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REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Division of Camarines Sur
COLEGIO DELA VIRGIN DEL PILAR (CVP), INC
Formerly: Academia Sagrada Familia de Lupi, Inc.
SCHOOL ID NO. 433585
Colacling, Lupi, Camarines Sur
Mobile # SMART 0912-488-8437/GLOBE 0935-347-3635

Discipline and Ideas in the


Applied Social Sciences
THE APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCES
AND THE DISCIPLINE OF
COUNSELING

Week 2
Module 2

Prepared by:
Claribel A. Barce
DIASS Subject Teacher

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HOW TO USE THIS MODULE

Before starting the module, I want you to set aside other tasks that will disturb you
while enjoying the lessons. Read the simple instructions below to successfully enjoy the
objectives of this kit. Have fun!

1. Follow carefully all the contents and instructions indicated in every page
of this module.
2. Write on your notebook the concepts about the lessons. Writing enhances
learning that is important to develop and keep in mind.
3. Perform all the provided activities in the module.
4. Let your facilitator/guardian assess your answers using the answer key card.
5. Analyze conceptually the posttest and apply what you have learned.
6. Enjoy studying!

PARTS OF THE MODULE

• Expectations - These are what you will be able to know after completing the
lessons in the module.
• Pre-test - This will measure your prior knowledge and the concepts to be
mastered throughout the lesson.
• Looking Back to your Lesson - This section will measure what learning’s and
skills did you understand from the previous lesson.
• Brief Introduction - This section will give you an overview of the lesson.
• Discussion - This section provides a short discussion of the lesson. This aims to
help you discover and understand new concepts and skills.
• Activities - This is a set of activities you will perform with a partner.
• Remember - This section summarizes the concepts and applications of the
lessons.
• Check your understanding - It will verify how you learned from the
lesson.
• Post-test - This will measure how much you have learned from the entire
module.

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EXPECTATIONS

Specifically, this module will help you to:

 Define Counseling and

 Identify the different goals of counseling and provide specific


examples for each goal

Let us start your journey in learning more on applied and social


sciences. I am sure you are ready and excited to answer the Pretest.
Smile and cheer up!

PRETEST
The Discipline of counseling
Direction:

The following statements enable you to reflect on or figure out your level of
understanding about counseling. You are required to agree or disagree on each of the following
statements. Please put a check mark (✓) if you agree and a cross mark (✗) if you disagree.
Repeat the same process after completing the module. Can you see any changes or
differences in your answers? What new knowledge have you acquired about counseling?

Before the Statements After the


Module Study Module
Study

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Counseling as an art is the subjective aspect of therapy. This
fosters a versatile and innovative process by which the
advisor modifies the approach to meet the changing needs of
clients.
Remedial strategies are to help the company resolve and
manage adverse developments.
Counseling happens when a person who is in
distress requests and encourages another person to enter a
certain kind of relationship with him / her.
Licensed qualified scholars may provide advice to
individuals , associations, organizations or the
general public concerning the application of the
concepts, methods or procedures of clinical counseling to
assist individuals in the achievement of more successful
financial, social, educational or career growth and
adaptation.
The way we perceive or view things, people, events and our
environment is influenced by our values.
Counselors handle sensitive knowledge about clients with
trust, whether directly or implicitly, through inference.
In the light of the philosophy of utilitarianism in
relation to beneficence, the implementation of
utilitarianism should be able to make an ethical Judgment
considering the costs and benefits of-individual.
Marriage and family therapy apply to attempts to
create a supportive relationship with a spouse or
family and to identify problems in the family system.

The primary duty of a counselor is to uphold the


integrity and to support the well-being of clients.
Counselors consider employment only for positions which
are qualified by schooling, training, supervised experience,
regional and national professional credentials and relevant
professional experience.

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BRIEF INTRODUCTION

The severity and prevalence of social issues have a direct and significant effect on people's
psychological conditions. The circumstances of psychological damage, the past of trauma and even
the practice of shock are a source of anxiety. Such circumstances involve the integrative efforts of
the psychological sciences and the digital social sciences to solve social issues that cause human
distress.

