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The direct accusative

L’accusativo è, propriamente parlando, il caso verbale o avverbiale: è subordinato al verbo, o
direttamente (accusativo dell’oggetto), o indirettamente (accusativo di determinazione relativo al verbo,
accusativo avverbiale, § 126. È vero che l’accusativo qualche volta si trova subordinato al nome (n.
127), ma questo è un uso secondario basato sull’analogia con l’accusativo indirettamente subordinato al

L’accusativo diretto indica l’oggetto del verbo. L’oggetto può essere effettuato, ad esempio
contenuto attraverso l’azione verbale, ad esempio ‫יַ ֲח�מוּן‬ ‫ ֲח�מוֹת‬Jl 3.1 loro faranno sogni (somnia
somniabunt); o semplicemente interessato, (direttamente) raggiunto dall’azione verbale e.g. ‫וַ יְ ַס ֵפּר‬
‫ אֹתוֹ‬Gn 37.9 e lo raccontò (il sogno). Quindi si dovrà fare una distinzione tra due tipi di oggetto
diretto, i. e. tra l’oggetto interessato e l’oggetto effettuato () (§ p).
I) Accusativo dell’oggetto interessato. Con alcuni verbi l’azione verbal passa direttamente
all’oggetto (verbi transitivi), con altri passa all’oggetto attraverso una preposizione () (verbi intransitivi
o, più precisamente, transitivi attraverso la preposizione). Ma acluni verbi possono essere sia transitive
che intransitive. Così ‫ נָ גַ ע‬toccare è generalemente intransitivo (transitivo attraverso la preposizione):

ma alcune volte prende ‫( בּ‬di contatto), qualche volta ‫( ֶאל‬sfiorare, pascolare, raggiungere), ma solo

raramente è transitivo (nome oggetto: Is 52.11). Così ‫ ָﬠזַ ר‬di solito viene con ‫ל‬, e raramente con ‫את‬

come in Josh 1.14 ‫אוֹתם‬

ָ ‫הוֹשׁ ַי� ; ֲﬠזַ ְר ֶתּם‬
ִ salvare, dare vittoria. Varie circostanze possono
influenzare la transitività o l’intransitività().
L’uso transitivo di un verbo può accadere quando l’oggetto di un verbo è un pronome.
Si deve evitare l’errore di presumere che ogni suffisso pronominale direttamente attaccato a un
verbo sia accusative e che quindi il sintagama si possa riscrivere con ‫את‬: così � ֫‫א ְֹת� = נְ גַ ֲﬠנוּ‬ ‫נָ ֫ ַג ְﬠנוּ‬.
Molti verbi ebraici prendono un suffisso pronominale dove come pronome ha il valore di un dative e
quindi dovrebbe essere tradotto con un’altra proposizione. ‫ נָ ַתן‬in Giosuè 15.19 ‫ נְ ַת ֔ ָתּנִ י‬tu hai dato a me

(= Gdc1.15); Is 27.4; Ger 9.1(); Ez 16.28 ‫ ִתּזְ נִ ים‬you played the whore with them

L’uso di suffissi congiuntivi verbali con significato dative sempre essersi sviluppato da una falsa
analogia con I complementi nominali: Ez 21.25 ‫ַﬠמּוֹן‬ ‫ ָלבוֹא ֶ֫ח ֶרב את ַר ַבּת ְבּנֵ י‬for a sword to reach
Rabbah of the Ammonites.
In alcuni verbi, differenti preposizioni possono apportare sottili differenze nel significato. For
instance, Nu 5.14 ‫ת־א ְשׁתּוֹ‬
ִ ‫ֵא‬ ‫ וְ ִקנֵּ א‬and he becomes jealous of his wife; Gn 30.1 ‫וַ ְתּ ַקנֵּ א ָר ֵחל‬
‫ ַבּ ֲאח ָֹתהּ‬and Rachel became envious of her sister.
Due allowance, however, has to be made for mere variation with no difference in meaning: e.g.,
2Kg 4.12 ‫ַלשּׁוּנַ ִמּית‬ ‫ ְק ָרא‬Call the Shunamite || vs. 36 ‫קרא ֶאל־השׁנמית הזאת‬
ָ ; 1Kg 1.9
Habitual usage can lead to occasional omission of a direct object, creating the impression that some
verbs are, at least formally, intransitive. Thus 1Sm 20.16 ‫דּוד‬ ‫ וַ יִּ ְכרוֹת יהוֹנתן ִﬠם־בּית‬instead of
‫ויּכרוֹת ְבּ ִרית‬.
Reflexive forms can be transitive, e.g. ‫( נִ ָבּא‬Nifal) to prophesy is usually transitive when the

object is vague: thus, with ‫( ֶ֫שׁ ֶקר‬e.g. Jr 23.25 etc.; once ‫ ַל ֶ֫שּׁ ֶקר‬27.15 for a specific thing), with

‫ ְדּ ָב ִרים‬Jr 20.1 etc.; likewise ‫ * ִה ְתנַ ֵבּא‬to prophesy: but with a precise object ‫ נִ ָבּא‬is found with ‫ל‬:
‫ ְל ִמ ְל ָח ָמה‬Jr 28.8; ‫ ְל ָשׁלוֹם‬28.9; other examples: ‫ * ִה ְת ָפּ ֵרק‬Ex 32.3; ‫ * ִה ְתנַ ֵצּל‬33.6; ‫ * ִה ְצ ַטיֵּ ד‬Josh
9.12; ‫ נָ ַסב‬Jdg 19.22; ‫( נִ ְמ ָלא‬cf. § d); ‫ ִה ְת ַח ֵתּן‬Gn 34.9; ‫ ִה ְתגַּ ַלּח‬Nu 6.19; ‫ ִה ְתנַ ֵחל‬Nu 33.54; Is 14.2;

‫ ִה ְת ַאוָּ ה‬Dt 5.17; Am 5.18; Ps 45.12; ‫ ִה ְתנַ ֵכּל‬Gn 37.18; ‫ ִה ְת ַל ֵבּשׁ‬Sir 50.11; ‫ ִה ְת ַפּ ֵשּׁט‬1Sm 18.4().
Some semantic categories of verbs require the accusative:
1) Verbs of abundance (verba copiae) and scarcity (inopiae), e.g. ‫ ָמ ֵלא‬to be full(), ‫ נִ ְמ ָלא‬to fill

oneself up, to be filled: Is 1.15 ‫ָמ ֵ ֽלאוּ‬ ‫יכם ָדּ ִמים‬

ֶ ‫ יְ ֵד‬your hands are full of blood; Ex 1.7 ‫וַ ִתּ ָמּ ֵלא‬
ָ ‫ הארץ‬and the land was filled with them.
The accusative with some verbs implying motion can probably() be explained as having arisen on
the analogy of the accusative of the verba copiae: ‫ ָפּ ַרץ‬to run over with, overflow with: Pr 3.10; ‫ נָ ַטף‬to
be dripping with: Jdg 5.4, Jl 4.18;
2) Verbs of wearing (verba induendi) and taking off (exuendi): (‫)ב‬ ‫ ָל ַבשׁ‬to wear (clothes), to put
on (clothes): 1Kg 22.30 �‫ְבּגָ ֶ ֫די‬ ‫ ְל ַבשׁ‬put on your clothes; Is 61.10; ‫ ָﬠ ָדה‬to adorn oneself with: Is
61.10; Jb 40.10; ‫ ָﬠ ָטה‬to be covered with, to wrap oneseslf up with: 1Sm 28.14; Is 59.17; ‫ ָﬠ ַטף‬to cover

oneself with: Ps 65.14; ‫ ָפּ ַשׁט‬to strip off: Ct 5.3.

