his observations on the subject of the research. In other words, the conceptual
framework is the researcher’s understanding of how the particular variables in his study connect
with each other.

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Researcher should explain the variables of his study using the review of related literatures
(RRL). RRL included in the background of the study should no longer be stated in the textual
description of the conceptual framework. RRL found in the conceptual frameworks should no longer
be included in the separate chapter for RRL to avoid redundancy. That’s why, rigid RRL is really
necessary in quantitative research.

Indicators of each variable should be enumerated in paragraph form. Research variables


should be operationally defined before stating their indicators. Visual representation of the
conceptual framework should be introduced as well as the previously constructed theory that
supports the conceptualization of the research. Conceptual framework is the basis for writing the
statement of the problem (SOP) of the research.

TAST 18: 1ST MAJOR TASK (The Beginning of the Actual Writing of Research Proposal)

Direction:

Look for a research problem (temporary title). Construct a CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK


(Both Textual Description & Visual Representation) illustrating the independent and dependent
variables together with the indicators of each variable. You can do it by rigid review of related
literature from different sources. Then construct statement of the problem (SOP) out the conceptual
framework you have made.

This is a difficult task considering the distant learning modalities due to this COVID-19
pandemic. But try to do your BEST to produce a research (just a simple research but logically and
critically done). If you have any mean of contacting your teacher just to ask queries about this FIRST
MAJOR TASK, do it for the sake of having a research proposal. This is the beginning of writing a
RESEARCH PROPOSAL.

You can ask former Grade 12 students for the replication of their researches (with of course
additional flavor). You can also look some researches of Grade 12 students from other schools and
ask them for the replication of their researches (of course using the format and standard of
Esperanza National High School).

If you have a chance to connect with internet, there are so many social science researches
which are potential for replication (of course following the ethical standards in research particularly
the proper citation and referencing).

Take note, all researches should be COMPUTERIZED. If possible, submit your FIRST
MAJOR TASK in computerized form. However, if you don’t have a computer or laptop,
HANDWRITTEN Assignment is ACCEPTED. But in your final RESEARCH PROPOSAL, it should
be COMPUTERIZED following the format and standard of our school.

Use the examples of CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK and STATEMENT OF THE


PROBLEM (SOP) given in the previous pages as your guide. Take note, research starts from a
PROBLEM. Your RESEARCH PROBLEM is found in your CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
particularly in your STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM (SOP).

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WEEK 6
(Lesson 8; pages 55 – 56)
Reminder: There is another major TASK (Task 19) you need to comply this WEEK 6.

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LESSON 8 – DATA GATHERING TOOLS/INSTRUMENTS

OBJECTIVES:

At the end of this module, the students are expected to:


1. demonstrate their understanding about the data gathering tools or instruments to be used in
conducting a research;
2. describe the validity and reliability of a research instrument;
3. identify the kinds of research instrument applicable for quantitative research; and
4. construct a research instrument of their research proposal.

What are Data Gathering Tools/Instruments?

DATA GATHERING TOOLS/INSTRUMENTS refer to the devices/instruments used to


collect data, such as survey questionnaire, checklist, interview, observation, focus group discussion,
etc.
Data Gathering Tools/Instruments are also known as Research Instruments. Research
Instrument needs to be constructed before data gathering activities. It is the most important tool to
be able to gather needed data. Data gathering tools should be used for qualitative research and
data gathering instruments should be applied for quantitative research.
Constructing a Research Instrument is one of the most difficult parts of the research
process.

Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument

VALIDITY and RELIABILITY are concepts used to evaluate the quality of the Research
Instrument. They indicate how well the research instrument measures what quantitative research
intents to measure. Validity is about the accuracy or correctness of the research instrument and
reliability is about the consistency of the research instrument.

Kinds of Research Instrument applicable for Quantitative Research

1. CHECKLIST is a list of items or specific lines that a researcher wants to verify for inquiries,
steps, or actions being taken, or have been already taken by the respondents.
CHECKLIST is commonly used to determine the personal factors (profile) of the
respondents. The following is an example of checklist.
PART I. Your Socio-Economic Status. Kindly put a check (√) on the box that
corresponds to your choice.
A. Your Educational Attainment
Doctoral Degree Graduate High School Graduate
Master’s Degree Graduate High School level
College Degree Graduate Elementary School Graduate
College level Elementary level
Vocational School Graduate Not Gone to School
B. Your Occupation

School Administrator Barangay Captain


Teacher Barangay Kagawad
Government Office Worker Others (Please specify): _______________
C. Monthly Income (Salary Plus Other Income) (Based from BIR Form No. 1701)
Not Over 10,000 Over 140,000 to 250,000
Over 10,000 to 30,000 Over 250,000 to 500,000
Over 30,000 to 70,000 Over 500,000
Over 70,000 to 140,000

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2. SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE is a set of questions used to gather data from a pre-defined
group of respondents to gain statistical information and insights on various topics of interest.

Survey questionnaire can be effective means of measuring the bahaviors, attitudes,


preferences, opinions and intentions of relatively large number of respondents more cheaply and
quickly than other methods. The following are examples of s survey questionnaire.

I. Use the 5-Point Likert Scale below together with its verbal description to
accurately give your experiences regarding bullying incidents. Encircle the
number that corresponds to your choice.

Physical Bullying (Pisikal na Always Often Sometimes Rarely Never


Panankot) (5) (4) (3) (2) (1)
1 Kicking (Pagsipa) 5 4 3 2 1
2 Hitting (Pagpalo) 5 4 3 2 1
3 Punching (Pagsuntok) 5 4 3 2 1
4 Slapping (Pagsampal) 5 4 3 2 1
5 Shoving (Pagtulak) 5 4 3 2 1
6 Physical Assault (Pagsalakay o 5 4 3 2 1
Paglusob)
7 Throwing of Object (Pagtapon 5 4 3 2 1
ng Bagay)

I. Use the 4-Point Likert Scale below together with its verbal description to accurately give your
personal, economic, political, and social aspirations.
Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly
Personal Aspirations Agree (3) (2) Disagree
(4) (1)
1 Earn a college degree and land a permanent 4 3 2 1
job.
2 Finish my high school education and work 4 3 2 1
here or abroad after high school graduation.
3 Become a popular leader in our community. 4 3 2 1
4 Become a successful farmer. 4 3 2 1
Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly
Economic Aspirations Agree (3) (2) Disagree
(4) (1)
1 Establish a family business. 4 3 2 1
2 Have a good income and own a beautiful 4 3 2 1
house.
3 Have a vast agricultural farmland. 4 3 2 1
4 To be a lending proprietor. 4 3 2 1

3. PRE-TEST/POST-TEST is a research instrument used to find out the students’ performance


or achievement before and after the experimentation about the topics covered in the study.
It is a Multiple-Choice Items’ Test.

Table of Specifications (TOS) should be constructed before beginning to make Pre-


Test/Post-Test to ensure a fair and representative sample of questions appearing on the test.

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TASK 19: 2nd MAJOR TASK

DIRECTION:

From the approved research problem (temporary title) with conceptual framework and
statement of the problem (SOP) you presented to your teacher, construct a research instrument to
be used during your data gathering activities.

One of the MOST DIFFICULT parts of writing a research is the construction of a


RESEARCH INSTRUMENT. Use the sample survey questionnaires in the previous pages. Good
luck students. We have that you can make your research instrument.

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WEEK 7
(Lessons 9 & 10; pages 59 – 66)

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LESSON 9 – COMMONLY EMPLOYED STATISTICAL TOOLS

OBJECTIVES:
At the end of this module, the students are expected to:
1. give the data gathering tools to be used in conducting a qualitative research;
2. describe the statistical tools to be used in conducting a quantitative research;
3. construct frequency and distribution table of a given data; and
4. Compute for the mean of a given data.

Data Gathering Tools in Qualitative Research (Review Lesson)

• Participant/Process observation
• Interview
• Focus Group Discussion (FGD)
• Participatory Rapid Appraisal (Immersion)
• Open-ended question
• Ethnography
• Document Analysis (Review of Records)
• Diary Counts
• Voice Recording
• Video Recording
• Photography
• Archival Materials
• Grounded Theory
• Content Analysis
• Historical Analysis

Statistical Tools for Gathering Data in Quantitative Research

Commonly Applied Descriptive Statistical Tools


• Standard Deviation
• Frequency
• Percentage
• Simple Mean
• Weighted Mean
• Ranking

Commonly Applied Inferential Statistical Tools


• t-test
• z-test
• Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
• Ranking
• Pearson r
• Chi-square
• Spearman’s Rho Correlation
• Regression

NOTE: What makes quantitative research a statistical research is that it applies


statistical tools in analyzing data.
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Standard Deviation is a measure of the extent of variation or dispersion of a set of scores
or values. A low standard deviation indicates that the scores or values tend to be close to the
mean of a set while a high standard deviation indicates that the scores or values are spread out
over a wider range.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. Percentage
is a rate, number, or amount in each hundred. Frequency and percentage are often times
inseparable in research.
Simple Mean is an ordinary arithmetic average. Weighted Mean is similar to an ordinary
arithmetic mean, except that instead of each of the data points contributing equally to the final
average, some data points contribute more than others.
t-test is used to compare two small groups (n < 30). It uses a t-distribution curve. t-
distribution curve is a platykurtic distribution which has thinner tails than a normal curve. z-test is
used to compare two large groups (n ≥ 30). It employs a normal curve. To date, t-test is applied
whether the sample is less than or greater than or equal 30 since t-distribution curve is made to
coincide the normal curve if n ≥ 30.
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used to test the significant difference of the means of
three or more groups. It applies a F-distribution curve.
Ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is
either ‘ranked higher than’, ‘ranked lower than’ or ‘ranked equal to’ the second.
Pearson r is used to measure the strength of a linear correlation or association between
two variables X and Y. It has a value between +1 and -1. Pearson r is used when both independent
and dependent variables give Likert scale.
Chi-square (X2) is used for testing relationship between categorical variables. It is used
when independent and dependent variables don’t give both Likert scale. Treating Likert scale
versus nominal scale, nominal scale versus Likert scale, or nominal scale versus nominal scale,
Chi-square is used.
Spearman’s Rank Correlation is often used to evaluate relationships involving ordinal
variables. It is based on the ranked values for each variable rather than the raw data.
Regression is a statistical method that attempts to determine the strength and character of
the relationship between one dependent variable (usually denoted by Y) and a series of
independent variables (usually denoted by X).
Correlation measures the degree of relationship between two variables. Regression is
about how one variable affects another or what changes it triggers in the other.

DIRECTION: Write TRUE if the sentence is correct and FALSE, if not (1 whole sheet of paper).
Indicate your name, subject and name of your teacher. Submit your answer in the drop point in your
locality.
__ 1. A quantitative research is very prone to manipulation.
__ 2. Dependent variable can affect independent variable.
__ 3. Intervening variables are as significant as independent variables.
__ 4. A qualitative research is more formal and scientific compared with quantitative research.
__ 5. The effect of bullying on the academic achievement of students can be determined through
mean and percentage.
__ 6. All research variables are measurable.
__ 7. Only words can express the effects of independent variables on dependent variables.
__ 8. The extent of the program implementation can be measured using mean and percentage.
__ 9. Independent variable can affect dependent variable.
__ 10. To be able to test the hypothesis, a researcher has to observe and collect data for each
variable included in the said hypothesis.

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Examples of Frequency and Percentage

Example of Simple Mean

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Example of Weighted Mean

DIRECTION: Construct frequency and percentage distribution table for each of the following. Give
table title for your answer (1 whole sheet of paper). Indicate your name, subject and name of your
teacher. Submit your answer in the drop point in your locality.

1. Religion of Students
Roman Catholic - 150
Protestant - 80
Islam - 75
Seventh Day Adventist (SDA) - 50
2. Perceptions of SHS Students on the Revival of Reserved Officers’ Training Corps
(ROTC)
Strongly Agree - 300
Agree - 350
Moderately Agree - 280
Disagree - 100
Strongly Disagree - 50

DIRECTION: Compute for the overall mean of each of the following (1 whole sheet of paper).
Indicate your name, subject and name of your teacher. Submit your answer in the drop point in your
locality.