Counseling as a specialty has grown out of the need for institutionalized resources to
support and help people in circumstances of difficulty in their lives. Professionals in this field, called
counselors, support those in need of clinical assistance in finding meaning, dealing with the
difficulty of life and adjusting to new environments.

As cases of psychological and mental wellbeing rise and the condition of social instability
rises, therapy becomes important. This chapter introduces you to the practice of counseling. If you
are interested in knowing this profession, this is your chance to feel what it is, where its work
settings are, and how it works.

DISCUSSIONS

Lesson The Discipline of Counseling

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THE MEANING OF COUNSELING

Nystul (2003) defined counseling as essentially an art and a science in which you seek to
weigh the objective and subjective aspects of the counseling process. Counseling as an art is the

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subjective dimension of advice. It maintains a flexible and creative process by which the counselor
modifies the approach in order to meet the growing needs of clients. It is also related to the act of
giving oneself and being compassionate in therapy processes.
Counseling as a science, on the other hand, is the objective dimension of the consultation
process. Counselors who are discerning and who acquire skills to formulate critical conclusions and
inferences (Nystul, 2003). The art and science of psychology means an intensification of the
Boulder Method scientist-practitioner paradigm (Myers, 2007). The model illustrates the
incorporation of art and science into therapy, which forms recommendations that incorporate
theory and practice.

In practical terms, therapy happens when a person who is in distress asks for support and
encourages another person to enter a kind of relationship with him / her. It is indicative of
someone seeking counseling requests for time and attention from a person who will listen, who will
allow him / her to speak and who will not condemn and criticize him / her. This type of relationship
is a formal aid in which a counselor-counselee relationship is established. Informal aid is asking for
formal assistance in some ways, such as the presence of good listening skills, compassion, and
caring capacity. However, there is a higher degree of confidentiality and objectivity in the context of
structured assistance. People trust that the counselor will uphold his oath of allegiance as a licensed
counselor and will abide by his Code of Ethics and Professional Principles (Nystul, 2003).
Counseling is a vital part of assisting not only in social work but also in education. It is a process of
helping a person seeking help. Counseling happens when you meet a qualified specialist who has
the expertise, experience, and orientation to provide the services needed. A trained professional is a
counselor who will accompany you – listen to you and help you achieve your goals.

Based on the Guidance and Counseling Act of 2004, guidance and counseling is a profession
that involves the application of a "integrated approach to the development of a well-functioning
individual" through provision in accordance with its interests, needs and abilities (University of
Queensland, 2015).

At the American Therapy Association (ACA) conference in Pittsburgh in March 2010,


members reached an agreement on the common concept of therapy. They accepted that therapy is a
therapeutic partnership that empowers diverse people, communities and organizations to achieve
mental health, wellbeing, education and career goals (Kaplan, Travis's and Gladding, 2014). This
concept talks about inspiring people, families, groups and communities to achieve their goals in life.

GOALS OF COUNSELING

The goal setting is a key component of individual, group, organizational and community success.
Counseling, like any form of assistance, must be motivated by objectives. It will be more difficult to
achieve the desired target if you do not or are not conscious of the objectives. The primary objective
of counseling is to help people use their prevailing social skills and problem-solving skills more
functionally or to develop new survival and coping skills. The comprehensive and broad therapy
goals defined by Gibson and Mitchell (2003) are as follows:

1. Development Goals – assist in meeting or advancing the client’s human growth and
development including social, personal, emotional, cognitive and physical wellness
2. Preventive Goals – helps the client avoid some undesired outcome
3. Enhancement Goals – enhance special skills and abilities
4. Remedial Goals – assisting client to overcome and treat an undesirable development

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5. Exploratory Goals – examining options, testing of skills, trying new and different
activities, etc.
6. Reinforcement Goals – helps client in recognizing that what they are doing, thinking and
feeling is fine
7. Cognitive Goals – involves acquiring the basic foundation of learning and cognitive skills
8. Physiological Goals – involves acquiring the basic understanding and habits for good
health
9. Psychological Goals – aids in developing good social interaction skills, learning emotional
control and developing positive self-concept

The goals set out above suggest that therapy seeks to motivate the client by helping him /
her to make important decisions in life, to build capacity to cope, to improve productivity and to
improve the quality of life. Other than the goals discussed above, McLeod (2003) presented a list of
therapy priorities, some of which are to improve the objectives set out above.

