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Defining communication- It is derived from the word “communis”

Which in Latin means common. It stands for the common activity of

human beings of conveying opinions feelings or information etc.

Communication is a process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. ____ Keith Davis

Communication is any behaviour that results in an exchange of meaning

The American Management Association

Communication is the process by which information is passed between individuals and/or organizations by means of
previously agreed symbols
Peter Little
sender message media message receiver

Information Encoding Decoding Destination
source Channel


Shanon-Weaver Model
1 How Communication takes place
2 3
Source creates Sends
Selects Channel
message message

5 4
6 Filters Receiver
Experience Gets
Interprets Knowledge message

1. Information Source– Sender, person who transmits the message

2. Encoding– Puts it into words or symbol
3. Channel– Oral, written, electronic signal etc.
4. Decoding – Receivers interpretation
5. Feedback – acting on communication
6. Noise – It can be described as any sort of distortion hindrance,
which prevents transmission of message.
7. Filters – These are mental in nature

Classification Of communication
1. Interpersonal
2. Interpersonal
3. Group
4. Mass
5. Verbal
6. Nonverbal

Objectives / Purpose of communication

Information Persuasion
Channels of Communication
Downward; From Top to Bottom e.g.. Instructions, orders, training,
advice,motivation, counseling, warning
2. Upward ; From Bottom to top e.g request, application, appeal,
demand, representation, complaint, suggestion
3. Horizontal ; among colleagues e.g. grapevine, gossip etc.
4. Diagonal ; Among all e.g.suggestions box, complaint box
Importance of Communication
1. Healthy Organisational environment—Communication is to organisation as blood is to human body.In an
organisation many people from different background work together as well as interact with outer agencies.
Communications through perfect co-ordination binds them and is an effective tool in reaching the goals.

1. Management- employee relationship– Communication helps the employees and the management to develop links
for better mutual understanding and encourage each other to achieve their self-interest.

1. External and Internal Communications Network—Communication between management and employee is

internal communication. It helps in the growth of the company as many secret and often embarrassing incidence are
kept within the company and are not leaked to the media to avoid a negative image. Breakdowns and other job
assignment are reported on time and changes are done accordingly. Thus the business thrives.similarly in external
communications information about the product studies and market analyses flows easily resulting into growth.with
growing number of branches of business houses all over the world the communication becomes the most effective
tool in management.
4. Functionalisation– division of work into different kinds of duties is called leads to specialisation
Trainings with Spacialised workers like engineers, scientists ,accountants etc. help in the growth of business.

5. Helps to ease out the complexity of business—In a company, planning,finance, accounts, purchase, production,
advertising, marketing, store, sales, labour-welfare, cultural activities, are all handled by people who have unique skills and
knowledge.all these different departments collaborate to mange the business effectively through communications.

6. Solving labour problems– More employees are conscious of their rights than before.They are organised into trade
unions.Through effective communications between organisation and trade unions many lockouts and strikes are prevented.

7. For growing as multinationals—It helps in the expansion of business beyond boundaries, as well as in understanding
legal, political social, economic and educational environment.hence with globalisation the importance of communications
has increased many folds.

8. Helps in competition -- It is generally seen that the product which is promoted more efficiently is the leader in the
market.A company which keeps its communication links open with it’s customers through proper feedback has the chance
of evolving better than others.

9. It helps in better participation & delegation– Participative mangers communicate better with its employees. They ask
and give opinions, views and suggestions with others and work together as a team. Delegations means giving the rights of
working n an independent atmosphere to a certain prescribed limits.this provides a sense of involvement and satisfaction to
the workers and raises their moral.


An effective comm. is the key of sure success in the modern world. The increasing specialisation and the expansion and
complexity of today’s trade fare have also brought a revolution in the system of comm. An expert in the field of
management or business can survive only if he develops his communicating skills. He must know how to communicate
with the new technical and speedy devices. An efficient management executives spend more than 90% of his time in
communicating with the banks, transport agencies, government officials, legal advisors, insurance companies, experts,
customers and fellow employees. Good comm. does not occur accidentally but needs lot of hard work to develop it.


