Sei sulla pagina 1di 82



Claudio Gasparini


‹

&$'7XWRU 
Corso interattivo di AutoCAD 2004 su CD-Rom
Guida didattica del corso

 











/DYRULLQ&RUVR(GL]LRQL0LODQR


2 CAD Tutor 2004


















CAD Tutor © 2004
Corso interattivo di AutoCAD 2004 su CD-Rom
Guida didattica del corso

$XWRUH&ODXGLR*DVSDULQL&RUVLLQ5HWH(GL]LRQL0LODQR

&RS\ULJKW‹E\&ODXGLR*DVSDULQL9LD*RYRQH0LODQR
WHOHIRQR
4XHVWRJXLGDGLGDWWLFDqDOOHJDWDDO&RUVRVX&'5RP&$'7XWRU‹
6LWRGLDJJLRUQDPHQWRGHOFRUVRZZZFRUVLLQUHWHLW
(PDLOFODXGLRJDVSDULQL#FRUVLLQUHWHLW

7XWWL L GLULWWL VRQR ULVHUYDWL D QRUPD GL OHJJH H D QRUPD GHOOH FRQYHQ]LRQL
LQWHUQD]LRQDOL 1RQ q FRQVHQWLWD OD ULSURGX]LRQH LQWHJUDOH GHO WHVWR VHQ]D
DXWRUL]]D]LRQH VFULWWD GHOO
$XWRUH 1RPL H PDUFKL FLWDWL QHO WHVWR VRQR
JHQHUDOPHQWHGHSRVLWDWLRUHJLVWUDWLGDOOHULVSHWWLYHFDVHSURGXWWULFL

 



 Claudio Gasparini

,QGLFH

'DOGLVHJQRWUDGL]LRQDOHDO&$' 8VRGLILQHVWUHDIILDQFDWH
/DVFDODGHOGLVHJQR 
,PSRVWD]LRQHGHLGLVHJQL 0RGLILFDGHOGLVHJQR
/HLQIRUPD]LRQLGHOGLVHJQR /DVHOH]LRQHGHJOLRJJHWWL
,OGLVHJQRPRGHOOR 2IIVHW
/DSUHFLVLRQHGHOGLVHJQR 7DJOLD
 &RSLDH6SRVWD
,QWHUIDFFLDGL$XWR&$' 6HULH
&RPHXVDUH$XWR&$' 5XRWD
8VRGHOODWDVWLHUD 5DFFRUGRH&LPD
,PHQXDGLVFHVD 6SHFFKLR
%DUUHGHJOLVWUXPHQWL 6FDODH6WLUD
0HQXDFXUVRUH 
8VRGHOPRXVH ,OWHVWR
 /RVWLOHGLWHVWR
,OVLVWHPDGLFRRUGLQDWH ,QVHULPHQWRGLXQWHVWR
&RRUGLQDWHGLXQSXQWR 0RGLILFDGHOWHVWR
&RRUGLQDWHUHODWLYHFDUWHVLDQH 0RGLILFDGHOORVWLOHGLWHVWR
&RRUGLQDWHUHODWLYHSRODUL 
&RRUGLQDWH*OREDOLH8WHQWH /HTXRWH
&RQYHQ]LRQHGHOODPDQRGHVWUD &RPHLQVHULUHOHTXRWH
 *OLHOHPHQWLGHOOHTXRWH
&RPHLQL]LDUHXQGLVHJQR /RVWLOHGLTXRWD
&UHD]LRQHGLXQQXRYRGLVHJQR 4XRWHDVVRFLDWLYH
3UHIHUHQ]HHXQLWjGLPLVXUD 0RGLILFDGHOOHTXRWH
/LPLWL 
,PSRVWD]LRQLGHOGLVHJQR ,EORFFKL
*HVWLRQHGHL/D\HU &UHD]LRQHGHLEORFFKL
 ,QVHULPHQWRGHLEORFFKL
6WUXPHQWLGLGLVHJQR $WWULEXWLGHLEORFFKL
,QVHULPHQWRGHJOLRJJHWWL (VWUD]LRQHGHJOLDWWULEXWL
3URSULHWjGHJOLRJJHWWL 
3XQWR ,OGLVHJQRLQ'
/LQHD &UHD]LRQHGLRJJHWWLLQ'
3ROLOLQHD 'HILQL]LRQHGHLSXQWLGLYLVWD
$UFR &UHD]LRQHGLSLILQHVWUH
&HUFKLR 
(OOLVVH /D\RXWHVWDPSDGHLGLVHJQL
6SOLQH /·XVRGHOOD\RXWGLGLVHJQR
3ROLJRQR 8WLOL]]RGLXQPRGHOORGL
7UDWWHJJLR OD\RXW
 0RGLILFDGLXQOD\RXW
&RQWUROORGHOODYLVXDOL]]D]LRQH /DVFDODGHOGLVHJQR
3DQ /DVWDPSDGLXQGLVHJQR
=R2P (VHPSLRJUDILFR
9LVWDDHUHD



Capitolo 1
Dal disegno tradizionale al CAD
• /DVFDODGHOGLVHJQR
• ,PSRVWD]LRQHGHLGLVHJQL
• /HLQIRUPD]LRQLGHOGLVHJQR
• ,OGLVHJQRPRGHOOR

4XHVWR FDSLWROR IRUQLVFH OH FRQRVFHQ]H FRQFHWWXDOL HG RSHUDWLYH SHU O·XWLOL]]R GHO
SURJUDPPD$XWR&$'QHOGLVHJQRWHFQLFR5LVSHWWRDOGLVHJQRWUDGL]LRQDOHLOGLVHJQR
FRQ XQ VLVWHPD &$' &RPSXWHU $LGHG 'HVLJQ FLRq 3URJHWWD]LRQH DVVLVWLWD GDO
FDOFRODWRUH SUHVHQWDDOFXQLYDQWDJJLHSDUWLFRODULWj

1.1 La scala del disegno

,O GLVHJQR FRQ XQ VLVWHPD &$' H TXLQGL DQFKH FRQ $XWR&$' DYYLHQH VHPSUH LQ
VFDODUHDOHWXWWLLGLVHJQLYHQJRQRLQVHULWLFRQPLVXUHUHDOLFRUULVSRQGHQWLDGXQLWj
GL GLVHJQR $XWR&$' QRQ XWLOL]]D XQ VLVWHPD SUHGHILQLWR GL XQLWj GL PLVXUD FRPH
PHWULRFHQWLPHWULPDVRORXQLWjGLGLVHJQRFKHSRVVRQRFRUULVSRQGHUHDPPFPRP
DVHFRQGDGHOVHWWRUHGLXWLOL]]R,QPHFFDQLFDO·XQLWjGLPLVXUDqLOPLOOLPHWUR PP 
PHQWUHLQHGLOL]LDO·XQLWjqLOFHQWLPHWUR FP HGLQFDUWRJUDILDVLXWLOL]]DLOPHWUR P 


)LJ
'LVHJQR
PHFFDQLFRO·XQLWj
GLPLVXUDqLO
PLOOLPHWUR PP 










'LVHJQDQGRLQVFDODODVFDODYLHQHGHILQLWDVRORTXDQGRVLGHYHVWDPSDUHLOGLVHJQR
VX FDUWD SORWWDUH  SHUPHWWHQGR DQFKH GL LPSRVWDUH VFDOH GLVWLQWH VX YLVWH GLIIHUHQWL
GHOORVWHVVRGLVHJQR
,YDQWDJJLGHOO·XWLOL]]RGLXQDVFDODVLSRVVRQRULDVVXPHUHQHLVHJXHQWLSXQWL
OHPLVXUHGLGLVHJQRVRQRUHDOLHWXWWRLOSURFHVVRGLODYRURYLHQHIDFLOLWDWR
XQRVWHVVRGLVHJQRSXzHVVHUHVWDPSDWRDVFDOHGLYHUVHHVXIRUPDWRGLFDUWDGLYHUVL
VHQ]DPRGLILFKHDOGLVHJQR

1.2 Impostazione dei disegni

8QGLVHJQRWHFQLFRSULPDGLHVVHUHVWDPSDWRULFKLHGHODGHILQL]LRQHGLXQOD\RXWFKH
SXz YDULDUH D VHFRQGD GHOOD VFDOD H GHO IRUPDWR GHO IRJOLR GL GLVHJQR $ YROWH q
QHFHVVDULR VWDPSDUH XQR VWHVVR GLVHJQR LQ GLPHQVLRQL R VFDOH GLVWLQWH SHUFKp OH
HVLJHQ]HGLSUHVHQWD]LRQHGLXQSURJHWWRSRVVRQRHVVHUHGLYHUVH3HUVIUXWWDUHTXHVWD
IOHVVLELOLWjIRUQLWDGDOSURJUDPPDVLXWLOL]]DQRGXHDPELHQWLGLODYRURGLVWLQWLORVSD]LR


Claudio Gasparini Dal disegno tradizionale al CAD 5

0RGHOOR H OR VSD]LR &DUWD , GLVHJQL YHQJRQR FUHDWL QHOOR VSD]LR 0RGHOOR H PHQWUH OD
SDUWHGLFUHD]LRQHGHOOD\RXWILQDOH PHVVDLQWDYROD DYYLHQHQHOORVSD]LRFDUWD
/R VSD]LR 0RGHOOR FRQWLHQH WXWWH OH LQIRUPD]LRQL UHODWLYH DOOD JHRPHWULD GHO SURJHWWR
PHQWUH QHOOR VSD]LR &DUWD YHQJRQR LQVHULWH WXWWH OH LQIRUPD]LRQL DOIDQXPHULFKH FKH
VRQRGLFRPSOHWDPHQWRDOODJHRPHWULDFRPHTXRWHWHVWLHWDEHOOH


)LJ
,OPRGHOORYLHQHGLVHJQDWR
QHOORVSD]LR0RGHOORH
YLVXDOL]]DWRQHOORVSD]LR
&DUWD












/·XWLOL]]R GHL GXH DPELHQWL YLHQH SHUz DSSUH]]DWR DSSLHQR TXDQGR VL XWLOL]]DQR OH
IXQ]LRQL WULGLPHQVLRQDOL SHUFKp VL SRVVRQR UDSSUHVHQWDUH XQ SURJHWWR LQ YLVWH
GLIIHUHQWL FKH SRVVRQR HVVHUH LQGLIIHUHQWHPHQWH SURLH]LRQL RUWRJRQDOL YLVWH
DVVRQRPHWULFKH R SURVSHWWLFKH 6H VL DSSUHQGH O·XVR GHL GXH DPELHQWL ´RSHUDWLYLµ VL
SRVVRQR ULFDYDUH QRWHYROL YDQWDJJL GL ULVSDUPLR GL WHPSR DQFKH QHOOD QRUPDOH
SURGX]LRQHGLGLVHJQLELGLPHQVLRQDOL



)LJ/D\RXWILQDOHGHOGLVHJQRVXFDUWD


6 CAD Tutor 2004

1.3 Le informazioni del disegno

8Q SURJHWWR ULFKLHGH O·RUJDQL]]D]LRQH GHOOH LQIRUPD]LRQL VHFRQGRVFKHPL IXQ]LRQDOL


VWUXWWXUDOLRSHUDWLYLHFRVWUXWWLYL1HOGLVHJQRWUDGL]LRQDOHTXHVWRDYYLHQHFRQLOXFLGL
GL GLVHJQR FKH LQ $XWR&$' VRQR UDSSUHVHQWDWL GDL /D\HU /D JHVWLRQH GHOOH
LQIRUPD]LRQLIDWWHFRQL/D\HUSHUPHWWHXQDIDFLOHJHVWLRQHGHLFRORULHGHLWLSLGLOLQHH
H JDUDQWLVFH XQD PLJOLRUH YLVXDOL]]D]LRQH GHL GLVHJQL H OD IDFLOH PRGLILFD GHOOH HQWLWj
JUDILFKH ,QROWUH O·RUJDQL]]D]LRQH GHL GLVHJQL VHFRQGR /D\HU GLVWLQWL SHUPHWWH OD
VHSDUD]LRQH GHOOH LQIRUPD]LRQL GD VWDPSDUH QHOOD FRPXQLFD]LRQH GHO SURJHWWR LQ XQ
SURJHWWR HGLOL]LR LQIDWWL L GLVHJQL WHFQLFL GHVWLQDWL DO FDQWLHUH QRQ GHYRQR ULSRUWDUH OH
LQIRUPD]LRQLUHODWLYHDJOLDUUHGLHYLFHYHUVDLGLVHJQLGHJOLDUUHGLQRQGHYRQRULSRUWDUH
ODSRVL]LRQHGHLIHUULGHOOHDUPDWXUH




)LJ²/D\HUSHUGLVWLQJXHUHLOWLSRGLLQIRUPD]LRQL




&RQ L /D\HU TXLQGL q SRVVLELOH JHVWLUH LQ PRGR HIILFLHQWH WXWWH OH LQIRUPD]LRQLGLXQ
SURJHWWRHFUHDUHXQ
XQLIRUPLWjQHOOHWDYROHWHFQLFKH


)LJ²'LVHJQRQHOOR6SD]LR&DUWDQHOODVXDYHUVLRQHGHILQLWLYD

1.4 Il disegno modello

5LVSHWWRDOGLVHJQRWUDGL]LRQDOHXQVLVWHPD&$'IRUQLVFHPROWHIXQ]LRQLFKHUHQGRQR
LOODYRURSLYHORFHHSUHFLVR8QDIXQ]LRQHPROWRFRPRGDqODSRVVLELOLWjGLVFHJOLHUH
TXDQGR V
LQL]LD XQ QXRYR GLVHJQR XQ GLVHJQR PRGHOOR ,O GLVHJQR PRGHOOR FKH
FRUULVSRQGHDGXQIRJOLRGLGLVHJQRJLjVTXDGUDWRFRQWLHQHOHLPSRVWD]LRQLGLEDVHGL

Claudio Gasparini Dal disegno tradizionale al CAD 7

XQGLVHJQRFKHTXLQGLSRVVRQRHVVHUHXWLOL]]DWHSHUWXWWDODSURGX]LRQHJUDILFDGLXQ
SURJHWWR


)LJ²)LQHVWUDGLVFHOWDGHOPRGHOORGDXWLOL]]DUHQHOQXRYRGLVHJQR

,OGLVHJQRPRGHOORVLGLVWLQJXHSHUODGLYHUVDHVWHQVLRQHGHLILOHVDOYDWL':7PHQWUHL
QRUPDOLILOHGLGLVHJQRGL$XWR&$'KDQQRFRPHHVWHQVLRQHOHOHWWHUH':*

1.5 La precisione del disegno

3HU UHQGHUH LO GLVHJQR SUHFLVR H YHORFH VL SRVVRQR XWLOL]]DUH DOFXQH IXQ]LRQL GL
PRGLILFDHGHGLWD]LRQHIRUQLWHGDOSURJUDPPDTXDOL&RSLDSHUODULSURGX]LRQHGHJOL
RJJHWWL LQ PRGR VHPSOLFH FRPDQGR &RSLD  R VHFRQGR XQD PDWULFH UHWWDQJRODUH R
SRODUH FRPDQGR 6HULH  *OL RJJHWWL JUDILFL SRVVRQR DQFKH HVVHUH GHIRUPDWL VHFRQGR
XQ SDUDPHWUR GL VFDODWXUD FRPDQGR 6FDOD   H VHFRQGR GHL YDORUL GL GHIRUPD]LRQH
FRPDQGR6WLUD 


)LJ
3HUDYHUOD
PDVVLPD
SUHFLVLRQHGL
GLVHJQRVL
XWLOL]]DQRJOL
6QDSFLRqILOWUL
SHUDQFRUDUHOH
YDULHOLQHHIUDGL
ORUR





3HUIDFLOLWDUHO·D]LRQHGLGLVHJQRVLSXzULFRUUHUHDGXHIXQ]LRQLJUDILFKHPROWRXWLOLOD
*ULJOLD FKH IRUQLVFH XQD JULJOLD GL ULIHULPHQWR YLVLELOH GXUDQWH LO WUDFFLDPHQWR GHOOH
OLQHH OD IXQ]LRQH GL 6QDS FKH FRVWULQJHUH LO FXUVRUH GHQWUR XQD PDWULFH LQYLVLELOH
GXUDQWHLVXRLVSRVWDPHQWL/D*ULJOLDKDVRORXQDIXQ]LRQHGLDLXWRYLVLYRPHQWUHOR
6QDS OLPLWD HIIHWWLYDPHQWH LO SDVVR GHO FXUVRUH (QWUDPEH TXHVWH IXQ]LRQL  SRVVRQR
HVVHUHDWWLYDWHRGLVDWWLYDWHGXUDQWHOHIDVLGLODYRUR


Capitolo 2
Interfaccia di AutoCAD
• &RPHXVDUH$XWR&$'
• 8VRGHOODWDVWLHUD
• ,PHQXDGLVFHVD
• %DUUHGHJOLVWUXPHQWL
• 0HQXDFXUVRUH
• 8VRGHOPRXVH

3HUXWLOL]]DUHXQSURJUDPPDJUDILFRLQPRGRHIILFDFHHUDSLGRqQHFHVVDULRFRQRVFHUHOHYDULH
PRGDOLWjGLGLDORJRFRQLOVLVWHPDHGLQSDUWLFRODUHOHLQWHUIDFFHJUDILFKHFKHSHUPHWWRODVFHOWD
GHOOHYDULHRSHUD]LRQL

2.1 Come usare AutoCAD

8QR VWHVVR FRPDQGR SXz HVVHUH DWWLYDWR LQ GLYHUVL PRGL SXU IRUQHQGR OR VWHVVR
ULVXOWDWR
• GDWDVWLHUDGLJLWDQGRLOFRPDQGRQHOODILQHVWUD&RPDQG
• FRQLOPRXVHXWLOL]]DQGRLPHQXDWHQGLQD
• VHOH]LRQDQGROHLFRQHQHOOH%DUUHGHJOLVWUXPHQWL
,OGLVHJQRYLHQHYLVXDOL]]DWRQHOODILQHVWUDJUDILFDFKHUDSSUHVHQWDO·DUHDGLODYRURHFKH
SXzHVVHUHVXGGLYLVDLQSLYLVWHVXOGLVHJQR

2.2 Uso della tastiera

,O PRGR SL FRPSOHWR H GLUHWWR SHU LQVHULUH L FRPDQGL LQ $XWR&$' q PHGLDQWH OD
WDVWLHUDGLJLWDQGROLGLUHWWDPHQWHQHOODILQHVWUD&RPDQGR1RQqVLFXUDPHQWHXQPRGR
PROWR FRPRGR PD ULPDQH SHU PROWL FRPDQGL TXHOOR REEOLJDWR SHU OD QHFHVVLWj GL
VFHJOLHUHIUDOHYDULHRS]LRQLGLVSRQLELOL

)LJ)LQHVWUD&RPDQGR
FRQYLVXDOL]]DWHOHXOWLPH
WUHULJKHGLGLDORJR




/D )LQHVWUD &RPDQGR UDSSUHVHQWD LO PRGR SL GLUHWWR GL GLDORJR FRQ LO
VLVWHPD SHUFKp LQ TXHVW·DUHD YHQJRQR YLVXDOL]]DWH OH ULFKLHVWH GHO VLVWHPD
GXUDQWHOHRSHUD]LRQLGLGLVHJQR

2.3 I menu a discesa

&RQ LO PRXVH VL SRVVRQR VHOH]LRQDUH OH IXQ]LRQL  HG L FRPDQGL XWLOL]]DQGR L
PHQX D GLVFHVD  FRPH LQ WXWWL L SURJUDPPL GL :LQGRZV 3HU DOFXQL FRPDQGL
LQROWUHLPHQXDGLVFHVDSUHVHQWDQRGHLVRWWRPHQXHYLGHQ]LDWLGDOODSUHVHQ]DGL
XQDIUHFFLD


Claudio Gasparini Interfaccia di AutoCAD 


)LJ
0HQXDWHQGLQDGL$UFRFRQ
YLVXDOL]]DWRDQFKHLOPHQX
VHFRQGDULRFRQOHRS]LRQL
GLVSRQLELOLSHULOFRPDQGRVFHOWR
/DIUHFFLDDILDQFRGLRJQLYRFH
LQGLFDFKHqGLVSRQLELOHXQ
VHFRQGRPHQX















2.4 Barre degli strumenti

/H%DUUHGHJOLVWUXPHQWLFRQWHQJRQROHLFRQHGHLSULQFLSDOLFRPDQGLGL$XWR&$'3HU
FRQRVFHUH LO QRPH GHO FRPDQGR q VXIILFLHQWH SRVL]LRQDUH VHQ]D FOLFFDUH LO FXUVRUH
VRSUDXQ·LFRQDSHUDYHUHO·LQGLFD]LRQHGHOQRPHGHOFRPDQGRFKHTXHOO·LFRQDDWWLYD

,Q$XWR&$'LQL]LDOPHQWHYHQJRQRYLVXDOL]]DWHTXDWWUREDUUHGHJOLVWUXPHQWL
%DUUDGHJOLVWUXPHQWL6WDQGDUG
%DUUDGHJOLVWUXPHQWL3URSULHWjRJJHWWR
%DUUDGHJOLVWUXPHQWL'LVHJQD
%DUUDGHJOLVWUXPHQWL0RGLILFD




)LJ%DUUDGHJOLVWUXPHQWL6WDQGDUG3UHVHQWDOHIXQ]LRQLEDVHGLWXWWLLSURJUDPPLGL
:LQGRZV




)LJ%DUUDGHJOLVWUXPHQWL3URSULHWjRJJHWWR6LSXzPRGLILFDUHLOFRORUHLOWLSRGLOLQHDH
LO/D\HU



)LJ%DUUDGHJOLVWUXPHQWL'LVHJQD&RQWLHQHWXWWHOHIXQ]LRQLEDVHGHOGLVHJQR



10 CAD Tutor 2004


)LJ%DUUDGHJOLVWUXPHQWL0RGLILFD3UHVHQWDLSULQFLSDOLFRPDQGLGLHGLWD]LRQHH
PRGLILFDGHJOLRJJHWWL

7XWWHOHEDUUHGHJOLVWUXPHQWLVLSRVVRQRVSRVWDUHDOO·LQWHUQRGHOODILQHVWUDJUDILFDHGq
SRVVLELOHLQROWUHPRGLILFDUHLSXOVDQWLDJJLXQJHQGRQHDOWUL/DSRVL]LRQHHLOFRQWHQXWR
YLHQHPDQWHQXWRDQFKHQHOOHVHVVLRQLVXFFHVVLYH

2.5 Menu a cursore

8QWLSRGLPHQXXWLOL]]DWRVSHVVRGXUDQWHOHIDVLGLGLVHJQRqLOPHQXDFXUVRUHFKHVL
DWWLYD SUHPHQGR LO WDVWR GHVWUR GHO PRXVH /H IXQ]LRQL FKH SUHVHQWD SHUPHWWRQR GL
WHUPLQDUHRDQQXOODUHODIDVHGLGLVHJQRRSHUDUHXQRVSRVWDPHQWRRXQR]RRPVHQ]D
LQWHUURPSHUHODVHTXHQ]D


)LJ
0HQXGLVQDSDGRJJHWWL
9LHQHYLVXDOL]]DWRSUHPHQGRLOWDVWRGHVWURGHOPRXVHH
LOWDVWR0$,86&GHOODWDVWLHUD3UHVHQWDWXWWLLILOWUL
GLVQDSSLXWLOLSHUXQLQVHULPHQWRSUHFLVRGHOOHHQWLWj
JUDILFKHQHOGLVHJQR









3UHPHQGR DQFKH LO WDVWR 0$,86& GHOOD WDVWLHUD FRQWHPSRUDQHDPHQWH DO GHVWUR GHO
PRXVH VL DWWLYD XQ VHFRQGR PHQX D FXUVRUH UHODWLYR DL ILOWUL GL VQDS DG RJJHWWR SHU LO
GLVHJQRGLSUHFLVLRQH


Claudio Gasparini Interfaccia di AutoCAD 

2.6 Uso del mouse

,Q XQ PRXVH D GXH SXOVDQWL LO SXOVDQWH VLQLVWUR q XWLOL]]DWR SHU OD VHOH]LRQH LQ
SDUWLFRODUH
• 6SHFLILFDUHODSRVL]LRQHQHOORVSD]LR
• 6HOH]LRQDUHJOLRJJHWWLGDPRGLILFDUH
• 6FHJOLHUHOHRS]LRQLGHLPHQXHQHOOHILQHVWUHGLGLDORJR

,OSXOVDQWHGHVWURYLHQHXWLOL]]DWRSULQFLSDOPHQWHSHU
• 7HUPLQDUHXQFRPDQGRLQHVHFX]LRQHFRPHODIXQ]LRQH,QYLR
• 9LVXDOL]]DUHLOPHQXGLVQDSDGRJJHWWR
• 9LVXDOL]]DUHODILQHVWUDGHOPHQXDFXUVRUH

/D IXQ]LRQH GHO SXOVDQWH GHVWUR GHO PRXVH SXz HVVHUH PRGLILFDWD QHOOD ILQHVWUD GL
GLDORJR2S]LRQL
,Q XQ PRXVH D WUH WDVWL LO WDVWR FHQWUDOH SXz HVVHUH SHUVRQDOL]]DWR 'L EDVH
VHUYHSHUDSULUHLOPHQXDFXUVRUH













)LJ,OPRXVHqORVWUXPHQWREDVHSHUGLDORJDUHFRQLOFRPSXWHUHDQFKH
SHUGLVHJQDUH



Capitolo 3
Il sistema di coordinate
• &RRUGLQDWHGLXQSXQWR
• &RRUGLQDWHUHODWLYHFDUWHVLDQH
• &RRUGLQDWHUHODWLYHSRODUL
• &RRUGLQDWH*OREDOLH8WHQWH
• &RQYHQ]LRQHGHOODPDQRGHVWUD

3HULQGLYLGXDUHOHFRRUGLQDWHQHOORVSD]LR$XWR&$'XWLOL]]DLOVLVWHPDLQFRRUGLQDWH
FDUWHVLDQHFRPHVLVWHPDJUDILFRGLULIHULPHQWR
1HOOR VSD]LR XQ SXQWR YLHQH LQGLYLGXDWR GDL YDORUL GHOOD  GLVWDQ]D GDOO·RULJLQH GHO
VLVWHPDPLVXUDWDVXLWUHDVVL;<=6HQRUPDOPHQWHVLXWLOL]]DLOPRXVHSHUGLVHJQDUH
DYROWHSHUzqQHFHVVDULRTXDQGRVLULFKLHGHXQDSUHFLVLRQHGLWUDFFLDPHQWRLQVHULUHOH
FRRUGLQDWHLQIRUPDQXPHULFDGDWDVWLHUD

3.1 Coordinate di un punto

1HO VLVWHPD LQ FRRUGLQDWH FDUWHVLDQH  RJQL SXQWR QHOOR VSD]LR q LQGLYLGXDWR GD WUH
YDORULQXPHULFL;<=FRUULVSRQGHQWLDOODGLVWDQ]DGHOSXQWRGDOO
2ULJLQHGHOVLVWHPD
*OLDVVLVRQRRUWRJRQDOLIUDORURHKDQQRXQDGLUH]LRQHSRVLWLYD