The list consists of insight-based problems related to others, self-awareness, self


acceptance, self-actualization, liberation, problem-solving, psychological education, cognitive
improvement, behavioral change, structural change, empowerment, reconciliation, and
generativity. Such things briefly listed below are nevertheless demanding motivating goals. The
counselors, however, tend to be motivated by these therapy goals.

Goal Description

Insight Understanding of the origins and development of emotional difficulties,


leading to an increased capacity to take rational control over feelings and
actions.
Relating with others Becoming better able to form and maintain meaningful
and satisfying relationships with other people: for
example, within the family or workplace
Self- Awareness Becoming more aware of thoughts and feelings that had
been blocked off or denied, or developing a more accurate
sense of how self is perceived by others
Self -Acceptance The development of a positive attitude toward self,
marked by an ability to acknowledge areas of experience
that had been the subject of self-criticism and rejection
Self- Actualization Moving in the direction of fulfilling potential or achieving
an integration of previously conflicting parts of self
Enlightenment Assisting the client to arrive at a higher state of spiritual
awakening
Problem-Solving Finding a solution to a specific problem that the client had not been able to
resolve alone and acquiring a general competence in problem-solving.
Psychological Enabling the client to acquire ideas and techniques with
Education which to understand and control behavior
Acquisition of Social Learning and mastering social and interpersonal skills
Skills such as maintenance of eye contact, turn-taking in
conversations, assertiveness, or anger control
Cognitive Change The modification or replacement of irrational beliefs or
maladaptive thought patterns associated with self-destructive behavior

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Behavior Change The modification or replacement of maladaptive or self-destruct patterns
of behavior
Systematic Change Introducing change into the way in that social systems
operate
Empowerment Working on skills, awareness and knowledge that will
enable the client to take control of his or her own life
Restitution Restitution Helping the client to make amends for previous
destructive behavior
Generativity Inspiring in the person a desire and capacity to care for
others and pass on knowledge and to contribute to the
collective good through political engagement and
community work

A wide range of human problems are creating a wider scope and field of advice. In general, the
spectrum of treatment includes individual counseling, marital and premarital counseling, family
counseling and group counseling. The areas covered by this framework will be discussed in the next
section.

SCOPE OF COUNSELING

Counseling is a specific term with diverse definitions and objectives. The goals listed above
reflect the nature of the advice. Counseling is important in nearly every area of a person's life —
cognitive, mental, economic, financial, psychological, and others. It is also applied to individuals,
families and groups.

There are several topics related to individual therapy, such as depression, sexual
harassment, anxiety, class, relationships, faith, philosophy, teenage problems, loss, frustration,
tension, vocation, studies, and others. In terms of family therapy, problems include divorce, family
dynamics, life changes, miscommunication, envy, money issues, parenting, remarriage, and others.

The 4754-15 Scope of Practice for Licensed Professional Counselors is a more focused topic
relevant to the quality of advice. This covers the privileges and duties of licensed lawyers, including
the following:

Licensed Professional Counselors may for a fee, salary, or other considerations

1. Afford counseling services to individuals, groups, organizations, or the general public comprising of
application of clinical counseling principles, methods or procedures to assist individuals in realizing
effective personal, social, educational or career development and adjustment.

2. “Apply clinical counseling principles, methods and procedures,” means an approach to counseling
that emphasizes the counselor’s role in systematically assisting clients through all of the following:
assessing and analyzing emotional conditions, exploring possible solutions and developing and
providing a treatment plan for mental and emotional adjustment or development. It may include
counseling, appraisal, consulting, supervision, administration, and referral.