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NOTE: Both descriptive and inferential statistics can be computed using Microsoft excel and
Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). t-test, z-test, Pearson r, Chi-square and
Regression have very long solutions if we will use the manual computation. Thus, using computer
software is advised. Computer can only give the statistical results. It doesn’t analyze and interpret
the data. Analysis and interpretation of data lie on the hands of the researcher

LESSON 10- TYPES OF SCALE AND RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

OBJECTIVES:
At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to:
1. describe the types of scale;
2. demonstrate their understanding about the two general types of statistics;
3. explain the need of a hypothesis in conducting most of the quantitative research;
4. construct statement of the problem (research question), null hypothesis and alternative
hypothesis given the working title of a research.

Types of Scale

1. NOMINAL SCALE describes a variable with categories that do not have a natural order
or ranking. In nominal scale, calculation of mean, median or standard deviation is meaningless.
Some examples of nominal scale include age, gender, religion, tribe, educational attainment,
political party, nationality, marital status, income, years of experience, and profession.

2. ORDINAL SCALE describes a variable where the order matters but not the difference
between values. There is no way that a mean should ever be calculated for ordinal scale which
has a median and mode only. Some examples of ordinal scale are socio-economic status (low
income, middle income, high income), educational level (elementary, high school, bachelor’s
degree, master’s degree, doctoral degree), income level (less than 10K, 10K-50K, over 50K) and
satisfaction rating (extremely like, like, neutral, dislike, extremely dislike).

3. INTERVAL SCALE describes a variable where there is order and the difference between
two values is meaningful. It always appears in the form of numbers or numerical values where the
distance between the two points is standardized and equal. It holds no true zero and can represent
values below zero. For example, Celsius scale has no such thing as “no temperature” but there’s

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a “negative temperature”. Some examples of interval scale are temperature scale, Liker scale,
and pH score.

4. RATIO SCALE has all the properties of an interval scale except that ratio scale holds “an
absolute true characteristic” or “no negative value”. It never falls below zero. For instance, height
and weight measure from zero and above. It has no negative height and no negative weight. Some
examples of ratio scale are height, weight, age and pulse rate.

5. LIKERT SCALE is a psychometric scale commonly involved in research that employs


questionnaires. It is the most widely used approach to scaling responses in survey research.
Common examples of Likert scale are 5-Point Likert Scale and 4-Point Likert Scale.

Examples of Likert Scale

5 – Strong Agree
4 – Agree
3 – Moderately Agree Five-Point Likert Scale
2 – Disagree
1 – Strongly Disagree

4 – Very Well Implemented


3 – Well Implemented
Four-Point Likert Scale
2 – Rarely Implemented
1 – Poorly Implemented

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH is also known as STATISTICAL RESEARCH. This research


utilizes statistical tools.

Two Types of Statistics

1. Descriptive Statistics (Hypothesis is not needed)


a. Standard Deviation
b. Frequency and Percentage
c. Simple Mean/Weighted Mean
d. Mode
e. Median
f. Ranking

2. Inferential Statistics (Hypothesis is needed)


a. t-test
b. z-test
c. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
d. Pearson r
d. Chi-square
e. Regression

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS is the term given to the data analysis that helps describe, show
or summarize data in a meaningful way. It doesn’t, however, allow us to make inferences or
predictions. There are two general types of statistics that are used to describe data. They are (1)

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


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Measures of Central Tendency (Mean, Mode & Median); and (2) Measures of Spread (Variance
and Standard Deviation).

INFERENTIAL STATISTICS is a technique that allows researchers to make predictions or


inferences from the data. With inferential statistics, researchers take data from samples and make
generalizations about a population. Inferential statistics uses statistical models to help researchers
compare their sample data to other samples or to previous research. Hypothesis testing is applied
in inferential statistics.

What is a Hypothesis?

Hypothesis is a proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting


point for further investigation. It is a proposition made as a basis for reasoning, without any
assumption of its truth. It is an educated guess or tentative answer to the research problem. It is
classified as Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis.

Null hypothesis (H0) is the statement that there is no significant difference, effect or
relationship between two or more variables or populations. It is the hypothesis that we wish to reject.

Alternative hypothesis (Ha) is the hypothesis that is contrary to null hypothesis. It is a claim
about a certain phenomenon contradictory to H0.

Constructing Research Hypothesis

1. SOP: Is there a significant difference in the academic performance of students in experimental


and control groups before the experimentation?
H0: There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students in
experimental and control groups before the experimentation.
Ha: There is a significant difference in the academic performance of students in experimental
and control groups before the experimentation.

2. SOP: Is there a significant relationship between students’ participation to extracurricular activities


and their self-efficacy?
H0: There is no significant relationship between students’ participation to extracurricular
activities and their self-efficacy.
Ha: There is a significant relationship between students’ participation to extracurricular
activities and their self-efficacy.

EXERCISE: Given the research title and one of its SOP, construct the null hypothesis and
alternative hypothesis.

1. Research Title: Management of Resources and Development of School Facilities of Esperanza


National High School

SOP: Is there a significant relationship between management of resources and development of


school facilities?
H0:

Ha:
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
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2. Research Title: Bullying and Teen Depression at Esperanza National High School

SOP: Is there a significant relationship between bullying and teen depression?


H0:

Ha:

3. Research Title: Parenting Styles and Behavioral Problems among Technical-Vocational


Livelihood (TVL) Students

SOP: Is there a significant relationship between parenting styles and behavioral problems of TVL
students?
H0:

Ha:

4. Research Title: Parenting Styles and Behavioral Problems of Technical-Vocational Livelihood


(TVL) Students

SOP: Is there a significant difference between the parenting styles received by male and female
TVL students?
H0:

Ha:

EXERCISE: Given the research title, state the major SOP. Then, construct the null hypothesis and
alternative hypothesis.

1. Research Title: Learning Stress and Stress Management Strategies of Senior High School
Students

SOP:

H0:

Ha:

2. Research Title: Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4P’s): Impact on the Academic
Performance and Attendance of Students

SOP:

H0:

Ha:
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
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3. Research Title: Parental Relationship, Academic Performance and Behavior of Students of
Esperanza National High School

SOP:

H0:

Ha:

4. Research Title: Impact of Motivation on the Performance of Teachers of Esperanza National


High School

SOP:

H0:

Ha:

LESSON 11 – QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS AND STATISTICAL TOOLS

OBJECTIVES:
At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to:
1. describe the quantitative research design and its types;
2. identify the statistical tools applicable for each type of quantitative research design; and
3. give the statistical tool applicable for each given statement of the problem (research
objective).

What is a Research Design?

RESEARCH DESIGN is the blueprint of the research. It is the set of methods and
procedures used in collecting and analyzing measures of the variables specified in the research
problem. It is a framework that has been created to find answers to research questions.

Types of Research Design

1. Descriptive Research Design


2. Comparative Research Design
3. Correlational Research Design
4. Descriptive Correlational Research Design
5. Experimental Research Design
6. Quasi-Experimental Research Design

Types of Quantitative Research Designs and their Applicable Statistical Tools


1. Descriptive Research Design
Statistical Tools to be used in this research design

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- Frequency
- Percentage
- Weighted Mean (Major Statistical Tool)
- Mixed Methods of Qualitative and Quantitative can also belong here.

2. Comparative Research Design


Statistical Tools to be used in this research design
- t-test
- Analysis of Variance

3. Correlational Research Design


Statistical Tools to be used in this research design
- Pearson r
- Spearman’s Rho
- Chi-square
4. Descriptive Correlational Research Design
Statistical Tools are combination of descriptive and correlational statistical tools. For
instance, mean and Pearson r.

5. Experimental Research Design


Statistical Tools to be used in this research design
- t-test
- Analysis of Variance
6. Quasi-Experimental Research Design
Statistical Tools to be used in this research design
- t-test
- Analysis of Variance

RESEARCH DESIGNS and STATISTICAL TOOLS can be determined using the research
objectives or statement of the problem (SOP). If you cannot determine what statistical tool is
applicable in each research objective, that research objective or SOP is not well constructed.

Research objectives or statement of the problem (SOP) must be SMART.


S – Specific
M – Measurable
A – Attainable
R – Realistic
T – Time bounded

The two most commonly conducted research for senior high school students are
Descriptive Research and Correlational Research.

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH is used to describe characteristics of a population or


phenomenon being studied. It focuses on answering the “what” question, rather than getting the
answers about how/when/why the characteristics occurred. It is the most widely-used research as
indicated by the theses, dissertations and research reports of educational institutions. Its common
means of obtaining data include the use of questionnaire, personal interviews with the aid of
study guide or interview schedule, and observation, either participatory or not. Descriptive
research has only independent variable/s. It doesn’t have dependent variable.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


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LESSON 12 – IDENTIFYING THE STATISTICAL TOOL APPLICABLE FOR THE GIVEN
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

OBJECTIVES:
At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to:
1. identify the statistical tool applicable for the given statement of the problem (SOP);
2. write the general and specific objective of the study; and
3. change research objective from interrogative form to infinitive form or vice versa.

Examples of Descriptive Research, their Objectives and Statistical Tools to be Used

Research Title: Status of the Implementation of K to 12 Science Technology Engineering and


Mathematics in the Division of Sultan Kudarat

Statement of the Problem


This study generally aims to describe the status of the implementation of the K to 12 Science,
Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) curriculum of the public senior high schools in
the Division of Sultan Kudarat, Region XII, Philippines.
Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What are the qualifications of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
(STEM) teachers in terms of:
1.1 Educational Background;
1.2 Teaching Experience;
1.3 Related Trainings; and Frequency and Percentage
1.4 Professional Regulation Commission (PRC)
License?
2. What is the level of parents’ involvement in the implementation of the Science,
Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) curriculum in terms of:
2.1 Student Learning Process;
2.2 Financial Support;
2.3 Planning and Preparations; and Weighted Mean
2.4 Decision-Making?
3. What is the extent of the implementation of the Science, Technology, Engineering and
Mathematics (STEM) curriculum along with the following:
3.1 Curriculum;
3.2 Instructional Supervision;
3.3 Physical Plant and Facilities;
3.4 Equipment; Weighted Mean
3.5 Learning Resources;
3.6 Teaching Strategies;
3.7 Utilization of Library Resources;
3.8 Financial Allocation and Expenditures; and
3.9 Administrative Support?
4. What are the observed gaps in the implementation of the Science, Technology,
Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) curriculum? Frequency and Percentage

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


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Research Title: Evaluation of the Program Implementation of Special Education (SPED) in Sultan
Kudarat Division

Statement of the Problem


Generally, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the program implementation of special
education (SPED) centers in Region XII for the School Year 2018 - 2019.
Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What is the status of the program implementation of special education (SPED) along with
the following key result areas (KRAs):
1.2 Philosophy, Goals, and Objectives;
1.3 Assessment Process;
1.4 School Admission and Organization of Classes;
1.5 Curriculum Content, Instructional Strategies, and Materials;
1.6 Organizational Patterns; Weighted Mean
1.7 School Plant and Facilities;
1.8 Personnel Recruitment, Welfare and Development;
1.9 Administration and Supervision;
1.10 Research and Special Studies;
1.11 Parent Education and Community Involvement;
1.12 Monitoring and Evaluation; and Linkages?
2. What are the facilitating factors that helped in the program implementation?
3. What are the hindering factors encountered by special education (SPED)?
4. What are the best practices of SPED centers in Region XII?
NOTE: SOP #s 2-4 are qualitative in nature. Thus, key informant interview (KII) and
focus group discussion (FGD) are applicable.