1HO GLVHJQR LO SXQWR 3 q LQGLFDWR FRQ FRRUGLQDWH DVVROXWH  LO SXQWR 3  FRQ
FRRUGLQDWH  H FRVu JOL DOWUL SXQWL 8WLOL]]DQGR OH FRRUGLQDWH DVVROXWH RJQL SXQWR
GHYHHVVHUHLQGLFDWRFRQGXHYDORULDVVROXWLQRQIRUQLVFHTXLQGLXQPRGRRSHUDWLYR
PROWRDJHYROHHSHUTXHVWRYLHQHXVDWRVRORLQFDVLSDUWLFRODUL


)LJ
7UDFFLDPHQWRGLXQ
UHWWDQJRORLQFRRUGLQDWH
DVVROXWH7XWWHOH
FRRUGLQDWHVRQRLQVHULWH
GDWDVWLHUDDIDQQR
ULIHULPHQWRDOO·RULJLQH
DVVROXWDGHOGLVHJQR
3HUTXHVWRQRQVRQR
XWLOL]]DWHSHUFKpQRQ
VRQRXWLOLQHOQRUPDOH
GLVHJQR



Claudio Gasparini Il sistema di coordinate 13

3.2 Coordinate relative cartesiane

3HULOGLVHJQRGLSUHFLVLRQHVLXWLOL]]DQROHFRRUGLQDWHFDUWHVLDQHUHODWLYHVLLQGLFDFLRq
OD GLVWDQ]D ;< GL XQ SXQWR GD XQ·RULJLQH UHODWLYD UDSSUHVHQWDWD GDOO·XOWLPR SXQWR
LQVHULWR


)LJ
&RVWUX]LRQHGHO
UHWWDQJRORLQFRRUGLQDWH
UHODWLYHFDUWHVLDQH













3HU GLVHJQDUH OR
VWHVVR UHWWDQJROR GRSR DYHU LQVHULWR LO SULPR SXQWR 3 FRQ LO PRXVH LO VHFRQGR
SXQWR3YLHQHLQVHULWRGLJLWDQGR#

,O VLPEROR # FKLRFFLROD  SULPD GHL YDORUL QXPHULFL LQGLFD FKH OH FRRUGLQDWH FKH
VHJXRQRVRQRUHODWLYH

,QIDWWL OH FRRUGLQDWH UHODWLYH FDUWHVLDQH IDQQR ULIHULPHQWR DOO
XOWLPR SXQWR LQVHULWR
FRQVLGHUDWRRULJLQHWHPSRUDQHD UHODWLYD GHOVLVWHPD

/DVLQWDVVLXWLOL]]DWDLQ$XWR&$'qODVHJXHQWH
#GHOWD;GHOWD< GHOWD= 

$GHVHPSLRLOYDORUHGHOODFRRUGLQDWD;VDUjSRVLWLYRVHQHOODGLUH]LRQHSRVLWLYDGHOO·DVVH
YHUVR GHVWUD PHQWUH VDUj QHJDWLYR VH  QHOOD GLUH]LRQH QHJDWLYD GHOO·DVVH TXLQGL YHUVR
VLQLVWUD

3HUGLVHJQDUHLOUHWWDQJRORODSURFHGXUDqODVHJXHQWH
Comando: LINEA
Dal Punto: 2,2 (coord. Assolute con il mouse)
Al punto: @ 10,0
Al punto: @ 0,5
Al punto: @ -10,0
Al punto: @ 0,-5
Al punto: INVIO (per terminare l’inserimento)



14 CAD Tutor 2004

3.3 Coordinate relative polari

6L SRVVRQR XVDUH OH FRRUGLQDWH UHODWLYH SRODUL  VSHVVR LQ DOWHUQDWLYD DOOH UHODWLYH
FDUWHVLDQH/HFRRUGLQDWHSRODULULFKLHGRQRODVSHFLILFDGHOODGLVWDQ]DUHODWLYDGHOSXQWR
GDOO·RULJLQHUHODWLYDHO·DQJRORIRUPDWRFRQO
DVVH;

/DVLQWDVVLGHOOHFRRUGLQDWHUHODWLYHSRODULH
ODVHJXHQWH
#GLVWDQ]DDQJROR
1HOGLVHJQRGHOUHWWDQJRORLOVHFRQGRSXQWRYLHQHLQVHULWRGLJLWDQGR#
,OYDORUHqODGLVWDQ]DGDOO·XOWLPRSXQWRPHQWUHO·DQJRORFRQO·DVVH;q]HUR


)LJ
/RVWHVVRUHWWDQJROR
GLVHJQDWRFRQOH
FRRUGLQDWHUHODWLYH
SRODULGLXVRSL
LPPHGLDWRULVSHWWRDOOH
FRRUGLQDUHUHODWLYH
FDUWHVLDQH










3.4 Coordinate Globali e Utente

$XWR&$'XWLOL]]DGXHVLVWHPLGLFRRUGLQDWHXQVLVWHPDILVVRGHQRPLQDWR6LVWHPDGL
&RRUGLQDWH*OREDOL :&6 HXQVLVWHPDPRELOHGHQRPLQDWR6LVWHPDGL&RRUGLQDWH8WHQWH
8&6 
1HO VLVWHPD PRQGR :&6 O
DVVH ; q RUL]]RQWDOH O
DVVH < q YHUWLFDOH H O
DVVH = q
SHUSHQGLFRODUH DO SLDQR ;< /
RULJLQH q LO SXQWR LQ FXL JOL DVVL ; H < VL LQWHUVHFDQR
 LQEDVVRDVLQLVWUDGHOGLVHJQR0HQWUHLO:&6qILVVRLOVLVWHPD8&6qPRELOHH
GHILQLELOHGDOO·XWHQWH

6L ULFRUUH DOO·8&6 SHUFKp LO SLDQR GL
GLVHJQR q QHFHVVDULDPHQWH
ELGLPHQVLRQDOH H TXHVWR OLPLWH YLHQH
VXSHUDWR UHQGHQGROR OLEHUR GL
PXRYHUVLQHOORVSD]LR


)LJ
/DSRVL]LRQHGHOO·:&6 6LVWHPDGL
FRRUGLQDWHJOREDOH DOFHQWURGHJOLDVVL
4XDQGRVLPRGLILFDODSRVL]LRQHDVVXPHLO
QRPHGL8&66LVWHPDGLFRRUGLQDWH
8WHQWH



Claudio Gasparini Il sistema di coordinate 15

3.5 Convenzione della mano destra

3HU VWDELOLUH XQD UHJROD QHOO·RULHQWDPHQWR QHOOR VSD]LR VL ULFRUUH DOOD FRQYHQ]LRQH GHOOD
PDQR GHVWUD FKH FRQVHQWH GL VWDELOLUH OD SRVL]LRQH ILVVD GHL WUH DVVL IUD GL ORUR H DOOR
VWHVVRWHPSRDQFKHGHILQLUHODGLUH]LRQHSRVLWLYDGHJOLDVVLFRPSUHVRDQFKHO
DVVH=
&RQTXHVWDFRQYHQ]LRQHqSRVVLELOHGHWHUPLQDUHODGLUH]LRQHSRVLWLYDGLXQDURWD]LRQH
DWWRUQRDXQDVVHQHOORVSD]LR'FKHqSRVLWLYDQHOVHQVRDQWLRUDULR

)LJ
3HULQGLFDUHODGLUH]LRQHH
O·RULHQWDPHQWRGHJOLDVVLVL
DVVXPHODFRQYHQ]LRQH
GHOODPDQRGHVWUD1RWDUH
ODGLUH]LRQHGHOOD
URWD]LRQHDWWRUQRDLYDUL
DVVL








Capitolo 4
&RPHLQL]LDUHXQGLVHJQR
• &UHD]LRQHGLXQQXRYRGLVHJQR
• 3UHIHUHQ]HHXQLWjGLPLVXUD
• /LPLWL
• ,PSRVWD]LRQLGHOGLVHJQR
• *HVWLRQHGHL/D\HU
3ULPDGLLQL]LDUHXQQXRYRGLVHJQRqXWLOHLPSRVWDUHDOFXQLSDUDPHWULGLEDVHFKHVRQR
IXQ]LRQDOL DOOD GLPHQVLRQH GHOO·DUHD GL GLVHJQR DO WLSR GL OD\RXW GHO IRJOLR H DOOD
GLPHQVLRQHHVFDODGHOGLVHJQRVXFDUWD

4.1 Impostazione del disegno

8Q GLVHJQR PRGHOOR FRUULVSRQGH  QHO GLVHJQR WUDGL]LRQDOH DO IRJOLR GL OXFLGR JLj
VTXDGUDWRHIRUQLWRGLFDUWLJOLRGHOGLVHJQRWUDGL]LRQDOH/DIXQ]LRQHSULQFLSDOHGLXQ
GLVHJQR PRGHOOR q TXHOOD GL IRUQLUH GHL GLVHJQL JLj SUHLPSRVWDWL IXQ]LRQDOL DOOH YDULH
HVLJHQ]HGLVFDODGLVWDPSDHGLOD\RXWJUDILFR,GLVHJQLPRGHOORIDFLOLWDQRLOODYRURSHUFKp
SHUPHWWRQR GL XWLOL]]DUH GHL ILOH GL GLVHJQR GRYH VRQR JLj GHILQLWH PROWH YDULDELOL
JUDILFKH FKH DOWULPHQWL GRYUHEEHUR HVVHUH GHILQLWH LQ RJQL QXRYR GLVHJQR ,QROWUH
SHUPHWWRQRGLDYHUHXQ
RPRJHQHLWjFRVWDQWHLQWXWWLJOLHODERUDWLJUDILFLGLXQSURJHWWR
RSLLQJHQHUDOHGLXQDVWUXWWXUDGLSURJHWWD]LRQH
8QGLVHJQRPRGHOORVLGLVWLQJXHGDXQGLVHJQRQRUPDOHSHUFKpLOILOHKDXQ·HVWHQVLRQH
':7PHQWUHXQGLVHJQRQRUPDOHKDO·HVWHQVLRQH':*

4XDQGRV
LPSRVWDXQQXRYRGLVHJQRODILQHVWUD&UHDQXRYRGLVHJQRSUHVHQWDWUHPRGDOLWj
G·LQL]LR
8VDXQPRGHOORGLGLVHJQR
8VDXQ·DXWRFRPSRVL]LRQHFRQGXHPRGDOLWjQHOODVFHOWDGHLGLVHJQL
8VRGLXQGHIDXOWULGXFHQGROHYDULHVFHOWHDOODVHOH]LRQHIUDVLVWHPDPHWULFRRLQSROOLFL

4.2 Preferenze e unità di misura

(·SRVVLELOHSHUVRQDOL]]DUHPROWHLPSRVWD]LRQLGL$XWR&$'QHOODILQHVWUDGLGLDORJR
6WUXPHQWL2S]LRQL/HYDULHVFKHGHSHUPHWWRQRGLPRGLILFDUHLOSHUFRUVRGLULFHUFDGHL
ILOH GL VXSSRUWR R QHOOD VFKHGD 9LVXDOL]]D]LRQH FDPELDUH OD ULVROX]LRQH  GHO PRGR GL
WUDFFLDUHLFHUFKLRLQ3UHIHUHQ]HSHUVRQDOL]]DUHLOSXOVDQWHGHVWURGHOPRXVH

,Q )RUPDWR8QLWj VL GHILQLVFH OD SUHFLVLRQH QHOO·LQGLFD]LRQH GHOOH XQLWj GL GLVHJQR
UHODWLYHDOODOXQJKH]]DOLQHDUHHDQJRODUH















Claudio Gasparini Come iniziare un disegno 


)LJ
6FHOWDGHOWLSRGLXQLWj
GLGLVHJQRHGHOOHFLIUH
GHFLPDOLQHOO·LQGLFD]LRQH
GHOOHOXQJKH]]H














4.3 Limiti

&RQLOFRPDQGR/,0,7,V
LPSRVWDQROHGLPHQVLRQLGHOO·DUHDGLGLVHJQRGHILQHQGROR
VSD]LRGLYLVXDOL]]D]LRQHGLWXWWDO·DUHDGHOSURJHWWR9HQJRQRULFKLHVWHGXHFRRUGLQDWH
FKHFRUULVSRQGRQRDJOLHVWUHPLGHOODGLDJRQDOHGLWXWWDO·DUHDGHOSURJHWWR
/D IXQ]LRQH GHL /,0,7, q SULQFLSDOPHQWH GL GHILQLUH O·DUHD GL YLVXDOL]]D]LRQH GHOOD
JULJOLDHODGLPHQVLRQHGHOODILQHVWUDDWWLYDWDFRQ=2207XWWR
1RQ KD QHVVXQ VLJQLILFDWR GHILQLUH L OLPLWL ILVLFL GL GLVHJQR SHUFKp L YDORUL SRVVRQR
HVVHUHPRGLILFDWLGXUDQWHOHIDVLGLODYRUR


)LJ
/DJULJOLDq
YLVXDOL]]DWD
DOO·LQWHUQRGHOO·DUHD
GHILQLWDGDO
FRPDQGR/,07,











4.4 Impostazioni del disegno

$XWR&$' IRUQLVFH DOFXQL VWUXPHQWL GL GLVHJQR FKH SHUPHWWRQR GL HVVHUH YHORFL H
SUHFLVL QHO ODYRUR /D ILQHVWUD GL GLDORJR  6WUXPHQWL  ,PSRVWD]LRQL GLVHJQR SHUPHWWH GL
DWWLYDUHHGHILQLUHDOFXQHIXQ]LRQLXWLOL


18 CAD Tutor 2004

/D*5,*/,$YLVXDOL]]DXQDPDWULFHGLSXQWLQHOO·DUHDGHILQLWDGDOFRPDQGR/,0,7,H
KD IXQ]LRQH GL DLXWDUH QHOO·LQVHULUH JOL RJJHWWL QHO GLVHJQR DO SDUL  GHL IRJOL GL FDUWD
PLOOLPHWUDWD/DGLVWDQ]DqYDULDELOHHSXzDYHUHLYDORUL;H<GLYHUVL
/D IXQ]LRQH GL 61$3 GHILQLVFH XQD JULJOLD GL SXQWL LQYLVLELOL FKH SHUz OLPLWDQR LO
FXUVRUHGHQWURDLQWHUYDOOLGHILQLWLGDOO·XWHQWH/D*5,*/,$HOR61$3SRVVRQRDYHUH
YDORUL GLYHUVL H QRQ QHFHVVDULDPHQWH XJXDOL 3HU DWWLYDUH OH GXH IXQ]LRQL VL SXz
XWLOL]]DUH WDVWL IXQ]LRQH ) SHU OR 6QDS H ) SHU OD JULJOLD ,Q DOWHUQDWLYD VL SXz
VHOH]LRQDUHLOFRPDQGRQHOODEDUUDGLVWDWR




)LJ,PSRVWD]LRQLGHOGLVHJQR'HILQL]LRQHGHOOR6QDSHGHOOD*ULJOLD

1HOOD VFKHGD 6QDS DG RJJHWWR VL DWWLYDQR OH PRGDOLWj GL HVHFX]LRQH GHL ILOWUL VXL SXQWL
QRWHYROLGHJOLRJJHWWL
*OL VQDS DG RJJHWWR FRQVHQWRQR GL VSHFLILFDUH LQ PRGR UDSLGR H SUHFLVR XQ SXQWR
JHRPHWULFRVXXQRJJHWWRGXUDQWHLOGLVHJQRVFHJOLHQGRDQFKHIUDGLYHUVLVQDSDWWLYDWL

,SULQFLSDOLILOWULGLVQDSFKHVLSRVVRQRXWLOL]]DUHVRQR
y )LQHYLHQHVHOH]LRQDWDODILQHGHOO·RJJHWWR
y 0HGLRHVHJXHORVQDSVXOSXQWRPHGLRGHOO·RJJHWWR
y &HQWURVHOH]LRQDLOFHQWURGHOFHUFKLR
y 4XDGUDQWHVQDSVXLSXQWLFDUGLQDOLGLXQFHUFKLRRDUFR
y 3HUSHQGLFRODUHVHOH]LRQDODSURLH]LRQHSHUSHQGLFRODUHVXXQDOLQHD
y 7DQJHQWHWUDFFLDODOLQHDWDQJHQWHDGXQFHUFKLRRDUFRDSDUWLUHXQSXQWR
GDWR

5LFRUGLDPRFKHJOLVQDSDGRJJHWWRVLWURYDQRDQFKHQHOPHQXGHOFXUVRUHFKH
 YLHQHDWWLYDWRSUHPHQGRLOWDVWR0$,86&WDVWRGHVWURGHOPRXVH


3HUDWWLYDUHGLVDWWLYDUHJOLVQDSDGRJJHWWRVLSXzSUHPHUHLOWDVWRIXQ]LRQH
 )




Claudio Gasparini Come iniziare un disegno 


)LJ
)LQHVWUDGLVFHOWD
GHJOL6QDSDG
RJJHWWRSHU
O·LQVHULPHQWR
GHOOHHQWLWj
JUDILFKH
XWLOL]]DQGRL
SXQWLJHRPHWULFL
QRWHYROLGHJOL
RJJHWWLSUHVHQWL
QHOGLVHJQR

4.5 Gestione dei layer

, OD\HU HTXLYDOJRQR DL OXFLGL GHL GLVHJQL WUDGL]LRQDOL H VYROJRQR OD IXQ]LRQH GL
RUJDQL]]DUHHJHVWLUHOHLQIRUPD]LRQLGHLSURJHWWL

9HGLDPROHFDUDWWHULVWLFKHIRQGDPHQWDOLGHLOD\HU
y 1RPHRJQLOD\HUqGLVWLQWRGDXQQRPHFKHSXzDVVROYHUHXQDIXQ]LRQH
QHOSURJHWWRSHUSRWHUORULFRQRVFHUHLPPHGLDWDPHQWH
y &RORUHVLSXzDVVRFLDUHDWXWWHOHHQWLWjGLXQOD\HUXQFRORUHVSHFLILFR
y 7LSRGLOLQHDVLSRVVRQRDVVHJQDUHXQWLSRGLOLQHDDOOHHQWLWjGLXQOD\HU
y 6SHVVRUHGLOLQHDWXWWHOHHQWLWjFRQWHQXWHLQXQOD\HUKDQQRXQWLSRGL
OLQHDXQLFR
,OGLVHJQRDYYLHQHVXXQOD\HUFRUUHQWHFKHVHQRQqVWDWRGHILQLWRGLYHUVDPHQWHqLOOD\HU
OD\HUGLGHIDXOW GLEDVH 
,O OD\HU  q O·XQLFR FKH PDQWLHQH OR VWHVVR QRPH LQ WXWWL L GLVHJQL H FKH SUHVHQWD
FDUDWWHULVWLFKHSURSULHULVSHWWRDJOLDOWULFUHDWLGDOO·XWHQWH

/HIXQ]LRQLGHOVLVWHPDFKHVLSRVVRQRDWWLYDUHVXXQOD\HUHVLVWHQWHVRQR
y &RUUHQWHUHQGHDWWLYRLOOD\HULQPRGRFKHWXWWHOHHQWLWjVLDQRLQVHULWHVXO
OD\HUVHOH]LRQDWR
y 212))XQOD\HUSXzHVVHUHUHVRYLVLELOHRLQYLVLELOHSHUVHPSOLILFDUHH
ULGXUUHOHLQIRUPD]LRQLSUHVHQWLQHOGLVHJQR
y &RQJHODWRSUHVHQWDORVWHVVRULVXOWDWRGL212))FRQODGLIIHUHQ]DFKH
JOLRJJHWWLQRQYHQJRQRFDOFRODWLGDOVLVWHPDGXUDQWHOD
ULJHQHUD]LRQH,QXQGLVHJQRLQ'DGHVHPSLRXQRJJHWWR2))
QDVFRQGHXQDOWURRJJHWWRDQFKHVHqLQYLVLELOHLQYHFHVH
FRQJHODWRQRQKDFRQVHJXHQ]HVXOODVFHQD


20 CAD Tutor 2004

y %ORFFDWRLOOD\HUVFHOWRQRQSXzHVVHUHPRGLILFDWRGXUDQWHOHRSHUD]LRQLGL
GLVHJQRHFDQFHOOD]LRQH


)LJ6FHOWDGHJOL6QDSDGRJJHWWRVXLSXQWLQRWHYROLGHOOHHQWLWj



Capitolo 5
6WUXPHQWLGLGLVHJQR
• ,QVHULPHQWRGHJOLRJJHWWL
• 3URSULHWjGHJOLRJJHWWL
• 3XQWR
• /LQHD
• 3ROLOLQHD
• $UFR
• &HUFKLR
• (OOLVVH
• 6SOLQH
• 3ROLJRQR
• 7UDWWHJJLR

8QGLVHJQRqFRVWLWXLWRGDHOHPHQWLJUDILFLVHPSOLFLTXDOLLOSXQWRODOLQHDHGLOFHUFKLR
FKH VRQRGHILQLWL SULPLWLYH JUDILFKH ELGLPHQVLRQDOLSHUFKp FRVWLWXLVFRQROH
FRPSRQHQWL EDVH GHO GLVHJQR2JQL SULPLWLYD ULFKLHGH OD VSHFLILFD GHOOH FRRUGLQDWH
G·LQVHULPHQWR FKH SRVVRQR HVVHUH LQVHULWH LQ GLYHUVL PRGL GD WDVWLHUD GLJLWDQGR
GLUHWWDPHQWH OH FRRUGLQDWH FRQ LO PRXVH SXQWDQGR QHOO
DUHD JUDILFD RSSXUH LQVHULWH
VXOOHHQWLWjHVLVWHQWLQHOGLVHJQR

5.1 Inserimento degli oggetti

/H IXQ]LRQL GL GLVHJQR VL DWWLYDQR TXDVL VHPSUH FRQ LO PRXVH VLD VFHJOLHQGR L YDUL
PHQX D GLVFHVD VLD SXQWDQGR GLUHWWDPHQWH OH LFRQH VXOOH EDUUH GHJOL VWUXPHQWL  9D
ULFRUGDWRFKHFRQODWDVWLHUDDQFKHVHVFRPRGDqSRVVLELOHDFFHGHUHDWXWWLLFRPDQGL
HGDOOHUHODWLYHRS]LRQLQRQVHPSUHSUHVHQWLQHLPHQXHEDUUH

)LJ
,FRORULHLWLSLGL
OLQHHVHUYRQRD
GLYHUVLILFDUHOH
YDULHFRPSRQHQWL
JUDILFKHSHU
UHQGHUHSL
FRPSUHQVLELOHXQ
GLVHJQR






5.2 Proprietà degli oggetti

*OL RJJHWWL JUDILFL KDQQR DOFXQH SURSULHWj FKH VRQR FRPXQL H FRVWDQWL SHU WXWWL ,Q
JHQHUHOHSURSULHWjGHJOLRJJHWWLYHQJRQRGHILQLWHQHLOD\HUGLDSSDUWHQHQ]DGDLTXDOL
SUHQGRQR WXWWH OH FDUDWWHULVWLFKH UHODWLYH DL FRORUL WLSR GL OLQHD VSHVVRUH HG DOWUR


22 CAD Tutor 2004

0RGLILFDQGR TXLQGL OH SURSULHWj GL XQ OD\HU VL PRGLILFDQR DQFKH OH SURSULHWj GHOOH
VLQJROH HQWLWj FKH DSSDUWHQJRQR DO OD\HU  4XHVWR SHUPHWWH XQD JHVWLRQH PROWR
IDFLOLWDWDHGXQDPRGLILFDYHORFH

6HSHUzVLPRGLILFDVLQJRODUPHQWHDGXQRJJHWWRXQDGLTXHVWHSURSULHWjDGHVHPSLRLO
FRORUHTXHVWRULPDQHFRVWDQWHDQFKHVHVLFDPELDLOFRORUHGHOOD\HU4XHVWDUHJROD
YDOHSHUWXWWHOHSURSULHWjGHILQLELOLSHULOD\HUHGLVLQJROLRJJHWWL

/D\HUWXWWLJOLRJJHWWLDVVXPRQROHWXWWHSURSULHWjGHOOD\HULQFXLVRQRLQVHULWL
FRQO·XQLFDHFFH]LRQHGLTXHOOLDLTXDOLqVWDWRDVVHJQDWRVLQJRODUPHQWHXQ
&RORUHHGXQ7LSRGLOLQHDQRQLPSRUWDVHXJXDOLDOOD\HU
&RORUHDQFKHSHULOFRORUHJOLRJJHWWLSUHQGRQRTXHOORGHOOD\HUGL
DSSDUWHQHQ]DDGHVFOXVLRQHGHOO·RJJHWWRDFXLqVWDWRDVVHJQDWRGHOLEHUDWDPHQWH
XQFRORUHLQTXHVWRFDVRLOFRORUHKDVXSUHPD]LDVXOOD\HUHYLHQHPDQWHQXWR
DQFKHVHLOOD\HUKDFRORUHGLYHUVR,FRORULKDQQRODIXQ]LRQHGLUHQGHUHVXELWR
ULFRQRVFLELOLJOLRJJHWWLQHOGLVHJQRHSHUPHWWHUHXQDVFHOWDUDSLGDDQFKHLQEDVH
DOFRORUH
7LSRGLOLQHDLOWLSRGLOLQHDSHUPHWWHGLGLIIHUHQ]LDUHOHOLQHHVHFRQGR
IXQ]LRQLJUDILFKHVYROWHQDVFRVWDRWUDWWHJJLDWDSHUOHOLQHHQDVFRVWHWUDWWR
SXQWRSHULQGLFDUHJOLDVVLHGDOWULVWLOLVHJXHQGRSHUzOHQRUPH81,
6SHVVRUHGLOLQHDXQDQXRYDIXQ]LRQHGL$XWR&$'qODSRVVLELOLWjGL
DVVHJQDUHXQRVSHVVRUHGLYHUVRDOOHHQWLWjJUDILFKHSHUPHWWHQGRGLYHULILFDUH
DQFKHDPRQLWRUOHGLPHQVLRQLGHOOHOLQHH3HUYLVXDOL]]DUHJOLVSHVVRULDWWLYDUHLO
SXOVDQWHODIXQ]LRQH63/QHOODEDUUDGLVWDWR

)LJ
&RQODIXQ]LRQH3URSULHWjVLSRVVRQR
YLVXDOL]]DUHWXWWHOHSURSULHWjGLXQRJJHWWRH
PRGLILFDUQHLYDORULROHFDUDWWHULVWLFKH*OL
HIIHWWLVRQRVXELWRYLVLELOLGRSRDYHUSUHPXWR
,QYLR







1HOOHYHUVLRQLSUHFHGHQWLGL$XWR&$'VLSRWHYDFRQWUROODUHORVSHVVRUHGHOOHOLQHHVROR
 PHGLDQWHLOFRORUHDVVRFLDQGRRJQLFRORUHDGXQRVSHVVRUHGHILQLWR
(· PROWR FRQVLJOLDWR FRQWUROODUH FRORUH WLSR GL OLQHD H VSHVVRUH GHOOH HQWLWj
 PHGLDQWH L OD\HU H QRQ DVVHJQDQGR VLQJRODUPHQWH LO FRORUH DJOL RJJHWWL  &RQ L OD\HU
LQIDWWLVLSXzPRGLILFDUHOHFDUDWWHULVWLFKHGLWXWWLJOLRJJHWWLFDPELDQGROHSURSULHWjGHO
OD\HUGLDSSDUWHQHQ]DFRQXQ·XQLFDYDULD]LRQH