Essentials of good communication are:

• Positive and pleasant approach – This approach goes a long way in establishing good relations with others. There
are many occasions when a person has to disagree, refuse, or bear other people’s negativity and temper. But to
handle all these with sugar coated words or tactfully without breaking the good will of the opposite party reflects
your positive approach and establishes your goodness in the business circle.

• Appropriate tone, pitch, quality, force and intensity of voice – One must ensure to sound natural, friendly,
sincere, pleasant, or authoritative as the situation demands. A good control over your voice is a hallmark of
essential communication.

• Self confidence – Lack of self confidence can be a critical barrier to effective communication. Self confidence is a
must to communicate your achievements and capabilities.
• Organised message – The message must consist of an introduction, a body and a conclusion. It should follow a
proper order and a definite movement. Avoid being repetitive.

• Proper selection and use of media – The choice of media available are; audio-visual, non verbal, oral and written.
We must choose the right media depending on the circumstances. We must also pay attention to the right mode of
transmitting our communication.

• Proper selection and use of the channels – It is essential that we follow a proper channel of communication .they
are grouped in upward, downward, vertical, and horizontal. Grapevine is an informal channel of comm. which
spreads in any direction.
• Adaptability and attentiveness –
Adaptability means getting used to the circumstances and adapting the intellectual, academic, and linguistic
atmosphere. This results in faster comm. In today’s complex and global world adaptability is an essential factor in effective
communication. Attentiveness means to keep your eyes, ear and mind open to new ideas knowledge. There cannot be
effective comm. unless the sender and the receiver are attentive to each other. Good listening skills are highly useful in
paying attention.

• ‘You’ factor – Our comm. is effective only when we speak from the receiver’s point of view. It should be
organised in such a way that it should appeal to the interest of the receiver. hence we must use ‘You’ much more
that the use of ‘I’ or “we.” The word you is magnetic and highly effective in both the oral and written comm.
• Time factor - Speed and timeliness contribute significantly to the effectiveness of comm. In today's organisation
goals are set to be achieved within a time frame. Long speeches that stretch beyond their allotted time loose their
force and get diluted. The timing of the communication also is of great importance. How a particular news is to be
handled and when it is to be communicated makes a lot of difference to the organisation.



Francis J Bergin advocates that there are 7 Cs to a
successful oral and written communication they are –

• Candidness
• Clarity
• Completeness
• Conciseness
• Concreteness
• Correctness
• Courtesy
• CANDIDNESS – It means honest and sincere. Our guiding principle should be fairness to self and to others
involved. In oral comm. If we are honest then we are confident, which is of great importance in your

• CLARITY – The principal of clarity is most important in all communication. To be clear means to use words
which are accurate and familiar with proper stresses and pauses. Our spoken language should consist of short
sentences and clear words.
• COMPLETENESS – Clarity is ensured by completeness of message. In conversation or presentation one can miss
some part of comm. It is therefore, essential that oral presentations, discussions or dialogues should be as far as
possible, planned and structured.

• CONCISENESS – This means brief. We should say whatever we have to say in minimum words. We should avoid
being repetitive.
ex. At this point of time ( now, at present)
As regards the fact that (Considering)
In due course of time (soon)
not very far from here (nearby)
• CONCRETENESS -- This means definitive Or specific. Avoid using vague words and passive voice. ex.- We
don’t say ‘you are being requested by me’ but “I request you to” always use right words to strengthen your point of

• CORRECTNESS – In spoken form of comm. Grammatical errors are somewhat common. But you have to be
perfect in the written comm. As they are easy to spot and gives a bad impression.

• COURTESY –Courtesy demands that we do not use words that are insulting or hurtful to the listener. In
conversational situations, an effective decorum is to be maintained. We should not be rude and should not use
words of abuse or insult like “Bloody” or “my foot" or “shit” which are common slang being used by many people.
Our tone should be of respect or authority as the situation demands.