Research Title: Students’ Experiences, Reactions and Opinions on Bullying at Esperanza


National High School

Statement of the Problem


This research aims to determine the experiences, reactions and opinions of students on
bullying at Esperanza National High School for the School Year 2019 – 20120.
Specifically, this study will seek answers to the following questions.
1. To what extent are the experiences of the students on the following types of bullying at
school and at home?
1.1 Physical Bullying;
1.2 Verbal Bullying;
1.3 Relational Bullying; Weighted Mean
1.4 Sexual Bullying; and
1.5 Cyber Bullying?
2. To what extent do the students experience bullying from the following:
2.1 Friends;
2.2 Classmates;
2.3 Neighbours;
Weighted Mean
2.4 Teachers;
2.5 Relatives; and
2.6 Parents?
3. What are the reactions of the students when they are bullied?
KII and FGD

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


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Examples of Correlational Research, their Objectives and Statistical Tools to be Used

Research Title: Aspirations and Challenges of Maguindanaon Students in the Conflict Areas of
Maguindanaon Province

Statement of the Problem


This study will investigate and explore the effect of the challenges experienced by the
Maguindanaon students on their personal, economic, environmental, political and social
aspirations.
Specifically, this study will seek answers to the following questions:
1. To what extent are the aspirations of Maguindanaon students relative to the following:
1.1 Personal;
1.2 Economic;
1.3 Environment; Weighted Mean
1.4 Political; and
1.5 Social?
2. To what extent are the challenges met by Maguindanao students relative to:
2.1 Oppression;
2.2 Peace and Order;
2.3 Poverty; Weighted Mean
2.4 Parental Practices; and
2.5 Access to Quality Education?
3. Is there a significant difference on the aspirations and challenges experienced by male
and female Maguindanaon students? t-test

4. Are the aspirations of Maguindanaon students affected by the challenges they


encounter in the conflict areas of Maguindanao?
Pearson r

Research Title: Assessment on the Full Implementation of Senior High School Curriculum
in the Division of Sultan Kudarat

Statement of the Problem


This study will investigate the impact of the respondents’ expectations and apprehensions
on the effectiveness of the full implementation of SHS curriculum.
Specifically, it sought answers to the following questions:
1. To what level are the private and public high schools expected on the full implementation
of senior high school curriculum in terms of:
1.1 Quality of Instructional Practices;
1.2 College and Career Readiness;
1.3 Global Competitiveness; Weighted Mean
1.4 Advancement of Knowledge, Skills and
Attitudes (KSA); and
1.5 Planning and Preparations?
2. To what level are the private and public high schools apprehended on the full
implementation of senior high school curriculum in terms of:
2.1 Financial Expenses;
2.2 Dropouts and Failures; Weighted Mean
2.3 Prevalence of Delinquent Behaviors;
2.4 Buildings and other Resources;
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2.5 New School Environment; and
2.5 External Linkages for Immersion and On-the-Job
Training?
3. To what level is the effectiveness of private and public high schools on the full
implementation of senior high school curriculum in terms of:
3.1 Curriculum Adjustment,
3.2 School Facilities;
3.3 Administration and Management; Weighted Mean
3.4 Teachers’ Qualifications;
3.5 Teaching Strategies; and
3.6 Instructional Materials?
4. Is there a significant difference on the expectations, apprehensions and effectiveness of
the full implementation of senior high school curriculum between private and public high schools?
t-test

5. Are the respondents’ expectations and apprehensions significantly related to the


effectiveness of the full implementation of the senior high school curriculum?
Pearson r

EXERCISE: Given the statement of the problem (SOP), identify what statistical tool is applicable.

1. SOP: What is the profile of STEM teachers in terms of teaching experience and
educational attainment?

2. SOP: To what extent is the problem-solving skills of grade 7 students?

3. SOP: Is there a significant gender difference on the performance of students in their


Geometry subjects?

4. SOP: What is the impact of the reading interest on students’ literary comprehension?

5. SOP: What is the effect of teachers’ educational qualifications on the learning performance
of students in Mathematics?

6. SOP: Is there a significant difference in the learning performance of the students exposed
in the three different methods of teaching: Traditional, Game-Based, and Activity-
Oriented?

7. SOP: Is there a significant difference between the responses of the women and men in the
legalization of the divorce in the Philippines?

8. SOP: Are the public school teachers more competent compared to the private school
teachers?

9. SOP: What is the profile of the NQuESH takers in terms of administrative experience and
educational attainment?

10. SOP: What is the level of the reading comprehension of grade 7 students?

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11. SOP: Is there a significant difference between the performance of the students in the two
previous grading periods?

12. SOP: Is there a significant relationship between the reading interest and literary
comprehension of the students?

13. SOP: Is the learning performance of the students in Mathematics significantly influenced by
the educational qualification of their teachers?

14. SOP: Is there a significant difference in the learning performance of the students exposed
in the three different methods of teaching: Traditional, Computer-Assisted Instruction, and
Practical Work Approach?

15. SOP: Is there a significant relationship between the responses of the women and men in
the legalization of the divorce in the Philippines?

16. SOP: Are the public school teachers more satisfied with their jobs compared to the private
school teachers?

17. 1. To what degree is the student absenteeism in the following causes:


1.1 Physical/school factors,
1.2 Health problems,
1.3 Personal attitudes,
1.4 Family-related issues,
1.5 Teacher-related reasons,
1.6 Subject-related matters,
1.7 Classroom atmosphere,
1.8 Peer relationship,
1.9 Financial constraints, and
1.10 Obsession in the computer or online games/social networking sites?

18. 2. What is the level of academic performance of low performing students in the following
tool subjects:
2.1 Filipino,
2.2 English,
2.3 Mathematics, and
2.4 Science?

19. 3. Is there a significant difference in the attitudes of students towards absenteeism when
they are grouped according to:
3.1 Grade 7,
3.2 Grade 8,
3.3 Grade 9, and
3.4 Grade 10?

20. 4. Is the assessment of the respondents towards absenteeism significantly different


according to the following types of respondents:

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4.1 Low performing students,
4.2 Their respective parents or guardians, and
4.3 Their close friends?

21. 5. Does the academic performance of struggling students in the tool subjects significantly
differ from each other?

22. 6. Is there a significant difference in the attitudes of male and female students towards
absenteeism?

23. 7. Is there a significant relationship between the causes of absenteeism and academic
performance of the struggling students?

24. 8. What intervention programs can be proposed to minimize, if not totally eradicate
absenteeism among the low performing students?

Note: SOP #s 17 – 24 belong to the same research title.

25. Is there a significant difference between the academic performance of TVL and HUMSS
students?

Forms of Quantitative Research Objectives

DIRECTION: Change each research objective from interrogative form to infinitive form or vice
versa. Write your answer the vacant box.
Interrogative Form Infinitive Form
Is the academic performance influenced by To determine the influence of student
student absenteeism? absenteeism on the academic performance
What is the effect of Korean novelas on the To determine the effect of Korean novelas on
Filipino value system? the Filipino value system
Is there a significant relationship between study
habits and academic achievement of students?
To investigate the impact of bullying on the self-
esteem of students
To what extent is the job satisfaction of private
school teachers?
To compare the problem-solving skills of
experimental and control groups in
Mathematics
Is there a significant difference on the
absenteeism of male and female students?
To determine the status of the blended learning
approach used by DepEd in the midst of
COVID-19 pandemic

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LESSON 13 – SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

Since survey research has a larger scope of respondents, sampling technique is very
necessary. For instance, the population of the research is 6,033 students, teachers, parents and
school administrators. It doesn’t mean that all of these 6,033 target respondents will be given a
survey questionnaire. Sampling technique should be done systematically so that expenses and time
will be minimized but the generality and reliability of the information will be maintained.

Sampling Techniques

For Quantitative Research


1. Simple Random Sampling
- Fishbowl Method
- Lottery Method
2. Systematic Sampling
3. Stratified Random Sampling

For Qualitative Research


1. Purposive Sampling
2. Convenience Sampling
3. Judgement Sampling
4. Snowball Sampling

Problem:
A researcher is conducting a study about the effect of student absenteeism on academic
performance of students. The main respondents of the study are the students from all grade levels.
The number of sub-population per grade level is as follows:
Grade 7 – 1209
Grade 8 – 1083
Grade 9 – 985
Grade 10 – 889
Grade 11 – 1087
Grade 12 – 780
What appropriate sampling technique can be applied? How many samples do we have?
How many samples from each grade level?

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Solution:

Stratified Random Sampling using Slovin’s Equation


𝑵
n=𝟏 + 𝑵𝒆𝟐
where:
n = desired sample
N = population
e = margin of error = 5% = 0.05
Grade 7 – 1209
Grade 8 – 1083
Grade 9 – 985
Grade 10 – 889
Grade 11 – 1087
Grade 12 – 780
6033
𝑁
n=1 + 𝑁𝑒 2
6033
=
1 + 6033(0.05)2
6033
=1 + 6033(0.0025)
6033
=1 + 15.0825
6033
= 16.0825
n = 375

Proportional Percentage:
373
6003
= 0.0622

Grade 7 – 1209 x 0.0622 = 75


Grade 8 – 1083 x 0.0622 = 67
Grade 9 – 985 x 0.0622 = 61
Grade 10 – 889 x 0.0622 = 55
Grade 11 – 1087 x 0.0622 = 68
Grade 12 – 780 x 0.0622 = 49
375
Then, apply the simple random sampling or systematic sampling technique in choosing the
individual respondent per group.

Assignment (1 whole):

1. A researcher is conducting a study about the full implementation of Senior High School
(SHS) curriculum in Sultan Kudarat. The following are the sub-population of the study:

Students – 3050
Teachers – 550
Parents – 320
Principals – 150

Compute for the total number of sample as well as the sample per group.

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2. Compute for the total sample and sample per school using the following data.

Population
USM - Kabacan – 1580
MSU - Maguindanao – 1398
CCSPC – 1409
SKSU – 1216

DIRECTION: Write the following research titles in inverted pyramid. Underline the independent
variable once and the dependent variable twice. Then identify the major respondents of the study.

1. SOCIAL COMPETENCE AND LEADERSHIP QUALITIES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL


PRINCIPALS IN SULTAN KUDARAT
Major Respondents:

2. THE EFFECT OF STUDY HABITS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF GRADE 12


STUDENTS IN ENGLISH
Major Respondents: __________________

3. TRIBAL CHALLENGES AND ASPIRATIONS OF INDIGENOUS STUDENTS OF


ESPERANZA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Major Respondents: __________________

4. UTILIZATION OF SCHOOL FUNDS AND DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS


IN REGION XII
Major Respondents: __________________

5. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND COURSE PREFERENCES OF GRADE 12 STUDENTS


Major Respondents: __________________

What is a Research Problem?

A research problem is any significant, perplexing and challenging situation, real or artificial,
the solution of which requires reflective thinking. It is an interesting situation that can be translated
into series of questions which help determine the direction of subsequent inquiry.

GUIDELINES IN WRITING THE RESEARCH WORKING TITLE


1. Generally, the working title (problem) is formulated before the start of the research work. It
may be revised and refined later if there is a need.
2. It must contain the variables and respondents of the study.
3. It must be broad enough to include all aspects of the subject matter studied or to be
studied. Hence, the research title indicates what is expected to be found inside the
research report.
4. It must be as brief and concise as possible. A maximum of 14 significant words is
encouraged.
5. Avoid using the terms “ An analysis of”, “ A study of”, “ An investigation of”, and the like. All
these things are understood to have been done or to be done when a research is
conducted.
6. If the title contains more than one line, it be written like an inverted pyramid, all words in
capital letters.
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The most difficult part of a research process is identifying the research problem. The
following activities will guide you to look for a research problem which will eventually become
potential title of your research.

DIRECTION: Think of a research variable. Look for its indicators from any sources. Construct
research objectives out of this research variable.

Examples:

A. Research Variable: Solid Waste Management


Indicators
1. Collection
2. Transport
3. Treatment
4. Disposal
5. Monitoring and Evaluation

Statement of the Problem


This study generally aims to assess the implementation of solid waste management
(SWM) of the municipality of Esperanza, Sultan Kudarat.
Specifically, this study seeks answers to the following questions:
1. What is the level of the implementation of solid waste management (SWM) in terms of:
1.1 Collection;
1.2 Transport;
1.3 Treatment;
1.4 Disposal; and
1.5 Monitoring and Evaluation?
2. What is the level of residents’ knowledge, attitudes, practices and Awareness on solid
waste management (SWM)?
3. What are the problems encountered in the implementation of solid waste management
(SWM)?