Claudio Gasparini Strumenti di disegno 

5.3 Punto

/DIXQ]LRQH38172LQVHULVFHODSULPLWLYDSXQWRDGXQDFRRUGLQDWDVSHFLILFDWD6LXVD
UDUDPHQWH QHO &$',Q JHQHUH YLHQH LQVHULWR QHOOD GLYLVLRQH GL XQVHJPHQWR LQSDUWL
XJXDOLGLXQVHJPHQWRFRQLFRPDQGL',9,',R0,685$
8Q SXQWR SXz DYHUH XQR VWLOH HG XQD GLPHQVLRQH FKH VRQR GHILQLELOL QHOOD ILQHVWUD
)RUPDWR6WLOHSXQWR


)LJ
,SXQWLSRVVRQR
DYHUHGLPHQVLRQHH
VWLOLGLYHUVLHLQ
JHQHUHVRQR
XWLOL]]DWLFRQL
FRPDQGL
0,685$ OLQHD
DVLQLVWUD H
',9,',





5.4 Linea

,O FRPDQGR OLQHD LQVHULVFH XQD VHULH FRQWLQXD GL VHJPHQWL ILQR DOO·LQWHUUX]LRQH GHOOD
VHTXHQ]DGHILQLWDFRQ,QYLRRFRQ&RQWURO&2JQLVHJPHQWRqXQRJJHWWRVHSDUDWR
3HULQWHUURPSHUHODVHTXHQ]DGLOLQHHVLGHYHGDUH,QYLR

3HUWUDFFLDUHXQDOLQHDGLGLPHQVLRQHHVDWWDVLXVDQROHFRRUGLQDWHFDUWHVLDQH # 
PD DQFKH XQD PRGR SL LPPHGLDWD PHQWUHVL WUDFFLD OD OLQHD VL SRVL]LRQD LO FXUVRUH
OXQJR OD GLUH]LRQH GHVLGHUDWD H VL GLJLWD GD WDVWLHUD OD GLVWDQ]D YROXWD ,O VLVWHPD
LQVHULVFHODOLQHDGLTXHOODOXQJKH]]DVHFRQGRO·DQJRORGHILQLWRGDOFXUVRUH


)LJ
,QVHULPHQWRGLXQDOLQHD
VLQJRODHXQDOLQHDGRSSLD
GLJLWDQGRODGLVWDQ]DGD
WDVWLHUD





In AutoCAD la funzione di Invio viene svolta dal tasto di Invio stesso ma anche dal tasto Spazio.
Inoltre Invio si trova anche premendo il tasto destro del mouse



24 CAD Tutor 2004

5.5 Polilinea

&RQODIXQ]LRQH3ROLOLQHDVLWUDFFLDXQDVHTXHQ]DXQLFDGLVHJPHQWLHDUFKLFUHDWLFRPH
XQ XQLFR RJJHWWR 8QD SROLOLQHD SXz DYHUH FRPH SURSULHWj OD /DUJKH]]D H OD 0H]]D
ODUJKH]]D OD /XQJKH]]D OD FRQWLQXD]LRQH LQ PRGDOLWj  $UFR H OD SRVVLELOLWj GL &KLXGHUH
O·XOWLPRVHJPHQWRVXOSULPR

)LJ
3ROLOLQHDFRQ
VHJPHQWLGLOLQHD
DUFRHFRQVSHVVRUH
GLIIHUHQWH/D
VHFRQGDqVWDWD
FKLXVDFRQ
O·RS]LRQH&KLXGL







5.6 Arco

&RQLOFRPDQGR$5&2V
LQVHULVFHXQDUFRWUDFFLDWRLQVHQVRDQWLRUDULRDSDUWLUHGD
WUHSXQWLGHILQLWLFRQLOPRXVH
2OWUHDTXHVWDPRGDOLWjGLEDVH$XWR&$'SUHVHQWDDQFKHDOWULPRGLSHUWUDFFLDUHXQ
DUFRHIUDTXHVWLLSULQFLSDOLVRQRLVHJXHQWL
SHUWUHSXQWL
y ,QL]LR&HQWUR$QJROR
y ,QL]LR)LQH$QJROR
y ,QL]LR&HQWUR)LQH
y &HQWUR,QL]LR/XQJKH]]DGHOODFRUGD


)LJ
3ULQFLSDOLPRGLGL
WUDFFLDUHXQDUFR










Claudio Gasparini Strumenti di disegno 

5.7 Cerchio

&RQLOFRPDQGR&(5&+,2qSRVVLELOHFUHDUHXQFHUFKLRGDWLLOFHQWURHGXQRGHLWUH
SXQWLGHOODFLUFRQIHUHQ]DRSSXUHVHOH]LRQDQGRDOWULRJJHWWLGLWDQJHQ]D

3HU VSHFLILFDUH L SXQWL G
LQVHULPHQWR GL XQ FHUFKLR VL SXz VFHJOLHUH XQR GHL VHJXHQWL
PRGL
y &HQWUR5DJJLR
y &HQWUR'LDPHWUR
y SXQWL
y SXQWL
y 7DQJHQ]D7DQJHQ]D5DJJLR
y 7DQJHQ]D7DQJHQ]D7DQJHQ]D

$ YROWH TXDQGR VL GHYH LQVHULUH XQ DUFR SHU FRPRGLWj VL XWLOL]]D XQ FHUFKLR FKH SRL
YLHQHWDJOLDWROHIXQ]LRQLGLGLVHJQRIRUQLWHSHULOFHUFKLRLQIDWWLVRQRSLYHORFLHGL
XWLOL]]RSLGLUHWWRULVSHWWRDTXHOOHIRUQLWHSHUO·DUFR













)LJ9DULPRGLG
LQVHULPHQWRGLXQFHUFKLRGDWLLOFHQWURLOUDJJLRLSXQWLROHJOLRJJHWWL
GLWDQJHQ]D


5.8 Ellisse

8Q·HOOLVVHqWUDFFLDWDVHVRQRQRWLLVHJXHQWLSXQWL
y /XQJKH]]DGHLGXHDVVL
y 'DWRLOFHQWURHLUDJJLGHLGXHDVVL

(· DQFKH SRVVLELOH UXRWDUH O·HOOLVVH VHFRQGR XQ DQJROR GDWR H WUDFFLDUH XQ DUFR FRQ
O·LPSRVWD]LRQHGLXQ·HOOLVVH



26 CAD Tutor 2004


)LJ
,OFRPDQGR(OOLVVH
FKLHGHGXHSXQWL
GHOO·DVVHPDJJLRUHHG
XQRVXOO·DVVHPLQRUH









5.9 Spline

/D IXQ]LRQH 63/,1( FUHD XQD FXUYD DSSURVVLPDQWH FRVWUXLWD LQ EDVH DG XQD
SROLJRQDOH  $XWR&$' XWLOL]]D XQ WLSR SDUWLFRODUH GL VSOLQH GHWWR FXUYD %VSOLQH
UD]LRQDOHQRQXQLIRUPH 185%6 
8QDFXUYD185%6SURGXFHXQDFXUYDUHJRODUHWUDLSXQWLGLFRQWUROOR/DFXUYDSXz
HVVHUHPRGLILFDWDDOWHUDQGRLSHVLGHLSXQWLGLFRQWUROORFKHUHJRODQRODFXUYD4XHVWH
FXUYH VRQR SDUWLFRODUPHQWH DGDWWH SHU PROWL DSSOLFD]LRQL GL PRGHOOD]LRQH GL IRUPH
FRPH QHOOD SURJHWWD]LRQH GL RJJHWWL GL GHVLJQ H SHU WUDFFLDUH OH OLQHH GL FRQWRUQR LQ
DSSOLFD]LRQLGLFDUWRJUDILD*,6 *HRJUDSKLF,QIRUPDWLRQ6\VWHP 

)LJ
3XQWLGLFRQWUROORGHOOD
6SOLQH0RGLILFDQGRLSXQWL
YLHQHYDULDWDDQFKHODFXUYD
LQPRGRHODVWLFR






5.10 Poligono

/DIXQ]LRQHSROLJRQRSHUPHWWHGLFUHDUHXQSROLJRQRUHJRODUHGDWRLOFHQWURGHO
FHUFKLRFKHSXzHVVHUH,QVFULWWRR&LUFRVFULWWRDOSROLJRQR/DFRVWUX]LRQHULFKLHGH
O·LQGLFD]LRQHGHOQXPHURGHLODWLFKHSXzYDULDUHGDDODWL


Claudio Gasparini Strumenti di disegno 


)LJ
,OSROLJRQRUHJRODUH
SXzHVVHUHLQVFULWWRR
FLUFRVFULWWRDGXQ
FHUFKLR







5.11
Tratteggio (PTRATT)

/D IXQ]LRQH 7UDWWHJJLR 375$77  ULHPSLH XQ·DUHD GHOLPLWDWD FRQ XQ PRGHOOR GL
WUDWWHJJLRDVVRFLDWLYR,OWLSRDVVRFLDWLYRqYLQFRODWRDOFRQWRUQRFKHORKDJHQHUDWRH
VHTXHVWRYLHQHPRGLILFDWRDQFKHLOWUDWWHJJLRVLDJJLRUQDDXWRPDWLFDPHQWH
3HU LQVHULUH LO WUDWWHJJLR VHOH]LRQDUH LO PHQX 'LVHJQD  7UDWWHJJLD R O·LFRQD QHOOD EDUUD
GHJOLVWUXPHQWLGLGLVHJQR
,OWUDWWHJJLRYLHQHLQVHULWRFRQGXHFULWHULGLVFHOWD
y VHOH]LRQDQGRXQSXQWRDOO·LQWHUQRGHOO·DUHDGDULHPSLUH
y VHOH]LRQDQGRJOLRJJHWWLLQWHUHVVDWLDOWUDWWHJJLR


)LJ
/HSURSULHWj
IRQGDPHQWDOLGLXQ
WUDWWHJJLRVRQROR
VWLOH 0RGHOOR OD
VFDODHO·DQJROR,O
WLSRGLVFHOWDSXz
HVVHUH6FHJOLSXQWLH
6HOH]LRQDRJJHWWL






/D VFHOWD IUD OD VHOH]LRQH GHL SXQWL H GHJOL RJJHWWL GLSHQGH GDOOD FDUDWWHULVWLFD GHO
GLVHJQR
1HOO·HVHPSLR ULSRUWDWR QHOOD ILJXUD VHJXHQWH OD  VHOH]LRQH 6FHJOL SXQWL GHWHUPLQD XQ
HUURUHSHUFKpO·DVVHLQWHUURPSHLOVLVWHPDQHOULFRQRVFLPHQWRGHOFRQWRUQR,QTXHVWR
FDVRO·XQLFDVFHOWDSRVVLELOHq6HOH]LRQDRJJHWWLSXQWDQGRLGXHFHUFKLFRQFHQWULFL


28 CAD Tutor 2004

,OFULWHULRGLVFHOWDYDULDDVHFRQGDGHOWLSRGLWUDWWHJJLRGHVLGHUDWRHGHOODFRPSOHVVLWj
GLGLVHJQR3HUYHULILFDUHODFRUUHWWH]]DGHOO·LQVHULPHQWRVLDWWLYDLOSXOVDQWH$QWHSULPD
FKHSHUPHWWHODPRGLILFDGHOO·DUHDHGHJOLRJJHWWLVHOH]LRQDWL
,Q HQWUDPEL L FDVL LO VLVWHPD WUDFFLD XQ FRQWRUQR GHOO·DUHD LQWHUHVVDWD FKH YLHQH
FDQFHOODWR DOOD ILQH GHOO·LQVHULPHQWR 1HOOH VFHOWD DYDQ]DWH q SRVVLELOH RWWHQHUH LO
FRQWRUQRFRPHSROLOLQHDRUHJLRQHFKHFRUULVSRQGHDGXQ
DUHDGHILQLWD

)LJ
/DVHOH]LRQHFRQ
SXQWRGHWHUPLQD
XQHUURUH/D
VFHOWDFRUUHWWDqOD
VH]LRQHDVLQLVWUD
FKHqVWDWDIDWWD
SXQWDQGRVRORLGXH
FHUFKL*OLDVVL
FRVWLWXLVFRQRXQ
OLPLWHQHOOD
GHILQL]LRQHGL
XQ·DUHD


1HOOD FDUWHOOD $YDQ]DWH q SRVVLELOH GHILQLUH OR VWLOH QHOO·LQGLYLGXD]LRQH GHOOH HYHQWXDOL
LVROHLQGLYLGXDWHDOO·LQWHUQRGHOGLVHJQR/RVWLOH1RUPDOHDOWHUQDLOULHPSLPHQWRGLDUHH
LQWHUQHIUDGLORUR

&RQ7LSRGLRJJHWWRVLVFHJOLHGLFRQVHUYDUHLFRQWRUQLFUHDWLGDOVLVWHPDQHOIRUPDWRGL
SROLOLQHDRUHJLRQH/DSROLOLQHDRUHJLRQHFUHDWDQRQPRGLILFDO
RJJHWWRRULJLQDOH

)LJ
6FHOWHDYDQ]DWHQHOOD
GHILQL]LRQHGHJOLVWLOLHGHOWLSR
GLWUDWWHJJL
,OWLSR1RUPDOHSHUPHWWHGL
DOWHUQDUHLOWUDWWHJJLRTXDQGRFL
VRQRDUHHLQWHUQHGDWUDWWHJJLDUH
LVROH 






Capitolo 6
/DYLVXDOL]]D]LRQH
• 3DQ
• =RRP
• 9LVWDDHUHD
• 8VRGLILQHVWUHDIILDQFDWH

'XUDQWHOHIDVLGLODYRURqVSHVVRQHFHVVDULRPRGLILFDUHOHYLVWHVXOGLVHJQRSHU
SRWHUQHFRQWUROODUHLSDUWLFRODULRSHUYLVXDOL]]DUHVXOORVFKHUPR]RQHGLYHUVHGHO
SURJHWWR/DYRUDQGRFRQXQVLVWHPD&$'LOOLPLWHFKHYLHQHVXELWRULOHYDWRGDXQ
GLVHJQDWRUHqODGLPHQVLRQHULGRWWDGHOORVWUXPHQWRGLYLVXDOL]]D]LRQH
UDSSUHVHQWDWRGDOPRQLWRUEHQSLULVWUHWWRGHOOHSLDPSLHGLPHQVLRQLYLVLYHHG
RSHUDWLYHGHOWUDGL]LRQDOHWHFQLJUDIR'LFRQVHJXHQ]DqQHFHVVDULRVYROJHUHVSHVVR
RSHUD]LRQLGL]RRPHGLVSRVWDPHQWR SDQ VXOO·DUHDGLODYRUR/HPRGLILFKHQRQ
KDQQRDOFXQDLQIOXHQ]DVXOOHGLPHQVLRQLUHDOLGHOGLVHJQRPDVRORVXOODVFDODGL
YLVXDOL]]D]LRQH

6.1 Pan

,O FRPDQGR 3$1 FRQVHQWH OR VSRVWDPHQWR GHOOD YLVWD VXOO·DUHD GHO GLVHJQR GD QRQ
FRQIRQGHUHFRQORVSRVWDPHQWRFRQO·RJJHWWRQHOO·DUHDGLGLVHJQR4XDQGRqDWWLYRLO
FRPDQGRLOFXUVRUHDVVXPHODIRUPDGLXQDPDQRFKHSHUPHWWHWHQHQGRSUHPXWRLO
WDVWRVLQLVWURGHOPRXVHGLWUDVODUHOLEHUDPHQWHLOGLVHJQRQHOO·DUHDGLODYRUR

)LJ
9LVWHGHOGLVHJQR
FRQVFDOHGLYHUVH
YLVXDOL]]DWHFRQLQ
GXHILQHVWUH&RPH
VLYHGHQHOGLVHJQR
ODVWHVVDSDUWHGHO
GLVHJQRLOPRWRUH
SXzHVVHUH
YLVXDOL]]DWDLQGXH
ILQHVWUHFRQ
GLIIHUHQWHVFDOD&RQ
3$1VLVSRVDWDOD
YLVWDQHOODILQHVWUD

6.2 Zoom

&RQLOFRPDQGR=220VLRSHUDXQDPRGLILFDGHOODGLPHQVLRQHGHOO·DUHDYLVXDOL]]DWD
QHOODILQHVWUDJUDILFDPRGLILFDQGRLOIDWWRUHGLLQJUDQGLPHQWRGHOODYLVWD$OSDULGHOOR
]RRPGLXQDSSDUHFFKLRIRWRJUDILFRLOFRPDQGR=220QRQPRGLILFDOHGLPHQVLRQL
DVVROXWHGHJOLRJJHWWLQHOGLVHJQRPDVRORLOIDWWRUHGLYLVXDOL]]D]LRQH
6FHJOLHQGR O·LFRQD GL =220 H WHQHQGR SUHPXWR LO SXOVDQWH VLQLVWUR GHO PRXVH LO
VLVWHPDSHUPHWWHGLDYHUHXQR]RRPGLQDPLFRLQWHPSRUHDOH




30 CAD Tutor 2004

,OGLDORJRFRQLOVLVWHPDqLOVHJXHQWH

Comando: ZOOM
Specificare un angolo della finestra, digitare un
fattore di scala (nX o nXC) o
Tutte / Centro / Dinamico / Estensioni / Precedente
/ Scala / Finestra] <tempo reale>

)UDOHVFHOWHSRVVLELOLGLJLWDWHGDWDVWLHUDYHGLDPROHSLXWLOL

7VWDSHU7XWWRHYLHQHYLVXDOL]]DWDWXWWDO·DUHDGLGLVHJQRFRUULVSRQGHQWHDL
OLPLWL
(LQGLFH(VWHQVLRQHHYLVXDOL]]DWXWWDO·DUHDGHOGLVHJQRQHOODVXDHVWHQVLRQH
PDVVLPD
33UHFHGHQWH$WWLYDOR]RRPGHOODVFDODSUHFHGHQWH
)DWWRUHGLVFDODDVVROXWR(·SRVVLELOHGLJLWDUHXQYDORUHFKHFRUULVSRQGHDG
XQDVFDODXQLFDHFRVWDQWH
[)DWWRUHGLVFDODUHODWLYR3HUGHILQLUHXQIDWWRUHGLVFDODUHODWLYRULVSHWWROD
YLVWDFRUUHQWHVLGLJLWDXQYDORUHQXPHULFRVHJXLWRGD;LQGLFHGLYDORUH
UHODWLYR

/HOHWWHUHPDLXVFROHSUHVHQWDWHGDOVLVWHPDQHOODULJD&RPDQGRLQGLFDQRODOHWWHUDFKHq
 VXIILFLHQWHGLJLWDUHSHUDWWLYDUHO·RS]LRQHUHODWLYD$QFKHLFRPDQGLKDQQRGHJOL$OLDV
FLRqOHWWHUHFKHIDQQRODVWHVVDIXQ]LRQHGHOFRPDQGRVWHVVR$GHVHPSLRGLJLWDQGRGD
WDVWLHUDODOHWWHUD=LOVLVWHPDDWWLYDLOFRPDQGR=220

6.3 Vista aerea

/DILQHVWUD9LVWDDHUHDIRUQLVFHXQRVWUXPHQWRGLHVSORUD]LRQHGLQDPLFRDOO·LQWHUQRGL
XQ·DUHD GL GLVHJQR DWWUDYHUVR OD PRGLILFD GL XQD ILQHVWUD PRELOH VLD QHOOH GLPHQVLRQL
FKH QHOOD SRVL]LRQH 0DQWHQHQGR DSHUWD OD ILQHVWUD 9LVWD DHUHD q SRVVLELOH PRGLILFDUH
UDSLGDPHQWH O·DUHD GL ]RRP R IDUH XQD SDQRUDPLFD VHQ]D LQWHUURPSHUH OH IDVL GL
GLVHJQR

1HOODILQHVWUDGLYLVWDDHUHDLSXOVDQWLGHOPRXVHKDQQROHVHJXHQWLIXQ]LRQL
y ,OWDVWRVLQLVWURFRQWUROODODGLPHQVLRQHHODSRVL]LRQHGHOODILQHVWUDPRELOH
LQWHUQD
y LOGHVWURILVVDODGLPHQVLRQHHODSRVL]LRQH



La visualizzazione 31

1HOORVSD]LRFDUWDODILQHVWUD9LVWDDHUHDYLVXDOL]]DVRORJOLRJJHWWLGHOORVSD]LRFDUWD


)LJ
&RQODILQHVWUD9LVWD
DHUHDVLKDXQDYLVLRQH
JOREDOHDVFDODGLYHUVDVX
WXWWRLOGLVHJQR







6.4 Uso di finestra affiancate

3HUIDFLOLWDUHLOODYRURGLGLVHJQRHUHYLVLRQHDYROWHqXWLOHSRWHUVXGGLYLGHUHO·DUHDGL
YLVXDOL]]D]LRQH LQ SL ILQHVWUH GL YLVWD 3HU LQVHULUH SL ILQHVWUH QHOO·DUHD GL ODYRUR
VFHJOLHUH QHO PHQX D GLVFHVD 9LVXDOL]]D  )LQHVWUH  H TXLQGL VHOH]LRQDUH LO QXPHUR GL
ILQHVWUH GHVLGHUDWR  &RQ  ILQHVWUH LO PRQLWRU YLHQH GLYLVR LQ  ILQHVWUH GL XJXDOH
GLPHQVLRQHHLQL]LDOPHQWHFRQODVWHVVDYLVWDVXOGLVHJQR
$YHUH SL ILQHVWUH QHOO·DUHD GL ODYRUR SHUPHWWH GL GLVSRUUH GL SL YLVWH LQ
FRQWHPSRUDQHDVXOGLVHJQRFRQVFDOHGLYLVXDOL]]D]LRQHGLYHUVHVLSXzDYHUHXQYLVWD
JHQHUDOHVXOSURJHWWRHDOORVWHVVRWHPSRFRQWUROODUHO·LQVHULPHQWRGLXQSDUWLFRODUHLQ
XQDSDUWHOLPLWDWD

,O YDQWDJJLR q DQFRUD PDJJLRUH QHO GLVHJQR WULGLPHQVLRQDOH SHU OD SRVVLELOLWj GL
FRQWUROODUHQHOORVSD]LRYLVWHGLIIHUHQWLSHURJQLILQHVWUDGLYLVXDOL]]D]LRQH



Capitolo 7
0RGLILFDGHOGLVHJQR
• /DVHOH]LRQHGHJOLRJJHWWL
• 2IIVHW
• 7DJOLD
• &RSLDH6SRVWD
• 6HULH
• 5XRWD
• 5DFFRUGRH&LPD
• 6SHFFKLR

, YDQWDJJL VLJQLILFDWLYL GL XQ VLVWHPD &$' ULVSHWWR DO GLVHJQR WUDGL]LRQDOH VL
ULVFRQWUDQR TXDQGR VL GHYRQR PRGLILFDUH L GLVHJQL VRSUDWWXWWR VH FRPSOHWDWL /H
IXQ]LRQL GL &RSLD 6SRVWD R 6HULH FRQVHQWRQR RSHUD]LRQL PROWR YHORFL H GL JUDQGH
SUHFLVLRQHFRQFRQVHJXHQWHULVSDUPLRGLWHPSRHGLIDWLFD

7.1 La selezione degli oggetti

3HU HVHJXLUH XQD TXDOXQTXH D]LRQH GL PRGLILFD VX SDUWL GL XQ GLVHJQR q QHFHVVDULR
VHOH]LRQDUHJOLRJJHWWL8QDYROWDVHOH]LRQDWLJOLRJJHWWLYHQJRQRHYLGHQ]LDWLFRQXQD
JUDILFDDWUDWWHJJLR6HYHQJRQRVHOH]LRQDWLSULPDGLDWWLYDUHXQFRPDQGRFRPSDLRQR
VXJOL RJJHWWL L JULS  PDUFDWRUL GHL SXQWL QRWHYROL GHOOH JHRPHWULH FKH SHUPHWWRQR GL
DSSOLFDUHDOFXQHRSHUD]LRQLSDUWLFRODULGHWWH0RGLILFKHFRQLJULS

/H YDULH PRGDOLWj GL VHOH]LRQH LQ $XWR&$'  SRVVRQR HVVHUH XWLOL]]DWH
LQGLIIHUHQWHPHQWHDQFKHGXUDQWHODVWHVVDVHOH]LRQH*OLRJJHWWLVHOH]LRQDWLGLYHQWDQR
WHPSRUDQHDPHQWH XQJUXSSR GL VHOH]LRQH VXO TXDOH VL HVHJXRQR OH PRGLILFKH ,O JUXSSR
ULPDQHDWWLYRILQRDGXQDQXRYDVHOH]LRQH


)LJ
2JJHWWLVHOH]LRQDWL
SULPDGLDWWLYDUH
XQFRPDQGRVRQR
YLVLELOLLQIDWWLL
JULSVXLSXQWLGL
FRQWUROORGHOOH
VLQJROHOLQHH,Q
RJQLOLQHD
FRPSDLRQRWUH
JULSDLGXH
HVWUHPLHGDO
FHQWUR





Claudio Gasparini Modifica del disegno 

6HOH]LRQHVLQJROD
4XDQGR VL DWWLYD XQ FRPDQGR GL HGLWD]LRQH LO FXUVRUH FDPELD DVSHWWR DVVXPHQGR OD
IRUPDGLXQTXDGUDWLQR/DVHOH]LRQHDYYLHQHSXQWDQGRVLQJRODUPHQWHRJQLHQWLWj
&RQWLQXDQGR OD VHOH]LRQH VLQJROD VL RWWLHQH XQD 6HOH]LRQH PXOWLSOD 1RQ q QHFHVVDULR
WHQHUH SUHPXWR LO WDVWR 0$,86& FRPH LQ DOWUL SURJUDPPL JUDILFL  SHU DJJLXQJHUH
RJJHWWLDOODVHOH]LRQH3UHPHQGRXQDYROWDLOWDVWR(6&VLHOLPLQDODVHOH]LRQHDWWLYD
VXJOL RJJHWWL PHQWUH VH VL SUHPH GL QXRYR OR VWHVVR WDVWR VL ULPXRYHUH OD
YLVXDOL]]D]LRQHGHLJULS
4XDQGRqDWWLYRXQFRPDQGRGLPRGLILFDVHJOLRJJHWWLVRQRWURSSRYLFLQLSHUSRWHUOL
VFHJOLHUH DJHYROPHQWH VL SXz DOWHUQDUH H VFRUUHUH OD VHOH]LRQH GHL VLQJROL RJJHWWL
WHQHQGR SUHPXWR LO WDVWR &75/ GXUDQWH OD VHOH]LRQH &RQ (6& VL LQWHUURPSH OD
PRGDOLWjDWWLYDWDHVLWRUQDDOODFLUFRVWDQ]DQRUPDOH

3HUULPXRYHUHDOFXQLJOLRJJHWWLGDXQJUXSSRGLVHOH]LRQHVLWLHQHSUHPXWRLOWDVWR0$,86H
VLULVHOH]LRQDJOLVWHVVLRJJHWWLFKHGHYRQRHVVHUHHVFOXVLGDOJUXSSR