The particle ‫ את‬marking the accusative. The direct object of the verb, whether pronominal or

nominal, is often preceded by the particle ‫ §( את‬103k). The particle ‫ את‬is mainly an indicator of the
accusative of object; but it is also found, albeit very seldom, with other accusatives, such as acc. of
motion (§ n), of time (§ 126i), or of limitation (§ 126g). The ‫ את‬was probably first used with the
pronoun, as in the other Semitic languages, then its use was extended to the determinate noun().
With pronouns ‫ את‬is used of necessity 1) when the object precedes the verb: Nu 22.33 ‫א ְֹת ָכה‬
ִ ‫אוֹתהּ ֶה ֱח ֵ֫י‬
ָ ְ‫ ָה ַ ֫רגְ ִתּי ו‬I would have killed you, and her, I would have let her live; 2) when there is a
double pronominal object(): 2Sm 15.25 ‫אֹתוֹ‬ ‫ וְ ִה ְר ַ֫אנִ י‬and he will show me it; 3) with the inf. abs. (cf. §
123t); 4) with the infinitive construct in ‫ ָ◌ה‬: Dt 10.12 ‫אֹתוֹ‬ ‫ ְל ַא ֲה ָבה‬to love him(); 5) usually also
with the inf. cst. to avoid ambiguity: Gn 4.15 ‫כּל־מ ְֹצאוֹ‬ ‫ §( ְל ִב ְל ִתּי ַהכּוֹת אֹתוֹ‬124g); 6) usually
when the pronominal object is followed by a nominal object: 1Sm 5.11 ‫ואת־ﬠ ִמּי‬
ַ ‫ ;יָ ִמית א ִֹתי‬23.12
‫ואת־אנָ ַשׁי‬
ֲ ‫ ֲהיַ ְסגִּ רוּ ַבּ ֲﬠ ֵלי ְק ִﬠ ָילה אֹתי‬following 23.11 ‫ ; ֲהיַ ְסגִּ ֻ ֫רנִ י ַב ֲﬠ ֵלי ְק ִﬠ ָילה‬Ex 12.14 ‫וְ ַחגּ ֶֹתם‬
‫( )(אֹתוֹ … ְתּ ָח ֫ ֻגּהוּ‬but there are a dozen exceptions, e.g. 1Sm 5.10 ‫ואת־ﬠ ִמּי‬
ַ ‫יתנִ י‬
ֵ֫ ‫ ;; ַל ֲה ִמ‬Dt 11.6
[contrast Nu 16.32]; Dt 15.16(); cf. Driver ad 1Sm 5.10).
With determinate nouns ‫ את‬is very common(), but seldom necessary(4). It must be used after a

pronominal object: Dt 11.6 ‫יהם‬

ֶ ‫ואת־א ֳה ֵל‬
ָ ‫יהם‬
ֶ ‫ואת־בּ ֵתּ‬
ָ ‫ וַ ִתּ ְב ָל ֵﬠם‬and she swallowed them up, as
well as their houses and their tents (cf. Ehrlich ad loc.); Nu 16.32. Placed before the verb, a
determinate noun() does not specifically require ‫את‬: thus, without ‫את‬: Gn 8.17; 30.40; 1Sm 2.9; 2Kg

22.8; with ‫את‬: Gn 3.10; 9.13; Ex 18.23; 2Kg 23.19. The fluctuation in respect of the use or non-use of

‫ את‬is observable also when the object follows the verb: cp. Gn 20.7 ‫ ָה ֵשׁב ֵ֫א ֶשׁת ָה ִאישׁ‬Return the
man’s wife and 20.14 ‫ִא ְשׁתּוֹ‬ ‫ ;וַ ָ֫יּ ֶשׁב לוֹ את ָשׂ ָרה‬13.14 �‫ ָשׂא־נא ֵﬠ ֫ ֶיני‬and 13.10 ‫וַ יִּ ָשּׂא לוֹט את־‬
‫)(עיניו‬. On the other hand, indeterminate nouns do not take ‫( את‬cf. § h): e.g. Jdg 3.15 ‫וַ ָ֫יּ ֶקם ָל ֶהם‬
ֵ ‫מוֹשׁיע‬
ִ and he raised up for them a deliverer, Ehud.
A demonstrative pronoun is regarded as determinate: ‫ את־זה‬Gn 44.29; Lv 11.4, 9, 21; ‫את־זאת‬

2Sm 13.17; ‫ את־אלּה‬Gn 46.18, 25. The interrogative pronoun for a person or people, ‫מי‬, is assumed
to be determinate, hence ‫ את־מי‬Is 6.8 (but never ‫)*את־מה‬. The relative ‫ אשׁר‬can be determinate in

respect of the meaning, hence ‫ את־אשׁר‬in the meaning of he who 1Sm 16.3, that which Gn 9.24, the
fact that (how) Josh 2.10.
A grammatically indeterminate noun, but which has a certain logical determination, can take
‫את‬. Thus the noun ‫ כּל‬totality, whole, implying a certain determination (§ 139e), is treated like a
determinate noun: Gn 1.21b: ‫ָכּנָ ף‬ ‫ את כל־עוֹף‬every winged creature; 1.30; 8.21(). There is also a
certain determination in cases such as: Ex 40.2 ‫מוֹﬠד‬
ֵ ‫א ֶהל‬
ֹ ֫ ‫את־מ ְשׁ ַכּן‬
ִ the Dwelling of the tent of the

congregation (‫מוֹעד‬ ‫ אהל‬is equivalent to a proper noun; it never takes the article, § 137h); Lv 7.8 a
man’s burnt offering; 2Sm 4.11 a just man (made determinate by the context); Pr 23.6 the food of the
envious man; 2Sm 23.21 ‫ַמ ְר ֶאה‬ ‫הוא־ה ָכּה את־אישׁ ִמ ְצ ִרי אישׁ‬
ִ , with which cp. the parallel 1Ch

11.23 … ‫ והוא־הכה את־האישׁ המצרי אישׁ ִמ ָדּה‬and Jr 16.13 ‫את־אלהים ֲא ֵח ִרים‬.

With ‫ ֶא ָחד‬made determinate by a preposition and its noun (or pronoun): 1Sm 9.3 ‫את־א ַחד‬
‫ ֵמ ַהנְּ ָﬠ ִרים‬one of the servants; Nu 16.15 ‫ת־א ַחד ֵמ ֶהם‬
ַ ‫ ַא‬. With numbers: Ex 28.9 two stones of
shoham (but Samaritan ‫ ;) ַה ֫שּׁ ֹ ַהם‬Gn 21.30 seven ewes; Nu 26.10 250 men; 1Kg 6.16 twenty cubits
(with some determination).
Sometimes ‫ את‬is used with an indeterminate noun for the sake of clarity, to indicate the object
clearly: Lv 26.5; Nu 21.9; Ex 21.28 (contr. 29); Is 10.2; 41.7; 50.4; 64.4.
There is a remarkably great freedom in the use of ‫ ;את‬comp. 1Sm 10.1 �‫את־פּ‬
ַ ‫מוּאל‬
ֵ ‫וַ יִּ ַקּח ְשׁ‬
‫ ַה ֶ֫שּׁ ֶמן‬and 2Kg 9.1 ‫ ; ַקח פך השׁמן הזה‬Ru 3.16 ‫( כל־אשׁר‬after the verb) and 3.5, 11 ‫כל אשׁר‬
(before the verb); Jr 51.6 ‫נַ ְפשׁוֹ‬ ‫ ַמ ְלּטוּ אישׁ‬, with which cp. 51.45 ‫ ;)( ַמ ְלּטוּ אישׁ את־נפשׁו‬45.4
(before the verb in both) ‫נ ֵֹטשׁ‬ ‫יתי אני ה ֵֹרס ואת אשׁר־נָ ַ֫ט ְﬠ ִתּי אני‬
ִ ‫אשׁר־בּ ִ֫נ‬
ָ ‫)( ִה ֵנּ֤ה‬.
A similar fluctuation also occurs when the object designates a part of the body of the subject in an
idiomatic collocation: e.g. Gn 22.4, 13 ‫וַ יַּ ְרא‬ ‫את־ﬠינָ יו‬
ֵ ‫ || וַ יִּ ָשּׂא אברהם‬33.1 ‫וַ ישׂא יעקב עיניו‬
A determinate nominal direct object following a verb and separated from the latter by one or more
constituents is more likely to be marked by ‫ את‬than when the object is found immediately after the
verb or before the verb. In such cases the presence or absence of a nominal subject and its position in
relation to the verb appear to exert no influence. E.g. 1Kg 20.5 ‫תתן‬ ‫כספך וזהבך ונשׁיך ובניך לי‬
vs. 1Sm 5.1 ‫האלהים‬ ‫)(ופלשׁתים לקחו את ארון‬.
Observation. Other uses of ‫את‬. There are a certain number of cases where ‫ את‬precedes a noun
which cannot be regarded, even virtually, as the object(). These cases are difficult to explain(5); in
some there may be an accusative of limitation or of specification; in others the ‫ את‬seems solely

designed to bring the noun into prominence, on the analogy of the ‫ את‬which brings the object into
prominence. Putting aside text-critically doubtful examples and those which can be explained at least
as accusatives of object, there remain a certain number of cases which may be grouped thus:()
1) Before a noun in apposition to a noun with a preposition: Ex 1.14 ‫כל־‬ ‫בכל־ﬠב ָֹדה ֵבּ ָשּׂ ֶדה את‬
‫ ֲﬠב ָֹד ָתם‬by all labours in the fields, all their labours …; Ez 14.22 concerning the evil that I have
brought upon Jerusalem, all that I have brought upon her.
2) In an enumeration: Nu 3.26 before the last two longer terms of an enumeration in the
nominative; Josh 17.11 at the beginning of the group of the four ‫ישׁ ֵבי‬
ְ in an enumeration in the
nominative; Ne 9.34 before the first term of an enumeration in the nominative.
3) Before an ordinary subject: Jdg 20.44 (46) All those were valiant men; Ez 17.21; 35.10.
4) Before a noun in casus pendens (§ 156c): 1Kg 15.13 ‫ִמגְּ ִב ָירה‬ ‫את־מ ֲﬠ ָכה ִאמּוֹ וַ יְ ִס ֶ ֫ר ָה‬
ַ ‫וגם‬
and even his mother Maʿka, he took away from her the dignity of queen-mother (here perhaps the
attraction of the following accusative); Ez 20.16 ‫בהם‬ ‫קּוֹתי לא ָ ֽה ְלכוּ‬
ַ ‫ואת־ח‬
ֻ and my decrees, they
did not follow them.
5) ‫ את‬with a strong meaning equivalent to a pronoun: Ez 43.7 ‫ִכּ ְס ִאי‬ ‫את־מקוֹם‬
ְ here is the place