Working Title: Residents’ Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Awareness on Solid Waste
Management in the Municipality of Esperanza, Sultan Kudarat
Research Design: Descriptive Research Design
Statistical Tools: SOP 1 & 2 – Weighted Mean
SOP 3 – Frequency & Percentage

B. Research Variable: COVID-19 Pandemic

Indicators:
Psychological
1. Anxiety
2. Depression
3. Stress
Social
1. Economic Uncertainty
2. Leisure Activities
3. Social Well-Being

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Statement of the Problem
The general purpose of this study is to determine the level of psychological and social
effect of COVID-19 pandemic among the millennials of Esperanza, Sultan Kudarat.
Specifically, this study will be carried to find answers to the following:
1. To what extent is the effect of COVID-19 pandemic to the following psychological
emotions of the millenials:
1.1 Anxiety;
1.2 Depression; and
1.3 Stress?
2. To what extent is the effect of COVID-19 pandemic to the social stability of the millenials
relative to:
2.1 Economic Uncertainty;
2.2 Leisure Activities; and
2.3 Social Well-Being?
3. What preventive measures do the millennials do to avoid the adverse effect of the
lockdown caused by COVID-19 pandemic?

Working Title: Psychological and Social Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic among the Millennials of
Esperanza, Sultan Kudarat
Research Design: Descriptive Research Design
Statistical Tools: SOP 1 & 2 – Weighted Mean
SOP 3 – Ranking

C. Research Variable: Communication


Indicators
1. Verbal Communication
2. Nonverbal Communication
3. Written Communication
4. Visual Communication

Statement of the Problem


This study aims to determine the extent of communication skills of students of Esperanza
National High School for the new normal School Year 2020-2021.
Specifically, this study will answer the following questions:
1. What is the level of the communication skills of students in terms of:
1.1 Verbal Communication;
1.2 Nonverbal Communication;
1.3 Written Communication; and
1.4 Visual Communication?
2. What are the barriers to communication encountered by students in the
classroom?
3. What are the practices of teachers to improve the communication skills of
students?

Working Title: Communication Skills of Struggling Students of Esperanza National High School
Research Design: Descriptive Research Design
Statistical Tools: SOP 1 – Weighted Mean
SOP 2 – Frequency and Percentage
SOP 3 – Interview and Focus Group Discussion

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What is a Research Question?

A Research Question (Statement of the Problem) is the question around which you center
your research. It is a question that a research paper sets out to answer. Specifying the research
question is the first step the researcher has to take when undertaking a research. It helps the
researchers focus their research by providing a path through the research and writing process.

Research Question should be:

CLEAR. It provides enough specifics that one’s audience can easily understand its purpose
without needing additional explanation.
FOCUSED. It is narrow enough that it can be answered thoroughly in the space the writing
task allows.
CONCISE. It is expressed in the fewest possible words.
COMPLEX. It is not answerable with simple “yes” or “no” but rather requires synthesis and
analysis of ideas and sources prior to composition of an answer.
ARGUABLE. Its potential answers are open to debate rather than accepted facts.

Tips in Writing the Research Questions

1. Specify your specific concern or issue.


2. Decide what you want to know about the specific concern or issue.
3. Turn what you want to know and the specific concern into a question.
4. Ensure that the question is answerable.
5. Check to make sure the question is not too broad or too narrow.

Tips in Writing the Background of the Study

A background of the study includes a review of the topic being researched, current
information surrounding the issue, previous studies on the issue, and relevant history on the
issue. Ideally, the study should effectively set forth the history and background information on
your research problem. It is best used to present contextual or prerequisite information that is
important or essential to understand the main body of your research paper.

The following tips will guide you in writing the background of your study:
1. Conduct preliminary research in the beginning stages of formulating a research paper,
when many issues are unclear and thoughts need to be solidified. Conducting
preliminary research on your area of the study and specific topic will help you formulate
a research question that will lead to more specific and relevant research.
2. Read the information and develop a research question that will guide your research
topic. You will need to take notes and keep accurate track of the sources that you used
up to this point. Be sure to cite the source of the information on the note cards so you
don’t forget where each piece of information came from, should you decide to use it in
your paper.
3. Write research questions. Think about what you’ve read and look for issues, problems
or solutions that others have found and determine your own opinion or stance on the
issue. Write your opinion as an authoritative statement on the issue, problem or
situation. At this point, you can do more detailed research and find sources that are more
relevant to your research objectives.

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4. Complete your research using your research questions as your guide. You will find
relevant sources that will provide insight into your specific research problem. Make sure
that your sources provide details on the history and past researches related to your
research question.
5. Create relevant paragraphs as you write the background of your study. As you evaluate
your research and begin to write the background of your study, create separate
paragraphs that cover the key issues, major findings, and controversies surrounding
your research.
6. Identify any further study that needs to be done in that area, or provide possible
solutions to the issue that haven’t been considered before. You can expound your major
research objective and explain the major reason why you need to conduct your
present study.
7. Revise and edit the background of your study. Complete several drafts of your work.
Each time you read over your work, try to leave it better than it was before. It’s also a
great idea to have someone else look it over as well because two heads are better than
one.

Final Tips in Writing the Background of the Study

Background of the Study should be written in deductive approach. It should start from the
general knowledge going to the small details of the issue. Explain the main variables of the study.
Connect these variables using review of related literature (RRL). Do a little touch with the
significance of your study. Last paragraph should be a convincing statement why you need to
conduct the study. Background of the study should be a maximum of 3 pages only.

What is written in the Conceptual Framework Section?

Writing a conceptual framework is very related to writing a background of the study. First to
second paragraphs should explain the main variables of your study. However, review of related
literature (RRL) already discussed in the background of the study should not be included in the
conceptual framework of the study to avoid redundancy.
Third paragraph of the conceptual framework should enumerate the indicators of each
variable. The last paragraph should introduce the research paradigm of your study.

What is written in the Statement of the Problem Section?

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM (SOP) is a claim that outlines the problem addressed by
a study. A good research problem should address an existing gap in knowledge in the field and
lead further investigation. It is composed of the general objective and specific objectives of the study
(at least 3 specific objectives). General objective of the study determines the research design of the
study. Specific objectives of the study determine the test statistics (statistical tools) to be used in
your study.

What is written in the Significance of the Study Section?

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY is written as part of the introduction section of the study.
It provides details to the readers on how the study will contribute to the respondents and the
community or educational institution. It will state who will benefit from the findings of the study. It
also includes an explanation of the work’s importance as well as its potential benefits for future
researches.
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What is written in the Scope and Delimitation of the Study Section?

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION are two important elements of a research paper. The scope
of the study explains the extent to which the research area will be explored in the work and it
specifies the parameters within which the study will be operating. The delimitation of the study is
the characteristic that limits the scope and describes the boundaries of the study. It should explain
why specific choices will be made while others will be excluded and how this might affect the
outcome of the research.

What is written in the Definition of Terms’ Section?

DEFINITION OF TERMS is an important part of a research paper wherein key or important


terms such as research variables, their indicators and other significant terms in the research title
are operationally defined. Operational definition of terms means that definitions are based on how
the terms are used in your study. Definitions should not be taken from dictionary.

What is written in the Review of Related Literature Part?

Review of related literature (RRL) is a detailed review of existing writings like scholarly
articles, books, journals and other sources related to the topic of your research. RRL should
enumerate, describe, summarize, evaluate and classify previous research findings relevant to your
research problem.
Sub-topics of the RRL should be based from the research variables and their indicators.
They should also be based from the order of the specific objectives of the study.
Each paragraph of the RRL should contain at least one in-text citation which is properly
paraphrased. Enumeration is allowed as long as it should be done in paragraph form. Use American
Psychological Association (APA) style in writing the RRL.
If you have a good RRL, you won’t get difficulty in looking for the relevant ideas that will
support or oppose the findings of your research. Only topics relevant to the research objectives
should be included in your RRL.
Writing the review of related literature (RRL) should follow the following criteria:
Criteria: (Highly Satisfactory)
• Extensively appraises existing research related to the research questions
• Identifies recommendations and questions in previous studies
• Discusses the main points of view and controversies of existing research studies and critical
evaluation of views, their strengths and weaknesses
✓ Focuses on key issues which underlie the action research; general conclusion about the
related action research papers; what research still needs to be done; and what knowledge
gaps remain that the study will aim to fill.

The secret for HIGHLY SATISFACTORY RRL is READING.

Sources of Related Literature

• Books
• Encyclopedia
• Internet
• Magazines
• Newspapers
• Theses/Dissertations
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Formats in Citation and Referencing

• Chicago
• MLA- Modern Language Association
• APA- American Psychological Association (Commonly Employed)

Examples of Proper In-Text Citation Using APA Format

RRL taken from the Study of Torreňa (2019) about the status of the implementation of STEM
curriculum in Sultan Kudarat
Rabacal and Alegato (2017) emphasized that if the qualifications of the teachers are low,
students’ academic performance can be sacrificed. They added that those teachers who pursue
their post-graduate education are those who really want to improve their teaching pedagogy.
Further, Abdullah (2020) noted that STEM teachers need in-depth knowledge of their subject and
will invariably need to study subjects assigned to them since most of their students are academically
inclined.
Students whose teachers held master’s degree performed better in reading and writing tests.
Advanced degree programs give teachers insight into the theoretical and practical backgrounds that
drive their professions (Velasquez, 2017).

RRL taken from the Study of Camsa (2020) about the program implementation of special
education (SPED) Curriculum in Region XII
Education for All (EFA) is a global commitment to provide quality basic education for all
children, youth and adults specifically those who are vulnerable to marginalization and exclusion
(Hasan et al. 2018). It has been a global campaign designed by different nations through the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 and continues to be a worldwide movement led by
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). UNICEF (2017)
stressed that the commitment to EFA goals has been reiterated in the eight Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs) developed by an international community.
Although, there are many helping factors that urge the frontliners to successfully implement
the special education (SPED) program, there are encountered hindering factors that challenge them
to find the best guidance and solutions to the existing problems. Luminda (2018) emphasized that
there are factors that facilitate a functional outcome, but there are also factors that become barriers
and are not adequately addressed. Pivik et al. (2012) noted that SPED curriculum has been
implemented since 1997 with great success, but there are also areas that still encounter
implementation difficulties.

NOTE: In-text citations are in BOLDFACE for emphasis.

RRL taken from the Study of Abdullah (2020) about the implementation of senior high school
curriculum among private and public schools in Sultan Kudarat
This study was anchored on Thorndike’s law of readiness in which Magsino (2009) stressed
that learning considers the readiness of a child so that he could learn effectively. To make the
learning opportunities more accessible to every child, educational institution must be equipped with
functional physical facilities and equipment, competent teachers, and a well-designed curriculum.
Former DepEd Secretary Luistro averred that the K to 12 Program is a globally competitive
curriculum that could help solve the problem of unemployment, keep up global standards, and help
Filipino students to have advanced knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA) to choose the career that
best suits their interest (DepEd, 2016; Abdullah, 2019).
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While the rich become richer and the poor becomes poorer, it is evident that there is a
growing need to minimize the rising unequal distribution of wealth, opportunities and other resources
among Filipino constituents, from which the children are greatly affected (Cerado & Abdulla, 2015).

What is written in the Research Design Section?

RESEARCH DESIGN is a plan of investigation conceived to obtain an answer to research


questions. Specify the research design appropriate to your study. Explain this research design
based from your previous readings.
Research design also provides the strategy of investigation for your study.

What is written in the Respondents of the Study Section?

In this section, specify the types of respondents you have in your research. Explain why you
choose them to be part of your study. Give details on the criteria why they become respondents of
your research.

What is written in the Locale of the Study Section?

LOCALE OF THE STUDY is the place the researchers choose to conduct their study. You
can include the map of the locale of the study in this section.

What is written in the Sampling Technique?

In this section, specify the sampling technique/s you will employ in your research. You can
also show your precise solution on how you computed your sample. You can also present sampling
distribution table.

What is written in the Data Gathering Instrument Section?

In this section, specify the research instrument you are to employ in your study whether
researcher-made research instrument, modified research instrument or adopted research
instrument.
A researcher-made research instrument is personally constructed by you with an aid of
some references. A modified research instrument had undergone little revision from the research
instrument of other researcher to jibe with the objective of your study.
An adopted research instrument had undergone no revision. The variable, indicators and
the statements are retained from the original research instrument of other researchers. Explain
the parts of your research instrument. If your research instrument is a researcher-made instrument
or modified research instrument, you need to explain the process how you will test its validity and
reliability.
If you don’t have your research instrument, you cannot proceed with the data gathering
activities.