Characteristics of successful communication

According to Francis J Bergin the seven C’s of successful
communications are—
1. Candidness / Consideration– In business our views should be Honest, sincere, and unbiased.
 Focus on ‘You’ instead of ‘I’ or ‘We’
 Show audience benefit or interest in the reciever
 emphasize[positive, pleasant facts

2. Completeness
 Provide all necessary information
 Answer all questions asked
 Give something extra, when desired
 Choose precise, concrete, and familiar words
 Construct effective sentences and paragraph

4. Conciseness
 Eliminate wordy expression
 Include only relevant material
 Avoid unnecessary repetition
5. Concreteness—
 Use specific facts and figures
 Put action in your verbs
 Choose vivid, image-building words
6. Courtesy—
 Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful, and appreciative
 Use expressions that show respect
 Choose nondiscriminatory expressions
 Use right level of language
 Check accuracy of figures, facts and words
 Maintain acceptable writing mechanics


Communication is never perfect. Number of factors are responsible which stands in the way of complete
communication. These are called barriers. Thus the factors which prevents in exact transmitting of the message are
barriers to communication.
in some mediums like, telephone, postal system, courier service or even electronic media may fail or break down
due to mechanical faults.

• NOISE – It interferes with the transmission of the signal. these disturbances are in the form of sounds, visual, audio
visual, written etc. Bad microphone, noise of machine, loud stereo, poor connectivity of phones, week signals bad
handwriting etc. are some of the examples.

• TIME AND DISTANCE -- The frequency of communication affects relation ships in the organisation this could be
due to working in different shifts. The delay is caused in comm. Often due to some person sticking to strict routine.
Distance acts as a barrier due to improper sitting arrangements in the offices. Partitions of the cabin and lack of
intercom disturbs the comm.


• LACK OF COMMON LANGUAGE – If the communicator and receiver belongs to different groups their
ignorance of each others language acts as barrier to communication.

words with multiple meaning. Poor knowledge of English is one of the biggest factors of miscommunication.


• ATTITUDES AND VALUES – The messages are interpreted by the people in terms of their attitude and values.
Self interest prevents people to see others point of view .If the message runs contrary to their view they distort it.
• DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS OF REALITY – Man prefers to believe what he prefers to be true. two people have
different t perception of life. it could be due to diff. physical senses of hearing, sight, taste smell etc. . Hence we see
or hear according to our abilities.

• FILTERING – It is the process of reducing the details or aspects of a message according to the receivers
understanding of the situation

• STATUS BLOCK – status is the position or social rank of a person in a group. people in senior position mostly
have the attitude of ‘I know better than you'. this acts as barrier. status consciousness often is directly proportional
to lack of information.

• CLOSED MIND – Limited intellectual background, reading causes a persons mind to be narrow. this limits the
ability to communicate better.

• POOR COMMUNICATION SKILLS. – lack of skill in writing and speaking prevents a person from framing a
message properly. bad listening also results in a communication gap.

• HALO EFFECT AND GROUP IDENTIFICATION -- this is the effect due to a persons trust . We tend to believe
in everything if it is coming from a person of trust.


• Each nation has a character of it’s own they have different set of values and follow a diff. culture. communication
becomes difficult when you are in the company of foreigners. Some of the factors affecting communication in such
case are –
• Values
• Social relationship
• Concept of time
• Concept of space
• Body language& non verbal behaviour
• Paralanguage.