of my throne; Hg 2.5 ‫את־ה ָדּ ָבר‬

ַ this is the word(); Zc 7.7 ‫את־ה ְדּ ָב ִרים‬
ַ ‫ הלא‬Are not these the
words …?
6) There is perhaps an accusative of limitation (§ 126g) in 2Sm 11.25 ‫את־‬ �‫עיני‬
ֶ ֫ ‫ַאל־יֵ ַרע ְבּ‬
‫ הדבר הזה‬if ‫ ירע‬is regarded as impersonal (§ 152d) may it not appear bad to you as far as this
matter is concerned; Ne 9.32 ‫כל־ה ְתּ ָל ָאה‬
ַ ‫ ַאל יִ ְמ ַﬠט ְל ָפ ֫ ֶני� את‬may it not appear to you trivial as
far as all this toil is concerned; and by analogy Josh 22.17 ‫ְפּעוֹר‬ ‫את־ﬠוֹן‬
ֲ ‫ט־לנוּ‬
ָ ֫ ‫ ַה ְמ ַﬠ‬Is Peor’s crime
too trivial for us?()
7) In the vicinity of a genuine accusative: Ne 9.19 ‫יהם‬
ֶ ‫ֵמ ֲﬠ ֵל‬ ‫לא־סר‬
ָ ‫את־ﬠמּוּד ֶה ָﬠנָ ן‬
ַ ,, following

‫ ;לא ֲﬠזַ ְב ָתּם ַבּ ִמּ ְד ָבּר‬Dn 9.13 ‫ את כל ָה ָר ָﬠה הזאת ָ֫בּ ָאה ָﬠ ֫ ֵלינוּ‬following verse 12 ‫ְל ָה ִביא‬
‫ ָﬠלינו רעה גדלה‬.
‫ ל‬as indicator of the accusative of the direct object(). In the later language in particular, ‫ ל‬is quite
often used as an indicator of the accusative of the determinate direct object noun(): Ps 69.6 ‫יָ ַ ֫ד ְﬠ ָתּ‬
‫ ְל ִאוַּ ְל ִתּי‬you know my folly
Observation. Other uses of ‫ ל‬analogous to those of ‫( את‬cf. § j).

1) ‫ ל‬before a noun in apposition in whatever grammatical case: 1Ch 13.1 ‫ם־שׂ ֵרי ָה ֲא ָל ִפים‬
ָ ‫ִﬠ‬
‫ וְ ַה ֵמּאוֹת לכל־נָ גִ יד‬with the chiliarchs and the centurions, all the chiefs; Lv 5.3; Jr 1.18b (after ‫;)על‬
genitive: Gn 23.10 ‫ִﬠירוֹ‬ ‫ ; ְבּ ָאזְ נֵ י ְבנֵ י ֵחת לכל ָבּ ֵאי ַ֫שׁ ַﬠר‬1Ch 7.5; in the nominative: Ez 44.9 ‫;לכל־‬
Ezr 1.5; 1Ch 26.26; 2Ch 5.12; accusative: Ezr 8.24; Ne 8.9; even after ‫את‬: 2Ch 23.1; 33.8.
2) In an enumeration, before the last noun (sometimes even when there are only two): nominative:
1Ch 29.6; accusative: 1Ch 28.1 (after ‫ ;)את‬28.18 (last term of the enumeration beginning in vs. 11);
2Ch 24.12; 26.14; genitive: Ezr 7.28.
3) Before a subject: 1Ch 28.21 ‫ ;לכל־נָ ִדיב‬1Ch 3.2; 2Ch 7.21.

‫ בּ‬of transitivity. When the object is an instrument in a broad sense, the construction with ‫ בּ‬is
sometimes found instead of the accusative(): Ex 7.20 ‫ַבּ ַמּ ֶטּה‬ ‫ וַ ָ֫יּ ֶרם‬and he lifted up the rod (contr.
14.16; Is 10.15 with the acc.) lit. he made an elevation with the rod; Josh 8.18 ‫נְ ֵטה‬ ‫ ַבּ ִכּידוֹן‬stretch out
the javelin(); 1Ch 15.16 (¿) ‫ַבּקוֹל‬ ‫ ְל ָה ִרים‬to raise one’s voice (the only instance in prose); �‫ֵהנִ ַי‬
‫ ְבּרֹאשׁ‬to shake one’s head Jb 16.4 (acc. Ps 22.8); ‫ ֵהנִ יד ְבּרֹאשׁ‬id. Jr 18.16; ‫ ָפּ ַﬠר ְבּ ֶפה‬to open one’s
mouth Jb 16.10; ‫ְבּ ָשׂ ָפה‬ ‫ ִה ְפ ִטיר‬to open one’s lips(?) Ps 22.8 ‫יה‬
ָ ‫ ֵפּ ְר ָשׂה ְבּיָ ֶ ֫ד‬she stretched out her
hands Lm 1.17; ‫ְבּקוֹל‬ ‫ נָ ַתן‬Jr 12.8; Ps 46.7; 68.34 (elsewhere acc.).
The preposition ‫ ב‬can also be used with verbs which otherwise would normally take a direct object

marked by ‫ ;את‬then it indicates a lesser degree of transitivity of basically the same activity in terms of
the following parameters:()
Involvement: Zc 6.15 ‫יהוה‬ ‫יכל‬
ַ ‫וּבנוּ ְבּ ֵה‬
ָ and they will take part in the reconstruction of the
Durativity: Dt 17.19 ‫חייו‬ ‫כל־ימי‬
ֵ ‫ ;וְ ָק ָרא בו‬Ne 9.3 ‫ ;ויקראו בספר תורת יהוה‬2Ch 34.12
ָ ‫;)(והאנשׁים ע ִֹשׂים באמונה ַבּ ְמּ ָל‬
Affectedness: 1Sm 6.19 ‫אישׁ‬ ‫ וַ יַּ � ָבּ ָﬠם ִשׁ ְב ִﬠים‬as against 5.9 ‫את־אנְ ֵשׁי העיר ִמ ָקּטֹן ועד‬
ַ ‫ויך‬
‫( גדול‬total destruction); 2Ch 28.9 ‫ ותהרגו־בם‬vs. Gn 34.26 ‫ ;ויהרגו כל זָ ָכר‬Nu 11.17 �‫וְ נָ ְשׂאוּ ִא ְתּ‬
‫ ְבּ ַמ ָשּׂא ָה ָﬠם‬and they shall bear the burden of the people along with you vs. Dt 1.12 ‫ֶא ָשּׂא ְל ַב ִדּי‬
‫וּמ ַשּׂ ֲא ֶכם‬
ַ ‫ ָט ְר ֲח ֶכם‬I can bear your burden on my own …
In one case the use of Beth is probably influenced by a synonymous verb. The verb ‫ ָדּ ַרשׁ‬in the

sense of to ask for an oracle is used with Beth ten times and without it thirteen times, whereas ‫ ָשׁ ַאל‬in
the same sense always occurs with Beth().
An inf. cst. prefixed with the preposition Beth is best interpreted as a temporal adjunct rather than
indicating the content of visual (‫ )ראה‬or aural (‫ )שׁמע‬perception: e.g., Gn 27.5 ‫ורבקה שׁ ַֹמ ַﬠת‬
‫ל־ﬠ ָשׂו‬
ֵ ‫ ְבּ ַד ֵבּר יצחק ֶא‬and R. was listening as I. spoke to E. In all the relevant cases the action
indicated by the inf. is contemporaneous with that indicated by the lead verb, which is the case even in
1Sm 14.27 ‫העם‬ ‫ויונתן לא ָשׁ ַמע ְבּ ַה ְשׁ ִבּ ַי� ָא ִביו את‬, for J. was not there to hear when his father
adjured the people, nor did J. get to hear that his father had().
The accusative of motion towards a place, and of direction towards a goal is probably related to
the accusative of the direct object (§ b). As explained in § 93c, forms such as ‫ ֫ ַגּ ָתּה‬to Gath and