What is written in the Data Gathering Procedure Section?

In this section, explain in details the steps or procedures you will undergo in gathering data.
Start it from the approval of your research proposal by the concerned teachers. Asking the approval
letter from the concerned school will be included. How you are going to orient your respondents in
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answering the survey questionnaires will be explained. Retrieval of the questionnaires and
tabulation of data will also be included. You can also present the schematic diagram of the data
gathering procedure you will undergo.

Sample Diagrams of Data Gathering Procedure (Taken from the Study of Abubakar (2019))
Approval of the College of Graduate Coordination with
Studies to Conduct the Study
- Schools Division
Superintendents
Approval of - School Administrators

- Schools Division
Superintendents
- School Administrators
Distribution of the Research
Instrument to the Grade 12
Students

Interviews with the


Selected
Respondents for Retrieval of the Research
Cross Examination of Instrument
the Data

Data Collection Tabulation of Data

Analysis and
Interpretation of
Data

Letter of Approval from the


Regional Office

Validation of the Getting Approval Letter from the


Research DepEd – Sultan Kudarat
Instrument

Orientation of the Respondents

Distribution of the Research


Instrument

- Teachers
- SSG Officers
- Class Mayors
- Student Athletes
- PTA Officers
- Disbursing Officer
- Bookkeeper
- Supply Officer
- Local School Board

Retrieval of the Survey


Questionnaire
Tabulation of the Data

Data Analysis and


Interpretation

What is written in the Statistical Treatment Section?

In this section, specify what major type of statistics you are going to apply if it is a descriptive
statistics or inferential statistics or combination of the two. Then, identify clearly the statistical tool
to be used per objective.
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Include in this section the research parameters you are going to employ for your data
analysis and interpretation.

Sample Research Parameters

Scale Verbal Description Interpretation

3.26 – 4.00 Very High The level of protection, appreciation


and preservation of IPs cultural
heritage is Very Satisfactory.

2.51 – 3.25 High The level of protection, appreciation


and preservation of IPs cultural
heritage is Satisfactory.

1.76 – 2.50 Low The level of protection, appreciation


and preservation of IPs cultural
heritage is Poor.

1.00 – 1.75 Very Low The implementation of IPEd


curriculum is Very Poor.

Scale Extent of Students’ Extent of Students’


Experiences and Reactions Opinions on the Effect of
on Bullying Bullying
4.20 – 5.00 Always Very High
3.40 – 4.19 Often High
2.60 – 3.19 Sometimes Moderately High
1.80 – 2.59 Rarely Low
1.00 – 1.79 Never Very Low

Parameters for the Level of Academic Performance of Students

Mean Percentage Score (MPS) Descriptive Rating


96 – 100 Mastered
86 – 95 Closely Approximating Mastery
66 – 85 Moving Towards Mastery
35 – 65 Average Mastery
15 – 34 Low Mastery
5 – 14 Very Low Mastery
0–4 Absolutely No Mastery
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
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Parameters for the Extent of Students’ Attitudes in Mathematics

Mean Score Verbal Description


4.20 – 5.00 Highly Positive
3.40 – 4.19 Positive
2.60 – 3.39 Moderately Positive
1.80 – 2.59 Negative
1.00 – 1.79 Highly Negative

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

Data Presentation is the process of organizing information into logical, sequential, and
meaningful categories and classification to make the gathered facts amenable to the study.
Quantitative data can be presented through tables, graphs, figures or other non-textual forms.
Data analysis is the process of systematically applying statistical and/or logical techniques
to describe and illustrate, condense and recap, and evaluate data. An essential component of
ensuring data integrity is the accurate and appropriate analysis of research findings. Deductive
appropriate is usually applied in data analysis for quantitative research. Analysis refers to the skill
of the researcher in describing, delineating similarities and differences, highlighting the significant
findings or data and the ability to extract information or messages out of the presented data.
Data interpretation is the process of reviewing data through some predetermined concepts,
principles or related findings which will help assign some meanings to the data. It involves taking
the result of data analysis, making inferences or implications on the relations studies, and using
them to arrive at valid conclusion. In simple language, data analysis and interpretation is the
discussion of the results of the study. Related literatures play a very significant role in the discussion
of the data. They give justice to the research findings. They usually support the findings. However,
there are some literatures that contradict the findings. Review of related literature (RRL) will give
credibility to the findings of the research. Interpretation is the explanation or suggestion inferred
from the data, their implications but not conclusions.

Bases in Presenting and Analyzing Data

1. Statement of the Problem (SOP)/Objectives


2. Hypothesis
3. Research Instruments
4. Statistical Tools

Three Ways of Presenting Data

1. Tabular form is a systematic arrangement of related data in which numerical facts or data
are separated and grouped according to class or category.
2. Graphical form is a presentation of data through pictorial, chart or diagrammatical form.
It could be bar graph, line graph, pie chart or pictograph.
3. Textual Form is a presentation of data using group of words. It describes or narrates to
readers what the researcher has done and the results that he has obtained. Bothe tabular and
graphical forms still apply the textual form of analysis to give meanings to the gathered data.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 87
Examples of Tabular Presentation of Data
Table 3. Mean Score and Verbal Description of Students in Reading
Table 1. Mean Score and Verbal Description of Students in Reading
Influences

Indicators Mean Verbal Description


1 My family is fond of reading at home. 3.01 Satisfactory
2 My course motivates me to read. 3.55 Very Satisfactory
3 My family encourages me to read from time 3.49 Very Satisfactory
to time.
4 My teacher does a good job of motivating me 3.54 Excellent
to read.
5 My friends are reading enthusiasts. 3.19 Satisfactory
Overall Mean 3.36 Satisfactory

Table 6.2.Extent
Table Extentof Students’ Reading
of Students’ Interest Interests
Reading

Indicators Weighted Mean Verbal Description


1 Reading Attitudes 3.16 Satisfactory
2 Reading Preferences 3.39 Satisfactory
3 Reading Influences 3.36 Satisfactory
4 Frequency of Reading 2.65 Satisfactory
Grand Mean 3.14 Satisfactory

Examples of Graphical Presentation of Data


Tribe Profile

Rouble (2004), as cited by Clarke (2010), defined tribe as a group of

individuals who are organized on the basis of social, economic,

philosophical, and political ideologies and beliefs. Secondary school

principals’ tribal affiliation can be gleaned in Figure 7.

Figure7.
Figure 1.Bar
Bar Graph
Graph ofof the
the Percentage
Percentage Distribution
Distribution of
of School Principals
Secondary School in
Principals in Terms of Tribe (n = 15)
Terms of Tribe

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 88
Gender Profile

Gender equality has been a major goal in employment and promotion

process. Various directives have been laid down to strengthen the foundation of

equal treatment and opportunities of employees (Lucero, 2014). However,

despite the existence of comprehensive legislative frameworks, gender equality

is yet to be achieved. Shown in Figure 5 is the gender profile of the principals.

Figure 5. Pie Chart of the Percentage Distribution of Secondary School


Figure 2. Pie Chart of
Principals the Percentage
in Terms Distribution
of Gender (n = 15) of School Principals in
Terms of Gender

Example of Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

Self-Awareness of Secondary School Principals

Self-awareness refers to the school head’s consciousness in his emotional

states or feelings. It is having a clear perception of his personality, including

strengths, weaknesses, thoughts, beliefs, motivation, and emotions. It allows

him to understand other people. It is an essential life skill in handling stress and

anxiety. Table 3 presents the extent of secondary school principals on self-

awareness.
Table 3. Mean Score and Descriptive Interpretation of Secondary School
Principals on Self-Awareness (n = 348)

Principals’ Teachers’ Overall


Self-Awareness Assessment Assessment Assessment
Mean Description Mean Description Weighted Mean Description

1 Finds ways to express 4.27 Highly 3.76 Intelligent 3.78 Intelligent


his/her feelings. Intelligent
2 Recognizes situation 4.00 Intelligent 3.66 Intelligent 3.68 Intelligent
that triggers his/her
emotions.
3 Knows how his/her 4.20 Highly 3.71 Intelligent 3.73 Intelligent
emotions give impact Intelligent
on performance.
4 Feels confident to work 4.67 Highly 3.98 Intelligent 4.01 Intelligent
without the need of Intelligent
direct supervision.
5 Assumes significant, 4.67 Highly 3.88 Intelligent 3.92 Intelligent
personal and Intelligent
professional risks to
accomplish important
goals.

Means 4.36 Highly 3.80 Intelligent 3.82 Intelligent


Intelligent

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As shown in the above table, school administrators rated themselves as

highly intelligent in terms of self-awareness as revealed by the mean of 4.36.

This is somewhat supported by the teachers who appraised their principals as

intelligent only as reflected by the mean of 3.80. An overall weighted mean of

3.82 described as intelligent connotes that school heads in Region XII are

generally aware of their internal states, preferences, habits, resources and

intuitions. This also means that principals feel confident to work without the

need for direct supervision in the implementation of the relevant program of

activities to achieve organizational goals.


Saxe (2011) supports the above findings when he emphasized that

administrators must be aware of their internal states by being conscious of their

potentials and strengths as well as acknowledging what they still have yet to learn.

Articulo and Florendo (2003) added that self-awareness is an essential life skill

that is crucial to effective leadership behavior. Further, Hebert (2011) concluded

that school administrators who are aware of their emotions and preferences can

easily influence their teachers to perform better in achieving organizational goals.

The above findings suggest that organizational leaders should be

conscious of their core values, inclinations and instincts so that their followers will

be inspired to become leaders in the future. Further, they should be sensible of

what they are good at while acknowledging what they still have yet to learn by

being aware and open-minded of the feedbacks they receive from their teachers.

NOTE: Group of words in RED COLOR is the data analysis. Group of words in GREEN COLOR is
the data interpretation. First paragraph of the group of words in BLACK COLOR is the RLL that
supports the findings of the research. Second paragraph of the group of words in BLACK COLOR
is the implication stated by the researcher.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


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List of References of Camsa (2020) using APA Format

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curriculum among private and public high schools. Educational Research Journal. 10 (2): 8-
25, Accra City, Ghana, South Africa. Retrieved from https://www.resjournals.com on April
25, 2020

Abdullah, S. N. (2019). Implementation of Child-Friendly School (CFS) Environment among


Public High Schools in Esperanza, Sultan Kudarat. Action Research funded by Basic
Education Research Fund (BERF). DepEd – Region XII, Carpenter Hills, Koronadal City,
Region XII

Abdullah, S. N. (2018). Assessment on the Full Implementation of the Senior High School
Curriculum among Private and Public Schools in Sultan Kudarat, Applied Research funded
by Basic Education Research Fund (BERF 2016), DepEd-Region XII, Carpenter Hill, City
of Koronadal, Philippines

Abubakar, Y. P. (2019). Child-Friendly School (CFS) Environment, Students’ Behavior and School
Performance among Public High Schools in Sultan Kudarat. Master’s Thesis, Sultan Kudarat
State University, ACCESS Campus, Tacurong City

Bays, D. & Crocket, J. (2017). Investigating Instructional Leadership for Special Education.
Journal Exceptionality, v15 n3 p143-161 ISSN-0936-2835https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ773658

Clayton, D. & Moses, K. (2017). Implementation of STEM Curriculum in Rural Secondary Schools
in Zimbabwe: Limits and Possibilities, Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research
and Policy Studies (JETERAPS): 11-15, Scholarlink Research Institute Journals, ISSN:
2141-6990

Dee, T. & Jacob, B. (2016). The Impact of No Child Left Behind on Students, Teachers and
Schools. Retrieved Date. January 10,2012. Https://Www.Brookings.Edu/Wp
Content/Uploads/2010/09/2010b_Bpea_Dee.pdf

Gersten, R., Keating, T., Yovanoff, P., & Harniss, M. K. (2011). Working in special education:
Factors that enhance special educators’ intent to stay.Exceptional Children, 67, 549-553.
Retrieved Date. January 9, 2019
http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/projects/project.asp?ProjectID=391

Hasan, M., Halder, U. & Debnath, D. (2018). Inclusive Education and Education for All. International
Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews (IJRAR). Volume 5, Issue 3. Electronics ISSN
2348-1269, Print ISSN 2349-5138

Legaste, H. T. (2018). Utilization of Special Education Fund (SEF) and Implementation of School
Monitoring and Plan Adjustment (SMEPA): Basis for Enhancement Program, An Action
Research Funded by Basic Education Research Fund (BERF), DepEd – Region XII,
Carpenter Hills, Koronadal City

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 91
Luminda, K. F. (2018). Quality Areas and Characteristics Framework of the Child-Friendly School
(CFS) among Public Elementary Schools in Cotabato City Division, Master’s Thesis,
Graduate School, Cotabato City State Polytechnic College, Cotabato City

Mendell, M. J., & Heath, G. A. (2015). Do Indoor Pollutants and Thermal Conditions in Schools
Influence Student Performance? A Critical Review of the Literature. Indoor air, 15(1), 27-52.

