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Republic of the Philippines

Department of Education





Classification of Art Forms

Overview to Philippine Art History


Learning Objectives
This module entitled Classification of Arts and Overview to Philippine Art History is designed
for Senior High School students to provide students with an appreciation of a broad range of styles in
the various disciplines and engage them to an integrative approach in studying arts. It also makes the
learners to appreciate the history of art in the Philippines and be familiarized with the significant
development of it. CAR11/12IAC-0a-1(WEEK 1 Module)

Content Standard:
The students demonstrate appreciation of contemporary art forms, found in the various regions
by understanding the elements and principles.

Performance Standard:
The student presents a form of integrated contemporary art based on the region of his / her
choice. e.g. choreography, musical instrument, literary and music composition, visual design, and/or
theatrical performance.

Basilan, M. C., & Arguelles, R. M.,(2018)Debujo: Contemporary Philippine Arts from the Regions.
Unlimited Books, pp.1-61
q=damian+domingo&id=395697D80B872A9EEDA2A9F79E8E3CDC28583403&FORM=IQFRBA filipino-graphic-designers-
instagram-a00171-20181002-lfrm -fernando-amorsolos-paintings


What is Art?

 It is the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, typically in a visual
form such as painting or sculpture, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or
emotional power.
 The imitation of life and of the world rendered beautifully, which gives pleasure
 A human pursuit to imitate life and the world in to something pleasing/beautiful
 A replication/recreation of reality.
 Creating something new, something original and something different. Art is life. It is creating life
on a material and making inanimate objects to have life.
 To create art is to give life (RAMON ORLINA Glass Sculptor)

Why people engage in Art?

Functions of Art

Factors affecting Art Style

1. Geographical - Art made by an artist may be influenced by the place where he is.
Example: There are many marble sculptures in Romblon because marble is very much
available while the male population in Paete, Laguna primarily engage in wood carving
so wooden sculptures abound.
2. Historical - A work of art may be affected by historical events.
Example: Juan Luna’s Spolarium is a painting exposing 6 about the Filipino oppression by the
3. Social – Social relationships, interactions with people, can also inspire an artist.
Examples: The film “Ang Pagdadalaga ni Maximo” relates about present-day realities in
Philippine society. The poems of Italian sonneteer Francesco Petrarch were written for his
lady love named Laura.
4. Ideational - Information or ideas from other people can also be a source of theme for a work of
Example: Nudism (movement that advocates living without clothes) inspired the creation of
nude f igures of male gods known as Apollo statues.
5. Psychological - The thinking or present condition of mind can affect art creation.
Example: Most of the songs of the ASIN folk-rock band like “Masdan Mo Ang Kapaligiran”
were written because of experiences in Mindanao like illegal logging and violence.
6. Technical - Choice of materials to use influences art work.
Example: In painting, strokes depend on the brush used. Big brushes produce thick lines
while small ones can line small details.

Classification of Art
Arts can be divided into Fine or Aesthetic (major arts) and Utilitarian or Practical (minor
A. Fine or Aesthetic (Major Arts) - These arts are primarily for the aesthetic enjoyment through
the senses, especially visual and auditory. It changes raw materials or media for aesthetic
1. Visual arts are those forms perceived by the eyes. Its focus on creating pieces of works that
mainly make use of the visual environment, while trying to convey messages of emotions, ideas or
information. It also called spatial/space arts because artworks produced under this genre occupy
Main-subfields of Visual Arts
a. Fine Art
 Painting - is the art of applying pigments to a surface in order to present an object of the
subject. Its nature is about creating shape and form.
 Drawing - is the art of technique of producing images on a surface, usually paper, by means of
marks, and using of ink, graphite, crayons, pastels, or chalk.
 Graphic art – those visual arts that have length and width; thus they are also called two-
dimensional arts - described as flat arts because they are seen on flat surfaces but you still get
feel for the subjects it just doesn’t look as real as three-dimensional works would.
 Sculpture - is the art of making two- or three- dimensional representative or abstract forms,
especially by carving stone, or wood or by casting metal or plaster.
 Architecture - is the art and technique of designing and building, as distinguished from the skill
associated with construction.
b. Decorative Art
 Tapestry- is a form of textile art, traditionally woven on a vertical loom.
 Ceramic Art- is made by taking mixtures of clay, earthen elements, powders, and water and
shaping them into design forms.
 Mosaic- is the decorative art of creating pictures and patterns on a surface by setting small
colored pieces of glass, marble or other materials in a bed of cement, plaster or adhesive.
 Glass Art- refers to individual works of the art that are substantially or wholly made of glass.
 Jewelry- consists of small decorative item worn for personal adornment, such as brooches,
rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.