ָ ‫ ְשׁ ֫א‬to Sheol with the so-called He locale do not belong here(), but note Nu 22.26 ‫ִלנְ טוֹת יָ ִמין‬
ְ to turn right and left (‫ יָ ֫מינָ ה‬and ‫אלה‬
ָ ֹ ‫ ְשׂ ֫מ‬unattested). With the accusative placed before the
verb, for emphasis: Josh 6.19 ‫יָ בוֹא‬ ‫אוֹצר יהוה‬
ַ it is into Y.’s treasury that it shall come; 1Sm 5.8;
1Kg 2.26; 12.1; Is 52.4; Jr 2.10; 20.6; 32.5. The verb ‫ בּוֹא‬with the acc. means not only to go to, to
come to (Jdg 11.16; 2Kg 6.4; 1Sm 4.12; 2Kg 8.7; Ru 1.2) but also to enter Gn 12.11; 41.57; 1Kg 14.12
(cf. ingredi urbem “to enter a city”). On the analogy of this construction the accusative is also used for
the place out of which one comes (cf. egredi urbem “to leave a city”): Gn 44.4 ‫את־העיר‬ ‫ ; ָי ְֽצאוּ‬Ex
9.29, 33; Dt 14.22; cf. Jr 10.20b (suffix).
Related to the direct accusative are perhaps() some accusatives which may be called accusatives of
result: Is 5.6 ‫וָ ָ֫שׁיִ ת‬ ‫( וְ ָﬠ ָלה ָשׁ ִמיר‬the vine) shall go up with briers and thorns; 34.13; Pr 24.31 (cp.
Lat. ire in semen, Fr. monter en graine); with ‫ נוּב‬Pr 10.31 the mouth of the just blossoms out with

wisdom; ‫ ָפּ ַרח‬Ex 9.9 an eruption budding with boils; perh. ‫ִרנָּ ה‬ ‫ ָפּ ַצח‬to break forth into cries of joy
(Is 14.7; 44.23; 49.13; 54.1; 55.12); 59.5 ‫ ִתּ ָבּ ַקע‬the crushed (egg) breaks forth into a viper.

For the accusative ‫ילה‬

ָ ‫ ָח ֫ ִל‬, cf. § 93h.
II) Accusative of the effected object. Whereas the affected object (§ a) is understood as existing
prior to the action, the effected object is produced by the action itself. Thus Gn 1.29 ‫ֶ֫ז ַרע‬ �ַ ‫( ז ֵֹר‬cf. 1.11,
12) producing seed, ‫ זֶ ַרע‬is an effected object, whereas it is an affected object in ‫ֶ֫ז ַרע‬ ‫ זָ ַרע‬to scatter
and sow seed Dt 11.10; 22.9 etc. The effected object is concrete, and external in relation to the action:
it is thus distinguished from the internal object (§ q). The effected object, thus defined, is rather rare;
we find it with verbs such as ‫ ָבּנָ ה‬to build, ‫ ָבּ ָרא‬to create, ‫ יָ ַלד‬to bear, ‫ יָ ַצר‬to form, ‫ ָכּ ַתב‬to write,

‫ ָﬠ ָשׂה‬to make, but otherwise it is hardly ever found except with a verb of the same root (often
denominative)(). Examples: Gn 1.11 ‫ֶ ֫דּ ֶשׁא‬ ‫ ַתּ ְד ֵשׁא הארץ‬let the earth produce grass; 9.14 ‫ ; ָﬠנָ ן‬11.3
‫ ; ְל ֵבנִ ים‬37.7 ‫ ; ֲא ֻל ִמּים‬Mi 2.4 ‫ ;נְ ִהי‬Ps 144.6 ‫ ; ָבּ ָרק‬Is 42.10 ‫ ; ִשׁיר‬with a determinative: Gn 30.37
‫ וַ יְ ַפ ֵצּל ְפּ ָצלוֹת ְל ָבנוֹת‬and he made white stripes.
III) Accusative of the internal object. The internal object is an abstract noun of action, identical
with, or analogous to the action expressed by the verb(). By extension, some accusatives which are
equivalent to this action or which determine it are said to be related to the internal object. The abstract
noun of action is mainly the infinitive absolute, which may be used as the acc. of the internal object, as
has been discussed in § 123d ff.(). But any other form may be found, e.g. Nu 11.4 ‫ַתּ ַאוָ ה‬ ‫ ִה ְת ַאוּוּ‬Lat.
cupierunt cupidinem = they were seized with covetousness (Ps 106.14; Pr 21.26); Zc 1.2 ‫ָ ֫ק ֶצף‬ … ‫ָק ַצף‬
he was very indignant; ‫ ְפּ ֻק ָדּה‬Nu 16.29; ‫ ַא ֲה ָבה‬1Sm 20.17; ‫בוּרה‬
ָ ‫ ְק‬Jr 22.19; ‫ ֫ ַפּ ַחד‬Ps 14.5; ‫ ֵח ְטא‬La
1.8(). It occurs also with a noun synonymous with the verb: ‫ִבּינָ ה‬ ‫ יָ ַדע‬to have intelligence (lit. to know
or to learn intelligence: Is 29.24; Pr 4.1; Jb 38.4; 1Ch 12.32; 2Ch 2.11, 12).
The accusative of the internal object is found not only with transitive verbs (e.g. Gn 43.3), but also
with intransitive verbs: Ez 18.21 ‫יִ ְחיֶ ה‬ ‫ ָחי ֹה‬Lat. vitam (vivere) vivet = he will live life; Jn 4.6 ‫וַ יִּ ְשׂ ַמח‬
‫ … ִשׂ ְמ ָחה גדולה‬he rejoiced … exceedingly; 4.1 ‫ וַ ֵ֫יּ ַרע ֶאל־יונה ָר ָﬠה גדולה‬and Jonah was
mightily displeased; and also with reflexive and passive verbs: Nu 16.29 ‫כל־ה ָא ָדם יִ ָפּ ֵקד‬
ָ ‫ְפּ ֻק ַדּת‬
ֶ ‫ ֲﬠ ֵל‬they are punished with the punishment of all men; Jr 22.19 ‫בוּרת ֲחמוֹר יִ ָקּ ֵבר‬
ַ ‫ ְק‬he shall have
the burial of a donkey (cf. § 123r); 1Sm 20.6; Gn 17.13; Nu 11.4; Ex 21.12; prob. ‫ָר ִכיל‬ �‫ ָה ַל‬Lv 19.16
etc. to defame (‫רכיל‬, noun of action: circulation, hence defamation; cf. König, Syntax, § 329 k).

The accusative of the internal object may be qualified. Thus it can have an adjective(): Nu 11.33
‫ וַ יַּ � יהוה ָבּ ָﬠם ַמ ָכּה ַר ָבּה מאד‬And Y. struck among the people a very great blow(); Gn 27.34. It
can have a genitive: 2Sm 4.5 ‫ַה ָצּ ֳה ָ ֫ריִ ם‬ ‫ והוּא שׁ ֵֹכב את ִמ ְשׁ ַכּב‬now he was sleeping the midday
sleep (= he was taking a siesta); 1Sm 20.17 ‫ֲא ֵהבוֹ‬ ‫אה ַבת נַ ְפשׁוֹ‬
ֲ ‫ כי‬he loved him as() his soul (with
the love of his soul); Lv 25.42 ‫֫ ָﬠ ֶבד‬ ‫ לא יִ ָמּ ְכרוּ ִמ ְמ ֶ֫כּ ֶרת‬they shall not be sold as one sells a slave; Is
24.22; also with different subjects: Is 62.5 � ִ‫�הי‬
֑ ָ ‫ֱא‬ � ִ‫ל־כּ ָלּה יָ ִשׂישׂ ָﬠ ֫ ַלי‬
ַ ‫ ְמשׂוֹשׂ ָח ָתן ַﬠ‬as the
bridegroom rejoices in his bride so shall your God rejoice in you.
The use of the word ‫ קוֹל‬voice with verbs which express an emission of voice is probably() related
to the internal object. This concrete substantive, which has no corresponding verb, indeed seems to be
used on the analogy of a noun of action. Thus with ‫ ָק ָרא‬to speak loudly, to shout, to call (without a

corresponding noun of action) we have ‫גָּ דוֹל‬ ‫ ָק ָרא קוֹל‬Ez 8.18; 9.1; 11.13; Ezr 10.12 (contr. ‫ְבּקוֹל‬
Gn 39.14 etc.); with ‫ זָ ַﬠק‬to cry out 2Sm 19.5 ‫גָּ דוֹל‬ ‫ ;וַ יִּ זְ ַﬠק קוֹל‬with ‫ ָבּ ָכה‬to weep 2Sm 15.23 ‫בּוֹכים‬
‫קוֹל גָּ דוֹל‬. Other examples: Dt 5.19; 27.14; 1Kg 8.55; prob. also Ex 24.3 ‫וַ ַ֫יּ ַﬠן כל־העם קוֹל ֶא ָחד‬
and all the people answered with one voice. There probably is an acc. in Is 10.30 �‫קוֹל‬
ֵ ‫ ַצ ֲה ִלי‬hinni
voce(m) tua(m) [= lit. “Neigh your voice!”] (but not in ‫ֶא ְק ָרא‬ ‫קוֹלי‬
ִ Ps 3.5; cf. § 151c).
The accusative of the number of times (equivalent to the number of actions) is also probably
related to the internal object(): Gn 33.3 ‫ְפּ ָﬠ ִמים‬ ‫ וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַ֫תּחוּ ֶ֫שׁ ַבע‬and he bowed down seven times (=
seven prostrations); Ex 23.14 ‫לי‬ ‫ ָשׁלשׁ ְרגָ ִלים ָתּחֹג‬three times you shall celebrate the feast in my
honour; Nu 20.11.
IV) The double accusative of the affected object().
1) If, in a clause consisting of a subject, an object, and a transitive verb with simple (non-
causative; § b–d) meaning, this verb is changed into a causative, the subject (usually a person) becomes
a second object. Thus a sentence such as ‫את־כּבֹדוֹ‬
ְ ‫ ָר ִ֫אינוּ‬we have seen his glory becomes ‫ֶה ְר ָ֫אנוּ‬
ְ Dt 5.21 he has made it that we could see his glory = he has made us see (= has shown) his