Mcevoy, C. (2013). Parent Involvement in the Special Education Eligibility Process: Implementation
of Legal Mandates and Best Practices. Proquest LLC. UMI Number: 3559270

Miller, D. (2017). Importance of School Monitoring And Evaluation Systems


http://leansystemssociety.org/importance-of-school-monitoring-and-evaluation system

Patterson, J., Marshall, C., & Bowling, D. (2012). Are Principals Prepared to Manage Special
Education Dilemmas? National Association of Secondary School Principals. NASSP
Bulletin, 84(613), 9-20. Retrieved
fromhttps://search.proquest.com/docview/216037487?accountid=167112

Pivik, J., McComas, J., & Laflamme, M. (2012). Barriers and facilitators to inclusive education.
Exceptional children, 69(1), 97-107.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2014). The UNESCO
Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Educational Needs
Education. Paris: UNESCO.
https://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Documents/UDHR_Translations/eng.pdf

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2017). A Human
Rights-Based Approach to Education for All. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 3
United Nations Plaza, New York, 10017, USA Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Sample Background of the Study (Conceptual Framework and SOP are already presented in
pages 46-48)

Research Title: Learning Modalities amid COVID-19 Pandemic, Problem-Solving Skills and
Attitudes of Grade 10 Students in Physics

Background of the Study


The rapid advancement of science and technology poses a significant challenge to
the entire humanity to keep abreast with the rhythmically fast societal development, most
especially in the third world and developing countries like the Philippines. Being in rhythmic
motion to effectively manage the technological development does not merely imply
acquiring advanced facilities and modern technologies but rather, the acquisition and
improvement of knowledge and skills essential to meet the demands of the highly
competitive and scientifically-inclined society must be given more attention (Criswell &
Greg, 2018). Due to this rhythmic motion of globalization, the quality of science education
is one of the fundamental concerns of the Department of Education (DepEd).
Science education is the primary target of continuous changes in the Philippine
educational system. Many educators today are challenged on what pedagogical

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approaches could cater the individual needs of students to increase their understanding of
Physics concepts particularly the Philippines is currently threatened by the wide spread of
COVID-19 (Gegone, 2020). This pandemic doesn’t stop the educators to impart essential
knowledge and skills to the students. The 1987 Philippine Constitution clearly defines the
implementation of Alternative Delivery Modes (ADM’s) as per Article XIV says that the State
shall protect and promote the right of every citizen to quality education at all levels and shall
take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all. Due to this mandate, the
DepEd is now challenged on the deployment of modern technologies; digital learning tools;
home-based learning modules; and most especially the forthcoming nonphysical conduct
of classes (Abdullah, 2020).
Amidst COVID-19 pandemic, technology learning approach (TLA) and modular
learning approach (MLA) are so much desired to help public schools negotiate the maze of
new normal class without sacrificing the delivery modes of quality education. The massive
school closures on March 15, 2020 due to the alarming COVID-19 pandemic and
postponement of the classes to October 5, 2020 have challenged the teachers to initiate
alternative delivery modes (ADM’s) such as preparing video presentations, learning
modules and pedagogies suitable for online, home-schooling strategies, minimal face-to-
face teacher-students’ interaction and other nonphysical modes of conduct of classes for
the School Year 2020-2021 (Abdullah, 2020).
TLA is used to describe the application of technology to teaching-learning activities.
Uploading video presentation online as part of the TLA enables the students to adjust to
their own pace of learning. Students who need extra time can spend more time going over
exercises until they understand, whilst those who need less support can continue ahead
(Simpal, 2016). Online learning modality limits the physical movement of both teachers and
students. However, quality of instruction cannot be jeopardized since teachers prepare
video presentation of their lessons and students have the options when to watch the video
as long as they will achieve the set of learning objectives of the video presentation. With
TLA, teachers are no longer limited to the use of textbooks. They can employ alternative
resources such as video, audio and other interactive learning technologies so that students
can have different ways to learn. TLA has changed the new normal classroom environment
so that learning is more hands-on and independent.
On the other hand, MLA is another alternative delivery mode (ADM) of instruction
which is timely for the new normal class. Self-instructional module (SIM) as MLA tool is a
self-contained and self-sufficient material for the students to achieve a set of objectives. It
has already been employed by the public school teachers for many years to impart
knowledge to the out-of-school youth including the students-at-risk of dropping out
(SARDO’s). The DepEd has addressed the challenges amid new normal through the
Learning Continuity Plan (LCP), which will be in effect by the time school year 2020-2021
opens on October 5, 2020. DepEd Secretary Briones said that LCP is the agency’s major
response in ensuring the health, safety and well-being of the students, teachers and
personnel in this COVID-19 pandemic (Alcober, 2020).
Hence, it is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of the two major ADM’s of the
DepEd for the new normal such as technology learning approach (TLA) through online
video presentation and modular learning approach (MLA) using self-instructional module
(SIM).

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Sample Background of the Study, Conceptual Framework and Statement of the
Problem (Descriptive Research)

Research Title: Mental Health and Psychological Resilience of Nurses amid COVID-19
Pandemic in Sultan Kudarat
Background of the Study
The Philippines is known to have been rigidly training nurses and exporting them to
all corners of the world, but now the country finds itself shorthanded as its number of
coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infections and deaths skyrocket. With more Filipinos
becoming infected by the virus, the consequences of a medical brain drain are weighing on
the health-care industry particularly the nursing workforce. Private Hospitals Association of
the Philippines, Inc. (PHAPI) has estimated a scarcity of 23,000 nurses nationwide. This
situation is so severe that most Filipinos die without even seeing a medical professional
(Lopez & Jiao, 2020).
Thousands of nurses in the Philippines work hand in hand against COVID-19
pandemic. As the largest sector of the healthcare workers, nurses are the backbone and
lifeblood of patients’ care. In hospitals and other front-line facilities, they are sacrificing a
great deal for the good of their countrymen, with some falling ill or even giving the last breath
of their very lives (Carlson, 2020). As a matter of fact, the nursing profession has embedded
within it an ethos of compassionate care with sustained emotional and psychological
interactions with patients and their families, often under exceptionally challenging mental
health conditions (Kinman & Leggetter, 2016).
This COVID-19 pandemic has currently challenged the country’s healthcare services
as there is already a shortage in nursing workforce numbers even before this infectious
disease hit the Philippines. With lack of nurses across the nation, there is an exponentially
increasing burden and pressure on the existing healthcare workforce. Relative to this,
acknowledging the need to support the mental health and well-being of nurses in all
healthcare settings has never been more important at this time of health crisis
(Rappler.com, 2020). Mental health problems experienced by the nurses in the middle of
their battle against the unseen enemy cannot be belittled. If nurses are not given prior
attention by the government, these health problems would definitely turn into very serious
psychological and social imbalances that can have a lasting effect on their personality. If
their efforts in fighting for the COVID-19 are less appreciated, their psychological resilience
to recuperate from the heavy workload as frontliners to win the battle against the public
health crisis would be futile.
Mental health is the psychological well-being or an absence of psychosomatic
illness. World Health Organization (WHO) defined mental health as a state of well-being in
which the individuals realize their own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life,
can work productively and fruitfully, and are able to have a contribution to their community
(Keyes, 2014). As cited by Cocker and Joss (2014), psychological resilience is the ability
to mentally or emotionally cope with a crisis or to return to pre-crisis status quickly. They
added that stable mental health and effective psychological resilience strategies of
healthcare workers play a vital role to flatten the curve of COVID-19 cases.
It is inevitable that caring for patients in the high-risks context of COVID-19 will
take its toll on the mental health and psychological resilience of nurses. Feelings of

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anxiety, stress and depression among healthcare workers are likely to occur especially
if there is no praise on their ability to do the jobs. World Health Organization (WHO)
issued guidance on COVID-19 and mental health that recognizes the particular needs
of healthcare workers. Crucially, it puts their mental well-being on a par with their
physical health (Kang et al., 2020).
Inter-Regional Lockdown in SOCCSKSARGEN Region for non-essential travels
and total lockdown in some barangays of Isulan and Bagumbayan of the province of
Sultan Kudarat, some barangays of Polomolok, South Cotabato and some barangays
of General Santos City were again declared on August 16-31, 2020 in response to the
confirmation of the Department of Health (DOH) that there is a local or community
transmission of COVID-19 after several individuals including nurses were tested
positive for the virus even though they didn’t have travel histories from the high-risk
areas. As of August 24, 2020, COVID-19 cases in the Philippines have reached more
than 194,000 and more than 300 cases are coming from SOCCSKSARGEN Region.
Due to this rising number of cases, nurses in Sultan Kudarat are also in the state of
mental health problems. Some of them who are tested positive for the virus are believed
to be transmitters of the virus to their family members.
Care is the central pivot around which nursing revolves and, as such, is
dependent on an emotive response to support patients during critical stages of COVID-
19 infection. Within the current COVID-19 pandemic and against a backdrop of a pre-
existing shortage of nurses in the country and Sultan Kudarat Province is no exemption,
it is crucial to consider the issue of mental health of nurses and how to support them
cope with psychological and social effects to fight for the virus.
Thus, this study is initiated.

Conceptual Framework

The COVID-19 pandemic marks an unprecedented global public health crisis


giving an overwhelming public health emergency to many countries including the
Philippines. Health et. al (2020) stated that COVID-19 is a newly identified disease, and
concrete evidence is still emerging on its pathophysiological impact and epidemiology,
and the demographical implications of the pandemic to the mental health of the nurses
as major frontliners to fight for the unseen enemy of the nation.
The Chinese government has studied the mental health and well-being of the
frontline healthcare workforce in Wuhan, identifying factors leading to long-term
suboptimal mental health status, including stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms,
insomnia, denial, anger and fear (Maben & Bridges, 2020). These factors are associated
with, and correspond to, the high risk of potential infection with the virus and inadequate
protection against contamination, overwork, physical and mental exhaustion,
discrimination, isolation, complex patient care, and a lack of contact with families. Kang
et. al (2020) stressed that the impact of these mental health issues will not only affect
healthcare workers in the present fight against COVID-19 but may also affect their long-
term health status.
Campbell-Sills et al. (2015) stated that COVID-19 outbreak greatly affects the mental
health of the nurses. They referred mental health as the basic cognitive and social ability to
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recognize, express and modulate one's own emotions, as well as empathize with vulnerable
people. Maben and Bridges (2020) stated that the effect of COVID-19 pandemic to the
mental health of nurses is classified into emotional distress, psychological impact and social
impact. They added that experiencing barriers to work as frontliners in the COVID-19
outbreak adds to the complexities of their responsibilities.
Health et al. (2020) emphasized that psychological resilience exists when the person
uses mental processes and behaviors in promoting personal assets and protecting self from
the potential negative effects of stressors. Fletcher and Sarkar (2013) added that
psychological resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma,
tragedy, threat or significant source of stress. They stressed that when a person faces
adversity, misfortune, or frustration, psychological resilience helps him bounce back. It
helps him survive, recover, and even thrive in the face and wake of misfortune. Carlson
(2020) noted that appreciating the contributions of the nurses in anti-COVID-19 campaign
is a great factor to improve their resilience to win the battle against the unseen enemy of
the nation.
The following conceptual framework depicts the variables that play a significant role
in determining the mental health and psychological resilience of nurses of the private and
public hospitals in the Province of Sultan Kudarat, Region XII. The six problems of the
research such as nurses’ barriers to work as frontliners amid COVID-19 outbreak; their
emotional distress during the COVID-19 pandemic; psychological impact of COVID-19
pandemic; social impact of COVID-19 pandemic; their contributions in anti-COVID-19
campaign; and their psychological resilience strategies amid COVID-19 pandemic.
Mental Health of Nurses during COVID- Psychological Resilience of Nurses
19 Pandemic during COVID-19 Pandemic