c. Contemporary Art
 Artistic photography- it is also known as “photographic art”, or the term “fine art photography”
has no universally agreed meaning or definition, rather, it refers to an imprecise category of
photographs, created in accordance with the creative vision of the cameraman.
 Printing/Art Print- is artistic techniques that consist of making a series of pictures from an
original, or from a specially prepared surface.
 Video Art- a form of moving images where in a genre of art by use of video technology to
produce videotapes for viewing on a television screen.
 Animation- the art of making inanimate objects appear to move. Animation is an artistic impulse
that long predates the movies.
 Graffiti-an art represents writing or drawings applied (typically without permission) to public walls
or other surfaces. The graffiti artisans use paint, spray paint, pen, chalk, or other mediums to
paint, scribble, or scratch their artwork on various surfaces.
Plastic Art- are those visual arts that have length , width, and volume: thus, they are called three-
dimensional arts - examples: sculpture, architecture, landscape, architecture, city planning design,
set design, theatre design, industrial design, crafts and allied arts.

2. Audio-Visual arts are those forms perceived by both ears (audio) and eyes (video). It also
called performing arts.
a. Music- vocal or instrumental sounds (or both) combined in such a way as to produce beauty of
form, harmony, and expression of emotion.
b. Dance- is the art of moving body move rhythmically to music, typically following a set sequence
of steps.
c. Drama - A prose or verse composition, especially one telling a serious story, that is intended for
representation by actors impersonating.

3. Literary arts are those presented in the written mode and intended to be read.
Examples: prose (short stories, novels, essays, and , plays) and poetry( narrative poems, lyric
poems, and dramatic poems)

B. Practical or Utilitarian (Minor Arts) - Practical arts are intended for practical use or utility. It is
the changing the raw materials into something useful. These must have ornaments or artistic
qualities to make them useful and beautiful.
1. Industrial Art- It is converting raw materials into some important product for human use.
Examples are shell craft, bamboo craft, leather craft, shoe making, pottery making sheet-
metal works, and manufacture automobiles, home appliances.

2. Applied or household Art – it is an household arts such as flower arrangement, interior
decoration, dressmaking, homemaking, embroidery, cooking, and others.
3. Civic Art – in order to improve the standards of living is what civic planning and beautification
means, it includes city or town planning, maintenance, and beautification of any public areas.
4. Commercial Art – it is an art that involves business propaganda in the form of advertisements.
5. Agricultural art – this includes merchandising, accounting, bookkeeping, typewriting,
stenography, salesmanship, and business administration.
6. Distributive Art – it deals with advertising, marketing, warehousing, packaging, and shipping of
articles and goods.
7. Fishery Art - It includes shallow and deep sea fishing, fish refrigeration and culture net
8. Medical or Clinical Art - It includes first aid treatments, medicinal manufacturing, surgery,
medical operations, rehabilitation and others.


ETHNIC ART (Pre-13 AD) Integral to life - Arts for ritual purposes or for everyday use. As local
communities become established, art starts to go beyond mere craft, i.e. stone weapons or jewelry
but starts to have decorative elements, meaning and context

ISLAMIC ART (13AD) Geometric designs - Characterized by geometric designs and patterns
eliciting focus from believers

SPANISH ERA (1521-1898) Faith and Catechism - When the Spaniards arrived in the
Philippines in 1521, the colonizers used art as a tool to propagate the Catholic faith through
beautiful images. With communication as problem, the friars used images to explain the concepts
behind Catholicism, and to tell the stories of Christ’s life and passion. Damian Domingo AKA
Damian Gabor Domingo.
 1st Filipino to paint his face, the first self-portrait in the Philippines
 Founder of the Academia de Dibujo y Pintura, the first school of drawing in the Philippines (1821)
 "Father of Filipino Painting" ALIAS "The First Great Filipino Painter". He established the
Academia de Dibujo y Pintura(1821)

AMERICAN ERA (1898-190) Secular Art Forms - From one colonizer to another – after more
than three centuries of Spanish rule, the Americans came. They set out to conquer the Filipinos
through education and governance – the public school system and a system of government.
Classicism: Fabian dela Rosa (1869 – 1937) was the first painter of note for the 20th century. He
was noted for his realistic portraits, genre, and landscapes in subdued colors. He was enrolled at
the Escuela de Bellas Artes y Dibujo and took lessons from Lorenzo Guerrero.
Modernism would have its seeds planted in the 1890’s with Miguel Zaragosa’s two pointillist
works. Emilio Alvero later produced several Impressionist still life paintings. But it would take an
architect to give modernism its needed boost in the country. Juan Arellano would be known as an
architect but his Impressionist landscapes are as impressive as his buildings.
Carlos “Botong” Francisco, (1913 – 1969), Angono-based painter, depicted Philippine
history in his “History of Manila” mural at the Manila City Hall.