glory. Thus we have �‫י‬

ַ ‫ ִה ְשׁ ִמ‬to make hear 2Kg 7.6; �‫הוֹד ַי‬
ִ to make know 1Sm 14.12; ‫ * ִל ֵמּד‬to teach
Dt 4.5; ‫ ֶה ֱא ִכיל‬to cause sbd to eat = to give sbd sth to eat, to feed sbd with sth Dt 8.3; ‫ ִה ְשׁ ָקה‬to cause

sbd to drink (‫ ) ָשׁ ָתה‬sth, give sbd sth to drink Jdg 4.19. With ‫ ִכּ ְל ֵכּל‬to support (feed) sbd with sth Gn

47.12; 1Kg 18.4, 13† the second acc. is prob. an acc. of object (perh. on the analogy of ‫)() ֶה ֱא ִכיל‬. This
is the construction taken by verbs of abundance and scarcity, verbs of wearing and taking off, and other
verbs on the analogy of these verbs (§ d), when the meaning is causative, e.g. Gn 26.15 ‫ָﬠ ָפר‬ ‫וַ יְ ַמ ְלאוּם‬
and they filled them with earth; 41.42 ‫י־שׁשׁ‬
ֵ ‫ִבּגְ ֵד‬ ‫ וַ יַּ ְל ֵבּשׁ אֹתוֹ‬and he dressed him in garments of
byssus; Ex 25.11 ‫זָ ָהב‬ ‫ית אֹתוֹ‬
ָ֫ ‫ וְ ִצ ִפּ‬and you shall overlay it (= the Ark) with gold; Gn 37.23 ‫וַ יַּ ְפ ִ֫שׁיטוּ‬
‫את־כּ ָתּנְ תּוֹ‬
ֻ ‫את־יוֹסף‬
ֵ and they stripped Joseph of his tunic; 2Ch 20.11 ‫הוֹר ְשׁ ָ֫תּנוּ‬
ַ ‫ִמיְּ ֻר ָשּׁ ְת� ֲא ֶשׁר‬
out of your possession which you have given us to inherit; Jdg 9.45 ‫ֶ֫מ ַלח‬ ‫ וַ יִּ זְ ָר ֫ ֶﬠ ָה‬he sowed it with salt;
Gn 27.37 ‫ְס ַמ ְכ ִתּיו‬ ‫ ָדּגָ ן וְ ִתרשׁ‬with corn and wine have I sustained him; Is 43.23 ‫וּזְ ָב ֶ֫חי� לא‬
‫ ִכ ַבּ ְד ָ֫תּנִ י‬you have not honoured me with your sacrifices; 1Sm 24.17 ‫טּוֹבה‬
ָ ‫ גְּ ַמ ְל ַ֫תּנִ י ַה‬you have dealt
well with me; Gn 32.24 ‫ַה ֫ ָנּחל‬ ‫ וַ יַּ ֲﬠ ִב ֵרם את‬and he got them across the river, Dt 32.13 ‫וַ יֵּ נִ ֵ ֫קהוּ ְד ַבשׁ‬
and he made him suck honey; Jr 23.27 ‫ְשׁמי‬ ‫ ְל ַה ְשׁ ִכּ ַי� את ַﬠ ִמּי‬to make my people forget my name;
Dt 31.7 ‫אוֹתם‬
ָ ‫ ַתּנְ ִח ֫ ֶילנָּ ה‬you shall put them in possession of it; Is 28.9 ‫מוּﬠה‬
ָ ‫את־מי יָ ִבין ְשׁ‬
ִ whom

will he make understand the message? On ‫ָדּ ָבר‬ ‫ ֵה ִשׁיב‬to report, see below, § x.
Only rarely does a Qal verb take a double object: 1Kg 18.34 ‫מים‬ ‫ ִמ ְלאוּ ַא ְר ָבּ ָﬠה ַכ ִדּים‬Fill four
jars with water; Jr 19.4 ‫נְ ִקיִּ ם‬ ‫ ָמ ְלאוּ את המקום הזה ִדּם‬they filled this place with the blood of the
innocent, perh. also 16.18; Ex 29.5 ‫ַא ְבנֵ ט‬ ‫רתּ א ָֹתם‬
ָ֫ ַ‫ וְ ָחג‬and you shall gird them with turbans; Lv
24.23 ‫ָ֫א ֶבן‬ ‫ וַ יִּ ְרגְּ מוּ אֹתוֹ‬and they stoned him with a stone, cf. 20.2 ‫ ;יִ ְרגְּ ֻ֫מהוּ ָב ָ֫א ֶבן‬Ez 13.10 ‫ָט ִחים‬
‫ אֹתוֹ ָתּ ֵפל‬they plaster it with mortar, Is 45.11 ‫ ָהא ִֹתיּוֹת ְשׁ ָא ֫לוּנִ י ַﬠל ָבּנַ י‬Ask me for the signs about

2) There is also a double object if a nominal clause (consisting of a subject and of a predicate) is
changed to a verbal clause. With a verb such as to make etc., the subject becomes object, and the
predicate becomes second object, which significantly does not take ‫את‬. Thus a nominal clause such as
‫ ָה ָא ָדם ָﬠ ָפר‬man (is) dust becomes e.g. Gn 2.7 ‫יצר את האדם עפר‬
ֶ ‫ וַ ִ֫יּ‬and he formed man (from)
dust. Just as the predicate of a nominal clause is used in a very loose manner (§ 154e), a verbal clause
with a double object is likewise used in a very loose manner. Thus it is used for: 1) the thing and the
matter of which it is made: Ct 3.10 ‫ָ֫כ ֶסף‬ ‫מּוּדיו ָﬠ ָשׂה‬
ָ ‫ ַﬠ‬he made its pillars (from) silver; Dt 27.6
‫את־מזְ ַבּח יהוה‬
ִ ‫ ֲא ָבנִ ים ְשׁ ֵלמוֹת ִתּ ְבנֶ ה‬it is (from) whole stones that you shall build the altar of Y.
(the second object in first position for emphasis); 1Sm 28.24 ‫ַמצּוֹת‬ ‫ וַ תּ ֫ ֵֹפהוּ‬and she baked unleavened
cakes from it; 2) the word ‫ ֵשׁם‬name and a proper noun: Gn 30.6 ‫ָדּן‬ ‫ ָק ְר ָאה ְשׁמוֹ‬she called his name
Dan; 3) the thing counted and the number: Ex 25.37 ‫ִשׁ ְב ָﬠה‬ ‫יה‬
ָ ‫ וְ ָﬠ ִ֫שׂית את־נֵ ר ֶֹ֫ת‬and you shall make
its lamps (to the number) of seven; 2Sm 14.26b. The same is probably true for ‫ ִמ ְס ָפּר‬number: Jb 1.5();