)LJ
*OLRJJHWWL
HYLGHQ]LDWLVRQR
VWDWLVHOH]LRQDWLVLD
LQPRGRVLQJRORVLD
FRQILQHVWUD
LQWHUVHFD(·
SRVVLELOHULPXRYHUH
DOFXQLRJJHWWL
VHOH]LRQDWL
SUHPHQGRLOWDVWR
0$86&


9LVXDOL]]D]LRQHGHLJULS
,JULSVRQRGHLPDUFDWRULGLIRUPDTXDGUDWDFKHFRPSDLRQRQHLSXQWLJHRPHWULFLGL
FRQWUROORGHOOHVLQJROHHQWLWjLJULSVLDWWLYDQRVRORVHVLHVHJXHXQDVHOH]LRQHSULPDGL
DWWLYDUHXQTXDOXQTXHFRPDQGR

, JULS IRUQLVFRQR XQD VHPSOLILFD]LRQH SHU DOFXQH PRGLILFKH GL EDVH GHJOL RJJHWWL
JUDILFLGHWWH0RGLILFKHGHLJULS
3XQWDQGR VX XQ JULS q SRVVLELOH LQIDWWL  VWLUDUH VSRVWDUH UXRWDUH VFDODUH R IDUH XQD FRSLD
VSHFXODUH GHJOL RJJHWWLVHFRQGR TXHVWD HVDWWD VHTXHQ]D GL VFHOWD &RQ OD EDUUD VSD]LRVL
VFRUURQROHRSHUD]LRQLGLVSRQLELOLHFRQLOPRXVHVLHVHJXHODPRGLILFDFKHqDWWLYD
QHOODULJD&RPDQGL&RQ(6&VLLQWHUURPSHLOFRPDQGR










34 CAD Tutor 2004


)LJ
'RSRDYHU
VHOH]LRQDWRLOFHUFKLR
SXQWDQGRVXXQJULS
VLSXzHIIHWWXDUH
XQRVWLUDPHQWRGHO
VXRUDJJLR
VHPSOLFHPHQWH
VSRVWDQGRLOFXUVRUH
DOO·LQWHUQRGHOOD
ILQHVWUDJUDILFD

6HOH]LRQHGLSL
RJJHWWL
4XDQGRJOLRJJHWWLGDPRGLILFDUHVRQRQXPHURVLqXWLOHULFRUUHUHDGXQDVHOH]LRQHFRQ
ILQHVWUDLQGLFDQGRVXOGLVHJQRO·DUHDFKHFRQWLHQHJOLRJJHWWL VHOH]LRQHFRQILQHVWUD 
/DVHOH]LRQHFRQILQHVWUDDYYLHQHSXQWDQGRLOFXUVRUHLQXQRVSD]LROLEHURHVSRVWDQGRLO
PRXVHLQPRGRGD´WUDVFLQDUHµDQFKHODILQHVWUDGLVHOH]LRQHFKHVLDWWLYD
)LQHVWUDQRUPDOH
6H LO PRYLPHQWR DYYLHQH YHUVR GHVWUD VL DWWLYD XQD ILQHVWUD QRUPDOH FKH VHOH]LRQD VROR
GHJOLRJJHWWLFKHKDQQRWXWWLJOLHVWUHPLLQFOXVLQHOODILQHVWUD

)LJ
6HOH]LRQHFRQILQHVWUDQRUPDOH
VLQLVWUDGHVWUD LQDOWRVRQR
YLVLELOLLFRQWRUQLGHOODILQHVWUDH
VRWWRJOLRJJHWWLVHOH]LRQDWLLQ
WUDWWHJJLRFLRqVRORTXHOOLLQFOXVL
QHOODILQHVWUD




)LQHVWUDLQWHUVHFD
6HODGLUH]LRQHqGDGHVWUDYHUVRVLQLVWUDULVXOWDQRVHOH]LRQDWLWXWWLJOLRJJHWWLFKHVRQR
LQWHUVHFDWL GDOOD ILQHVWUD ROWUH FKLDUDPHQWH  D TXHOOL WRWDOPHQWH LQFOXVL QHOO·DUHD GL
VHOH]LRQH

)LJ
6HOH]LRQHFRQILQHVWUDLQWHUVHFD
GHVWUDVLQLVWUD LQDOWRq
ULSURGRWWDODVWHVVDILQHVWUD,O
ULVXOWDWRGLVHOH]LRQHLQEDVVR
HYLGHQ]LDFKHVRQRVHOH]LRQDWL
WXWWLJOLRJJHWWLLQWHUVHFDWLGDOOD
ILQHVWUD


Claudio Gasparini Modifica del disegno 

7.2 Offset

,OFRPDQGR2))6(7FRQVHQWHGLFUHDUHXQDFRSLDSDUDOOHODGLXQRJJHWWRHVLVWHQWH
VSHFLILFDQGRODGLVWDQ]DOLQHDUHRLQGLFDQGRODPHGLDQWHLOPRXVH/DFRSLD2))6(7
YLHQHFUHDWDDOODGLVWDQ]DVSHFLILFDWDHQHOODGLUH]LRQHLQGLFDWDFRQLOPRXVH
/D FRSLD LQWHUHVVD XQ VLQJROR HOHPHQWR DOOD YROWD 3HU DYHUH SURILOL FRPSOHVVL TXHVWL
GHYRQRHVVHUHWUDFFLDWLFRPHSROLOLQHD


)LJ
&RSLD2))6(7
ULSHWXWDGLYHUVH
YROWHFRQXQD
SROLOLQHD,OPRXVH
VWDLQGLFDQGROD
GLUH]LRQHGLFRSLD
YHUVRO·HVWHUQRGHOOD
SROLOLQHD
VHOH]LRQDWD





7.3 Taglia

,O FRPDQGR 7$*/,$  SHUPHWWH GL WDJOLDUH JOL RJJHWWL VXOO·LQWHUVH]LRQH FRQ XQ DOWUR
RJJHWWRSUHVHQWHQHOGLVHJQR/·RJJHWWRVHOH]LRQDWRSHUSULPRIXQJHGDOLPLWHGLWDJOLR
FROWHOOR SHUJOLRJJHWWLGDWDJOLDUHLQVHJXLWR


)LJ
&RPDQGR
7$*/,$SHU
HOLPLQDUHOHSDUWL
VSRUJHQWL3ULPD
YDQQRVHOH]LRQDWLL
OLPLWL  HSRL
GRSR,QYLROHSDUWL
GDWDJOLDUH 














36 CAD Tutor 2004

/DVHTXHQ]DGHOFRPDQGR7$*/,$qODVHJXHQWH

Comando: TAGLIA
Impostazioni correnti:
Selezionare limiti di taglio...
Selezionare oggetti: trovato(i) 1 Selezionare gli
oggetti LIMITE
Selezionare oggetto da tagliare o
[Proiez/Spigolo/Annulla]: Selezionare gli oggetti DA
TAGLIARE

/D GLIILFROWj PDJJLRUH FKH VL LQFRQWUD  QHOO·XVR GHO  FRPDQGR 7$*/,$ VL UHJLVWUD QHOOD
 FRUUHWWDVHTXHQ]DGLVHOH]LRQHSULPD VLGHYRQRVHOH]LRQDUHL OLPLWLGLWDJOLRFLRqJOLRJJHWWL
FKHWDJOLDQRSRL ,QYLRSHULQGLFDUHOD ILQHGHOODIDVHGLVHOH]LRQHHDOODILQHVLVHOH]LRQDQR
OHSDUWLFKHGHYRQRHVVHUHWDJOLDWHVXLOLPLWLFRQILQLLQGLFDWLLQSUHFHGHQ]D

5LVXOWDSLYHORFHVHOH]LRQDUHFRPHOLPLWLGLWDJOLRWXWWLJOLRJJHWWLLQWHUHVVDWLDOO·RSHUD]LRQH
 GL WDJOLR ,Q TXHVWR PRGR VL SXz RSHUDUH LO WDJOLR LQ XQ·XQLFD RSHUD]LRQH GL PRGLILFD 3HU
VHOH]LRQDUHJOLRJJHWWLXWLOL]]DUH)LQHVWUDLQWHUVHFD GHVWUDVLQLVWUD 

, FRPDQGL 2))6(7 H 7$*/,$ UDSSUHVHQWDQR GXH IXQ]LRQL IRQGDPHQWDOL QHO GLVHJQR
 VSHFLH GXUDQWH O·LPSRVWD]LRQH GL XQ QXRYR GLVHJQR  &RQVHQWRQR  LQIDWWL WUDFFLDUH OH OLQHH GL
FRVWUX]LRQH 2))6(7  LQ PRGR YHORFH PD DOOR VWHVVR WHPSR SUHFLVR H SRL FDQFHOODUH
7$*/,$ OHSDUWLHFFHGHQWLHVDWWDPHQWHFRPHQHOGLVHJQRWUDGL]LRQDOH

7.4 Copia e Sposta

,O FRPDQGR &23,$ FRQVHQWH GL GXSOLFDUH JOL RJJHWWL VHOH]LRQDWL OD FRSLD SXz HVVHUH
VLQJRODRPXOWLSODGHOORVWHVVRSDUWLFRODUH,OFRPDQGRULFKLHGHSULPDODVSHFLILFDGHO
SXQWRGLEDVHGLFRSLDFLRqLOSXQWRGLSUHVDGHOO·RJJHWWRTXLQGLODGHILQL]LRQHGHOVHFRQGR
SXQWRGHOORVSRVWDPHQWRFLRqGHOSXQWRGLLQVHULPHQWR

&RPH VHFRQGR SXQWRVL SRVVRQR XVDUH OH FRRUGLQDWH UHODWLYH DG HVHPSLR OH FRRUGLQDWH
GLJLWDWH  # GHWHUPLQDQR XQD FRSLD VSRVWDWD GL  XQLWj OXQJR O·DVVH ;  RSSXUH
GLJLWDUHXQYDORUHGLUHWWDPHQWHGDWDVWLHUDSRVL]LRQDQGRLOFXUVRUHOXQJRODGLUH]LRQH
YHWWRUH FKHVLGHVLGHUDFRSLDUHO·RJJHWWR

,O FRPDQGR 63267$ q VLPLOH QHOOD VHTXHQ]D GL D]LRQH DO FRPDQGR &23,$ FRQ OD
GLIIHUHQ]DFKHDOODILQHGHOODPRGLILFD´FDQFHOODµO·RJJHWWRRULJLQDOH


)LJ
2SHUD]LRQHGL
&23,$GHOIRURD
VLQLVWUDGHOGLVHJQR
VHOH]LRQHGHOIRUR
FRQXQDILQHVWUD
QRUPDOH VLQLVWUD
GHVWUD ,OSXQWR
ILQDOHGLFRSLDqDO
FHQWURGHOIRUR



Claudio Gasparini Modifica del disegno 

/DFRSLDDYYLHQHGRSRDYHULQGLFDWRLOSULPRSXQWRGHWWRGLSUHVDHLOVHFRQGRSXQWR
GHWWRGLVSRVWDPHQWR3HUDYHUHXQDJUDQGHSUHFLVLRQHVLXWLOL]]DVHPSUHLILOWULGL6QDS


7.5 Serie

,O FRPDQGR 6(5,( FUHD SL  FRSLH GL XQR R SL RJJHWWL VHFRQGR XQD PDWULFH
UHWWDQJRODUHRSRODUH1HOGLVHJQRUDSSUHVHQWDXQDIXQ]LRQHPROWRXWLOHVRSUDWWXWWRVH
VLGHYRQRULSHWHUHSLYROWHSDUWLRSDUWLFRODULFRPSOHVVL

1HOOH ILJXUH VHJXHQWL q ULSURGRWWD XQD VHTXHQ]D FKH LOOXVWUD LO SURFHGLPHQWR GL
FUHD]LRQH LQ 6HULH 6L YXROH RWWHQHUH LO SH]]R IRUDWR GHOOD ILJXUD  H FRPH RULJLQH VL
KDQQR L IRUL LQ DOWR D VLQLVWUD 6L YXROH FRSLDUH L IRUL QHOOH DOWUH SRVL]LRQL FRQ LO
FRPDQGR6(5,(



















)LJ'LVHJQRILQDOHGDRWWHQHUHFRQLOFRPDQGR6(5,(,IRULRULJLQDOLVRQRTXHOOL
LQDOWRDVLQLVWUDFKHVDUDQQRFRSLDWLVHFRQGRXQDPDWULFH[YHUVRLOEDVVRHYHUVR
GHVWUD
&RPLQFLDPRGDOIRURGLGLDPHWURPLQRUH1HOODILQHVWUDGLGLDORJRGHOFRPDQGR6HULH
VFHJOLDPR
Serie rettangolare;
n.2 Righe e n. 2 Colonne;
Distanza fra le righeSHUFKpODFRSLDqYHUVRLOEDVVR
TXLQGLGLUH]LRQHQHJDWLYDGL<;
Distanza fra le Colonne: SHUFKpYHUVRODGLUH]LRQH
SRVLWLYDGHOO·DVVH;









38 CAD Tutor 2004

)LJ²)LQHVWUDGLGLDORJRGHOFRPDQGR6HULH6RQRYLVXDOL]]DWHLOQXPHUR
GLULJKHHGLFRORQQHHOHGLVWDQ]HUHODWLYH

1HOODILQHVWUDOD'LVWDQ]DWUDOHULJKHqPLVXUDWDVXOO·DVVH<PHQWUHOD'LVWDQ]DWUDOH
FRORQQHqUHODWLYDDOO·DVVH;

)LJ
5LVXOWDWRILQDOH
GHOODFRSLDGHOIRUR
GLGLDPHWURPLQRUH
FRQLOFRPDQGR
6(5,(
6LULSHWHLO
SURFHGLPHQWRDQFKH
SHULOIRURGL
GLDPHWURPDJJLRUH



,OULVXOWDWRVDUjFRPHLQTXHVWDILJXUD3HUJOLDOWULIRULULSHWHUHODVWHVVDVHTXHQ]DFRQ
YDORULDSSURSULDWL%LVRJQDSUHVWDUHDWWHQ]LRQHDOODGLUH]LRQHGLFRSLDHGLFRQVHJXHQ]D
DLYDORULSRVLWLYLRQHJDWLYLGHOOHGLVWDQ]H

7.6 Ruota

,O FRPDQGR 5827$ SHUPHWWH GL UXRWDUH JOL RJJHWWL DWWRUQR DG XQ SXQWR EDVH ,O
VLVWHPDFKLHGHODVHOH]LRQHGHJOLRJJHWWLO·LQGLFD]LRQHGHOFHQWURGLURWD]LRQHHO·DQJROR
UHODWLYR




Claudio Gasparini Modifica del disegno 

)LJ
5RWD]LRQHGLXQD
SDUWHGLXQRJJHWWR
DWWRUQRDGXQ
SXQWREDVH&RQLO
FXUVRUHqSRVVLELOH
GHILQLUHLQPRGR
LQWHUDWWLYRO·DQJROR
GLPRGLILFD







1HOODILJXUDSUHVHQWDWDGRSRDYHUVHOH]LRQDWRJOLRJJHWWLFRQPRGDOLWj)LQHVWUDLQWHUVHFD
q VWDWR VFHOWR FRPH SXQWR EDVH FLRq SXQWR GL URWD]LRQH LO FHQWUR GHO FHUFKLR H FRPH
DQJRORGLURWD]LRQHXQYDORUHGLJLWDWRGDWDVWLHUD
(·SRVVLELOHGHILQLUHO·DQJRORSXQWDQGRGLUHWWDPHQWHFRQLOPRXVHQHOGLVHJQRPDq
VFRQVLJOLDWRTXDQGRVLYXROHRWWHQHUHXQDQJRORGLURWD]LRQHSUHFLVR

7.7 Raccordo e Cima

/DIXQ]LRQH5$&&25'2SHUPHWWHGLDUURWRQGDUHXQRVSLJRORFRQUDJJLRGHILQLWR
6H GXH OLQHH QRQ VL LQWHUVHFDQR LO FRPDQGR HVHJXH O·HVWHQVLRQH HG LO  UDFFRUGR DOOR
VWHVVRWHPSR
3URSULHWj GHO 5DFFRUGR q LO UDJJLR FKH GHYH HVVHUH GHILQLWR SULPD GHOO·LQVHULPHQWR ,O
UDJJLRFRVuGHILQLWRULPDQHDWWLYRILQRDOODYDULD]LRQHVXFFHVVLYD
6HVLYXROHFDPELDUHLOUDJJLRVLGHYHGLJLWDUH5$HGLQWURGXUUHLOQXRYRYDORUH
,OFRPDQGRGHYHSRLHVVHUHULSHWXWRSHULQVHULUHLOUDJJLRPRGLILFDWR
/D IXQ]LRQH &,0$ LQVHULVFH XQR VPXVVR OLQHDUH IUD GXH OLQHH

/HSURSULHWjGHOFRPDQGR&,0$VRQR
'LVWDQ]DGHOOHGXHOLQHHGDOORVSLJRORRSSXUH
$QJRORH'LVWDQ]DGHOODSULPDOLQHDVHOH]LRQDWDULVSHWWRORVSLJRORG·LQWHUVH]LRQH


)LJ
,QVHULPHQWRD
GHVWUDGL
5DFFRUGRGL
UDJJLRHD
VLQLVWUDGL&LPD
FRQGLVWDQ]H
GLYHUVHGLH
XQLWjGLGLVHJQR








40 CAD Tutor 2004

, FRPDQGL 5DFFRUGR H &LPD SUROXQJDQR OH OLQHH ILQR DOOD ORUR LQWHUVH]LRQH VHFRQGR
O·DQJRORRODGLVWDQ]DGHILQLWD6LSXzXWLOL]]DUHTXHVWDXWLOHIXQ]LRQHSHUSUROXQJDUHH
WULPPDUH FRQ XQ XQLFR FRPDQGR GXH OLQHH FKH VL GHYRQR LQWHUVHFDUH VXO ORUR
SUROXQJDPHQWR


7.8 Specchio

/DIXQ]LRQH63(&&+,2FUHDXQDFRSLDVSHFXODUHGLXQRRSLRJJHWWLDWWRUQRDGXQ
DVVH SUHGHILQLWR GHWWR DVVH GL ULIOHVVLRQH ,O VLVWHPD ULFKLHGH O·LQGLFD]LRQH GHL GXH SXQWL
GHOO·DVVHHSUHVHQWDDQFKHODIDFROWjGLPDQWHQHUHRFDQFHOODUHJOLRJJHWWLRULJLQDOL

)LJ
/·DVVHGL
ULIOHVVLRQHq
LQGLYLGXDWRVXL
GXHSXQWLPHGLGHL
ODWLRUL]]RQWDOL,O
WULDQJROR
YLVXDOL]]DWRVXO
FXUVRUHLQGLFD
O·DWWLYD]LRQHGHO
ILOWUR3XQWRPHGLR





1HOOD ILJXUD LO IRUR VHOH]LRQDWR D VLQLVWUD q FRSLDWR D GHVWUD FRQ OD IXQ]LRQH
63(&&+,2DWWRUQRDOO·DVVHGLVLPPHWULD,SXQWLGHOO·DVVHVRQRVWDWLVHOH]LRQDWLFRPH
SXQWRPHGLRGHLGXHODWLRUL]]RQWDOL




Capitolo 8

,WHVWL
• /RVWLOHGLWHVWR
• ,QVHULPHQWRGLXQWHVWR
• 0RGLILFDGHOWHVWR
• 0RGLILFDGHOORVWLOHGLWHVWR

,WHVWLLQXQGLVHJQRLQWHJUDQRHFRPSOHWDQROHLQIRUPD]LRQLJUDILFKHWUDPLWH
O·DJJLXQWDG
LQGLFD]LRQLTXRWHWDEHOOHVFULWWHGLVSLHJD]LRQHHGDOWULGDWL
DOIDQXPHULFL,OPRGRGLLQVHULUHLWHVWLLQ$XWR&$'QRQGLIIHULVFHPROWRULVSHWWR
DOODQRUPDOHFRPSRVL]LRQHGLXQWHVWRFRQXQSURJUDPPDGLVFULWWXUD7XWWLLWHVWL
VRQRDVVRFLDWLDGXQRVWLOHGLWHVWRFKHFRQWLHQHXQDVHULHGLLPSRVWD]LRQLGLEDVH
FKHIDFLOLWDQRO·LQVHULPHQWRGHLWHVWLHUHQGRQRXQLIRUPLLYDULGLVHJQLGLXQ
SURJHWWR4XDORUDQRQVLDVWDWRGHILQLWRXQRVWLOHVSHFLILFRXQDVWULQJDDVVXPHOH
FDUDWWHULVWLFKHGHOORVWLOH6WDQGDUGFKHqORVWLOHEDVH

8.1 Lo stile di testo

3HUGHILQLUHXQR6WLOHGLWHVWRVHOH]LRQDUH)RUPDWR6WLOHGLWHVWRQHOPHQXDGLVFHVD(·
PROWRXWLOHHFRQVLJOLDWRFUHDUHSLVWLOLGLWHVWRLQUHOD]LRQHDOOHWLSRORJLHGHOOHVFULWWH
DGHVHPSLROHVFULWWHKDQQRXQRVWLOHGLYHUVRGDOOHTXRWHHGDOOHDOWUHLQGLFD]LRQLSL
WHFQLFKH


)LJ3HUFUHDUHXQQXRYRVWLOHGLWHVWRVHOH]LRQDUH´1XRYRµHTXLQGLGLJLWDUHLO
QRPHGDDVVHJQDUH


42 CAD Tutor 2004

/HSURSULHWjGHOORVWLOHGLWHVWRVRQR
y )RQWVRQRLIRQWGLVSRQLELOLQHOVLVWHPDHFRUULVSRQGRQRDTXHOOLXWLOL]]DWL
GDOSURJUDPPDGLVFULWWXUDGL:LQGRZV
y 6WLOHGHO)RQWVSHFLILFDLOWLSRGLIRUPDWWD]LRQHGHLFDUDWWHULTXDOLFRUVLYR
y $OWH]]DqO·DOWH]]DGHLFDUDWWHULPLVXUDWDLQXQLWjGLGLVHJQR
y (IIHWWLVRQROHFDUDWWHULVWLFKHGDDVVHJQDUHDOIRQWVHOH]LRQDWRTXDOL
FDSRYROWRLQYHUVRFRQXQDQJRORGLLQFOLQD]LRQHHIDWWRUHGL
ODUJKH]]DGHLFDUDWWHUL NHUQHO 

1HOO·DUHD$QWHSULPDqYLVXDOL]]DWRLOULVXOWDWRGHOODVFHOWD
/RVWLOHFRVuFUHDWRRPRGLILFDWRGLYLHQHORVWLOHFRUUHQWHHVDUjORVWLOHGLDSSDUWHQHQ]D
GHLWHVWLLQVHULWLLQVHJXLWR3HUFDPELDUHORVWLOHGLWHVWRGLDSSDUWHQHQ]DGLXQDVWULQJD
GLWHVWRVHOH]LRQDUH3URSULHWjFROPHQXDFXUVRUH

8.2 Inserimento di un testo

,Q $XWR&$'  L WHVWL VL SRVVRQR LQVHULUH LQ PRGL GLYHUVL VFHJOLHQGR OH IXQ]LRQL GDL
PHQXRGLJLWDQGRGDWDVWLHUD
7(672
(·LOPRGREDVHSHULQVHULUHXQWHVWRHTXHOORDQFKHSLVHPSOLFH3HUDWWLYDUORVL
GHYHGLJLWDUHLOFRPDQGRGDWDVWLHUD
/HULFKLHVWHGHOVLVWHPDVRQROHVHJXHQWL
Specificare punto iniziale del testo o
[Giustificato/Stile]: GHILQLUHLOSXQWRGLLQVHULPHQWR
Specificare angolo di rotazione del testo <0>: LQYLR
SHUFRQIHUPDUH
Digitare testoGLJLWDUHLOWHVWRGDLQVHULUH

'RSR DYHU VSHFLILFDWR LO SXQWR G·LQVHULPHQWR GHO WHVWR FRQ LO PRXVH H O·DQJROR GL
URWD]LRQHVXOO·DUHDGLGLVHJQRFRPSDUHLOFXUVRUHFRQLOWHVWRPHQWUHYLHQHLQVHULWRQHO
IRUPDWRHQHOORVWLOHFRUUHQWH


)LJ
0RGDOLWj
G·LQVHULPHQWR
VHPSOLILFDWRGHO
WHVWRFRQLOFRPDQGR
7(672,OWHVWR
YLHQHYLVXDOL]]DWR
GLUHWWDPHQWHVXO
GLVHJQR









Claudio Gasparini I testi 43

7(672',1
6HOH]LRQDUH GDO PHQX D GLVFHVD 'LVHJQD  7HVWR 5LJD VLQJROD GL WHVWR SHU DWWLYDUH OD
IXQ]LRQH7(672',1 7HVWR'LQDPLFR 

&RQ7(672',1qSRVVLELOHGLJLWDUHSLULJKHGLWHVWRHPRGLILFDUOHFRQ%DFNVSDFH
3HU FRPSOHWDUH XQD ULJD VL SUHPH  ,QYLR PHQWUH SHU LQWHUURPSHUH OD SURFHGXUD  GL
LQVHULPHQWRSUHPHUHGXHYROWH,QYLR&LDVFXQDULJDGLWHVWRqXQRJJHWWRVHSDUDWRFKH
SXzHVVHUHPRGLILFDWRRVSRVWDWR

7(67207HVWR0XOWLOLQHD
3HUDWWLYDUHODPRGDOLWj7(6720VHOH]LRQDUHO·LFRQDQHOOD%DUUDGHLPHQX'LVHJQDR
VHOH]LRQDUHGDOPHQXDGLVFHVD'LVHJQD7HVWR7HVWRPXOWLOLQHD«

4XHVWRqLOPRGRSLFRPSOHWRSHULQVHULUHLWHVWLLQ$XWR&$',SDUDJUDILFUHDWLFRQ
7(6720 VRQR LQVHULWL LQ XQD ILQHVWUD GL FRQWRUQR FKH VWDELOLVFH OD ODUJKH]]D H
O·RULHQWD]LRQHGHOWHVWRROWUHDGDOWUHSURSULHWjGHOWHVWRGHILQLELOL2JQLSDUDJUDIRqXQ
RJJHWWRVLQJRORLQGLSHQGHQWHPHQWHGDOQXPHURGLULJKHFKHFRQWLHQH


)LJ
)LQHVWUDGL
GLDORJRDWWLYDWD
GDOODIXQ]LRQH
7(6720


8.3 Modifica del testo

3HUPRGLILFDUHXQWHVWRYDOHODUHJRODGLPRGLILFDJHQHUDOHLQ$XWR&$'VHOH]LRQDUH
O·LFRQD 3URSULHWj SHU YLVXDOL]]DUH OH SURSULHWj GHJOL RJJHWWL H DYHUH OD IDFROWj GL
PRGLILFDUOL/HSRVVLELOLWjGLPRGLILFDYDULDQRDVHFRQGDGHOWLSRGLWHVWRVHOH]LRQDWR

7(672',1
&RQ XQ WHVWR LQVHULWR FRQ 7(672',1 VL SXz PRGLILFDUH GLUHWWDPHQWH LO WHVWR
VFHJOLHQGR0RGLILFDWHVWRQHOPHQXDFXUVRUH WDVWRGHVWURGHOPRXVH 
/DILQHVWUDGLGLDORJRSUHVHQWDODVWULQJDGLWHVWRGDPRGLILFDUH