JAPANESE ERA (1941-195) Orientalizing - The arrival of the Japanese caused tremendous
fear, hardships and suffering among the Filipinos. The Filipino way of life was greatly affected
during the Japanese period. The Filipinos lost their freedom of speech and expression. The
development of art was also stopped. Filipinos greatly feared the "zoning". There were Filipinos
spies hired by the Japanese to point those who were suspected of being part of the guerilla
movement. The Japanese made some changes in the system of education.
Under their rule, the Japanese imposed their own music on the country. Japanese music
was heard daily in radio broadcasts. Their songs were also taught in public schools. Students,
however, never took these songs to heart. In response to the Japanese propaganda, Filipino
painters reacted by producing the following works: “A Day Begins” by Vicente Alvarez Dizon,
1942, genre scenes that seem neutral. Yet there were still many artists who portrayed the
atrocities of war in their collections such as “Rape and Massacre in Ermita” by Diosdado Lorenzo

MODERN ERA (196-1969) National Identity - Modern era in Philippine Art began after World
War 2 and the granting of Independence. Writers and artists posed the question of national identity
as the main theme of various art forms. Modern art is characterized by the artist's intent to portray
a subject as it exists in the world, according to his or her unique perspective and is typified by a
rejection of accepted or traditional styles and values. 6
CONTEMPORARY (1970 up to present) Social Realism - Contemporary art as the work of
artists who are living in the 21st century. Contemporary art mirrors contemporary culture and
society, offering the general audiences a rich resource through which to consider current ideas
and rethink the familiar. The work of contemporary artists is a dynamic combination of materials,
methods, concepts, and subjects that challenges traditional boundaries and defies easy definition.
Diverse and eclectic, contemporary art is distinguished by the very lack of a uniform organizing
principle, ideology, or -ism.



Direction: Identify what art form are the following images. Write your answer on the space
provided before the number. Give your reasons of the provided space.

_________1. __________________________________________________________

Owned by risarodil

_________2. _________________________________________________________
Owned by Marc John Israel
_________3. _________________________________________________________

Girl with Mango by F. Amorsolo

________4. _________________________________________________________
Blood Compact by N. Abueva

________5. _________________________________________________________

Blue vase by Gigi Campos


Draw a symbol or thing that can represent the art in the Philippines during Spanish
Colonization and Modern Era.
Spanish Colonization Era Modern Era

Compare and contrast your symbol to explain the characteristics of each period.


I. Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer.

1. Which period art became tool to propagate the religion and faith?
A. Japanese colonization era B. Pre-Colonial Era
C. Spanish colonization era D. American colonization era
2. A Classicism artist Fabian dela Rosa (1869 – 1937) was the first _______ of note for the 20th
A. Sculptor B. Painter
C. Writer D. Graphic Artist
3. Which among these arts are considered performance art?
i. Musical Art ii. Visual Art
iii. Movement Art iv. Cinematic Art

A. Only i and ii are considered performance art B. Only iii is considered performance art
C. Only i and iii are considered performance art D. All mentioned arts are considered
performance art.

4. What is Visual Art?

A. An art that produces sound and silence B. An art that you can look at.
C. An art that creates sounds and movements D. An art that creates sequences
through body movements
5. In response to the Japanese propaganda, Filipino painters reacted by producing art works such
“A Day Begins” in 1942. Who is the painter?
A. Vicente Alvarez Dizon B. Diosdado Lorenzo
C. Carlos Francisco D. Damian Domingo
6. What arts are primarily for the aesthetic enjoyment through the senses, especially visual and
A. Fine Arts C. Literary Arts
B. Utilitarian Arts D. Industrial Arts

7. Which of the following best describes "contemporary art?
A. It is the art of the past. B. It is a traditional art.
C. It is a religious art. D. It is the art of the present.
8. Which of the following is the political function of art?
A. Variety show of some artist are for free because they want to showcase their passion in
their craft.
B. Schools are constructed to have a good learning environment for the learners.
C. Houses and buildings are constructed to protect people and all other things inside them.
D. Mayor Isko Moreno used painting murals to beautify the walls in Manila and make it
9. Which of the following is NOT the importance of arts from the economic perspective?
A. It can attract overseas talents to work and contribute to the economy
B. It brings in the tourist dollar
C. the arts need funds to thrive
D. the spirit of creativity in the arts helps to boost innovation necessary for the knowledge-
based economy.
10. Who is the "Father of Filipino Painting" ALIAS "The First Great Filipino Painter"
A. Juan Luna C. Damian Domingo
B. Fernando Amorsolo D. Vicente A. Dizon

II. Matching Type: Match the following Era from Column A to the characteristics of arts in Column
B. Write your answer on the space provided.

_____1. Contemporary Era A. National Identity

_____2. Islamic Era B. Orientalizing
_____3. American Colonization Era C. Geometric Designs
_____4. Modern Era D. Faith and Cathechism
_____5. Japanese Colonization Era E. Secular Art forms
F. Social Realism