Nurses’ barriers to Work during


COVID-19 Outbreak

Resource Constraints

Threat of Infection

Ubiquitous Challenges

Lingering Uncertainties

Emotional Distress of Nurses during


COVID-19 Pandemic

Concern for Family

Fear of Contagion
Contributions of Nurses
Job Stress Anti-COVID-19 Campaign
Interpersonal Isolation

Stigmatization

Psychological Impact of COVID-19


Pandemic

Anxiety and Excessive


Worry

Depression

Somatic Symptoms

Self-esteem

Change in Behavior

Burnout
Psychological Resilience
Social Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic Strategies of Nurses during
COVID-19 Pandemic
Leisure Activities

Social Well-being

Family Relationship

Compassion Fatigue

Compassion Satisfaction

Conscription to Areas of
Work Outside Normal
Duties

Figure 1. Research Paradigm

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Statement of the Problem

The general purpose of this study is to determine the mental health status and psychological
resilience strategies of nurses of the private and public hospitals in the Province of Sultan Kudarat,
Region XII amid COVID-19 pandemic.
Specifically, this study will be carried out to find answers to the following questions:
1. To what extent do the nurses of private and public hospitals experience the barriers to
work as frontliners amid COVID-19 outbreak relative to:
1.1 Resource Constraints;
1.2 Threat of Infection;
1.3 Ubiquitous Challenges; and
1.4 Lingering Uncertainties?
2. To what extent do the nurses of private and public hospitals feel emotionally distressed
amid COVID-19 pandemic relative to:
2.1 Concern for Family;
2.2 Fear of Contagion;
2.3 Job Stress;
2.4 Interpersonal Isolation; and
2.5 Stigmatization?
3. To what extent is the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic to the nurses of the
private and public hospitals in relation to:
3.1 Anxiety and Excessive Worry;
3.2 Depression;
3.3 Somatic Symptoms;
3.4 Self-esteem;
3.5 Change in Behavior; and
3.6 Burnout?
4. To what extent is the social impact of COVID-19 pandemic to the nurses of the private
and public hospitals in relation to:
4.1 Leisure Activities;
4.2 Social Well-being;
4.3 Family Relationship;
4.4 Compassion Fatigue;
4.5 Compassion Satisfaction?
4.6 Conscription to Areas of Work Outside Normal Duties?
5. What are the contributions of nurses of private and public hospitals in anti-COVID-19
campaign?
6. What are the psychological resilience strategies of the nurses of private and public
hospitals to reduce the impact of COVID-19 pandemic?

Sample Background of the Study (Conceptual Framework and SOP are already presented in
pages 48-49)

Research Title: Schools in Change: An Evaluation of the Implementation and Outcome of the
Technical-Vocational and Livelihood Track of Senior High Schools in Sultan Kudarat

Background of the Study

Public high schools are continually confronting challenges to remain competitive and
successful due to the full implementation of senior high school curriculum. They are in a state of

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transition as they adapt to a changing environment and increased demands of global transition.
Managing change effectively is however a main challenge in the change management domain due
to massive human involvement. External forces such as increased accountability, changing family
needs, technological age, and community anxieties trigger education specialists to search for
leaders who can help schools negotiate the maze of educational reforms (Bommer and Rubin,
2015).
The implementation of DepEd K to 12 Program under the Enhanced Basic Education
Curriculum has brought about new challenges for school principals and their change management
strategies. Leithwood and Jantzi (2015) accurately note that schools are operating in an
environment of heightened concern for students’ outcomes. Schools are being forced to restructure
the manner in which they educate students to expect better outcomes. It is not good to teach only
the majority and ignore the needs of the minority or marginalized (Smyth, 2016). Regardless of how
the government and society choose to measure schools’ outcomes, at-risk students and their needs
must be addressed, and schools must find better ways to meet such change.
The Technical-Vocational Livelihood (TVL) track of senior high school is designed to prepare
students for employment. It can equip with job-ready skills in the future. It has four (4) strands such
as Agri-Fishery Arts, Home Economics, Industrial Arts and Information and Communication
Technology (ICT). Even without college, Technical-Vocational-Livelihood track will equip them with
job-ready skills in the future. This track also invests primarily on skills that can gain them requisite
COCs (Certificates of Competency) and NCs (National Certifications) which would be essential
when looking for better career opportunities in agriculture, electronics, and trade. This is also
important when applying abroad where the skills they gain would prepare them as they join the
workforce (DepEd, 2016).
ABS-CBN News Online (2018) reported that some TVL learners started work even before
graduation because of the work experience and skills they earned while completing their courses.
Among these competencies include their TVL training, the work immersion program that mandated
exposure in industries related to their tracks and specializations, and the National Certification some
have earned from TESDA. Further, Abdullah (2018) found out that most of the struggling students
from Grade 10 preferred to enrol in the Technical-Vocational Livelihood (TVL) track. During the
interview and focus group discussion, he found out that students took TVL track because they
wanted to get employed upon senior high school graduation. Aside from the reasons that they are
not academically inclined, students wanted to earn National Certificate (NC II) before they will finish
senior high school so that they have the options to immediately engage in workforce, get in touch
with entrepreneurship or pursue college education.
Lacorte (2016) stated that Philippine basic education has been undergoing series of
changes, modification and improvement. These curriculum changes within the educational system
have been constantly implemented by the Department of Education (DepED) to adopt educational
setting to the needs and demands of globalization. Since many studies reveal that students don’t
perform well at the expected level, it seems that there is an endless change in the educational
system until the desired goal of attaining quality education is reached. It doesn’t mean however that
the implementation of the changes should remain unaccounted. Rather, change should be
evaluated to determine the effectiveness of its implementation. Abdullah (2018) found out that the
implementation of TVL track has been faced with problems due to inadequacy of instructional
materials and unavailability of laboratory equipment. The struggle of public schools on the
implementation of TVL track can’t be disparaged.
The change management strategies of school administrators are challenged with the
present situation of the TVL track. That’s why, this study hopes to provide an objective evaluation
of the impact of the change management strategies of school administrators on the implementation
and outcome of TVL track for the purpose of synchronizing both positive and negative issues and
concerns that would enlighten the minds of masses on the genuine purpose of the said track.
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
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Sample Background of the Study (Conceptual Framework and SOP are in pages 50-52)
Research Title: Status of the Implementation of the K to 12 Science Technology Engineering and
Mathematics Curriculum in the Division of Sultan Kudarat

Background of the Study

The continuing reform program in the Philippine educational system is driven by a global
competitiveness. This curriculum development aims to raise the standards of teaching-learning
opportunities to cope with the needs of the 21 st century learners. Achieving a sustainable quality
education in the face of both gradual and abrupt educational change is one of the most significant
challenges confronting the Department of Education (DepEd) particularly in Science and
Mathematics education (DepEd, 2018).
In response to the global challenges, the DepEd has exerted remarkable efforts to improve
Science education so that Filipino graduates will be at par with the rest of the world. Recently, it has
implemented the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) curriculum wherein
the instruction involves the interdisciplinary integration of science, technology, engineering and
mathematics into rigorous lessons that connect the students to real world careers and issues. STEM
curriculum employs a cohesive learning paradigm based on real-world applications that develop
students’ literacy and ability to compete in the world of economy (DepEd Order No. 71, s. 2012).
DepEd Order No. 25, s. 2002 and Basic Education Curriculum Guide (2002) stressed that
the main factors which can be cited to account for the low performance of students in Science
include lack of science culture and deficiencies in the teaching-learning process, instructional
resources and teacher trainings. Lacorte (2014) also emphasized that parents’ involvement has a
strong and positive effect on the implementation of the curriculum. In addition to this, Magsino
(2015) stressed that to make the learning opportunities more accessible to every child; the
implementation of the curriculum must be equipped with functional physical facilities and equipment,
competent teachers, a well-designed curriculum and full support of the parents. She further stressed
that the most influential stimulus to make every child ready to learn is the effective delivery of
instruction so that he could be responsive to the needs of the modern society. However, Abdullah
(2020) found out that lack of school buildings, insufficiency of laboratory equipment and inadequacy
of learning resources are the top problems of the public schools in Sultan Kudarat.
One of the major thrusts of former President Benigno S. Aquino’s government was the
implementation of the DepEd K to 12 curriculum which aims to develop lifelong learners who will be
prepared for higher education, employment and entrepreneurship. Its implementation has caught
the attention of many researchers. There were studies conducted to evaluate the new program and
it appeared that similar issues came out. In Sultan Kudarat, STEM curriculum has been
implemented since 2015. So far, there is no study conducted yet to evaluate its implementation.
Hence, this study is prompted.

NOTE: In writing the background of the study, be sure to have at least one citation in each paragraph
to make the claim more valid and credible. Web address or Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or
Digital Object Identifier should not be used as in-text citation. Cite the author, not the web address.
URL specifies the location of digital information on the internet and can be found in the address bar
of the internet browser. DOI is a unique persistent identifier for a published digital object, such as
article or study. Website is a collection of content, often on multiple pages, that is group together
under the same domain. It can be linked like a store, where the domain is the store name. URL is
the store address, and the website is the actual store. Example of URL is
https://www.resjournals.com. Example of DOI is 10.17265/1548-6591/2015.03.002. Examples of
websites are Wikipedia.org, google.com, independent.academia.edu, scholar.googlr.com, and
amazon.com.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 99
Sample Methodology taken from the Research Proposal of Abo (2020) about the Learning
Modalities amid COVID-19 Pandemic

METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents and discusses the research design and methods used in the conduct
of the study. It includes the locale of the study, respondents of the study, sampling techniques,
research instrument, data gathering procedure and data analysis.

Research Design

This study will use a quasi-experimental research design to determine the effect of the
technology learning approach (TLA) using online video presentation and modular learning approach
(MLA) using self-instructional module (SIM) on problem solving skills and attitudes of Grade 10
students towards Physics. Before and after the experimentation, pre-test and post-test will be
administered to determine the difference in the problem-solving skills of students. Survey
questionnaire will be distributed to determine their attitudes towards Physics. The experimental
group will be exposed to TLA while the control group will be subjected to MLA.
Quasi-experimental research design aims to evaluate the effect of the intervention in the
experimental group. It is used when randomization is impractical or not applicable. It differs from
true experimental research design because either there is no random selection of the participants
and no random assignment of the groups under experimentation (Abraham & MacDonald, 2011 as
cited by Paculanan, 2013).
Respondents of the Study
Grade 10 students of President Quirino National High School for the new normal School
Year 2020-2021 will serve as the respondents of this study. There will be two (2) Grade 10 sections
out of eight (8) sections. These two Grade 10 sections will automatically serve as the experimental
group and control group under study.
Table 1 presents the distribution of the respondents of the study.

Table 1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents

Groups Frequency Percentage


1 Experimental Group 55 50.93%
2 Control Group 53 49.07%
Total 108 100%

Locale of the Study

This study will be conducted at President Quirino National High School, Poblacion, President
Quirino, Sultan Kudarat, Region XII. President Quirino National High School had its humble
beginning with only 5 teachers to take care of 305 students and Mr. Ernesto E. Diaz was the first
principal in 1991. The school population continued to increase and having seen the absolute need
of the community to have a stable public secondary school, then SB Member Lucio Castillo
sponsored a Municipal Resolution No. 85-05 establishing a Municipal High School in Poblacion,
President Quirino, Sultan Kudarat. The school has received many awards and recognition due to
its incessant quest for quality education.
Figure 1 presents the map of the Municipality of President Quirino, Sultan Kudarat where
the locale of the study is found.
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 100
Legend:

President Quirino National High School


Figure 2. Map of President Quirion, Sultan Kudarat

Sampling Technique

There are eight (8) Grade 10 sections that are heterogeneously grouped. This means that
the academic performance of students from these sections is comparable. Thus, simple random
sampling using fishbowl method will be applied to choose two (2) sections that will serve as the
experimental group and control group. Simple random sampling will be applied to increase the
generality of the results of the experimentation. Random assignment of the experimental and control
groups will be done. However, random selection of students will not be possible since all students
in both experimental and control groups will be included as respondents of the students. Control

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 101
group has 55 total students and experimental group has 53 total students. The two sample sections
will represent all the eight (8) sections of Grade 10 students.