)LJ
)LQHVWUDGL
GLDORJR
0RGLILFDWHVWR
VHLOWHVWRq
7(672
QRUPDOH


7(6720
6H LO WHVWR LQVHULWR q LO WLSR  7(6720  LO PHQX D FXUVRUH SUHVHQWD XQ·RS]LRQH
SDUWLFRODUH0RGLILFDWHVWR0DOOHYRFLGHOPHQX ILJXUD 
/D ILQHVWUD GL GLDORJR FKH VL DSUH FRQ TXHVWD VFHOWD q HVDWWDPHQWH OH VWHVVD ILQHVWUD
GHOO·LQVHULPHQWR7(6720HTXLQGLFRQWXWWHOHSRWHQ]LDOLWjULVHUYDWHDOO·LQVHULPHQWRGL
XQQXRYRWHVWR


44 CAD Tutor 2004


)LJ
1XRYDYRFHQHO
PHQXDFXUVRUHFRQ
DJJLXQWD
GHOO·RS]LRQH
0RGLILFDWHVWR0
ULVHUYDWDDO
7(6720








8.4 Modifica dello stile di testo

0RGLILFDQGR XQR VWLOH GL WHVWR WXWWL L WHVWL FKH DSSDUWHQJRQR DO TXHOOR VWLOH YHQJRQR
PRGLILFDWL
6H OD PRGLILFD QRQ KD XQ HIIHWWR LPPHGLDWR VXOOH VFULWWH  DOORUD VL GHYH VHOH]LRQDUH
QXRYDPHQWH OR VWHVVR VWLOH LQ PRGR GD FRVWULQJHUH LO VLVWHPD D ULFDULFDUH L YDORUL
PRGLILFDWL


)LJ
0HQXDFXUVRUH
FRQO·RS]LRQH
0RGLILFDWHVWR0
ULVHUYDWDDO
7(6720











Capitolo 9

/HTXRWH
&RPHLQVHULUHOHTXRWH
*OLHOHPHQWLGHOOHTXRWH
/RVWLOHGLTXRWD
4XRWHDVVRFLDWLYH
0RGLILFDGHOOHTXRWH

/HTXRWHVRQRLQIRUPD]LRQLIRQGDPHQWDOLLQXQGLVHJQRSHUFKpYLVXDOL]]DQROHGLPHQVLRQLOHGLVWDQ]H
HJOLDQJROLVXOGLVHJQR,Q$XWR&$'OHTXRWHVRQRGLWUHWLSLIRQGDPHQWDOLOLQHDULUDGLDOLHG
DQJRODUL4XDQGRVRQRLQVHULWHOHTXRWHSRVVRQRDYHUDVSHWWLGLYHUVLOLQHDULRUL]]RQWDOLHYHUWLFDOL
DOOLQHDWHUXRWDWHFRQOLQHDEDVHHFRQOLQHDFRQWLQXD

)LJ,SULQFLSDOLWLSLGLTXRWHGLVSRQLELOLLQ$XWR&$'

9.1 Come inserire le quote

4827(
 %DUUDGHJOLVWUXPHQWL4XRWH
0HQX'LVHJQD4XRWH

/·LQVHULPHQWRGHOOHTXRWHSXzDYYHQLUHVHOH]LRQDQGRJOLHVWUHPLGHOOHSDUWLGDTXRWDUH
RSSXUH VHOH]LRQDQGR GLUHWWDPHQWH JOLRJJHWWLGD TXRWDUH 'XUDQWH O·LQVHULPHQWR GHOOH
TXRWHqQHFHVVDULRDWWLYDUHOHPRGDOLWjGLVHOH]LRQHPHGLDQWHVQDSSHUDYHUHODPDJJLRU
SUHFLVLRQHQHOO·LQGLFD]LRQHGHOOHGLVWDQ]HLQVHULWHLQDXWRPDWLFRGDOVLVWHPD
,QFDVRGLVHOH]LRQHGHOO·RJJHWWRLOVLVWHPDLQVHULVFHXQDTXRWDVXJOLHVWUHPLLQGLYLGXDWL
VXOO·RJJHWWR


 CAD Tutor 2004


)LJ
6RQRYLVXDOL]]DWLL
GXHPRGLSHU
LQVHULUHOHTXRWH
OLQHDULLQEDVVR
LQGLFDQGRLSXQWL
HVWUHPL ),1( 
GHOODOLQHDPHQWUH
LQDOWRSXQWDQGR
VXOODOLQHDHTXLQGL
VHOH]LRQDQGR
O·RJJHWWR OLQHD GD
TXRWDUH


,OYDORUHGLTXRWDqPLVXUDWDLQPRGRDXWRPDWLFRGDOVLVWHPDPHQWUHVLGHYHLQGLFDUH
FRQLOPRXVHODSRVL]LRQHG·LQVHULPHQWRGHOODOLQHDGLTXRWD
,OWHVWRGHOODTXRWDSXzHVVHUHPRGLILFDWRHVSRVWDWRGRSRO·LQVHULPHQWR

9.2 Gli elementi delle quote

*OLDVSHWWLGHOOHTXRWHFRPHDGHVHPSLRODGLPHQVLRQHHODIRUPDVRQRFRQWUROODWLGD
YDULDELOL GL TXRWDWXUD FKH VRQR PRGLILFDELOL QHOOD ILQHVWUD GHOOR VWLOH GL TXRWDWXUD R
GLUHWWDPHQWHGDWDVWLHUDGLJLWDQGRODYDULDELOHGDPRGLILFDUH
,SULQFLSDOLDVSHWWLGLXQDTXRWDOLQHDUHVRQRUDIILJXUDWLQHOODILJXUDWHVWROLQHDGLTXRWD
IUHFFLD HVWHQVLRQH H OLQHD GL TXRWD  7XWWL L FRPSRQHQWL IDQQR ULIHULPHQWR DG XQR VWLOHGL
TXRWDFKHQHFRQWUROODOHGLPHQVLRQL


)LJ
&RPSRQHQWLGL
XQDTXRWDOLQHDUH
7XWWHOHYDULDELOL
GHLFRPSRQHQWL
VRQRPRGLILFDELOL
QHOODILQHVWUD
´6WLOHGLTXRWDµ


Claudio Gasparini I testi 47

9.3 Lo stile di quota

*OLVWLOLGLTXRWDFRQWHQJRQROHSURSULHWjGHOOHTXRWHLQPRGRGDFRQWUROODUQHODIRUPD
H OH GLPHQVLRQL *OL VWLOL GL TXRWD KDQQR XQD IXQ]LRQH VLPLOH DJOL VWLOL GL WHVWR VHUYRQR
LQIDWWL SHU GHILQLUH GHJOL VWDQGDUG GL GLVHJQR FRPXQL D WXWWR XQR VWXGLR GL
SURJHWWD]LRQH R VWUXWWXUD SURGXWWLYD HG DOOR VWHVVR WHPSR DQFKH D IDFLOLWDUH LO ODYRUR
QHOO·LPSRVWD]LRQHGLQXRYLSURJHWWL

8QRVWLOHGLTXRWDFRQVHQWHGLGHILQLUHIUDJOLDOWULLVHJXHQWLDVSHWWL
y ,OIRUPDWRHODSRVL]LRQHGLOLQHHGLTXRWDOLQHHGLHVWHQVLRQHSXQWHGL
IUHFFLDHFHQWUL
y /
DVSHWWRODSRVL]LRQHHGLOFRPSRUWDPHQWRGHOWHVWRGLTXRWD
y /HUHJROHGLSRVL]LRQDPHQWRGHOWHVWRHGHOOHOLQHHGLTXRWD
y /DVFDODJHQHUDOHGHOODTXRWD
y ,OIRUPDWRHODSUHFLVLRQHGHOOHXQLWjSULPDULHHGHOOHTXRWHDQJRODUL

*OLVWLOLGLTXRWDSRVVRQRFRQWHQHUHDQFKHVWLOLVHFRQGDUL*OLVWLOLVHFRQGDULFRQVHQWRQRGL
FUHDUHYDULD]LRQLGHOORVWLOHRULJLQDOHHGLDSSOLFDUHOHYDULD]LRQLDWLSLVSHFLILFLGLTXRWH
OLQHDUHDQJRODUHRUGLQDWDUDGLDOHHGLDPHWUR 

*OLVWLOLVHFRQGDULSUHVHQWDQRORVWHVVRQRPHGHOORVWLOHRULJLQDOHVHJXLWRGDLGXHSXQWL
 HGDOWLSRGLTXRWD


)LJ)LQHVWUDGLJHVWLRQHGHJOLVWLOLGLTXRWD,QXQGLVHJQRSRVVRQRHVVHUHXVDWLGLYHUVL
VWLOLSHUDYHUHDGLVSRVL]LRQHDGHVHPSLRVFDOHGLVWDPSDGLYHUVHSHUIRUPDWLGLIRJOLGL
GLVHJQRGLIIHUHQWL


 CAD Tutor 2004

9.4 Quote associative

/HTXRWHDVVRFLDWLYHVRQRFROOHJDWHGLUHWWDPHQWHDJOLRJJHWWLTXRWDWLHQHVHJXRQROH
PRGLILFKHHYDULD]LRQLGLPHQVLRQDOL

,QXQDTXRWDDVVRFLDWLYDWXWWHOHFRPSRQHQWLFRPHOHOLQHHOHSXQWHGHOODIUHFFLDHLO
WHVWRVRQRWUDFFLDWHHWUDWWDWHFRPHRJJHWWRVLQJROR
'D TXHVWR GHULYD OD SRVVLELOLWj GL DJJLRUQDUH LQ DXWRPDWLFR XQD TXRWD
PRGLILFDQGROHGLPHQVLRQLGHOO
RJJHWWRDOTXDOHqDVVRFLDWD

/D YDULDELOH ',0$62 FRQWUROOD OD TXRWDWXUD DVVRFLDWLYD HG q DWWLYDWD SHU GHIDXOW 6H
',0$62qGLVDWWLYDWDODOLQHDGLTXRWDRSSXUHODGLUHWWULFHOHOLQHHGLHVWHQVLRQHOH
SXQWHGHOODIUHFFLDHLOWHVWRGLTXRWDYHQJRQRWUDFFLDWLFRPHRJJHWWLGLVWLQWL/RVWHVVR
ULVXOWDWRVLRWWLHQHTXDQGRVLHVSORGRQROHTXRWHFLRqVLHOLPLQDQROHUHOD]LRQLLQWHUQHIUD
OHFRPSRQHQWLFKHULVXOWDQRFRVuVFRPSRVWHHVLQJROH


)LJ
0RGLILFDQGROH
GLPHQVLRQLGLXQ
RJJHWWRFRQOHTXRWH
VLPRGLILFDQRDQFKH
OHTXRWHFKHVRQR
OHJDWHDLSXQWL
TXRWDWL








9.5 Modifica delle quote

8QDTXRWDSXzHVVHUHPRGLILFDWDLQGXHPRGLVLQJRODUPHQWHRDWWUDYHUVRODPRGLILFD
GHOORVWLOHDOTXDOHDSSDUWLHQH
3HUPRGLILFDUHXQDVLQJRODTXRWDDGHVHPSLRSHUYDULDUHODSRVL]LRQHGHOWHVWRGRSR
DYHU VHOH]LRQDWR OD TXRWD VL XWLOL]]D OD ILQHVWUD GL GLDORJR 3URSULHWj ILJXUD   H VL
RSHUDQR OH VLQJROH PRGLILFKH IUD OH RS]LRQL SRVVLELOL /D PRGLILFD VLQJROD QRQ KD
HIIHWWRVXOOHDOWUHTXRWHPHQWUHVHVLPRGLILFDORVWLOHGLTXRWDVLPRGLILFDQRWXWWHOH
TXRWHFKHIDQQRULIHULPHQWRDOORVWLOHPRGLILFDWR

0RGLILFDFRQLJULS
,Q$XWR&$'qSRVVLELOHPRGLILFDUHOHTXRWHDQFKHPHGLDQWHLJULSFKHFRPSDLRQR
GRSRDYHUVHOH]LRQDWRODTXRWDRLOJUXSSRGLTXRWH/HPRGLILFKHSRVVLELOLVRQRTXHOOH
SUHYLVWHQHLJULSHULJXDUGDQRODSRVL]LRQHGHOOHOLQHHGLTXRWD/DPRGLILFDPHGLDQWH
JULSqLOPRGRSLUDSLGRHVHPSOLFHSHUYDULDUHODSRVL]LRQHHOHYDULHOXQJKH]]HGHOOH
OLQHHGLTXRWDWXUD



Claudio Gasparini I testi 49


)LJ
0RGLILFDGHOOHFDUDWWHULVWLFKHGLXQDVLQJROD
TXRWDFRQODIXQ]LRQH3URSULHWj2OWUHDJOL
DVSHWWLIRUPDOLVLSRVVRQRPRGLILFDUHDQFKHL
WHVWLHGLYDORULGLTXRWDWXUD










0RGLILFDGHOOR6WLOHGLTXRWD
3HU PRGLILFDUH LQYHFH JOL DVSHWWL GHOOH TXRWH VL GHYH PRGLILFDUH OR 6WLOH GL TXRWD FRQ LO
PHQX )RUPDWR  6WLOH GL TXRWD 0RGLILFDQGR XQR 6WLOH GL TXRWD WXWWH OH TXRWH FKH
DSSDUWHQJRQRDTXHOORVWLOHYHQJRQRPRGLILFDWHHGDJJLRUQDWH

&DPELDPHQWRGHOOR6WLOHGLTXRWD
(· SRVVLELOH LQROWUH VSRVWDUH XQD TXRWD GD XQR VWLOH DOO·DOWUR PRGLILFDQGRQH GL
FRQVHJXHQ]D WXWWH OH FDUDWWHULVWLFKH IRUPDOL FKH VDUDQQR SURSULH GHO QXRYR 6WLOH 3HU
FDPELDUHOR6WLOHVLVHOH]LRQDODTXRWDHVLVFHJOLH6WLOHTXRWDQHOPHQXDFXUVRUH WDVWR
GHVWURGHOPRXVH 

&RGLFLGLFRQWUROORSHULVLPEROLSULQFLSDOL
1HL YDORUL GHOOH TXRWH VL LQVHULVFRQR VSHVVR GHL VLPEROL FKH VSHFLILFDQR LO WLSR GL
YDORUH VLPEROL TXDOL  GLDPHWUR H JUDGL 4XHVWL VLPEROL QRQ VRQR GLVSRQLELOL IUD L
FDUDWWHULGHOODWDVWLHUDHSHUWDQWRGHYRQRHVVHULQVHULWLXWLOL]]DQGRGHLFDUDWWHULVSHFLDOL
GLUHWWDPHQWHQHOWHVWRGLTXRWDSULPDRGRSRLOYDORUHLQVHULWRGDOVLVWHPD
,FDUDWWHULGDLQVHULUHVRQRGXHVLPEROLGLSHUFHQWXDOH  VHJXLWRGDXQDOHWWHUD
,VLPEROLSLXVDWLQHOGLVHJQRVRQRLVHJXHQWL

 FRGLFH HVHPSLR QHOODTXRWD
'LDPHWUR F F Œ
*UDGL G G 
7ROOHUDQ]D S S 
3HUFHQWXDOH   
6RWWROLQHDWR X X 

(·SRVVLELOHPRGLILFDUHLOWHVWRGHOODTXRWDGLJLWDQGRXQQXRYRYDORUH
6HVLGHVLGHUDDJJLXQJHUHVRORLOVLPERORSULPDGHOYDORUHPLVXUDWRGDOVLVWHPD
VLGHYHXWLOL]]DUHODVLQWDVVLVHJXHQWH&!,QTXHVWRHVHPSLRYLHQHLQVHULWRLO
VLPEROR GL GLDPHWUR Π SULPD GHO YDORUH ULSRUWDWR GDO VLVWHPD VHJQDODWR FRQ OH GXH
IUHFFH ! 
&RQ L IRQW VK[ HG L UHODWLYL IRQW 7UXH7\SH HTXLYDOHQWL IRUQLWL FRQ $XWR&$' q
SRVVLELOHXWLOL]]DUHLOVLPEROR(XUR6HODWDVWLHUDQRQFRQWLHQHLOVLPEROR(XURWHQHUH
SUHPXWR&75/$/7HGLJLWDUHVXOODWDVWLHUDQXPHULFD





Capitolo 10

,EORFFKL
&UHD]LRQHGHLEORFFKL
0HPRUL]]D]LRQHGHLEORFFKL
,QVHULPHQWRGHLEORFFKL
$WWULEXWLGHLEORFFKL
(VWUD]LRQHGHJOLDWWULEXWL
'HVLJQ&HQWHU

,OEORFFRKDODVWHVVDIXQ]LRQHGHLVLPEROLWUDVIHULELOLQHOGLVHJQRWUDGL]LRQDOHHVHUYHSHUIDFLOLWDUHLO
ODYRURQHOOHSDUWLJUDILFKHULSHWXWH1HOGLVHJQRWHFQLFRLQIDWWLVRQRPROWRXVDWLLVLPEROLJUDILFLVSHVVR
IRUQLWLLQPRGRGLJLWDOHGDJOLVWHVVLSURGXWWRUL&RVWLWXLVFHTXLQGLXQQRWHYROHULVSDUPLRGLIDWLFDSRWHU
GLVSRUUHGLXQDOLEUHULDGLVLPEROLFKHVLSRVVRQRDJHYROPHQWHLQVHULUHQHOGLVHJQRPDQWHQHQGR
DQFKHXQ
XQLIRUPLWjJUDILFD$LEORFFKLVLSRVVRQRDVVRFLDUHHGHVWUDUUHLQIRUPD]LRQLLQIRUPDWRVLD
QXPHULFRVLDWHVWXDOH

10.1 Creazione dei blocchi

%/2&&2
%DUUDGHJOLVWUXPHQWL%ORFFR
0HQX'LVHJQD%ORFFR&UHD

8QEORFFRqXQLQVLHPHGLHQWLWjJUDILFKHFKHVRQRFUHDWHHPHPRUL]]DWHSHUHVVHUHLQ
VHJXLWRXWLOL]]DWHFRPHXQLFRHOHPHQWRJUDILFR(TXLYDOHDLWUDVIHUHOOLFKHVLXVDQRQHO
GLVHJQRWUDGL]LRQDOH
,YDQWDJJLQHOO·XVRGHLEORFFKLVLSRVVRQRFRVuULDVVXPHUH
y IDFLOHJHVWLRQHGLRJJHWWLFRPSOHVVLHRPRJHQHL8QDYLWHqXQLQVLHPH
RPRJHQHRGLOLQHHHDUFKLFKHSXzHVVHUHLQVHULWRFRPHXQXQLFR
RJJHWWR
y PHPRUL]]D]LRQHIDFLOLWDWDGHLEORFFKLLQXQDOLEUHULDGLVLPEROLFKHSXz
HVVHUHVDOYDWDFRPHXQLFRILOH
y ULGRWWDRFFXSD]LRQHGLPHPRULDTXDQGRVLGHYRQRULSHWHUHHOHPHQWLXJXDOL
GLYHUVHYROWHQHOGLVHJQR$GHVHPSLRVHVLGHYHLQVHULUHXQDYLWD
PROWHYROWHLQXQGLVHJQRFUHDQGRXQEORFFRGHOODYLWHQHOILOHGL
GLVHJQRYLHQHPHPRUL]]DWDODYLWHVRORXQDYROWDHULSHWXWDPROWH
YROWHVRORTXDQGRYLHQHDSHUWRLOGLVHJQR
y SRVVLELOLWjGLDJJLRUQDUHLEORFFKLJLjLQVHULWLPRGLILFDQGRLOEORFFRLQVHULWR
QHOGLVHJQRRLQVHUHQGRLOEORFFRFRQULIHULPHQWLHVWHUQL[ULI
y 
 (·LPSRUWDQWHFRPSUHQGHUHFRPHYHQJRQRPHPRUL]]DWLHJHVWLWLLEORFFKLLQ
XQGLVHJQR2JQLILOHGLGLVHJQRULVHUYDXQ
DUHDGLPHPRULDGHILQLWD´WDEHOOD
 GHLEORFFKLµ/DWDEHOODGHLEORFFKLFRQWLHQHWXWWHOHGHILQL]LRQLGHLEORFFKL
FRPSUHVHOHLQIRUPD]LRQLDOIDQXPHULFKHDVVRFLDWHDLVLQJROLEORFFKL4XDQGR
XQEORFFRYLHQHLQVHULWRQHOGLVHJQROHLQIRUPD]LRQLYHQJRQRULFDYDWHGD
TXHVWDWDEHOODDOODTXDOHWXWWLLEORFFKLIDQQRULIHULPHQWR




Claudio Gasparini I blocchi 51



8QEORFFRSXzHVVHUHFUHDWRLQGLYHUVLPRGL
y $VVRFLDQGRRJJHWWLGLYHUVLVXOGLVHJQRFRUUHQWHSHUFUHDUHODGHILQL]LRQHGL
XQEORFFR
y &UHDUHXQILOHGLGLVHJQRHGLQVHULUORLQVHJXLWRFRPHEORFFRLQXQDOWUR
GLVHJQR
y &UHDUHXQGLVHJQRFRVWLWXLWRSHUzVRORGLEORFFKLGDXWLOL]]DUHFRPHOLEUHULD
GLEORFFKL VLPEROL 
/DFUHD]LRQHGHLEORFFKLDYYLHQHLQPRGRIDFLOHHYHORFH3HUGHILQLUHXQEORFFRYLHQH
ULFKLHVWRLOQRPHGDDWWULEXLUHXQRRSLRJJHWWLLOSXQWREDVHFKHHTXLYDOHDOSXQWRGL
SUHVD GL TXDQGR YLHQH LQVHULWR QHO GLVHJQR HG LQILQH L GDWL HYHQWXDOL GHJOL DWWULEXWL
DVVRFLDWL  8Q EORFFR q D WXWWL JOL HIIHWWL XQ QRUPDOH ILOH GL GLVHJQR  ,QIDWWL VL SXz
LQVHULUHXQGLVHJQRQRUPDOHLQXQDOWURFRQODIXQ]LRQH%ORFFRLQTXHVWRFDVRLOSXQWR
G·LQVHULPHQWRqO·RULJLQHGHOGLVHJQRGDLQVHULUH

)LJ
)LQHVWUDGLGLDORJRSHUODFUHD]LRQHGLXQ
EORFFR'RSRDYHULQVHULWRLOQRPHGHO
EORFFRVLGHYRQRLQGLFDUHJOLRJJHWWLGD
LQVHULUHQHOEORFFRHLOSXQWREDVHFLRqSXQWR
GLSUHVDGHOFXUVRUHVXOEORFFRQHOGLVHJQR
)UDOHRS]LRQLGLVSRQLELOL0DQWLHQL
FRQVHUYDJOLRJJHWWLPHQWUH&RQYHUWLJOL
RJJHWWLLQFOXGHQHOEORFFRTXHOOLVHOH]LRQDWL






1HOO·DUHD ´8QLWj LQVHUµ VL SXz VFHJOLHUH
O·XQLWjGLPLVXUDGDDGRWWDUHSHUO·LQVHULPHQWRGHOEORFFRQHO'HVLJQ&HQWHU8QEORFFR
SXzHVVHUHIRUPDWRGDRJJHWWLGLVHJQDWLVXSLOD\HUFRQGLYHUVLFRORULHWLSLGLOLQHD
$QFKHVHXQEORFFRYLHQHLQVHULWRVHPSUHVXOOD\HUFRUUHQWHLOULIHULPHQWRFRQVHUYDOH
LQIRUPD]LRQL VXOOH SURSULHWj GHO OD\HU GHO FRORUH H GHO WLSR GL OLQHD G·RULJLQH GHOOH
VLQJROHHQWLWj

 3HUHYLWDUHG·LQVHULUHDVVLHPHDOEORFFRDQFKHOHSURSULHWjGHJOLRJJHWWL OD\HU
FRORUHWLSRGLOLQHD SULPDGLFUHDUHLOEORFFRVLGHYRQRVSRVWDUHVXOOD\HU
 WXWWLJOLRJJHWWL,OOD\HULQIDWWLVLSXzFRQVLGHUDUH´WUDVSDUHQWHµHQRQ
WUDVPHWWHOHSURSULHWjDLGLVHJQL,QIDWWLXQDYROWDLQVHULWLLEORFFKLFUHDWLVXO
OD\HUHUHGLWDQROHSURSULHWjGHOOD\HULQFXLVRQRLQVHULWLDVVXPHQGRDG
HVHPSLRLOFRORUHHLOWLSRGLOLQHDGHOOD\HUG·LQVHULPHQWR


 CAD Tutor 2004

10.2 Memorizzazione dei blocchi nel disco rigido

0%/2&&2
0HQX)LOH(VSRUWD
&RPDQGR0%/2&&20%/2&&2
/D FUHD]LRQH GL XQ EORFFR q ILQDOL]]DWD DOOD FUHD]LRQH GL XQD OLEUHULD GL VLPEROL FKH
SRVVRQR HVVHUH LQVHULWL LQ DOWUL GLVHJQL VHQ]D GRYHU ULIDUH LO EORFFR 3HU TXHVWR q
QHFHVVDULR PHPRUL]]DUH LO EORFFR QHO GLVFR ULJLGR FRQ XQD SURFHGXUD FKH q GLYHUVD
GDOODFUHD]LRQHGHOEORFFR %/2&&2 DOO·LQWHUQRGHOGLVHJQR
3HU VDOYDUH XQ EORFFR QHO GLVFR ULJLGR VL VFHJOLH LO PHQX )LOH (VSRUWD VHOH]LRQDQGR
%ORFFR GZJ  /D VWHVVD IXQ]LRQH XVDQGR OD WDVWLHUD FRUULVSRQGH DO FRPDQGR 
0%/2&&2 'D QRWDUH OD GLIIHUHQ]D FRQ LO FRPDQGR 0%/2&&2 SUHVHQWDWR LQ
VHJXLWR
$OODULFKLHVWDGHOVLVWHPDGLJLWDQGRLOFDUDWWHUHXJXDOH   VLVFHJOLHGLVDOYDUHFRQOR
VWHVVR QRPH  XVDWR SHU LO EORFFR LQWHUQR FKH q JLj VWDWR FUHDWR 6H QHO GLVHJQR QRQ
HVLVWHXQEORFFRFROQRPHVSHFLILFDWR$XWR&$'YLVXDOL]]HUjGLQXRYRLOPHVVDJJLRGL
ULFKLHVWD1RPHGHOEORFFR
'LJLWDQGRXQDVWHULVFR O
LQWHURGLVHJQRDGHFFH]LRQHGHLVLPEROLVHQ]DULIHULPHQWR
YLHQHVDOYDWRQHOQXRYRILOHVDOYDWR4XDQGRVLSUHPH,19,2$XWR&$'ULFKLHGHGL
VHOH]LRQDUH JOL RJJHWWL GD VDOYDUH FRPH ILOH 8QD YROWD FUHDWR LO ILOH JOL RJJHWWL
VHOH]LRQDWL YHQJRQR FDQFHOODWL GDO GLVHJQR 3HU ULSULVWLQDUOL XWLOL]]DUH LO FRPDQGR
2236
'LJLWDQGR LO FRPDQGR0%/2&&2 VL DSUH XQD ILQHVWUD GLYHUVD FKH q PROWR VLPLOH D
TXHOOD XWLOL]]DWD QHOOD GHILQL]LRQH GHO EORFFR  ILJ   /D ILQHVWUD FKH VLSUHVHQWD q OD
VHJXHQWH