 The word non verbal means not involving words or speech. Thus it is a wordless communication through the
medium of gestures , signs, body movements, facial expression, tone of voice, colour, time,
Space etc.
the verbal and non verbal together form the total meaning of the message communicated


1. Yawning
2. Turning Up the nose
3. Crossing the legs above the knee
4. Sitting on the edge of a chair
5. Rubbing the nose
6. Scratching the head Raising an eyebrow
7. Crossing the arms at the chest
8. Biting the lower lip
9. cracking the knuckles
10. Stroking the chin
11. Tapping a foot
12. Pinching the bridge of the nose
13. Punching a clenched fist into the palm
14. Rubbing the eyes
15. Placing the hands on the hips
16. Giving a sidelong glance
17. Pointing the index finger
18. Tugging at the pants while seated
19. Shrugging the shoulders
20. Cupping the mouth with hands Fidgeting in a chair
21. Clicking the fingers
22. Placing both hands on the chest
23. Placing the feet on the table

Negative gestures

Signs of nervousness Signs of Aggressiveness

 Pointing at someone
Showing a fist
 Folding both arms
 Hands in pockets
 Scratching
 Biting nails
 Glancing sideways
 Drumming fingers
 Clearing your throat too often
 Tapping your foot
 Sitting on the edge of the chair
 Fiddling with tie or hair
 Speaking too fast or haltingly
 Blinking a lot
 Clicking pens
 Playing with paper weights

DEFINITION– It is also called verbal communication. It is the interchange of verbal messages between sender and
receiver. It is more immediate than written communication and used more often. It is also more natural and
informal.according to statistics 70% of our waking time is spent communicating.and out of this total 75% is spent on
listening and speaking. It is therefore extremely important that for being a good manager we need to learn these two
skills effectively.

NEED FOR GOOD ORAL SKILLS.– It is not enough for a manger to talk, speak, discuss, converse, argue, or
negotiate an issue. He should be able to converse or discuss persuasively, effectively, and convincingly.

It is said that it does not matter what you say , what matters is how you say it.A good manager needs oral skills to–
 To help problem solving
 To resolve conflict
 To influence people
 To persuade others
 To be assertive without being aggressive
 To develop listening skills
 To be an affective negotiator
 To make a proposal
OBJECTIVES –A manager performs the maximum of oral comm. his duties involve meetings, discussion,
negotiations, seminars, presentations,interviews, peer conversation, subordinate instructions and telephonic
conversation.All these business activities involve skillful control of tone, voice, pitch, and precise use of words.


• more personal and informal
• makes immediate impact
• Provides opportunity for interaction and feedback
• Helps in immediate correction
• Better for conveying feelings and emotions
• Demands ability to think coherently
• A word once uttered can be taken back
• Hard to control voice pitch and tone especially under stress, excitement or anger
• Very difficult to be conscious of our body language

 Better for complex and difficult subjects, facts etc.
 Better for keeping records
 Provides opportunity to refer back
 Can be read at receiver's convenience
 Can be revised before sending
 Can be circulated
 Never know if the message is ever read
 Impersonal an remote
 Immediate feedback is not available
 Reader does not get the non verbal cues that help in total interpretation
 Many do not like reading at all
 Time consuming


The main characteristics of effective oral communication are –

• Consider the objectives
• Think about the interest level of the communicator
• Be sincere
• Use simple language, familiar words
• Be brief and precise
• Avoid being vague and general
• Give full facts
• Assume nothing
• Use polite words
• Cut out insulting message
• Say something interesting and pleasing
• Allow time to respond
• Be a good listener

Negotiating Skills
What is negotiation?
 It is any form of meeting or discussion in which you or the persons you are in contact with use argument
and persuasion to achieve an agreed decision or action.
 It is the process of trying to reach an agreement through discussion.
 Negotiation is to bargain for mutually agreed exchange by using persuasion and discussion.

Persuasion is perhaps one of the most important skill which is very useful in negotiations.It compromises a
range of skills for convincing other people of the need to accept or agree to a course of action.It is not just one
skill but a combination of skills- attitude, psychology, language, tone, body language, and so on.some of the
strategies to be followed while negotiating are-
 Plan your discussion
 Set a gentle tone(avoid confrontational tone)
 Sell the sunny side first. Start with positive note
 Alter accordingly(give some concession)
 Develop a dialogue/avoid compulsive talking
 Listen carefully/evaluate the pros & cons)
 Don’t ask silly question/don’t stretch the discussion
 Take a break when the deadlock arrives
 Emphasise on other party’s benefit
 Appreciate other party’s co-operation