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Lecture 1:

Vector Analysis and Coordinate Systems

Lecture 1: Vector Analysis and Coordinate Systems ECE3613 Engineering Electromagnetics I 1

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Are they vectors?

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degree temperature in the room

50

N force

60

km/h speed of an automobile

$100 in $1 bills

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Graphic representation of vectors

Graphic representation of vectors ECE3613 Engineering Electromagnetics I 3

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Coordinate systems is the way to measure vectors!

z Equal?
z
Equal?
Coordinate systems is the way to measure vectors! z Equal? y Identical? x ECE3613 Engineering Electromagnetics
Coordinate systems is the way to measure vectors! z Equal? y Identical? x ECE3613 Engineering Electromagnetics

y

Identical?

x ECE3613 Engineering Electromagnetics I

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Coordinate systems are made by ‘unit vectors’ With ‘RIGHT HAND’ or ‘LEFT HAND’ rules

are made by ‘unit vectors’ With ‘RIGHT HAND’ or ‘LEFT HAND’ rules ECE3613 Engineering Electromagnetics I

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Vector Operations

Vector Operations We can do in ‘graphic way’ and ‘analytic way ’ ECE3613 Engineering Electromagnetics I

We can do in ‘graphic way’ and ‘analytic way

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C = A + B

C

A
A
B C
B
C

B

A

Parallelogram

Head-to-tail rule

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C = A - B

First way:

C = A + (-B)

Second way: Using ‘shorter diagonal’ rule

A
A

C

B

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EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE ECE3613 Engineering Electromagnetics I 10

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C = A B

C = A • B Scalar/dot product ECE3613 Engineering Electromagnetics I 11

Scalar/dot product

C = A • B Scalar/dot product ECE3613 Engineering Electromagnetics I 11
C = A • B Scalar/dot product ECE3613 Engineering Electromagnetics I 11
C = A • B Scalar/dot product ECE3613 Engineering Electromagnetics I 11
C = A • B Scalar/dot product ECE3613 Engineering Electromagnetics I 11

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C = A × B

Vector or cross product

C = A × B Vector or cross product Area of parallelogram Perpendicular to both A
C = A × B Vector or cross product Area of parallelogram Perpendicular to both A
C = A × B Vector or cross product Area of parallelogram Perpendicular to both A
C = A × B Vector or cross product Area of parallelogram Perpendicular to both A

Perpendicular to both A and B!

Directed area spanned by A and B – right hand rule

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Triple Products

A

?

B

?

C

Not all triple products are meaningful Except

Scalar triple product (STP):

Vector triple product (VTP):

Scalar triple product (STP): Vector triple product (VTP):
Scalar triple product (STP): Vector triple product (VTP):
meaningful Except Scalar triple product (STP): Vector triple product (VTP): ECE3613 Engineering Electromagnetics I 13

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Important relationships:

A ⋅⋅⋅( B×C

) =

(

)

B C×A =C ( A×B )

( B×C ) =B ( A C ) -C ( A B )

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Example: The volume of the parallelepiped can be calculated by V=
Example:
The volume of the parallelepiped
can be calculated by
V=

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Coordinate Systems

LINK to document: coordinate systems review

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Differential length, area and volume

A ‘tiny’ length with a vector pointing along that length
A ‘tiny’ length with a vector pointing along that length

A

‘tiny’ length with a vector pointing along that length

A ‘tiny’ length
A ‘tiny’ length

A ‘tiny’ length

a vector pointing along that length A ‘tiny’ length A ‘tiny’ surface area with a vector

A ‘tiny’ surface area with a vector pointing normal to the area

A ‘tiny’ surface area
A ‘tiny’ surface area

A ‘tiny’ surface area

A ‘tiny’ volume
A ‘tiny’ volume

A ‘tiny’ volume

REQUIRE: KNOW HOW TO EXPRESS THEM IN DIFFERENT COORDINATE SYSTEMS

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Learn to use Table 2-1

Learn to use Table 2-1 Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical ECE3613 Engineering Electromagnetics I 18

Cartesian

Cylindrical

Spherical

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Learn to use Table 2-2

Also in

coordinate systems review

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x

Example

Calculate the area of this surface

x Example Calculate the area of this surface z z = 2 y r =3 z
z z = 2 y r =3 z = -2
z
z
= 2
y
r =3
z
= -2
x Example Calculate the area of this surface z z = 2 y r =3 z
x Example Calculate the area of this surface z z = 2 y r =3 z
x Example Calculate the area of this surface z z = 2 y r =3 z

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Field:

A region or space characterized by some physical (scalar or vector) properties

Can you ‘sketch’ these fields?

or vector) properties Can you ‘sketch’ these fields? ( scalar field ) ( vector field )

( scalar field )

Can you ‘sketch’ these fields? ( scalar field ) ( vector field ) Want to see

( vector field )

Want to see a ‘tornado vortex’ field?

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Field:

How to describe field if you can not ‘see’ it?

-Lecture 2: vector calculus

Basically, you ‘sense’ the field by measuring its properties and characteristics

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