Data Gathering Instruments

The quantitative data needed in the study will be collected and analyzed using two sets of
research instrument. To determine the extent of students’ problem-solving skills in the six topics of
behavior of gases such as Boyle’s Law, Charles’ Law, Gay-Lussac’s Law, Avogadro’s Law,
Combined Gas Law and Ideal Gas Law, a researcher-made test will be used. Each Gas Law has
ten (10) items, a total of sixty (60) items. The items of the researcher-made test will be based on
Most Essential Learning Competencies (MELC) of Grade 10 Science Subject during the first quarter
of the new normal School Year 2020-2021. To ensure the proper distribution of the test items, Table
of Specification (TOS) will be prepared with six (6) major topics and four (4) levels of objectives
following the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001 as stated by Paculanan
(2013).
The researcher-made test instrument will be shown to his adviser for any improvements. Its
content will be pre-validated by Science experts to determine its weaknesses. Initially, a 15-item
test per topic, a total of 90-item test for the 6 topics in bahavior of gases, will be prepared for the
validation purposes. First validation process will be done by administering the 90-item test to 35
Grade 11 senior high school students of President Quirino National High School. After the first
administration, the instrument will be refined. From 15 items per topic, it will become 10 items per
topic, a total of 60 items for the 6 different topics, after screening out questions which will be very
easy and very difficult. Items that will receive below 0.40 index of discrimination will be either be
discarded or modified. Only very good items that will obtain an index of discrimination of 0.40 or
above will be automatically accepted. Some of the items identified to be very difficult (receiving an
index of difficulty of 0.30 or below) will be reworded and modified purposely to go with the
competencies enumerated in the Table of Specifications (TOS). The remaining 60-item test will
serve as the main instrument used in the study.
Following the validation will be the reliability testing which will involve 50 students from other
Grade 11 students of President Quirino National High School. The students who will be used in the
validation and reliability tests will not be part of the respondents of the study and had already taken
and passed Physics subject. In the item analysis of the test, the researcher used U – L index method
adopted from the study of Abdullah (2020). The index of discrimination of the test items will be
interpreted using the following guides:
Index of Discrimination Item Evaluation
0.40 or higher Very Good Item
0.30 – 0.39 Good Item
0.20 – 0.29 Marginal Item
0.19 or lower Poor Item

The index of difficulty of the test items will be interpreted using the following criteria:
Index of Difficulty Item Evaluation
0.70 or higher Low Difficulty
0.31 – 0.69 Moderate Difficulty
0.30 or below High Difficulty

After the validation process, the reliability test using Kuder- Richardson Formula 20 for the
researcher-made test will be conducted. Kuder- Richardson Formula 20 will be used in determining
the correlation coefficient of the test. Correlation coefficient value (r) will be used to determine the
reliability of the responses as well as the measure of internal consistency or homogeneity of the
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 102
measuring instrument. It will also serve as a basis of acceptance of the Test Instrument. The
following scale will be used to interpret the reliability of the researcher-made instrument.
Reliability Coefficient Interpretation
0.90 – 1.00 Very High Reliability
0.70 – 0.89 High Reliability
0.60 – 0.69 Moderately High Reliability
0.50 – 0.59 Poor Reliability
0.00 – 0.49 Very Poor Reliability

The second set will be a modified survey questionnaire of Gegone (2020) to determine the
attitudes of students towards Physics before and after the experimentation relative to positivity,
relation to real world, importance of formulas, dependence on procedures, confidence in solving,
exploration in problem solving, independence in learning and use of technology. Each indicator has
six (6) statements, a total of forty-eight (48) statements. Letter of approval from Gegone (2020) will
be secured to legalize the adoption of her survey questionnaire. Each statement of the indicator will
be rated by the students using the Five-Point Likert Scale such as 5-Strongly Agree; 4-Agree; 3-
Moderately Agree; 2-Disagree; and 1-Strongly Disagree.
To measure students’ level of attitudes towards Physics, second set of research instrument
will be used. This second set of research instrument (survey questionnaire on attitudes of students
towards Physics) will also undergo validation process, which is the most important feature of an
instrument. The items will be reviewed and validated by the 3 Science and Research Experts.
Cronbach’s alpha (α) will be used to test the internal consistency of the survey questionnaire. Senior
high school STEM students of President Quirino National High School will be used for the reliability
test of the survey questionnaire.
The interpretation of the computed α will be based from the scale below:

Cronbach’s Alpha (α) Descriptive Interpretation of Internal


Consistency
0.90 – 1.00 Excellent
0.70 – 0.89 Highly Acceptable
0.60 – 0.69 Acceptable
0.50 – 0.59 Poor
0.00 – 0.49 Unacceptable

Students and teachers who will be used for testing the validity and reliability of the two sets
of research instrument will be excluded in the final respondents of the study. The result will be
analyzed and interpreted with the help of the statistician.

Data Gathering Procedure

Upon approval and permission of the Dean of the Graduate School and panelists to proceed
with the study, a certification will be secured with the information that the researcher will be
conducting a study entitled “Technology Learning Approach (TLA), Problem Solving Skills and
Attitudes of Grade 10 Students in Physics” and that he will be permitted by the Schools Division
Superintendent of Sultan Kudarat to conduct his experimentation in the respondent school which is
President Quirino National High School.
Permission from the school principal in administering and distributing the pre-test and survey
questionnaire using the Grade 10 students will be also secured. The duly approved letter from the
Schools Division Superintendent will be attached. Online orientation and administration of the pre-
test to the Grade 10 will follow for the experimental group. House to house distribution of the pre-
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 103
test and survey questionnaire to the control group following the minimum safety protocols set by
Department of Health (DOH) and Inter-Agency Task Force (IATF) COVID-19 will strictly be followed.
Questions raised by the respondents regarding the clarity and direction of the pre-test will be
properly answered. Pre-test will be retrieved upon the completion of the students. After the conduct
of pre-test, survey questionnaire on attitudes of students towards Physics will be administered.
Experimentation of six (6) weeks for the two sections, Grade 10 Einstein and Grade 10
Newton, will start. Only the learning modalities will differ since experimental group will be subjected
to technology learning approach (MLA) using online video presentation and the control group will
be solely exposed to modular learning approach (MLA) using self-instructional module (SIM). Same
set of topics and competencies for the two groups will be observed.
In the experimental group, there will be a lecture of the basic concepts through online video
presentation before problem solving techniques will be given. In the control group, students will be
the ones to manage their time to study the module given to them. They can ask the assistance of
their family members to understand the lessons on the module. After the six (6) of teaching, post-
test will be administered and survey questionnaire will be administered to the two sections.

Approval of the College of Graduate Coordination with


Studies to Conduct the Study
- Schools Division
Superintendent of Sultan
Approval of Kudarat
- School Principal of
- Schools Division
President Quirino NHS
Superintendent
- School Principal
Orientation and Distribution of the
Research Instruments to the
Grade 10 Students

- Online Orientation and


Distribution of the Research
Instruments in the Experimental
Group
Retrieval of the
Research Instruments
- House to House Orientation and
from the Respondents
Distribution of the Research
through Online and
Instruments in the Control
House to House
Group

Statistical Treatment
Tabulation of Data
of Data

Analysis and
Interpretation of
Data

Figure 3. Diagram of Data Gathering Procedures

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 104
Statistical Treatment

Problem solving skills of students will be described using Mean Percentage Score (MPS)
(SOP 1). Weighted mean will be employed in determining the attitudes of students in Physics (SOP
2). To determine if there is a significant difference in the problem-solving skills on gas laws and
attitudes of students towards Physics before and after the experimentation, t-test will be applied
(SOP’s 3, 4, 5 and 6).
Problem solving skills of students will be determined using their pre-test and post-test scores
which will be converted into MPS and will be dichotomously categorized, described and interpreted
following the criteria adopted from National Educational Testing Research Council (NETRC).
Mean Percentage Score (MPS) Descriptive Rating
96 – 100 Mastered
86 – 95 Closely Approximating Mastery
66 – 85 Moving Towards Mastery
35 – 65 Average Mastery
15 – 34 Low Mastery
5 – 14 Very Low Mastery
0–4 Absolutely No Mastery

To find out the attitudes of students in Physics before and after the experiment, the following
criteria adopted from the research instrument of Gegone (2020) will be employed. The criteria are
as follows:
Mean Score Verbal Description
4.20 – 5.00 Highly Positive
3.40 – 4.19 Positive
2.60 – 3.39 Moderately Positive
1.80 – 2.59 Negative
1.00 – 1.79 Highly Negative

Parts of Research Proposal

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the Study
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Definition of Terms

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


(Sub-parts of RLL are based from the research variables and their indicators or based from
the research objectives)
CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY
Research Design
Respondents of the Study
Locale of the Study
Sampling Technique
Data Gathering Instrument
Data Gathering Procedure
Statistical Treatment
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 105
REFERRENCES
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
COMMUNICATION LETTERS

NOTE:
Research Proposal will be your final requirement in Practical Research 2 (Quantitative
Research).
Parts of the research paper vary depending upon to the standards and format of the school.
The parts of the research paper introduced in this ppt are patterned from Sultan Kudarat State
University-ACCESS Campus, EJC Montilla, Tacurong City.

Parts of Completed Research Paper

PRELIMINARY PAGES
Title Page
Approval Sheet
Abstract
Acknowledgement

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the Study
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Definition of Terms

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


(Sub-parts of RLL are based from the research variables and their indicators or based
from the research objectives)

CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY


Research Design
Respondents of the Study
Locale of the Study
Sampling Technique
Data Gathering Instrument
Data Gathering Procedure
Statistical Treatment

CHAPTER IV. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA


(Order of the presentation of data is based from the SOP)
CHAPTER V. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
(Summary of findings is based from the SOP; Conclusions are based from the summary of
findings; Recommendations are based from the findings and conclusions)

REFERRENCES
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
COMMUNICATION LETTERS
DOCUMENTATION DURING THE DATA GATHERING PROCESS
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by
SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 106
References

Books

1. Baraceros, E. L. (2015). Practical Research 1. Quezon City: Rex Bookstore


2. Zulueta, F. M. & Costales, Jr., N. B. (2005). Methods of Research: Thesis Writing & Applied
Statistics, Mandaluyong City: National Book Store

Online Sources

1. https://www.pat.nhs.uk/education-and-research/why-is-research-important.htm
2. https://www.coursehero.com/file/26735019/KINDS-OF-RESEARCH-ACROSS-FIELDSpptx/
3. https://imotions.com/blog/qualitative-vs-quantitative-research/
4. http://www.emgo.nl/kc/qual-data-collection/
5. http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/2961/4227
6. https://english.washington.edu/what-humanities-research
7. https://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Arts-based_research
8. https://ebn.bmj.com/content/21/1/7
9. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4020-6057-1_1
10. https://www.journals.elsevier.com/fisheries-research
11. https://www.waikato.ac.nz/study/subjects/social-science-research
12. https://www.academia.edu/Documents/in/Mathematics
13. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/grounded-theory
14. https://education.seattlepi.com/stepbystep-background-study-thesis-1626.html
15. https://www.journals.elsevier.com/fisheries-research/most-downloaded-articles
16. https://www.journals.elsevier.com/fisheries-research
17. https://www.alliedacademies.org/journal-fisheries-research/
18. http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/2961/4227
19. http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/index?journal

REMINDER:

This INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL is still developing. Any time, revision of the contents of
the material is done to make it more FRIENDLY to the senior high school teachers and students
who are going to use it for teaching-learning activities. If you want to replicate some of the research
topics in this material, just email the authors at samsudinabdullah42@yahoo.com.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative Research for Senior High School Students) by


SAMSUDIN N. ABDULLAH, PhD, MOHAMAD T. SIMPAL, MST & ARJEY B. MANGAKOY 107