)LJ
)LQHVWUDFKHYLHQHDWWLYDWDFRQLO
FRPDQGR0%/2&&2GLJLWDWR
GDWDVWLHUD
1RWDUHFKHqVLPLOHDOODILQHVWUD
%/2&&2GLILJFRQ
O·DJJLXQWDGHOOD´'HVWLQD]LRQHµ
GHOILOHGLPHPRUL]]D]LRQH
&RQ´3RVL]LRQHµVLVFHJOLHOD
FDUWHOODGLGHVWLQD]LRQHQHOGLVFR
ULJLGR




&RQVLJOLXWLOLSHUODFUHD]LRQHGHLEORFFKL
1HOODSURFHGXUDGLPHPRUL]]D]LRQHGHLEORFFKLqPROWRXWLOHVHJXLUHDOFXQHVHPSOLFL
UHJROHFKHIDFLOLWDQRLOODYRUR
y ,EORFFKLPDQWHQJRQRODVWHVVDSRVL]LRQHULVSHWWRDOO·8&6FKHDYHYDQR
TXDQGRVRQRVWDWLFUHDWL(·EXRQDQRUPDSRVL]LRQDUHO·8&6QHO
*OREDOHSULPDGLFUHDUHLEORFFKL
y $XWR&$'PHPRUL]]DJOLRJJHWWLGHOOR6SD]LRPRGHOORQHOOR6SD]LR
PRGHOORHTXHOOLGHOOR6SD]LRFDUWDQHOOR6SD]LRFDUWD


Claudio Gasparini I blocchi 53

y /DYDULDELOH),/(',$GHYHHVVHUHVHPSUHVHWWDWDDDOWULPHQWLPROWH
ILQHVWUHGLGLDORJRQRQYHQJRQRYLVXDOL]]DWHHLOVLVWHPDSUHVHQWD
VRORODOLQHDGLWHVWR
y 6HVLFUHDXQEORFFRVHQ]DDYHUORSULPD´SXOLWRµFRQ(/,0,1$TXHVWR
PDQWLHQH/D\HUEORFFKLHIRQWGLWHVWRFKHVDUDQQRLQVHULWLQHO
QXRYRGLVHJQRDQFKHVHQRQVRQRRYYLDPHQWHULFKLHVWL

10.3 Inserimento dei blocchi

,16(5
%DUUDGHJOLVWUXPHQWL,QVHULVFL
0HQX,QVHULVFL%ORFFR

&RQLOFRPDQGR,16(5VLLQVHULVFHQHOGLVHJQRXQEORFFRSUHFHGHQWHPHQWHVDOYDWR
VSHFLILFDQGRLOSXQWRG·LQVHULPHQWRLOIDWWRUHGLVFDODHO·DQJRORGLURWD]LRQHULVSHWWRDO
EORFFRRULJLQDOHPHPRUL]]DWR,OEORFFRYLHQHLQVHULWRQHOOD\HUFRUUHQWHHRULHQWDWR
VHFRQGRO·8&6DWWLYR
,QVHUHQGR YDORUL GL VFDOH GLYHUVL VL RWWLHQH XQR VWLUDPHQWR GHO EORFFR &RQ YDORUL
QHJDWLYLVLRWWLHQHXQDWUDVIRUPD]LRQHVSHFXODUHGHOEORFFR


)LJ,QVHULPHQWRGLXQEORFFRQHOGLVHJQR&RQ6IRJOLDVLFDULFDLOILOHGDOSHUFRUVRGL
PHPRUL]]D]LRQH(·SRVVLELOHGHILQLUHLO3XQWRGLLQVHULPHQWROD6FDODHOD5RWD]LRQHVLDLQ
ILQHVWUDVLDVXOORVFKHUPR,QEDVVRDVLQLVWUDVHOH]LRQDQGR(VSORGLVLVFRPSRQHLOEORFFRQHJOL
RJJHWWLRULJLQDOL

10.4 Attributi dei blocchi

$L EORFFKL q SRVVLELOH DVVRFLDUH GDWL DOIDQXPHULFL TXDOL QXPHUL GL SDUWH SUH]]L H
VSHFLILFKHGLPHQVLRQDOLHTXHVWLGDWLVRQRPHPRUL]]DWLQHJOLDWWULEXWLGHLEORFFKL/·XWLOLWj
FRQVLVWHQHOODSRVVLELOLWjGLHVWUDUUHLGDWLGHJOLDWWULEXWLGDXQILOHGLGLVHJQRSHUFUHDUH
HOHQFKLGLSDUWLGLVWLQWHGLPDWHULDOLRDOWULGDWLQXPHULFL
8Q DWWULEXWR q XQ
HWLFKHWWD R XQ FRQWUDVVHJQR FKH DWWDFFD L GDWL D XQ EORFFR $OFXQL
HVHPSLGLGDWLFKHSRVVRQRHVVHUHFRQWHQXWLLQXQDWWULEXWRVRQRLQXPHULGLSDUWHL
SUH]]LLFRPPHQWLRLQRPLGHLSURSULHWDUL


 CAD Tutor 2004

/HLQIRUPD]LRQLGHJOLDWWULEXWLHVWUDWWHGDXQGLVHJQRSRVVRQRHVVHUHXVDWHLQXQIRJOLR
HOHWWURQLFRRLQXQGDWDEDVHSHUSURGXUUHXQDOLVWDGLSDUWLRXQDGLVWLQWDGHLPDWHULDOL
ËSRVVLELOHDVVRFLDUHSLDWWULEXWLDGXQEORFFRDFRQGL]LRQHFKHRJQLDWWULEXWRDEELD
XQ
HWLFKHWWDGLYHUVD

)LJ   3HU FUHDUH XQ DWWULEXWR GL XQ EORFFR YLHQH ULFKLHVWD OD GHILQL]LRQH
GHOO·HWLFKHWWD GHO PHVVDJJLR H GL XQ YDORUH QHO FDVR VLD DWWLYDWD D VLQLVWUD
O·RS]LRQH´3UHDVVHJQDµ

2JQL YROWD FKH VL LQVHULVFH XQ EORFFR FRQ XQ DWWULEXWR DVVRFLDWR $XWR&$'  FKLHGH
O·LPPLVVLRQHGHLGDWLGDDUFKLYLDUHLQVLHPHDOEORFFR
3HU FUHDUH XQ DWWULEXWR q QHFHVVDULR FUHDUH GDSSULPD OD GHILQL]LRQH GL DWWULEXWR QHOOD
TXDOH VLDQR GHVFULWWH OH FDUDWWHULVWLFKH GHOO
DWWULEXWR /H FDUDWWHULVWLFKH LQFOXGRQR
O·(WLFKHWWD FLRq LO FRQWUDVVHJQR GHOO·DWWULEXWR LO 0HVVDJJLR GL ULFKLHVWD FKH YLHQH
YLVXDOL]]DWR QHOOD WDEHOOD G·LQVHULPHQWR H OH LQIRUPD]LRQL VXO YDORUH VH q DWWLYDWD
O·RS]LRQH 3UHDVVHJQD ,QIDWWL XQ DWWULEXWR SXz HVVHUH ,QYLVLELOH &RVWDQWH 9HULILFD H
3UHDVVHJQD
&RQ9HULILFDVLULFKLHGHXQGRSSLRLQVHULPHQWRGLWHVWRGXUDQWHO·LQVHULPHQWRPHQWUH
FRQ 3UHDVVHJQD YHQJRQR SUHLPSRVWDWL GHL YDORUL FKH SRVVRQR SHUz HVVHUH PRGLILFDWL
GXUDQWHO·LQVHULPHQWR
6HLOEORFFRKDVROWDQWRDWWULEXWLLQPRGDOLWj&RVWDQWHJOLDWWULEXWLVHQ]DSRVVLELOLWjGL
PRGLILFD $XWR&$'  QRQ ULFKLHGH GL GLJLWDUH QHVVXQ YDORUH DO PRPHQWR
GHOO·LQVHULPHQWRGHOEORFFR
*OLDWWULEXWLSRVVRQRDYHUHXQDPRGDOLWj,QYLVLELOH8QDWWULEXWRLQYLVLELOHQRQYLHQH
YLVXDOL]]DWR R VWDPSDWR WXWWDYLD OH LQIRUPD]LRQL UHODWLYH DJOL DWWULEXWL YHQJRQR
PHPRUL]]DWHQHOILOHGLGLVHJQRHSRVVRQRHVVHUHHVSRUWDWHLQXQILOHGLHVWUD]LRQHGD
XVDUHLQXQSURJUDPPDGLGDWDEDVH
'RSR DYHU FUHDWR OD GHILQL]LRQH GHOO
DWWULEXWR TXHVWR GHYH HVVHUH LQFOXVR QHOOD
VHOH]LRQHTXDQGRVLGHYHGHILQLUHLOEORFFR(·SRVVLELOHXWLOL]]DUHXQDVHULHGLEORFFKLH
VDOYDUOLLQXQEORFFRSLJUDQGH EORFFKLDQQLGDWL 

 5LFRUGDUVLLQRPLDVVHJQDWLDOOHHWLFKHWWHSHUFKpYHUUDQQRULFKLHVWL
QHOO·HVWUD]LRQHGHLGDWLHQRQFRPSDULUDQQRLQVHJXLWRLQQHVVXQDSDUWHGHO
 EORFFR(·FRQVLJOLDWRXVDUHQRPLVLJQLILFDWLHSDUODQWLFRPHLQJHQHUHVLXVD
QHLGDWDEDVH,QJHQHUHVLXVDULSRUWDUHQHOPHVVDJJLRO·HWLFKHWWDXVDWD

Claudio Gasparini I blocchi 55


1HOODFUHD]LRQHGHOEORFFRDQFKHJOLDWWULEXWLGHYRQRHVVHUHVHOH]LRQDWLFRPH
FRPSRQHQWLLOEORFFR

)LJ
6RQRVWDWLLQVHULWLJOLDWWULEXWL
YLFLQRDOGLVHJQROHVFULWWHLQVHULWH
FRUULVSRQGRQRDOOHHWLFKHWWHGHJOL
DWWULEXWL'RSRDYHULQVHULWRWXWWL
JOLDWWULEXWLULFKLHVWLVLGHYH
FUHDUHLOEORFFRFRQODSURFHGXUD
QRUPDOHVHOH]LRQDQGRDQFKHJOL
DWWULEXWLFKHVRQRVWDWLFUHDWL


4XDQGR VL LQVHULVFH LO EORFFR $XWR&$'  YLVXDOL]]D XQ PHVVDJJLR GL ULFKLHVWD FRQLO
WHVWR VSHFLILFDWR SHU O
DWWULEXWR 3HU RJQL QXRYR LQVHULPHQWR GL EORFFKL q SRVVLELOH
VSHFLILFDUHXQYDORUHGLYHUVRSHUO
DWWULEXWR
/
RUGLQH GL VHOH]LRQH GHJOL DWWULEXWL GHWHUPLQD O
RUGLQH LQ FXL YHQJRQR ULFKLHVWH OH
LQIRUPD]LRQL VXJOL DWWULEXWL TXDQGR VL LQVHULVFH LO EORFFR *HQHUDOPHQWH O
RUGLQH GL
YLVXDOL]]D]LRQH GHJOL DWWULEXWL q OR VWHVVR LQ FXL VRQR VWDWL VHOH]LRQDWL JOL DWWULEXWL
TXDQGRVLqFUHDWRLOEORFFR7XWWDYLDVHVRQRVWDWHXVDWHOHVHOH]LRQLFRQLQWHUVH]LRQH
R ILQHVWUD SHU VHOH]LRQDUH JOL DWWULEXWL O
RUGLQH GL YLVXDOL]]D]LRQH q LQYHUVR ULVSHWWR
DOO
RUGLQHLQFXLVRQRVWDWLFUHDWLJOLDWWULEXWL

)LJ
4XDQGRVLLQVHULVFHXQ
EORFFRDOTXDOHVRQRVWDWL
DVVRFLDWLGHJOLDWWULEXWLVL
DSUHODILQHVWUD´,QVHULVFL
DWWULEXWLµSHUO·LQVHULPHQWR
GHLGDWLSUHYLVWLQHOOH
HWLFKHWWHGHJOLDWWULEXWL
*OLDWWULEXWLLQVHULWL
SRVVRQRHVVHUHPRGLILFDWLLQ
VHJXLWRVHOH]LRQDQGRGDO
PHQX
(GLWD2JJHWWR$WWULEXWR
(GLWDHSXQWDQGRVXL
VLQJROLDWWULEXWL



10.5 Estrazione degli attributi dei blocchi

/HLQIRUPD]LRQLDOIDQXPHULFKHPHPRUL]]DWHFRQXQEORFFRSRVVRQRHVVHUHHVWUDWWHLQ
XQ ILOH GL WHVWR FKH SXz HVVHUH LQVHULWR LQ VHJXLWR LQ XQ GDWDEDVH R DVVRFLDWR DG XQ
WDEHOODGLWHVWR6LSRVVRQRFRVuFUHDUHGHOOHGLVWLQWHEDVHGLWXWWLFRPSRQHQWL EORFFKL 
SUHVHQWL LQ XQ GLVHJQR HG HODERUDUOH SHU HVWUDUUH LQ DXWRPDWLFR LO QXPHUR WRWDOH GHL


 CAD Tutor 2004

EORFFKL LO WLSR H WXWWH TXHOOH LQIRUPD]LRQL FKH GLIILFLOPHQWH q SRVVLELOH IDUH
PDQXDOPHQWHVHQ]DVEDJOLDUH
&UHD]LRQHGLXQILOHPRGHOOR
3HUHVWUDUUHOHLQIRUPD]LRQLVXJOLDWWULEXWLVLGHYHFUHDUHSULPDXQILOHPRGHOOR WHPSODWH 
SHU O·HVWUD]LRQH GHJOL DWWULEXWL LO ILOH PRGHOOR q XQ ILOH GL WHVWR QRUPDOH $6&,,  FKH
FRQWLHQHOHLVWUX]LRQLVXOWLSRGHJOLDWWULEXWLGDHVWUDWWH
/HLQIRUPD]LRQLULJXDUGDQRDGHVHPSLRLOQRPHGHOEORFFRGHOO·HWLFKHWWDGHLVLQJROL
FDPSLGDHVWUDUUHHVXOWLSRGLGDWLFRPHODOXQJKH]]DGHOFDPSRHVXOQXPHURGLFLIUH
GHFLPDOL GHOOH LQIRUPD]LRQL FKH VL GHVLGHUD HVWUDUUH /
LOOXVWUD]LRQH H OD WDEHOOD
PRVWUDQRXQHVHPSLRGHOWLSRGLLQIRUPD]LRQLFKHSUREDELOPHQWHO
XWHQWHGHVLGHUHUj
HVWUDUUHFRPHQRPHGHOEORFFRSURGXWWRUHQXPHURGHOPRGHOORHFRVWR


)LJ
,QDOWRLOEORFFRqTXHOOR
RULJLQDULRVRQRULSRUWDWHOH
HWLFKHWWHGHJOLDWWULEXWL
6RWWRGRSRDYHUFUHDWRLOEORFFR
FRQJOLDWWULEXWLLO
EORFFRqVWDWRLQVHULWR
VSHFLILFDQGRLYDULYDORULGHJOL
DWWULEXWLFRPHLOWLSRLO
SURGXWWRUHHGLOFRGLFH
QXPHULFR

/·HVHPSLRVHJXHQWHqXQILOHPRGHOORSHUO·HVWUD]LRQHGHJOLDWWULEXWLGHOEORFFR
5XRWD
EOQDPH&
WLSR&
SURGXWWRUH&
PRGHOORF
FRGLFHQ
2JQLULJDULJXDUGDOHLVWUX]LRQLSHUXQWLSRGLDWWULEXWR,VLJQLILFDWLGLRJQLULJDVRQR
LVHJXHQWL
y EOQDPH LQGLFDO·LQVHULPHQWRGHOQRPHGHOEORFFR  
y & LOWLSRGLHWLFKHWWDGHOO·DWWULEXWR&VWDSHU&DUDWWHUH1SHU
1XPHUR
y  LQGLFDODOXQJKH]]DGHOFDPSRGDULVHUYDUHSHULOWHVWRVHVL
VHOH]LRQHLOIRUPDWR6')  
y  LQGLFDLOQXPHURGLFLIUHGHFLPDOLVHLOFDPSRqXQ1XPHUR
 
/HDOWUHULJKHULJXDUGDQROHHWLFKHWWHGHJOLDWWULEXWLGDHVWUDUUHVHFRQGRODVWHVVD
ORJLFD





Claudio Gasparini I blocchi 57

)LJ
)LQHVWUDGLGLDORJRXWLOL]]DWD
GXUDQWHO·HVWUD]LRQHGHJOL
DWWULEXWL,IRUPDWLGHLILOH
GHILQLVFRQRODPRGDOLWjGL
VFULWWXUDGHJOLDWWULEXWLHVWUDWWL





'RSRDYHUFUHDWRXQILOHPRGHOORqSRVVLELOHHVWUDUUHOHLQIRUPD]LRQLVXJOLDWWULEXWL
VFHJOLHQGRXQRGHLVHJXHQWLIRUPDWL
y &') &RPPD'HOLPLWHG)LOH 
y 6') 6SDFH'HOLPLWHG)LOH 
y ';) 'UDZLQJ,QWHUFKDQJH)RUPDW 

,O IRUPDWR &') FUHD XQ ILOH FKH FRQWLHQH XQ UHFRUG SHU RJQL EORFFR GHO GLVHJQR ,
FDPSL GL FLDVFXQ UHFRUG VRQR VHSDUDWL GD XQD YLUJROD HG L FDPSL GL FDUDWWHUL VRQR
UDFFKLXVLWUDYLUJROHWWHVHPSOLFL0ROWLSURJUDPPLGLGDWDEDVHVRQRLQJUDGRGLOHJJHUH
GLUHWWDPHQWHTXHVWRIRUPDWR
$QFKH LO IRUPDWR 6') FUHD XQ ILOH FKH FRQWLHQH XQ UHFRUG SHU RJQL EORFFR GHO
GLVHJQR,FDPSLGLFLDVFXQUHFRUGKDQQRODOXQJKH]]DILVVDWDQHOILOHPRGHOORVHQ]D
VHSDUDWRULGLFDPSRRGHOLPLWDWRULGHOOHVWULQJKHGLFDUDWWHUL
';)SURGXFHXQILOHGLLQWHUVFDPELRGHLGLVHJQLFRQWHQHQWHVRORULIHULPHQWLGLEORFFR
DWWULEXWLHRJJHWWL/
HVWHQVLRQHFKHYLHQHXVDWDLQG[[DOSRVWRGHOODSLFRUUHWWDG[I
VHUYHSHUQRQFRQIRQGHUHLOILOHSURGRWWRFRQLQRUPDOLILOH';)

)LOHGLHVWUD]LRQHGHJOLDWWULEXWL
'DOSUHFHGHQWHILOHPRGHOORLOULVXOWDWRqLOVHJXHQWH

UXRWD%

5XRWD

5XRWH6S$

%DVH


UXRWD%

5XRWD

5XRWH6S$

%DVH


,O ULVXOWDWR GHOO·HVWUD]LRQH q FRPSRVWR GD GXH ULJKH SHUFKp RJQL EORFFR SUHVHQWH QHO
GLVHJQRJHQHUDXQDULJDGLGDWL
,OIRUPDWRVFHOWRq&')GRYHRJQLFDPSRqGLVWLQWRGDXQDYLUJRODHUDFFKLXVRGDXQ
DSLFH/·XOWLPRGDWRqXQQXPHURVHQ]DDSLFLSHUFKpQHOILOHPRGHOORqLQGLFDWRFRQOD
OHWWHUD1FLRqGDWRQXPHULFR
/
RUGLQH GHL FDPSL QHO ILOH GL HVWUD]LRQH FRUULVSRQGH D TXHOOR GHL FDPSL QHO ILOH
PRGHOOR4XHVWLILOHSRVVRQRHVVHUHXWLOL]]DWLLQDOWUHDSSOLFD]LRQLTXDOLIRJOLGLFDOFROR
HGqSRVVLELOHRUGLQDUHHPRGLILFDUHLGDWLVHFRQGROHSURSULHQHFHVVLWj$GHVHPSLRq
SRVVLELOH DSULUH XQILOH GL HVWUD]LRQH GHJOL DWWULEXWL FRQ0LFURVRIW ([FHO H VSHFLILFDUH
XQDFRORQQDVHSDUDWDSHUFLDVFXQFDPSR

10.6 DesignCenter

8QD OLEUHULD GL VLPEROL H


 XQD UDFFROWD GL FRPSRQHQWL H VLPEROL GL GLVHJQR FKH
IDFLOLWDQR LO ODYRUR GHO SURJHWWLVWD SHUPHWWHQGR LQVHULUH QHO GLVHJQR FRPSRQHQWL JLj
GHILQLWL VHPSOLFHPHQWH WUDVFLQDQGROL QHO GLVHJQR ,Q $XWR&$' OD JHVWLRQH GL XQD
OLEUHULDGLVLPEROLPROWRIOHVVLELOHYLHQHVYROWDGD'HVLJQ&HQWHU

 CAD Tutor 2004

'HVLJQ&HQWHU SHUPHWWH GL VIRJOLDUH LQGLYLGXDUH H YLVXDOL]]DUH LQ DQWHSULPD LO


FRQWHQXWR GHL ILOH GL GLVHJQR H GL LQVHULUH QXRYL FRQWHQXWL FRPSUHVL L EORFFKL L
WUDWWHJJLHJOL[ULI ULIHULPHQWLHVWHUQL 
'HVLJQ&HQWHURQOLQHIRUQLVFHO
DFFHVVRDOFRQWHQXWRSUHGHILQLWRTXDOHEORFFKLOLEUHULH
GL VLPEROL FRQWHQXWL GL SURGXWWRUL H FDWDORJKL LQ OLQHD (
 SRVVLELOH XWLOL]]DUH TXHVWL
FRQWHQXWL LQ DSSOLFD]LRQL GL SURJHWWD]LRQH FRPXQL SHU IDFLOLWDUH OD FUHD]LRQH GHL
GLVHJQL

)LJ
)LQHVWUDGL
GLDORJR
XWLOL]]DWD
GXUDQWH
O·HVWUD]LRQHGHJOL
DWWULEXWL,
IRUPDWLGHLILOH
GHILQLVFRQROD
PRGDOLWj





Capitolo 11

,OGLVHJQRLQ'
• 8VRGHOOHFRRUGLQDWHQHOORVSD]LR
• &UHD]LRQHGLRJJHWWLLQ'
• 8VRGHLSLDQLGLGLVHJQRLQ' 8&6 
• &UHD]LRQHGHOOHILQHVWUHGLYLVWD
• 'HILQL]LRQHGHLSXQWLGLYLVWD

,O GLVHJQR LQ ' ULFKLHGH OD FRQRVFHQ]D GL DOFXQL HOHPHQWL IRQGDPHQWDOL FRPH OH
FRRUGLQDWH LQ 'O
XVR GHOO
8&6FLRqGHO SLDQR GL ODYRUR H OD SDGURQDQ]D GHOOD
GHILQL]LRQHGHL SXQWLGL YLVWD8QGLVHJQR LQ'GLIILFLOPHQWHSXz HVVHUHGHULYDWR
GLUHWWDPHQWH GD XQR LQ ELGLPHQVLRQDOH '  SHUFKp LQ JHQHUH QRQ q VXIILFLHQWH
HVWUXGHUH XQ VHPSOLFH SURILOR 8Q HGLILFLR DG HVHPSLR QRQ q LO ULVXOWDWR GLUHWWR
GHOO·HVWUXVLRQHGHOODVXDSLDQWDDQFKHVHTXHVWDqLOSXQWRGLSDUWHQ]DSHUOHOLQHHGL
FRVWUX]LRQL

11.1 Uso delle coordinate in 3D

/·LQVHULPHQWRGHOOHFRRUGLQDWHFDUWHVLDQHLQ' ;<= qVLPLOHDOODGLJLWD]LRQHGHOOH


FRRUGLQDWH' ;< 1HO0RGXORYLHQHWUDWWDWRLQPRGRDSSURIRQGLWRLOVLVWHPDGL
FRRUGLQDWH XVDWH LQ $XWR&$' ,Q TXHVWR FDSLWROR ULSUHQGLDPR DOFXQL DVSHWWL
ULJXDUGDQWLOHFRRUGLQDWH'
8QSXQWRQHOORVSD]LRYLHQHGHILQLWRGDWUHYDORUL;<=,OYDORUH=VHQRQGHILQLWR
LQ$XWR&$'DVVXPHYDORUH

)LJ
&RRUGLQDWHGLXQ
SXQWRQHOORVSD]LR
,OSULPRYDORUH
ULJXDUGDVHPSUH
O·DVVH;LOVHFRQGR
O·DVVH<HGLOWHU]R
O·DVVH=VHFRQGR
FRQODVLQWDVVL
;<=,OYDORUH
GHOO·DVVH=VHQRQ
GHILQLWRKDVHPSUH
YDORUHXJXDOHD


1HOODILJXUDLOSXQWR3GLFRRUGLQDWDLQGLYLGXDODSRVL]LRQHFRQXQDGLVWDQ]D
GLXQLWjOXQJRO
DVVH;SRVLWLYRDXQLWjOXQJRO
DVVH<SRVLWLYRHXQLWjOXQJRO
DVVH
= SRVLWLYR 3HU WUDFFLDUH XQD OLQHD EOX FRPH LQ ILJXUD  D SDUWLUH GDOO·RULJLQH GHO
VLVWHPD SXQWR FRQ  FRRUGLQDWH   ILQR DO SXQWR 3 GL FRRUGLQDWH  OD
SURFHGXUDqODVHJXHQWH
Comando: LINEA
Dal Punto: 0,0 &RRUGLQDWHDVVROXWH,OYDORUHGHOOD=q 


 CAD Tutor 2004

Al punto: @ 3,2,5
Al punto: INVIO FRQ,QYLRWHUPLQDO
LQVHULPHQWR 
, SXQWL SRVVRQR HVVHUH LQVHULWL GLJLWDQGR OH FRRUGLQDWH GD WDVWLHUD RSSXUH LQVHULWL VX
HQWLWjJUDILFKHHVLVWHQWLQHOGLVHJQR,QTXHVWRFDVRqVXIILFLHQWHVSHFLILFDUHXQILOWURGL
6QDSFRPHDGHVHPSLR),1(SHUDQFRUDUHODOLQHDDOO·HVWUHPLWjGLXQVHJPHQWR

)LJ
3HUWUDFFLDUHOD
OLQHDLQEOXVL
GLJLWDLOSULPR
HVWUHPRFRQOH
FRRUGLQDWHH
FRPHSXQWRILQDOHL
YDORUL6H
HVLVWHXQ·DOWUD
OLQHDQHOGLVHJQR
SHULOVHFRQGRSXQWR
GHOODOLQHDVLSXz
XWLOL]]DUHORVQDS
),1(