Ex 16.16; 1Sm 6.4 (‫ מספּר‬in first position; in vs. 18 as predicate of a nominal clause, and likewise Jr
2.28, § 154e, 4).
3) The clause which is the basis of the construction with the two accusatives, however, is not
necessarily a nominal clause, as it was in these last mentioned cases. Rather it is a verbal clause with
the verb ‫ ָהיָ ה‬in the sense of to become. Thus a clause like ‫֫ ֶפּ ֶסל‬ ‫ ַה ֶ֫כּ ֶסף ָהיָ ה‬the silver has become a
statue, consisting of a subject, the verbal predicate ‫ ָהיָ ה‬, and a predicative() (complement of the
predicate, cf. § 126a), becomes, with a verb having a causative meaning cause to become etc., make,
‫ ָﬠ ָשׂה ַה ֶ֫כּ ֶסף ֫ ֶפּ ֶסל‬he has made the silver a statue, where the subject becomes the first object, and the
predicative the second object. Thus a second accusative of the thing produced, which incidentally
does not take ‫את‬, is often found with verbs() like ‫ ָﬠ ָשׂה‬to make, ‫ שׂוּם‬/ ‫ ִשׁית‬to place etc., and ‫ נָ ַתן‬to

put, to give: Jdg 17.4 ‫֫ ֶפּ ֶסל‬ ‫ וַ יַּ ֲﬠ ֵ֫שׂהוּ‬and he transformed it (= the silver) (into) a statue; also with
‫ ָﬠ ָשׂה‬: Gn 27.9; Nu 11.8; 17.3; Ho 8.4; Ps 104.4. With ‫שׂוּם‬: 1Sm 8.1 ‫את־בּנָ יו שׁ ְֹפ ִטים‬
ָ ‫ וַ ָ֫יּ ֶשׂם‬and he
made his sons judges; Gn 28.18 ‫ַמ ֵצּ ָבה‬ ‫ וַ ָ֫יּ ֶשׂם א ָֹתהּ‬he set it (= the stone) for a pillar, and likewise
31.45 ‫ַמ ֵצּ ָבה‬ ‫ימ ָה‬
ֶ֫ ‫ וַ יְ ִר‬he erected it for a pillar, again with ‫שׂוּם‬: Gn 27.37; 1Sm 18.13; 22.7; 11.11
ִ ‫לשׁה ָר‬
ָ ‫ וַ ָ֫יּ ֶשׂם את־העם ְשׁ‬and he organised the army into three companies (comp. 13.17, §
126c). With ‫ ִשׁית‬: 1Kg 11.34 ‫ֲא ִשׂ ֶ֫תנּוּ‬ ‫ נָ ִשׂיא‬Vulg. ducem ponam eum (“I will make him ruler”); Is
5.6; 26.1 etc. With ‫נָ ַתן‬: Is 3.4 ‫יהם‬
ֶ ‫ָשׂ ֵר‬ ‫ וְ נָ ַת ִ֫תּי נְ ָﬠ ִרים‬Vulg. dabo pueros principes eorum (“I will
make boys their princes”); Gn 17.5 etc. With other verbs: 1Kg 18.32 �ַ ‫ִמזְ ֵבּ‬ ‫את־הא ָבנִ ים‬
ֲ ‫וַ יִּ ְבנֶ ה‬
aedificavit lapides (in) altare, i.e. he arranged the stones (in the shape of) an altar (contr. Dt 27.6; § v);
Ex 12.39 ‫ֻﬠגֹת‬ ‫ וַ יֹּאפוּ ַה ָבּ ֵצק‬they baked the dough (to make) cakes; 1Kg 11.30 ‫וַ יִּ ְק ָר ֫ ֶﬠ ָה ְשׁנֵ ים ָﬠ ָשׂר‬
‫ ְק ָר ִﬠים‬and he tore it (= the cloak) (into) twelve pieces; Ps 114.8 ‫ם־מיִ ם‬
ָ֫ ַ‫ ֵהה ְֹפ ִכי ַהצּוּר ֲאג‬he who
turns the rock into a pool of water, Am 5.8; Hb 3.9 ‫ע־א ֶרץ‬
֑ ָ ‫ְתּ ַב ַקּ‬ ‫ נְ ָהרוֹת‬you did cleave the earth
(with) rivers (= rivers come out of it); Jb 28.2.
For the construction of a doubly transitive verb used passively cf. § 128c.
Unlike Gn 22.13 ‫ְלע ָֹלה‬ ‫את־ה ַ֫איִ ל וַ יַּ ֲﬠ ֫ ֵלהוּ‬
ָ ‫ וַ יִּ ַקּח‬and he took the ram, and offered it up as a burnt
offering, the object is often omitted from the second verb: e.g. Dt 28.39 ‫ְכּ ָר ִמים ִתּ ַטּע וְ ָﬠ ָ֫ב ְד ָתּ ויין‬
‫ לא ִת ְשׁ ֶתּה ולא ֶת ֱאגֹר‬you shall plant vineyards and work at them but you will not drink wine nor
accumulate it; 1Sm 31.13 ‫וַ יִּ ְק ְברוּ‬ ‫יהם‬
ֶ ‫ וַ יִּ ְקחוּ את־ ַﬠ ְצמ ֵֹת‬and they took their bones and buried
(them); 1Kg 18.33 ‫על־ה ֵﬠ ִצים‬
ָ ‫את־ה ָפּר וַ ָ֫יּ ֶשׂם‬
ַ ‫ וַ יְ נַ ַתּח‬and he cut up the bull and put (it) on the
wood(). There are, however, cases in which the second or last verb has an object: Jdg 5.26 ‫ָמ ֲח ָצה‬
‫ וְ ָח ְל ָפה ַר ָקּתוֹ‬she shattered and pierced his temple; Is 41.20; Ho 6.1(). Cf. § 146i.
Ellipsis can lead to the development of an apparently new meaning of verbs: Nu 14.19 ‫אתה‬
ָ ‫נָ ָ֫שׂ‬
‫“ ָל ָﬠם הזה‬you have forgiven this people (‫ ֲﬠוֹנָ ם‬understood)”; Jr 6.10 ‫יוּכלוּ‬
ְ ‫הנה ֲﬠ ֵר ָלה ָאזְ נָ ם ולא‬
‫ ְל ַה ְק ִשׁיב‬behold, their ears are closed; they cannot listen, cf. Pr 2.2 �‫ ְל ַה ְק ִשׁיב ַל ָח ְכ ָמה ָאזְ ֫ ֶנ‬to lend
your ear to wisdom(); 1Kg 13.7 ‫ﬠ ָדה‬
֑ ָ ‫וּס‬
ְ ‫ ֫בֹּ ָאה ִא ִתּי ַה ַבּיְ ָתה‬Come with me inside the house and
refresh yourself, cf. Jdg 19.5 ‫ת־ל ֶחם‬
ֶ ֫ ‫ַפּ‬ �‫ ְס ָﬠד ִל ְבּ‬Refresh your heart with a morsel of bread.
Likewise ‫ָדּ ָבר‬ ‫ ֵה ִשׁיב‬to report back, answer, but occasionally just ‫ ֵה ִשׁיב‬, e.g. Jb 13.22; 2Ch 10.16 (||
1Kg 12.16 with ‫ ;) ָדּ ָבר‬Is 41.20 ‫ יָ ֫שׂימוּ‬they shall consider (‫ִל ָבּם‬ ‫ ַﬠל‬understood). ‫ ֵה ִשׁיב ָדּ ָבר‬has
become a fully integrated phrasal verb so that it may now look like taking two additional objects:
ָ ‫ת־ה ֶדּ ֶר� אשׁר נַ ֲﬠ ֶל‬
ַ ‫ וְ יָ ִשׁבוּ א ָֹ֫תנוּ ָדּ ָבר א‬and let them report and tell us the way we should
take Dt 1.22; ‫ָדּ ָבר‬ ‫ מה ָא ִשׁיב שׁ ְֹל ִחי‬what should I report to the one who has dispatched me? 2Sm
24.13(). Cf. § be above.

§126. The indirect accusative

The indirect accusative (cf. § 125a) is indirectly subordinated to the verb (ad-verbial accusative). It
indicates a determination of the verbal predicate. In some categories of the indirect accusative, that of
time and place in particular (§ h, i), the syntactic relationship is sometimes made more explicit by the
use of an appropriate preposition or by the use of a noun with a paragogic vowel. By extension, it can
be found in a nominal clause. Finally the indirect accusative can be the attribute of a noun (§ 127). The
main kinds of indirect accusative are the following:()
1) Predicative accusative of state. If to a verbal clause is added a complementary phrase
expressing a state() or a quality of the subject (or of the object), this complementary phrase, expressing
something new, cannot simply be placed alongside the subject (or the object): it is subordinated to the
verbal predicate(), in the same way as an adverb, and is therefore put into the accusative(4). The
accusative can be recognised, in the absence of the old case-endings, by the indetermination. The
accusative of state can be an adjective, a participle or a substantive. It can refer either to the subject or
to the object().
Adjective: (Predicative referring to the subject): Gn 25.25 ‫ַא ְדמוֹנִ י‬ ‫ וַ יֵּ ֵצא ָה ִראשׁוֹן‬prior egressus
est rufus, “the first one came out (and he was) red-haired” (‫אדמני‬, being indeterminate, cannot be in

apposition to ‫ ;הראשׁוֹן‬red-haired expresses something new, and brings about an affirmation); Gn