3. Engage in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional disorders when under the
supervision of a professional clinical counselor, psychologist, psychiatrist, independent marriage and
family therapist or independent social worker.

4. Provide training supervision for student and registered counselor trainees when services are 8
within their scope of practice, which does not include supervision of the diagnosis and treatment of
mental and emotional disorders.
The set of core values is a key component of an organization. It has a significant
Discipline and Ideas in the Applied Social Sciences by Dela Cruz AR et. al et. al.
influence on other organizational components, more specifically, to its members. It serves
(2016) pp. 41
as standards that shape the member’s behavior in their interaction with their clients and
other people. Different professions, especially, those who require licensure like counseling,
have its own set of core values – values that are instilled among its members. Below are
presents the core values and ethical standards of counseling.

ACTIVITIES

Activity 2.1

I Need Help, Where Will I Go?

Instruction:

1. If something is bothering you about life matters: academics, relationships, family,


identity, and financial concerns, with whom will you share your problem? Will you pursue
a formal help or a non-formal help? Why or why not? Explain your answer.

2. Write your answer on the separate sheet of Bond Paper

ACTIVITIES
Activity 2.2
In What Way Will Counseling Empower Me?

Instruction:
In our discussion on counseling goals, John McLeod contends that: “Counseling aims
to empower the client by helping him/her make critical decisions in life, develop ability to
cope, enhance effectiveness and improve quality life.”

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1. What do you think about this statement? Do you accept or support it? How will it
empower you? Explain your answer.
2. Write your answer on the separate sheet of bond paper.

CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING

1. Answer the following questions briefly


1.1 Why is counseling an art and, at the same time, a science?
1.2 Why is counseling defined as a relationship? What are the characteristics of
a counseling relationship?
1.3 Why is counseling referred to as an emerging helping profession?

REMEMBER

 Counseling is defined as a process as a relationship, as an art, as a science, and as an


emerging profession.
 The purposes and goals of counseling can be categorized into major and specific
goals. The crucial element in the establishment of goals in the counseling process is
the party who sets these goals. The client takes the lead while the counselor assists.

POST TEST

I. Directions: Modified True or False. Write T if the sentence is true. If your


answer is false, write a brief explanation why the statement is incorrect.

______ 1. Goals in the counseling process are determined solely by the counselors.
_______________________________________________________________________
______ 2. Counseling is for curing serious mental disorders
________________________________________________________________________
_______3. Counseling targets the development of the client’s emotional, social, mental,
and moral maturity.

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_______ 4. Counseling counselors the personal as well as the social environment
where the client is situated.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______ 5. Counseling means giving advice, recommendations, and suggestions.
_______________________________________________________________________
II. Provide what are being asked for each item.

1. Give the five major goals of counseling. Provide a specific example for
each.
2. Give five specific goals of counseling. Explain each.

III. Interview at least two (2) counselors you know and ask them the following
questions. (No face to face required. Use any social media flat form to
interview).

1. How will you define counseling? What are the goals/purposes of


counseling?
2. What can you say about counseling in the Philippines?

REFLECTIVE LEARNING SHEET

Name ____________________________________________ Grade and Section ___________


School: ______________________ Date: _____________ Subj. Teacher: _______________

1. Clarify the relationships and differences between social science and applied
sciences.
2. Identify the goals and scope of counseling.
3. Explain the principles of counseling.

Objectives: 1. Differentiate the Social Sciences and the Applied Social Sciences.
2. Demonstrate understanding of counseling through profiling.

Topics: 1. Defining the Social Sciences and the Applied Social Sciences
2. The Discipline of Counseling

Journal Entry

We will look back at what we have covered, and we will synthesize the social
sciences, applied social sciences and the discipline of counseling.

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Directions: Write an essay about your journey through this course on Discipline and Ideas
in the Applied Social Sciences. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper.

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