, SXQWL SRVVRQR HVVHUH LQVHULWL GLJLWDQGR OH FRRUGLQDWH GD WDVWLHUD RSSXUH LQVHULWL
GLUHWWDPHQWHVXLSXQWLQRWHYROLGHJOLRJJHWWLJHRPHWULFLLQVHULWLQHOGLVHJQR

1HOGLVHJQRLQ'qPROWRXWLOHXWLOL]]DUHOHOLQHHGLFRVWUX]LRQHFRPHVLVWHPDGLULIHULPHQWR
 SHULPRGHOOLFKHVLYRJOLRQRSURGXUUH,QTXHVWRPRGRVLSRVVRQRXWLOL]]DUHOHOLQHHHVLVWHQWL
FRPHSXQWLGLDQFRUDJJLRGHOOHGLYHUVHOLQHHRVROLGLFKHVLGHYRQRLQVHULUH
8VRGHLILOWULGHOOHFRRUGLQDWH
, ILOWUL GHOOH FRRUGLQDWH KDQQR OD IXQ]LRQH GL LQVHULUH OH FRRUGLQDWH ; < H = LQ IDVL
GLVWLQWHDGHVHPSLRSHUSHUPHWWHUHGLLQVHULUHXQSXQWRQHOORVSD]LRGLUHWWDPHQWHFRO
PRXVH , ILOWUL GHOOH FRRUGLQDWH RSHUDQR DOOR VWHVVR PRGR VLD LQ ' VLD ' 3HU
VSHFLILFDUHXQILOWURVXOODULJDGLFRPDQGRGLJLWDUHXQSXQWRHXQDRSLOHWWHUH;<H
=SUHFHGXWHGDXQSXQWR$XWR&$'DFFHWWDOHVHJXHQWLVHOH]LRQLGLILOWUL
;< =;<;=<=
'RSR DYHU VSHFLILFDWR LO YDORUH LQL]LDOH GHOOD FRRUGLQDWD $XWR&$' ULFKLHGH L YDORUL
ULPDQHQWL 6H VL GLJLWD ;DO PHVVDJJLR GL ULFKLHVWD G
LQGLYLGXD]LRQH GL XQ SXQWR
YHQJRQR ULFKLHVWL L YDORUL GL < H =  VH VL LPPHWWH ;= DO PHVVDJJLR GL ULFKLHVWD SHU
O
LQGLYLGXD]LRQHGLXQSXQWRYLHQHULFKLHVWRLOYDORUHPDQFDQWH<
, ILOWUL GHOOH FRRUGLQDWH DG HVHPSLR YHQJRQR XWLOL]]DWL SHU LQGLYLGXDUH LO FHQWURGL XQ
UHWWDQJRORHSHUSRVL]LRQDUHODSURLH]LRQHGLXQSXQWR'VXOSLDQR;<GHOO
8&6
(VHPSLRGLXWLOL]]RGHLILOWULGHOOHFRRUGLQDWH
4XHVWRHVHPSLRPRVWUDFRPHXWLOL]]DUHLILOWULGHOOHFRRUGLQDWHSHULQVHULUHXQDOLQHD
QHOEDULFHQWURGLXQDIDFFLDGHOFXER



Claudio Gasparini Il disegno in 3D 61

)LJ
3HULQVHULUHXQD
OLQHDQHOEDULFHQWUR
GLXQDIDFFLDGHO
FXER VFDWROD VL
XWLOL]]DQRLILOWUL
GHOOHFRRUGLQDWH
SULPDVLGLJLWDLO
ILOWUR;<HSRL
O·LQGLFD]LRQHGHO
SXQWRPHGLRGHO
ODWR<HGLVHJXLWR
LOSXQWRPHGLR
OXQJRLOODWR=

'LVHJQDQGR LQ YLVWD DVVRQRPHWULFD QRQ q SRVVLELOH VSHFLILFDUH FRO PRXVH XQ SXQWR
QHOORVSD]LRLQGLFDQGRFRQWHPSRUDQHDPHQWHFRRUGLQDWH&RQLILOWUL;<VLGHILQLVFH
SULPD OD SRVL]LRQH GHO YHUWLFH GHOOD OLQHD VXO SLDQR  ;< H SRL OD SRVL]LRQH DOWH]]D
OXQJR O·DVVH = 6L XWLOL]]D TXLQGL LO ILOWUR GL SXQWR 0(',2 SHU  LO SXQWR PHGLR GL
FLDVFXQODWR
Comando: LINEA
Specificare primo punto: .XY
di MED Selezionare il lato lungo l’asse Y(manca Z: MED
di MED Selezionare il lato lungo l’asse Z

11.2 Creazione di oggetti in 3D

,Q$XWR&$'SHUODJHQHUD]LRQHGLPRGHOOLLQ'VRQRGLVSRQLELOLGXHGLYHUVLPHWRGL
SHUHVWUXVLRQHPRGLILFDQGRORVSHVVRUHGLRJJHWWL'HPHGLDQWHSRVL]LRQDPHQWRVX
RJJHWWL ' HVLVWHQWL 5LVSHWWR DO SURJUDPPD $XWR&$' FRPSOHWR OD YHUVLRQH /7 KD
SRWHQ]LDOLWjGLFUHD]LRQHGLPRGHOOL'OLPLWDWH

)LJ
3HULQVHULUHOH
JDPEHGLXQ
WDYRORVLPRGLILFD
O·DOWH]]DGHLFHUFKL
LQVHULWLQHOOHOLQHH
GLFRVWUX]LRQHDOOD
EDVH





(VWUXVLRQH
(·SRVVLELOHHVWUXGHUHJOLRJJHWWL'PRGLILFDQGRORVSHVVRUH WKLFNQHVV GHOO·RJJHWWR
4XDQGRVLGLVHJQDLQ'WXWWHOHHQWLWjJUDILFKHDVVXPRQRYDORUHOXQJRO·DVVH=SDULD
0RGLILFDQGRQHOODILQHVWUD3URSULHWjLOYDORUHGHOO·$OWH]]DGHOVLQJRORRJJHWWRVLGj
VSHVVRUHDOOHOLQHH


 CAD Tutor 2004


)LJ
3HUFUHDUHLOSLDQR
GHOWDYRORVL
XWLOL]]DLOFRPDQGR
32/,*LQVHUHQGR
JOLHVWUHPLGHOOD
SROLJRQDOHVXOOD
VHFRQGDOLQHDGL
FRVWUX]LRQH
WUDFFLDWDDOODEDVH
/RVSHVVRUHYLHQH
FUHDWRPRGLILFDQGR
O·$OWH]]D


/·HVWUXVLRQH DYYLHQH VROR OXQJR O·DVVH = H TXLQGL QRQ ULHPSLH JOL RJJHWWL FUHDQGR GHL VROLGL
 ,QIDWWL HVWUXGHQGR XQ TXDGUDWR TXHVWR GLYHQWD XQD VFDWROD YXRWD H QRQ XQ FXER SLHQR ,Q
$XWR&$' O·XQLFD HFFH]LRQH D TXHVWD UHJROD q UDSSUHVHQWDWD GDO FHUFKLR FKH TXDQGR YLHQH
HVWUXVRDVVXPHODIRUPDGLXQFLOLQGURSLHQR

6HVLXWLOL]]DODIXQ]LRQH32/,*SHUWUDFFLDUHXQDSROLJRQDOHPRGLILFDQGRQHO·DOWH]]D
VLJHQHUDXQVROLGRFRPSOHWR,Q'FRQ32/,*VLGLVHJQDQRWULDQJROLRTXDGULODWHUL
SLHQL FRQ XQ XQLFR FRORUH FRQ OD IXQ]LRQH GL UDSSUHVHQWDUH JOL HOHPHQWL FKH QHO
GLVHJQRWHFQLFRULFKLHGRQRFRORUHSLHQRFRPHIRULFRORQQHDWWUH]]DWHHGDOWUR
6HXWLOL]]DWRLQ'SXzJHQHUDUHGHLVROLGL,OFRPDQGR32/,*ULFKLHGHXQDSURFHGXUD
G·LQVHULPHQWR GHL YHUWLFL GHOOD SROLJRQDOH SDUWLFRODUH LQFURFLDQGR OD VHTXHQ]D GHL
SXQWLFRPHLQILJXUD

)LJ
&RQLOFRPDQGR
32/,*O·LQVHULPHQWR
GHLSXQWLGHYHHVVHUH
´LQFURFLDWDµFRPHQHOOD
ILJXUDLQDOWR
/DVHTXHQ]DSXz
FRQWLQXDUHJHQHUDQGR
XQDSROLJRQDOHGLFRORUH
SLHQR




*HQHUD]LRQHGLXQD5(*,21(
 %DUUDGHJOLVWUXPHQWL
0HQXVFHJOLHUH'LVHJQDH5HJLRQH

8QSLDQRQHOORVSD]LRSXzHVVHUHJHQHUDWRDSDUWLUHGDXQDVHULHGLOLQHHSRVL]LRQDWH
QHOORVSD]LRHWUDVIRUPDWHLQUHJLRQH&RQLOFRPDQGR5(*,21(VLWUDVIRUPDQRXQD
VHULHGLOLQHHSROLOLQHHRFXUYHFKLXVHHGHOLPLWDQWLXQ·XQLFDDUHDLQXQDVXSHUILFLH'


Claudio Gasparini Il disegno in 3D 63

GHILQLWD´UHJLRQHµ1RQqSRVVLELOHXWLOL]]DUHOLQHHLQWHUVHFDQWLRQRQFKLXVHSHUFUHDUH
XQDUHJLRQH

)LJ
6LVRQRLQVHULWH
DOFXQHOLQHH
GLUHWWDPHQWHVXL
VROLGLHVLVWHQWL,O
SDUDOOHOHSLSHGRq
VWDWRFUHDWRLQ
HVWUXVLRQHDSDUWLUH
GDXQUHWWDQJROR
VLQRWDLQIDWWLOD
SDUWHVXSHULRUH
DSHUWD


1HOO·HVHPSLRGHOODILJXUDGRSRDYHULQVHULWROHOLQHHVXLVROLGLXWLOL]]DQGRLILOWULGL
6QDSFRPH),1HH&(1WURFRQLOFRPDQGR5(*,21(VLWUDVIRUPDQRLQXQXQLFR
RJJHWWR GHILQLWD 5HJLRQH /D 5HJLRQH q XQD SDUWH GL SLDQR GHILQLWD GD XQ FRQWRUQR
FKLXVR(·TXLQGLXQDHQWLWjELGLPHQVLRQDOH
Comando: REGIONE
Selezionare oggetti: Selezionare tutte le linee di
un’unica regione. Selezionare
3HUFUHDUHGXHUHJLRQLVLGHYHULSHWHLOFRPDQGRGXHYROWH8QDUHJLRQHqXQRJJHWWR
XQLFRFKHKDLQJOREDWROHOLQHHFKHO·DQQRJHQHUDWR

)LJ
,QTXHVWRGLVHJQR
OHSROLOLQHHXVDWH
SHULOWULDQJRORH
LOUHWWDQJRORVRQR
VWDWLWUDVIRUPDWHLQ
5(*,21(
/D5HJLRQHqXQ
VROLGR'VHQ]D
VSHVVRUH



/HUHJLRQLLQVHULWHFRVWLWXLVFRQRXQSLDQRGLVSHVVRUH]HURFKHSHUzQDVFRQGHDOODYLVWDL
VROLGLQHOODVFHQD,OVROLGRJHQHUDWRGDOUHWWDQJRORYLHQHFRVuUDSSUHVHQWDWRFRPHXQ
´VROLGRµ FRPSOHWR DQFKH VH ULPDQH XQD VFDWROD DOOD TXDOH q VWDWR DJJLXQWR XQ
FRSHUFKLRFRVWLWXLWRGDOODUHJLRQH
3HUYLVXDOL]]DUHXQDVFHQDVHQ]DOHOLQHHQDVFRVWHVLXWLOL]]DLOFRPDQGR
1$6&21',,OVLVWHPDFDOFRODLOPRGHOORGDOSXQWRGLYLVWDDWWXDOHHGHOLPLQDOH
OLQHHQRQVRQRYLVLELOL
0RGLILFDGHOODFRRUGLQDWD=
'RSRDYHULQVHULWRODVHGXWDDOODEDVHGHOODVHGLDODVLGHYHVSRVWDUHDOO·DOWH]]DFRUUHWWD
3HU IDUH TXHVWR VL SXz PRGLILFDUH  O·(OHYD]LRQH GHO VROLGR QHOOD ILQHVWUD 3URSULHWj
RSSXUHVSRVWDUHLOVROLGROXQJRO·DVVH=FRQLOFRPDQGR63267$

 CAD Tutor 2004


)LJ
3HUVSRVWDUHOD
SRVL]LRQHGLXQ
VROLGRQHOORVSD]LR
VLPRGLILFDLO
YDORUHLQ
(OHYD]LRQHQHOOD
ILQHVWUD3URSULHWj
RVHPSOLFHPHQWHVL
VSRVWDO·RJJHWWR
OXQJRO·DVVH=




11.3 Uso dei piani di disegno in 3D (UCS)

3HU GLVHJQDUH LQ ' q QHFHVVDULR ULFRUUH DG XQ VLVWHPD GL ULIHULPHQWR GL FRRUGLQDWH
GRYHYLHQHLQGLYLGXDWRXQSLDQRGLGLVHJQRLQ'0RGLILFDQGRTXHVWRSLDQRGHWWR
DQFKHSLDQRGLODYRUR ZRUNSODQH qSRVVLELOHVSRVWDUVLQHOORVSD]LRDOSDULGLXQWHFQLJUDIR
FKHKDODSRVVLELOLWjGLPRGLILFDUHDJHYROPHQWHLOVXRRULHQWDPHQWRHODVXDSRVL]LRQH
$XWR&$'GLVSRQHGLGXHVLVWHPLGLFRRUGLQDWHXQVLVWHPDGLFRRUGLQDWHILVVR 6LVWHPD
GL &RRUGLQDWH *OREDOL  :&6  H XQ VLVWHPD GL FRRUGLQDWH PRELOH 6LVWHPD GL &RRUGLQDWH
8WHQWH  8&6  ,O VLVWHPD 8&6 YLHQH XVDWR SHU O·LPPLVVLRQH GL FRRUGLQDWH OD
GHILQL]LRQHGHLSLDQLGLGLVHJQRHO·LPSRVWD]LRQHGHOOHYLVWH/HPRGLILFKHDOO·8&6QRQ
LQIOXLVFRQRVXOSXQWRGLYLVWDPDVRORVXOO
RULHQWDPHQWRHO
LQFOLQD]LRQHGHOVLVWHPDGL
FRRUGLQDWH
Ë FRUUHQWH XQ VROR XQ 8&6 DOOD YROWD H WXWWH OH LPPLVVLRQL H YLVXDOL]]D]LRQL GHOOH
FRRUGLQDWH VRQR UHODWLYH VROR DOO·8&6 FRUUHQWH 6H VRQR SUHVHQWL QHO GLVHJQR SL
ILQHVWUHHVVHFRQGLYLGRQRORVWHVVR8&6SHUFKpXQLFRqDQFKHLOPRGHOORFKHYLHQH
YLVXDOL]]DWRQHOOHYDULHILQHVWUH
2JQL SRVL]LRQH GHOO·8&6 SXz HVVHUH PHPRUL]]DWD LQ PRGR GD SRWHU DYHU D
GLVSRVL]LRQH 8&6 FRQ XQ
RULJLQH H XQ RULHQWDPHQWR GLYHUVR SHU VRGGLVIDUH L YDUL
UHTXLVLWLGLFRVWUX]LRQHËSRVVLELOHTXLQGLULSRVL]LRQDUHVDOYDUHHULFKLDPDUHWXWWLJOL
RULHQWDPHQWLGHOO
8&6QHFHVVDUL3HUPRGLILFDUHODSRVL]LRQHGHOO·8&6VLSXzVFHJOLHUH
O·LFRQDUHODWLYDRGLJLWDUHGDWDVWLHUDLOFRPDQGR8&6


Claudio Gasparini Il disegno in 3D 65

6LVWHPDLQFRRUGLQDWH8WHQWH
8&6  
 %DUUDGHJOLVWUXPHQWL8&6
0HQXVFHJOLHUH6WUXPHQWL8&6

,OVLVWHPDLQFRRUGLQDWH8WHQWH 8&6 SHUPHWWHGLPRGLILFDUHODSRVL]LRQHQHOOR
VSD]LRGHOVLVWHPDGLFRRUGLQDWH,OFRPDQGRGLDWWLYD]LRQHq8&6RSSXUHVLSXQWD
VXOO·LFRQDUHODWLYD
Comando: UCS
Digitare un’opzione: Nuova / SPosta / Ortogonale /
Precedente / Ripristina / Memorizza / Cancella / ? /
Globale <Globale>: Specificare un'opzione oppure premere
INVIO
/HSULQFLSDOLRS]LRQLGLVSRQLELOLVRQROHVHJXHQWL
 1XRYD SHUGHILQLUHXQDQXRYDSRVL]LRQHGHOO·8&6
/HVRWWRRS]LRQLGLVSRQLELOLSHU1XRYDVRQROHVHJXHQWL
y $VVH] YLHQHGHILQLWRO·RULHQWDPHQWRGHOO·DVVH=
y SXQWL VLGHILQLVFHO·RULJLQHHO·RULHQWDPHQWRGHJOLDVVL;H</·DVVH=
YLHQHGHWHUPLQDWRGLFRQVHJXHQ]DVHFRQGRODUHJRODGHOODPDQR
GHVWUD
y 2*JHWWRVLSRVL]LRQDVXXQRJJHWWRHVLVWHQWH
y )DFFLD DOOLQHDO·8&6VXOODIDFFLDVHOH]LRQDWDGHOVROLGR'
y 9LVWD O·8&6VLSRVL]LRQDSHUSHQGLFRODUPHQWHDOSLDQRGLYLVWDSDUDOOHOR
DOORVFKHUPR/·RULJLQHGHOO·8&6QRQYLHQHPRGLILFDWD
y ;<= UXRWDO·8&6DWWRUQRDOO·DVVHVSHFLILFDWR,OVLVWHPDULFKLHGHOD
VSHFLILFDGHOO·DQJROR
y 
3HU VFHJOLHUH O·RS]LRQH q VXIILFLHQWH GLJLWDUH OD OHWWHUD FKH QHO FRPDQGR YLHQH
YLVXDOL]]DWDLQPDLXVFRORHFKHTXLVRQRVWDUHUHVHDQFKHLQJUDVVHWWR

 63RVWD PRGLILFDODSRVL]LRQHGHOO·8&6VSRVWDQGRO·RULJLQHR
PRGLILFDQGRODSURIRQGLWj=GHOVLVWHPD8&6FRUUHQWH
PDQWHQHQGRO·RULHQWDPHQWR
 2UWRJRQDOH VSHFLILFDXQDGHOOHSRVL]LRQLPHPRUL]]DWHRUWRJRQDOLDLSLDQL;
<H;
 3UHFHGHQWH ULFKLDPDODSRVL]LRQHSUHFHGHQWHGHOO·8&6
 5LSULVWLQD SHUPHWWHGLULFKLDPDUHODSRVL]LRQHVDOYDWDGLXQ8&6
 0HPRUL]]D PHPRUL]]DODSRVL]LRQHGLXQ8&6
 &DQFHOOD FDQFHOODXQDSRVL]LRQHPHPRUL]]DWD
 " SHUPHWWHGLYLVXDOL]]DUHLQRPLOHSRVL]LRQLPHPRUL]]DWH
 *OREDOH LPSRVWDO·8&6VXO6LVWHPDGL&RRUGLQDWH*OREDOH :&6 (·
ODSRVL]LRQHGLEDVHHGLSDUWHQ]DHSHUPHWWHGLHVVHUH
LPSRVWDWDTXDQGRVLGHVLGHUD´UHVHWWDUHµO·8&6
 3HUPRGLILFDUHODSRVL]LRQHGHOO·8&6VFHJOLHUHLOPHQX6WUXPHQWL
1XRYR8&6HTXLQGLXQDGHOOHRS]LRQLGLVSRQLELOL


 CAD Tutor 2004


)LJ
3HULQVHULUHXQ
FLOLQGURQHOODIDFFLD
YHUWLFDOHqVWDWR
SRVL]LRQDWRO·8&6
VXOODIDFFLD
IDFHQGRORUXRWDUH
DWWRUQRDJOLDVVL;
H</RVWHVVR
ULVXOWDWRVLSXz
RWWHQHUHFRQOD
IXQ]LRQHSXQWL


1HOODILJXUDSHUVSRVWDUHO·8&6QHOODSRVL]LRQHLOOXVWUDWDVLqXVDWDO·RS]LRQHSXQWLH
TXLQGLFRQLILOWULGL6QDS),1HVLVRQRLQGLYLGXDWLLYHUWLFLGHOODIDFFLDODWHUDOH

11.4 Creazione delle finestre di vista

,O GLVHJQR LQ ' ULFKLHGH XQ FRQWUROOR FRPSOHWR H FRQWLQXR GHOOD VFHQD FKH VL VWD
FUHDQGR (· QHFHVVDULR TXLQGL DYHUH VXOOR VFKHUPR SL YLVWH VXO GLVHJQR GD SXQWL GL
YLVWDGLYHUVL
3HU GLYLGHUH OR VFKHUPR LQ SL ILQHVWUH VL VFHJOLH GDO PHQX 9LVXDOL]]D  )LQHVWUH H
TXLQGL LO QXPHUR GL ILQHVWUH FRQ OH TXDOL VL YXROH GLYLGHUH OR VFKHUPR 9D WHQXWR
SUHVHQWHFKHWXWWDO·DUHDGLYLVXDOL]]D]LRQHYLHQHGLYLVDLQSLILQHVWUHDGLIIHUHQ]DGHOOR
6SD]LR FDUWD QHO TXDOH VL KD OD SRVVLELOLWj GL GHILQLUH ILQHVWUH GL YDULD IRUPD H
GLPHQVLRQH
'RSR DYHU GHILQLWR OD FRQILJXUD]LRQH GL ILQHVWUH GHVLGHUDWD SXz HVVHUH VDOYDWD
VFHJOLHQGR9LVXDOL]]D)LQHVWUH)LQHVWUHFRQQRPHHTXLQGLLQGLFDQGRLOQRPH
GHOODFRQILJXUD]LRQHGDPHPRUL]]DUH


Claudio Gasparini Il disegno in 3D 67


)LJ

'LYLVLRQHGHOOR
VFKHUPRJUDILFRLQ
ILQHVWUHFKH
ULSURGXFRQROR
VWHVVRSXQWRGL
YLVWDGHOODILQHVWUD
RULJLQDULD




,OSURJUDPPDIRUQLVFHDOFXQHFRQILJXUD]LRQLGLILQHVWUHSUHGHILQLWHFKHSRVVRQRHVVHUH
VXELWRXWLOL]]DWHTXHOODULSRUWDWDLQEDVVRH·ODFRQILJXUD]LRQH4XDWWUR6LQLVWUD/·XWHQWH
SXz GHILQLUH QXRYH GLPHQVLRQL H VRSUDWWXWWR SXQWL GL YLVWD H PHPRUL]]DUH OD
FRQILJXUD]LRQHSHUXWLOL]]LIXWXUL

)LJ
&RQILJXUD]LRQH
GHILQLWD´4XDWWUR
6LQLVWUDµIRUQLWD
QHOOH
FRQILJXUD]LRQLGL
EDVHGHOVLVWHPD
2JQLILQHVWUDSXz
HVVHUHVXGGLYLVDLQ
DOWUHVRWWRILQHVWUH
RJQXQDFRQSXQWL
GLYLVWDGLIIHUHQWL

11.5
Definizione
dei punti di vista

3HUGHILQLUHXQSXQWRGLYLVWDLOVLVWHPDSUHVHQWDYDULPRGLGLGHILQL]LRQHGHOOHYLVWH
1HOPHQX9LVXDOL]]D3XQWLGLYLVWD'VLSRVVRQRVFHJOLHUHIUDOHYLVWHSUHGHILQLWHGL
WLSRRUWRJRQDOHRDVVRQRPHWULFD
(·QHFHVVDULRFRPSUHQGHUHFRPHLOVLVWHPDGHILQLVFHOHYLVWHHSHURWWHQHUHTXHVWRLO
PLJOLRU PRGR q YHGHUH LQ GHWWDJOLR OD PRGDOLWj GL IXQ]LRQDPHQWR GHO FRPDQGR
39,67$FKHqODIXQ]LRQHEDVHQHOODGHILQL]LRQHGHOOHYLVWH
Comando: PVISTA
Specificare un punto di vista o [Ruota] <visualizzare la
bussola e il sistema a tre assi>: 0,0,1
6RQRSRVVLELOLWUHPRGLSHUGHILQLUHXQDYLVWDQHOORVSD]LRXWLOL]]DQGRLOFRPDQGR
39,67$
&RRUGLQDWHDVVROXWH
,O PRGR SL GLUHWWR SHU GHILQLUH GHOOH YLVWH RUWRJRQDOL q GLJLWDQGR GLUHWWDPHQWH GD
WDVWLHUDOHFRRUGLQDWHDVVROXWHGHOODGLUH]LRQHGLYLVWDGHOO·RVVHUYDWRUH

 CAD Tutor 2004


)LJ
,OSXQWRGLYLVWDq
ULIHULWDDOOD
GLUH]LRQHGDOOD
TXDOHO·RVVHUYDWRUH
JXDUGDODVFHQD
SRVWDDOFHQWURGHO
VLVWHPDGL
ULIHULPHQWR
WHPSRUDQHR



8QDYLVWDLQSLDQWDqGHILQLWDGDOOHFRRUGLQDWHSHUFKpODYLVWDqSRVWDOXQJRO·DVVH
= H SHUWDQWR SHUSHQGLFRODUH DO SLDQR ;<  *OL DOWUL DVVL KDQQR YDORUH  SHUFKp q
RUWRJRQDOHTXLQGLSDUDOOHODDGXQVRORDVVH

)LJ
&RQILJXUD]LRQH
GHOOHILQHVWUHH
GHILQL]LRQHGHO
SXQWRGLYLVWDFRQ
LOFRPDQGR
39,67$FRQ
ULSRUWDWHOH
FRRUGLQDWHGL
YLVXDOL]]D]LRQHGL
RJQLYLVWD



1HOODILJXUDVRQRULSRUWDWLWXWWLLYDORULGDLQVHULUHDOFRPDQGR39,67$SHUDYHUOH
YLVWHGLSURLH]LRQHRUWRJRQDOHHGXQDLQYLVWDDVVRQRPHWULFD
,YDORULQHJDWLYLGHQRWDQRODGLUH]LRQHGHOODYLVWDODYLVWDIURQWDOHLQIDWWLqOXQJRO·DVVH<
PDOXQJRLOYHUVRQHJDWLYRGHOO·DVVHTXLQGLLYDORULGHOODYLVWDIURQWDOHVRQRLO
YDORUH q SRVLWLYR VH OD YLVWD q SRVL]LRQDWD QHOOD GLUH]LRQH GHOO·DVVH QHJDWLYR VH QHOOD
GLUH]LRQHRSSRVWD
9D ULFRUGDWD OD FRQYHQ]LRQH GHOOD PDQR GHVWUD QHOOD GHILQL]LRQH GHOOD SRVL]LRQH
GHJOLDVVLIUDGLORUR6LYHGDLOPRGXOR
&RRUGLQDWHVIHULFKH
&RQO·RS]LRQH5VLDWWLYDO·LPPLVVLRQHGHOOHFRRUGLQDWHVIHULFKHVHFRQGRODVHTXHQ]D
DQJRORGDOO
DVVH;HDQJRORGDOSLDQR;<