37.35; Nu 16.30; 2Sm 19.21; Ru 1.21 ‫ָה ֫ ַל ְכ ִתּי‬ ‫ אני ְמ ֵל ָאה‬plena egressa sum “I went away full” (the
predicative preceding the verb for emphasis); Is 20.3 ‫וְ יָ ֵחף‬ ‫ ָה ַל� ַﬠ ְב ִדּי יְ ַשׁ ְﬠ ָ֫יהוּ ָﬠרוֹם‬my servant
Isaiah has walked naked and barefoot (in vs. 4 these two adjectives are in the sing with plural
substantives, like adverbs; likewise ‫ ָﬠרוֹם‬Jb 24.7, 10; ‫דּוּמם‬
ָ Is 47.5; ‫שׁוֹלל‬
ָ Jb 12.17); ‫ ָר ָﬠה‬1Sm
18.10, but cf. 16.14, 23.
(Predicative referring to the object): Nu 6.19 ‫ְבּ ֵשׁ ָלה‬ �ַֹ ‫את־הזְּ ר‬
ַ ‫ וְ ָל ַקח‬and he shall take the arm
(when it is) cooked; Josh 9.12 (‫ ָחם‬hot in first position for emphasis); Gn 37.2 ‫את־‬ ‫יוֹסף‬
ֵ ‫וַ יָּ ֵבא‬
‫ ִדּ ָבּ ָתם ָר ָﬠה‬attulit Ioseph rumorem de eis (ut (malum (= spoke ill of them); Nu 14.37; 2Ch 7.10.
Participle: (Predicative referring to the subject): Nu 16.27 ‫נִ ָצּ ִבים‬ ‫ יָ ְצאוּ‬exierant stantes (= “they
had gone out and were standing”); 10.25; 1Kg 14.15; Ezr 9.3; 10.9; 1Kg 1.45 ‫( ְשׂ ֵמ ִחים‬verbal adj.);

also in a nominal clause: Gn 29.2; 2Ch 9.21 ‫ַתּ ְר ִשׁישׁ‬ ‫ ֳאנִ יּוֹת ַל ֶ֫תּ ֶל� הֹלכוֹת‬the king had ships sailing
to Tarshish … rather than the king’s ships sailed to T.; 30.22.
(Predicative referring to the object): Nu 11.10 ‫בּ ֶֹכה‬ ‫את־ה ָﬠם‬
ָ ‫משׁה‬
ֶ ‫ וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַמע‬Moses heard the
people crying (who cried)(); Gn 21.9; Ex 5.20; 1Sm 10.5; 1Kg 22.17. Here also belong Ex 23.4 ‫כי‬
‫ ִת ְפגַּ ע שׁוֹר אֹיִ ְב� אוֹ ֲחמֹרוֹ תּ ֶֹﬠה‬should you come across an ox of your enemy or his donkey
straying; 1Sm 9.11 … ‫י ְֹﬠאוֹת‬ ‫ ָמ ְצאוּ נְ ָﬠרוֹת‬they came across girls going out; Dt 22.22 ‫יִ ָמּ ֵצא אישׁ‬
… ‫ שׁ ֵֹכב ִﬠם־אשּׁה‬a man is found out lying with a woman …; Zc 3.1 ‫הוֹשׁ ַ� … ע ֵֹמד‬
ֻ ְ‫וַ יַּ ְר ֵ֫אנִ י את־י‬
‫ ִל ְפנֵ י ַמ ְל ַא� יהוה‬and he showed me Joshua … standing …() The object may follow: 1Sm 2.24 ‫לוא־‬
‫מוּﬠה אשׁר אנכי שׁ ֵֹמ ַ� ַמ ֲﬠ ִב ִרים ַﬠם־יהוה‬
ָ ‫ טובה ַה ְשּׁ‬The report that I hear the people of the
Lord passing around is not good().
Substantive: (Predicative referring to the subject): 1Sm 13.17 ‫וַ יֵּ ֵצא ַה ַמּ ְשׁ ִחית ִמ ַמּ ֲחנֵ ה‬
ִ ‫לשׁה ָר‬
ָ ‫ ְפ ִל ְשׁ ִתּים ְשׁ‬the destroying army came out of the camp of the Philistines (in = in the
state of) three companies (cp. 11.11, § 125w); Jdg 9.34; 2Kg 5.2; Gn 17.12 ‫ן־שׁמֹנַ ת יָ ִמים יִ מּוֹל‬
ְ ‫ֶבּ‬
‫ ָל ֶכם ָכּל־זָ ָכר‬when they are eight days old, all your males shall be circumcised (the predicative in first
position for emphasis); 9.20: 38.11; Lv 6.9; Jr 31.8; 2Kg 7.3 ‫ַא ְר ָבּ ָﬠה ֲאנָ ִשׁים ָהיוּ ְמצ ָֹר ִﬠים ֫ ֶפּ ַתח‬
‫ ַה ָ ֑שּׁ ַﬠר‬four men were there (as) lepers at the entrance of the gate; 2Ch 26.21.
(Predicative referring to the object): Gn 7.1 ‫צדיק‬ ‫ ;א ְֹת� ראיתי‬2Kg 8.13 �‫ִה ְר ַ֫אנִ י יהוה א ְֹת‬
‫על־א ָרם‬
ֲ �‫ ֶ֫מ ֶל‬Y. has shown you to me as the king of Syria; Ex 2.11 ‫וַ יַּ ְרא אישׁ ִמ ְצ ִרי ַמ ֶכּה אישׁ־‬
‫ ִﬠ ְב ִרי‬he saw an Egyptian (indeterminate object) striking a Hebrew; 2Kg 3.22 ‫מוֹאב … את־‬
ָ ‫וַ יִּ ְראוּ‬
‫ המים ֲא ֻד ִמּים‬and Moab saw … the water red; Gn 6.17 ‫ ִהנְ נִ י ֵמ ִביא את ַה ַמּבּוּל ַ֫מיִ ם‬I am about to
bring the flood in the form of waters.
A prepositional phrase can also be a predicate of the object, though by definition such a phrase
cannot be in the accusative: Ex 5.19 ‫ְבּ ָרע‬ ‫ וַ יִּ ְראוּ שׁ ְֹט ֵרי … בני־ישׂראל א ָֹתם‬they saw that they
were in trouble.
Perhaps related to this discussion are cases like Mi 2.3 ‫רוֹמה‬
ָ ‫ לא ֵת ְלכוּ‬you shall not walk with
head high (in a high manner, haughtily); Lv 26.13 ‫קוֹמ ִמיּוּת‬
ְ (ditto); Is 60.14 �‫חוֹ‬
ַ ‫( ְשׁ‬in bowing = in a
bent manner); Dt 2.9; Josh 9.2 ‫ֶא ָחד‬ ‫ ֶפּה‬ore uno = unanimously (1Kg 22.13); Zp 3.9 ‫ ְשׁ ֶכם ֶא ָחד‬lit.
with one shoulder (on ‫אחד‬ ‫ קוֹל‬Ex 24.3, cf. § 125s). Some substantives thus used as accusatives of
manner ultimately take on an adverbial value (§ 102d): ‫ ֶ֫בּ ַטח‬safely Gn 34.25; ‫ישׁ ִרים‬
ָ ‫ ֵמ‬rightly Ct 1.4.
Likewise the substantive is predicative in some odd cases, like Is 21.8 (¿) ‫ַא ְריֵ ה‬ ‫ וַ יִּ ְק ָרא‬he cried
(in = like) a lion; Ps 22.14; Zc 2.8 it is (in an = like an) open city that Jerusalem shall be inhabited; Jb
The predicative is a phrase when two members are closely associated(): Gn 32.31 ‫יתי אלהים‬
ִ ‫ָר ִ֫א‬
‫ל־פּנִ ים‬
ָ ‫ ָפּנִ ים ֶא‬I have seen God face to face; Nu 12.8 ‫ל־פּה ֲא ַד ֶבּר־בּוֹ‬
ֶ ‫ ֶפּה ֶא‬it is mouth to mouth
that I speak to him (the predicative phrase in first position for emphasis). Likewise probably in cases
like Gn 19.1 ‫א ְר ָצה‬
ָ֑ ‫ וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַ֫תּחוּ ַא ֫ ַפּיִ ם‬and he worshipped with his face to the ground.
2) Accusative of limitation(). The part to which an expression is made to apply is in the
accusative: 1Kg 15.23 ‫את־רגְ ָליו‬
ַ ‫ ָח ָלה‬he was ill (as to) his feet (‫ את‬is very rare with the accusative
of limitation, § 125e)(); Gn 41.40 ָ‫ ַרק ַה ִכּ ֵסּא ֶאגְ ַדּל ִמ ֶ֫מּךּ‬it is only by (in respect of) the throne that I
shall be greater than you; Gn 17.11 ‫ָﬠ ְר ַל ְת ֶכם‬ ‫ וּנְ ַמ ְל ֶתּם את ְבּ ַשׂר‬and you shall circumcise
yourselves (in respect of) the flesh of your foreskin; Ex 6.3; ‫֫עֹ ֶרף‬ ‫ ָפּנָ ה‬to turn in respect of one’s back
(= to turn one’s back) Josh 7.12; Jr 2.27; 32.33 (perh. also ‫֫עֹ ֶרף‬ �‫ ָה ַפ‬Josh 7.8); Jr 18.17 ‫֫עֹ ֶרף וְ לא־‬
‫ ָפנִ ים ֶא ְר ֵאם‬it is only a back view and not a front view that I shall have of them. The accusative of
limitation is probably also found in the following cases() (with a transitive verb): Gn 37.21 ‫לא נַ ֶ֫כּנּוּ‬
‫ ָ ֑֫נ ֶפשׁ‬we must not strike him to death (in respect of the soul); Ps 3.8 ‫ית את־כל־אֹיְ ַבי ֶל ִ֑חי‬
ָ ‫ ִה ִ֫כּ‬you
have struck all my enemies on the cheek, 2Sm 3.27; Dt 22.26; Gn 3.15 ‫רֹאשׁ‬ �‫שׁוּפ‬
ְ ְ‫י‬, it shall aim at
your head; Dt 33.11; Jr 2.16.
3) Accusative of local determination. The place where one is (without motion) is usually preceded
by the preposition ‫ בּ‬in, or ‫ ל‬at. But sometimes the noun is not preceded by any preposition: it must
then be regarded as being in the accusative of determination. This accusative, which is not common
outside certain nouns, may have originated as an extension of the accusative of motion (§ 125n). In
some cases the labial ‫ ב‬may have been dropped by haplology before another ‫( ב‬especially before

‫) ַ֫בּיִ ת‬, or even before another labial (especially ‫)() ֫ ֶפּ ַתח‬. Examples: 1Kg 8.32 ‫ ִתּ ְשׁ ַמע ַה ָשּׁ ַ֫מיִ ם‬you
shall hear in heaven (likewise vss. 34, 36, 39, 43, 45, 49; in the parallel 2Ch 6 we find (except vs. 27)
‫( מן־השּׁמים‬vss. 23, 25, 30, 33, 35, 39); 2Sm 17.26 ‫ וַ ִ֫יּ ַחן … ֶ֫א ֶרץ ַהגִּ ְל ַﬠד‬and he encamped in the
land of Gilead. The local accusative is found with the common names of the cardinal points ‫ִמזְ ַרח‬
‫ ַה ָ ֑שּׁ ֶמשׁ‬in the orient Josh 1.15; ‫ ְמבוֹא השׁמשׁ‬in the (region of) the setting of the sun 1.4; 23.4
(comp. Pr 8.3 ‫ְפ ָת ִחים‬ ‫ ְמבוֹא‬after two nouns with ‫ ִק ְד ַמת ;)ל‬east of Gn 4.16. Likewise for at the
place of the head, at the bed-head we have ‫ ְמ ַר ֲאשׁ ָֹתיו‬1Sm 19.16 etc.; at the place of the feet
ָ ְ‫ ַמ ְרגּ‬Ru 3.8 etc. The accusative is usual with ‫ ֫ ֶפּ ַתח‬entrance followed by a genitive, e.g. Gn 18.1
‫ח־הא ֶֹהל‬
ָ ‫ישׁב ֶפּ ַת‬
ֵ sitting at the entrance of the tent (with ‫ ל‬Nu 11.10); Gn 19.11 ‫ר־פּ ַתח ַה ַ֫בּיִ ת‬
ֶ ֫ ‫ֲא ֶשׁ‬
(with ‫ ל‬Pr 9.14; ‫ בּ‬Jr 43.9); Jdg 18.16 ‫ַה ַ֫שּׁ ַﬠר‬ ‫ נִ ָצּ ִבים ֫ ֶפּ ַתח‬with ‫ בּ‬Jr 26.10; Ez 11.1). To sum up, at
the entrance of is usually ‫ ֫ ֶפּ ַתח‬with the genitive (only 4 x with ‫בּ‬, 2 x with ‫ ;)ל‬on the other hand, for at

the entrance (without genitive) the acc. is never found (2 x with ‫בּ‬, 1 x with ‫)()ל‬. Likewise the

accusative is common with ‫ ַ֫בּיִ ת‬house() followed by a genitive: Gn 24.23 ‫ָמקוֹם‬ �‫ ֲהיֵ שׁ ֵבּית ָא ִבי‬is
there any room in your father’s house? (= Fr. chez ton père); 38.11 (but Nu 30.4 ‫יה‬
ָ ‫ָא ִ֫ב‬ ‫ ְבּ ֵבית‬for the
sake of clarity); 2Sm 9.4; 2Kg 11.3 (15) ‫יהוה‬ ‫ ֵבּית‬in the temple of Y.; Is 3.6; Mi 6.10; Jb 1.4 (but ‫בּ‬
verses 13, 18); Est 4.13. With the proper nouns ‫ית־ל ֶחם‬
ֶ ֫ ‫ ֵבּ‬1Sm 17.15; 2Sm 2.32; ‫ית־אל‬
ֵ ‫ ֵבּ‬2Kg 10.29
(followed by ‫ ְבּ ָדן‬in Dan); Ho 12.5. Contrast the proper nouns with initial ‫ב‬: ‫ֶ֫שׁ ַבע‬ ‫( ִבּ ְב ֵאר‬6 x), and
‫( ְבּ ָב ֶבל‬8 x). Even when ‫ בית‬is followed by a genitive, ‫ בּ‬is quite common, e.g. Gn 39.20 (prison:
likewise vs. 22; 40.5; 42.19; Ex 12.29; Jdg 16.21); after the verb ‫ ָהיָ ה‬e.g. Jdg 17.4, 12. ‫ בית‬not

followed by a genitive, is not used in the accusative. (For ‫ ]¿[ ֵבּיתוֹ‬2Ch 33.20 cp. LXX and 2Kg
4) Accusative of temporal determination. A temporal determination answering the questions
when?, how long?() is often in the accusative: Ps 55.18 ‫יחה‬
ָ ‫ָא ִ֫שׂ‬ ‫ ֫ ֶﬠרב וּ ֫בֹ ֶקר וְ ָצ ֳה ַ ֫ריִ ם‬in the evening,
in the morning and at noon I will cause my complaint to be heard (but with the article, we find ‫ָבּ ֫ ֶﬠ ֶרב‬

[4x ‫ערב‬ ‫] ְל ֵﬠת‬, ‫) ַבּ ֫בֹּ ֶקר‬, ‫וֹמם ;) ַבּ ָצּ ֳה ַ ֫ריִ ם‬

ָ by day (§ 102b); ‫ ַהיּוֹם‬this day = today (but ‫ ביום הזה‬on
this day, more emphatic); ‫ לילה‬by night (§ 93g); ‫ הלּילה‬this night, e.g. 2Sm 19.8 (but ‫ההוּא‬ ‫בלילה‬
Gn 26.24 during that night); ‫ ַﬠ ָתּה‬now (hoc tempore, § 93g; but ‫ההיא‬ ‫ ָבּ ֵﬠת‬at that same time, at that
time); ‫ ַה ָשּׁנָ ה‬this year Jr 28.16 (but ‫ההיא‬ ‫ בשׁנה‬Gn 26.12 in that year[]; however, we have 1Kg
17.1 ‫ָה ֵ֫א ֶלּה‬ ‫[ ַה ָשּׁנִ ים‬in] these years); Gn 27.45 ‫( יוֹם ֶא ָחד‬in) one day;, 3.14 �‫ כל־יְ ֵמי ַח ֶ֫יּי‬all the
days of your life; Ex 20.9 ‫יָ ִמים‬ ‫ ֵ֫שׁ ֶשׁת‬for six days; vs. 11 in six days; with ‫( את‬rare with the acc. of
time, § 125e): Ex 13.7 ‫ַהיָּ ִמים‬ ‫ את ִשׁ ְב ַﬠת‬during the seven days (‫ את‬again in Lv 25.22; Dt 9.25).
5) Accusative of measure. Gn 31.23 ‫יָ ִמים‬ ‫ וַ יִּ ְרדּ ֹף ַא ַח ָריו ֶ ֫דּ ֶר� ִשׁ ְב ַﬠת‬and he pursued him in the
space (way) of seven days; 7.20 ‫המּיִ ם‬
ָ֑ ‫ ֲח ֵמשׁ ֶﬠ ֶשׂ ֵרי ַא ָמּה ִמ ְל ַ֫מ ְﬠ ָלה ָגּ ְ֑ברוּ‬by fifteen cubits higher
had the waters risen (the acc. in first position); 43.34 Benjamin’s portion was by five times (parts)
‫ ָח ֵמשׁ יָ דוֹת‬larger than that of all of them; prob. 1Sm 28.20 ‫א־קוֹמתוֹ‬
ָ ֹ ‫ וַ יִּ פֹּל ְמל‬he fell full length
(with the fullness of his stature) upon the ground.
6) For the accusative of cause, which is common in Arabic, probably the only instance is Is 7.25
‫ יִ ְר ַאת ָשׁ ִמיר‬by fear of the thorns (but the text is obscure and ‫ יראת‬could be the subject; cf. Dillmann
ad loc.).
7) The existence of an accusative of instrument is doubtful; the few instances that could be
mentioned can be explained otherwise. Thus Josh 7.25 ‫ ֶ֫א ֶבן‬may be an accusative of internal object

(Brockelmann, GvG, II. 306); likewise probably Pr 10.4 ‫( ַכּף‬GKC, § 117 t).