Claudio Gasparini Il disegno in 3D 69

)LJ
'HILQL]LRQHGHOOD
YLVWDLQFRRUGLQDWH
VIHULFKHLOSULPR
DQJRORULJXDUGDOD
GLVWDQ]DDQJRODUH
GDOO
DVVH;LO
VHFRQGRDQJROR
ULJXDUGDOD
GLVWDQ]DGDO
SLDQR;<


3HU GHILQLUH XQ
SXQWRGLYLVWDXWLOL]]DQGROHFRRUGLQDWHVIHULFKHODVHTXHQ]DqODVHJXHQWH
Comando: PVISTA
Specificare un punto di vista o [Ruota] <visualizzare la
bussola e il sistema a tre assi>: R (per Ruota)
Digitare l'angolo sul piano XY dall'asse X <corrente>:
220 (angolo dall’asse X)
Digitare l'angolo dal piano XY <corrente>: 40 (angolo
dal piano XY)
/DYLVWDDVVRQRPHWULFDULVXOWDQWHqODYLVWDLQEDVVRDGHVWUDGLILJXUDHULVSHFFKLD
LOPRGRSLSUHFLVRSHUGHILQLUHXQDYLVWDDVVRQRPHWULFD
0HGLDQWHEXVVRODHVLVWHPDDWUHDVVL
6FHJOLHQGRGDOPHQX9LVXDOL]]D3XQWLGLYLVWD'39,67$RFRQLQYLRDOFRPDQGR
39,67$VLDWWLYDODPRGDOLWjGLVFHOWDPHGLDQWHEXVVRODHGXQVLVWHPDDWUHDVVLXWLOL]]DWL
SHUGHILQLUHODGLUH]LRQHGLRVVHUYD]LRQHQHOODILQHVWUD
/DEXVVRODqODUDSSUHVHQWD]LRQH'GLXQDVIHUD,OFHQWURFRUULVSRQGHDO3ROR1RUG
= O
DQHOORLQWHUQRDOO
(TXDWRUH ;< HWXWWRO
DQHOORHVWHUQRDO3ROR6XG 
= ,OSXQWDWRUHDFURFHGHOODEXVVRODSXzHVVHUHVSRVWDWRFRQLOPRXVHLQTXDOVLDVL
SDUWH GHOOD VIHUD ,Q EDVH DO PRYLPHQWR GHO SXQWDWRUH D FURFH LO VLVWHPD D WUH DVVL
UXRWHUjFRQIRUPHPHQWHDOODGLUH]LRQHGLYLVXDOL]]D]LRQHLQGLFDWDGDOODEXVVROD


)LJ
'HILQL]LRQHGHOSXQWRGLYLVWD
PHGLDQWHODEXVVRODHGLOVLVWHPDD
WUHDVVL/DEXVVRODqOD
UDSSUHVHQWD]LRQHGLXQDVIHUDGRYH
LOFHQWURUDSSUHVHQWDLO3ROR1RUG
 



/·XWLOL]]R GHOOD ´YLVWD FRQ EXVVRODµ QRQ q XQ PHWRGR SUHFLVR QHOOD GHILQL]LRQH GHO
SXQWR GL YLVWD PD q VLFXUDPHQWH YHORFH H LPPHGLDWR TXDQGR VL ULFKLHGH XQD GLYHUVD
YLVXDOL]]D]LRQHGLXQPRGHOORRGLXQDVFHQD




Capitolo 12
/D\RXWHVWDPSDGHLGLVHJQL
• 8VRGHLOD\RXWGLGLVHJQR
• 8WLOL]]RGLXQPRGHOORGLOD\RXW
• 0RGLILFDGLXQOD\RXW
• /DVFDODGHOGLVHJQR
• /DVWDPSDGHOGLVHJQR
• (VHPSLRJUDILFR

'RSRDYHUFRPSOHWDWRXQGLVHJQRO
XOWLPDIDVHGLODYRURFRQVLVWHQHOODVWDPSDFRQLO
SORWWHU R FRQ  OD VWDPSDQWH GHJOL HODERUDWL JUDILFL 3ULPD GL FUHDUH OH VWDPSH q
QHFHVVDULRGHILQLUHLOOD\RXWYDOHDGLUHO
LPSDJLQD]LRQHGHLGLVHJQLFRPHLOIRUPDWR
GL FDUWD OD  FRQILJXUD]LRQH GHO SORWWHU LO QXPHUR GL ILQHVWUH VXO GLVHJQR H OD
GHILQL]LRQHGHOODVFDODGHOOHVLQJROHYLVWH

12.1 Uso dei layout di disegno

, OD\RXW GL GLVHJQR ULSURGXFRQR LO IRUPDWR ILQDOH GHO GLVHJQR FKH VDUj VWDPSDWR VX
FDUWD  H SHU TXHVWR VRQR XWLOL]]DWL VROR QHOOR 6SD]LR FDUWD  2JQL OD\RXW q LQIDWWL XQR
6SD]LR FDUWD FRPSOHWR FKH ULSURGXFH LQWHJUDOPHQWH XQ IRJOLR GL GLVHJQR QHOOH
GLPHQVLRQL H QHOO·DUHD GL VWDPSD H FRPSUHQGH DQFKH LO FDUWLJOLR H DOWUH LQIRUPD]LRQL
VFULWWH



)LJ,PSRVWD]LRQHGHOOD\RXWGHOGLVHJQRFRQGXHILQHVWUH


Claudio Gasparini Layout e stampa dei disegni 71

,Q XQ OD\RXW q SRVVLELOH FUHDUH H SRVL]LRQDUH RJJHWWL GLYHUVL QHOOH YDULH ILQHVWUH H
DJJLXQJHUH VFULWWH TXRWH H FDUWLJOLR  /R 6SD]LR FDUWD q LQ VRVWDQ]D XQ SLDQR GL
SURLH]LRQHGRYHVRQRGHILQLWHOHYLVWHGLUDSSUHVHQWD]LRQHGHOPRGHOOR$OO
LQWHUQR
GHOOH ILQHVWUH GHOOR VSD]LR FDUWD VL SRVVRQR FRPSLHUH WXWWH OH RSHUD]LRQL GL
YLVXDOL]]D]LRQHHGLFRVWUX]LRQHJUDILFDGLRJQLVLQJRODILQHVWUDGHOOR6SD]LRPRGHOOR

)LJ
8WLOL]]RGLXQ
PRGHOORGLOD\RXW
LQIRUPDWR$
YHUWLFDOH,O
PRGHOORFRQWLHQH
DQFKHLOFDUWLJOLR
FRPHEORFFR
HGLWDELOHSHU
PRGLILFDUHOH
VFULWWHVLXVD
´(GLWDEORFFRµ




,QXQILOHGLGLVHJQRqSRVVLELOHFUHDUHOD\RXWPXOWLSOL FLDVFXQRFRQLPSRVWD]LRQLGL
VWDPSDHGLPHQVLRQLGLIRJOLRDQFKHGLYHUVH/DVFHOWDGHLOD\RXWDYYLHQHSXQWDQGROH
UHODWLYHVFKHGHQHOODSDUWHLQEDVVRGHOO
DUHDGLGLVHJQR

12.2 Utilizzo di un modello di layout

/·XWLOL]]RGHLPRGHOOLGLOD\RXWULVSRQGHDOODHVLJHQ]DVHPSOLILFDUHODIDVHGLFUHD]LRQH
GHL QXRYL GLVHJQL IRUQHQGR LPSDJLQD]LRQL JUDILFKH JLj SUHGHILQLWH LQ IXQ]LRQH GHO
IRUPDWR GL FDUWD GHOOD VFDOD GHO GLVHJQR H GHOOD FRQILJXUD]LRQH GHOOH SHQQH H GHO
SORWWHU ,Q XQD VWXGLR R VRFLHWj GL SURJHWWD]LRQH DUWLFRODWD O·XWLOL]]R GHL PRGHOOL
JDUDQWLVFHDQFKHXQOLYHOORHOHYDWRHFRVWDQWHGLVWDQGDUGGLGLVHJQR
3HUXWLOL]]DUHXQPRGHOORVHOH]LRQDUHGDOPHQXDGLVFHVD,QVHULVFL/D\RXW/D\RXW
GDO PRGHOOR  $XWR&$'  IRUQLVFH PROWL PRGHOOL GL OD\RXW FRQ GLYHUVH GLPHQVLRQL
IRUPDWLJUDILFLHGXQLWjGLPLVXUD

)LJ
1HOODILQHVWUDGLVFHOWDVLSXzDYHUH
XQ·DQWHSULPDGHLOD\RXWIRUQLWLGDO
VLVWHPD







 CAD Tutor 2004

12.3 Modifica di un layout

&RQVLGHUDWRFKHOHILQHVWUHVRQRRJJHWWLJUDILFLVLFRPSRUWDQRHVDWWDPHQWHFRPHXQD
TXDOVLDVLHQWLWjJUDILFDHSLLQSDUWLFRODUHDGXQUHWWDQJROR,QIDWWLVLSXzGHIRUPDUH
QHOODGLPHQVLRQHFRPHXQXQLFRRJJHWWRHFRPHWDOHDQFKHVSRVWDWRRFDQFHOODWR
2JQLILQHVWUDSXzHVVHUHDVVRFLDWDDGXQFRORUHOD\HURVWLOHGLVWDPSD

)LJ
3HUWUDFFLDUHOD
OLQHDLQEOXVL
GLJLWDLOSULPR
HVWUHPRFRQOH
FRRUGLQDWHH
FRPHSXQWRILQDOHL
YDORUL6H
HVLVWHXQ·DOWUD
OLQHDQHOGLVHJQR
SHULOVHFRQGR
SXQWRGHOODOLQHDVL
SXzXWLOL]]DUHOR
VQDS),1(

3HUQRQYLVXDOL]]DUHOHFRUQLFLGHOOHILQHVWUHFUHDWHQHOORVSD]LRFDUWDVLSRVL]LRQDQRLQ
XQ OD\HU VSHFLILFR FKH SRL YLHQH FRQJHODWR SULPD GL VWDPSDUH LO GLVHJQR ,Q TXHVWR
PRGR QRQ YHQJRQR VWDPSDWH OH OLQHH GL GLYLVLRQH GHOOH ILQHVWUH FKH VDUHEEHUR GL
GLVWXUERHJUDILFDPHQWHQRQFRUUHWWH

12.4 La scala del disegno

/HILQHVWUHGHOORVSD]LRFDUWDFRUULVSRQGRQRDYLVWHGLSURLH]LRQHRSURVSHWWLFKHGHO
PRGHOOR FRPSOHWDPHQWH LQGLSHQGHQWL IUD GL ORUR 2JQLYLVWD SXz DYHUH GLPHQVLRQLH
VFDOHGLUDSSUHVHQWD]LRQHHTXLQGLVFDOHGLVWDPSDVXFDUWDGLYHUVH
3HUGHILQLUHODVFDODGLXQDYLVWDYDWHQXWRSUHVHQWHFKHVLVWDODYRUDQGRQHOORVSD]LR
FDUWDGRYHLOUDSSRUWRGLVFDODqUHODWLYRDOIRJOLRGLGLVHJQRHQRQSLDOPRGHOOR
0HQWUH QHO PRGHOOR VL SRVVRQR XWLOL]]DUH XQLWj GL PLVXUD GLYHUVH TXDOL PLOOLPHWUL R
FHQWLPHWUL  QHOOR VSD]LR FDUWD O·XQLWj GL ULIHULPHQWR GL GLVHJQR H GL PLVXUD q LO
PLOOLPHWURHODGLPHQVLRQHqVHPSUHTXHOODGHILQLWDGDOOHQRUPHGLGLVHJQR81,
3HUGHWHUPLQDUHHGHILQLUHODVFDODGLRJQLYLVWDVLDWWLYDODPRGDOLWjVSD]LRPRGHOORGL
RJQLVLQJRODILQHVWUDHVLXWLOL]]DLOFRPDQGR=220FRQO·RS]LRQHGL6FDODGLJLWDQGRLO
IDWWRUHGLVFDODVHJXLWDGD;3
$GHVHPSLRQHOODILQHVWUDDVLQLVWUDGHOGLVHJQRODVFDODqVWDWDGHILQLWDGLJLWDQGR
;3FRPHULVSRVWDDOFRPDQGR=220/HYLVWHDGHVWUDHGLQEDVVRFRUULVSRQGRQR
DGXQDVFDODGLHGLOORURIDWWRUHGLVFDODGLJLWDWRq;3$GHVHPSLRQHOODILQHVWUD
D VLQLVWUD GHO GLVHJQR OD VFDOD  q VWDWD GHILQLWD GLJLWDQGR ;3 FRPH ULVSRVWD DO
FRPDQGR=220/HYLVWHDGHVWUDHGLQEDVVRFRUULVSRQGRQRDGXQDVFDODGLHGLO
ORURIDWWRUHGLVFDODGLJLWDWRq;3


Claudio Gasparini Layout e stampa dei disegni 73

)LJ
,PSDJLQD]LRQHGHOOR
VWHVVRSH]]RFRQ
ILQHVWUHGLGLPHQVLRQL
HVFDOHGLYHUVH/D
YLVXDOL]]D]LRQHLQ
RJQLILQHVWUDYLHQH
GHILQLWDFRQLO
FRPDQGR=RRP
O·DVSHWWRGHOGLVHJQR
VDUjTXHOORFKH
ULVXOWHUjVWDPSDWRVX
FDUWD

8QD VFDOD GHILQLWD ;3 FRUULVSRQGH DOOR VWHVVR UDSSRUWR GL VFDOD  GHO IRJOLR GD
GLVHJQRPPVXFDUWD PPGHOPRGHOOR
6HVLqXWLOL]]DWRLOFPFRPHXQLWjGLPLVXUDGHOSURJHWWRDOORUDLOYDORUHGDGLJLWDUH
VHPSUHSHURWWHQHUHXQDVFDODVDUHEEH;3SHUFKpFPXQLWjGLGLVHJQRGHYH
FRUULVSRQGHDPPVXFDUWD

12.5 La stampa del disegno

'RSRDYHUFUHDWRXQGLVHJQRqSRVVLELOHVWDPSDUORVXFDUWD 67$03$ RHVSRUWDUOR


VX ILOH 6$/9$&20(  LQ IRUPDWL GLYHUVL VLD GL YHUVLRQL SUHFHGHQWL GL $XWR&$'
5 RSSXUHLQIRUPDWRQHXWURG·LQWHUVFDPELR ';) FRQDOWULSURJUDPPL&$'
8Q GLVHJQR VWDPSDWR SXz FRQWHQHUH XQ
XQLFD YLVWD RSSXUH XQD GLVSRVL]LRQH SL
FRPSOHVVD GL YLVWH 6L SRVVRQR DQFKH PHPRUL]]DUH VX XQ XQLFR ILOH GLYHUVH WDYROH
WHFQLFKHJLjSUHGHILQLWHHSURQWHSHUHVVHUHVWDPSDWHFRQXQDVHPSOLFHPRGLILFDGHOOH
YLVWD

3HUVWDPSDUHXQGLVHJQRGLGHYHVFHJOLHUHO·LFRQDGLVWDPSDUHODWLYDRSSXUHGDOPHQX
)LOHODIXQ]LRQH6WDPSD/DILQHVWUDFKHYLHQHYLVXDOL]]DWDSUHVHQWDL,VLVWHPDSUHVHQWD
ODILQHVWUDGLGLDORJR6WDPSD
*OLDVSHWWLIRQGDPHQWDOLGDFRQWUROODUHSHUODVWDPSDGLXQGLVHJQRVRQR
y FRQILJXUD]LRQHGHOSORWWHU
y LPSRVWD]LRQLGLVWDPSDGHOODSDJLQD
y VWLOLGLVWDPSD












 CAD Tutor 2004

)LJ
)LQHVWUDGL
6WDPSDFRQ
YLVXDOL]]DWDOD
FDUWHOOD'LVSRVLWLYR
GLVWDPSD







&RQILJXUD]LRQHGHO3ORWWHU
6H VL XWLOL]]D LO VLVWHPD SHU OD SULPD YROWD q QHFHVVDULR FRQILJXUDUH LO SORWWHU R LO
GLVSRVLWLYRGLVWDPSD3HUXWLOL]]DUHODVWDPSDQWHGLVLVWHPDXWLOL]]DWDLQ:LQGRZVQRQ
qQHFHVVDULRPRGLILFDUH1RPHGHOSORWWHU&RQ3URSULHWjVLSRVVRQRPRGLILFDUHIUD
O·DOWUR  OH LPSRVWD]LRQL GL VWDPSD FRPH LO WLSR GL FDUWD L IRUPDWL JUDILFL OD
FRQILJXUD]LRQHGHOOHSHQQHILVLFKHHGDOWUHSURSULHWjSHUVRQDOL]]DWH
,QTXHVWR(GLWRUGLFRQILJXUD]LRQHqSRVVLELOHLQROWUHVFHJOLHUHODGLPHQVLRQHGHOIRJOLR
GLGLVHJQRHVDOYDUHODFRQILJXUD]LRQHGHILQLWD
/·LPSRVWD]LRQLGLVWDPSD
1HOODFDUWHOOD,PSRVWD]LRQHGHOODSDJLQDVLGHILQLVFRQRJOLDVSHWWLFKHGHYRQRDYHUHL
GLVHJQLVXFDUWDFRPHO·RULHQWDPHQWRODVFDODHODSRVL]LRQHQHOO·DUHDJUDILFD7XWWHOH
LPSRVWD]LRQLGHILQLWHGHOODSDJLQDSRVVRQRHVVHUHVDOYDWHSHUHVVHUHXWLOL]]DWHFRQDOWUL
OD\RXW
/HSULQFLSDOLLPSRVWD]LRQLVRQROHVHJXHQWL
RULHQWDPHQWRGHOGLVHJQRLOGLVHJQRSXzHVVHUHUXRWDWRQHOODIDVHGLVWDPSDSHU
VHJXLUHO·RULHQWDPHQWRGHOIRJOLRGLGLVHJQR
XQLWjGLPLVXUDFRQVHQWHGLVSHFLILFDUHLSROOLFLRLPLOOLPHWULFRPHXQLWjGLPLVXUD
GHOODVWDPSD
DUHDGLVWDPSDVSHFLILFDODSDUWHGHOGLVHJQRGDVWDPSDUH/DVFHOWD/D\RXW
SHUPHWWHODVWDPSDGHJOLRJJHWWLFRPSUHVLQHLPDUJLQLGHOIRJOLRVSHFLILFDWR&RQ
(VWHQVLRQHVLVWDPSDO·LQWHURGLVHJQRFRQWXWWHOHHQWLWjJUDILFKHFRQWHQXWH&RQ
6FKHUPRYLHQHLQYLDWDLQVWDPSDO·DUHDGLYLVXDOL]]D]LRQHGHOODILQHVWUDFRUUHQWH


Claudio Gasparini Layout e stampa dei disegni 75


)LJ
1HOODFDUWHOOD
´,PSRVWD]LRQLGL
VWDPSDµVLSRVVRQR
VFHJOLHUHLIRUPDWLH
OHGLPHQVLRQL
IRQGDPHQWDOLGLXQ
GLVHJQR






&RQ6FDODGLVWDPSDVLFRQWUROODQROHGLPHQVLRQLDWWUDYHUVRODGHILQL]LRQHGHOUDSSRUWR
XQLWj GL VWDPSD  XQLWj GL GLVHJQR 1HOOR 6SD]LR &DUWD LO UDSSRUWR GD VSHFLILFDUH q
VHPSUH  SHUFKp LO OD\RXW GHO GLVHJQR q ULIHULWR DOOD GLPHQVLRQH GHO IRJOLR GL FDUWD
HVSUHVVDLQPLOOLPHWULHODVFDODqVWDWDGHILQLWDQHOOD\RXWGHOGLVHJQR
6HLQYHFHVLVWDPSDGDOOR6SD]LR0RGHOORqQHFHVVDULRGHILQLUHLOUDSSRUWRGLVFDODGD
XWLOL]]DUHQHOODVWDPSD9DWHQXWRSUHVHQWHFKHO·XQLWjGLVWDPSDIDVHPSUHULIHULPHQWR
DO PLOOLPHWUR FRPH XQLWj GL PLVXUD PHQWUH O·XQLWj GL GLVHJQR q UHODWLYD DOO·XQLWj GL
PLVXUDDGRWWDWDQHOGLVHJQR
3ULPD GL LQYLDUH LQ VWDPSD LO GLVHJQR q SRVVLELOH RWWHQHUH XQD YLVXDOL]]D]LRQH LQ
DQWHSULPDGHOULVXOWDWRVXVWDPSDDWWUDYHUVRLSXOVDQWL
y 3DU]LDOHYLVXDOL]]DXQDUDSSUHVHQWD]LRQHGHOO·DUHDGLVWDPSDHIIHWWLYD
ULVSHWWRDOOHGLPHQVLRQLGHOIRJOLRHDOO
DUHDGLVWDPSD
/
DQWHSULPDSDU]LDOHVHJQDODLQROWUHJOLHYHQWXDOLPHVVDJJLGL
DYYHUWLPHQWRRGLHUURUHSHULOIRUPDWRVFHOWR
y 7XWWRYLVXDOL]]DXQ·DQWHSULPDFRPSOHWDGHOGLVHJQRFRPHVDUjVWDPSDWR
VXOIRJOLRGLGLVHJQRVFHOWRFRPSUHVLJOLVSHVVRULGLOLQHHHGL
PRGHOOLGLULHPSLPHQWR3HUXVFLUHGDOO
DQWHSULPDGLVWDPSDIDUH
FOLFFRQLOSXOVDQWHGHVWURGHOPRXVHHVFHJOLHUH(VFL


 CAD Tutor 2004

&RPHGHILQLUHODVFDODGHOGLVHJQR
/DWDEHOODULSRUWDLYDORULGDLQVHULUHQHOODILQHVWUDGLVWDPSDYDULDQGRVLDDVFDODGL
VWDPSDGDDGRWWDUHVLDO·XQLWjGLGLVHJQRXVDWDQHOGLVHJQR

  9DORULGD
VFDODGLVWDPSD XQLWjGLGLVHJQR LQVHULUH
  
 PP  
  
 FP  
  
 P  
  
 PP  
  
 FP  

3HU DYHUH XQD VFDOD  VL VFHOJRQR L YDORUL   VH O·XQLWj GL GLVHJQR DGRWWDWD q LO
PLOOLPHWUR PHQWUH VL GHILQLVFRQR L YDORUL   VH O·XQLWj q LO FHQWLPHWUR ,QIDWWL
FRQVLGHUDWR FKH O·XQLWj GL VWDPSD q VHPSUH LQ PLOOLPHWUL VH QHO GLVHJQR VL q XVDWR LO
FHQWLPHWUR PP VLGHYHGHILQLUHQHOODILQHVWUDGLVWDPSDFKH´PPVXFDUWDµ
ULPDFRORQQDFRUULVSRQGRQRD´XQLWjGLGLVHJQRµVHFRQGDFRORQQD

12.6 Esempi grafici

4XHVWDHVHUFLWD]LRQHLQWHQGHDFFRPSDJQDUHSDVVRSDVVRQHOODUHDOL]]D]LRQHGHOSULPR
GLVHJQRDO&$'GDOO·LQL]LRGHOODVHVVLRQHGLODYRURFRQ$XWR&$'ILQRDOODVWDPSDGHO
GLVHJQRFRPSOHWR

4XDQGR VL LQL]LD XQ QXRYR GLVHJQR LO VLVWHPD SUHVHQWD OD ILQHVWUD GL GLDORJR &UHD
QXRYRGLVHJQRFRQVHOH]LRQDWDO·RS]LRQH8VDXQ·DXWRFRPSRVL]LRQH
/D GXH VFHOWH SHUPHWWRQR GL LQL]LDUH XQ QXRYR GLVHJQR XWLOL]]DQGR DOFXQH
LPSRVWD]LRQLIDFLOLWDWH

/HGXHVFHOWHGLVSRQLELOLVRQR
,PSRVWD]LRQH DYDQ]DWD LPSRVWD OH XQLWj GL PLVXUD OD SUHFLVLRQH GHOOH XQLWj
YLVXDOL]]DWH H L OLPLWL GL JULJOLD ,QROWUH GHILQLVFH OH LPSRVWD]LRQL GHJOL DQJROL TXDOL
SUHFLVLRQHGLUH]LRQHRULHQWDPHQWRHVWLOHGHOOHXQLWjGLPLVXUD
,PSRVWD]LRQHUDSLGDLPSRVWDOHXQLWjGLPLVXUDODSUHFLVLRQHGHOOHXQLWjYLVXDOL]]DWH
HLOLPLWLGLJULJOLD

3HU GLVDWWLYDUH OD YLVXDOL]]D]LRQH GL TXHVWD ILQHVWUD DOO·DYYLR GHO VLVWHPD GLVDWWLYDUH
´0RVWUDODILQHVWUDGLGLDORJR$YYLRµLQEDVVRDVLQLVWUD



Claudio Gasparini Layout e stampa dei disegni 77


)LJ
)LQHVWUDGL
GLDORJR&UHD
QXRYR
GLVHJQRFRQ
VHOH]LRQDWD
O·RS]LRQH8VD
XQ·DXWRFRPSR
VL]LRQHH
,PSRVWD]LRQH
UDSLGD



1HOOD ILQHVWUD GL LPSRVWD]LRQH $UHD GHILQLDPR OD GLPHQVLRQH GHOO·DUHD GL GLVHJQR LQ
VFDOD  XWLOL]]DQGR OH XQLWj GL PLVXUD XWLOL]]DWH QHO GLVHJQR 'LJLWLDPR FRPH
/DUJKH]]DLOYDORUHHFRPH/XQJKH]]DLOYDORUHFKHVRQROHGLPHQVLRQLLQ
PPGHOIRJOLRLQIRUPDWR$3HUFRPSOHWDUHO·LPSRVWD]LRQHFRQIHUPLDPR)LQH

,PSRVWD]LRQLJHQHUDOL
/D\HU
3ULPDGLLQL]LDUHDGLVHJQDUHqFRQVLJOLDWRFUHDUHGHLOD\HUVXLTXDOLLQVHULUHJOLRJJHWWL
JUDILFLFKHYRJOLDPRFUHDUH,QTXHVWRHVHUFL]LRFUHLDPRGHLQXRYLOD\HU6TXDGUDWXUDH
7HVWL

6HOH]LRQLDPR)RUPDWR/D\HUHQHOODILQHVWUDGLGLDORJR*HVWLRQHSURSULHWjOD\HUFRQLO
SXOVDQWH1XRYRFUHLDPRLQXRYLOD\HU6TXDGUDWXUDH7HVWL$VVHJQLDPRDLVLQJROLOD\HU
LFRORUL%OXH0DJHQWDHORVSHVVRUHGLOLQHDDOOD\HU6TXDGUDWXUD

6QDS
$WWLYLDPR RUD XQ ILOWUR GL 6QDS DG RJJHWWR FLRq GL FROOHJDPHQWR DL SXQWL QRWHYROL
VFHJOLHQGR,QWHUVH]LRQHGDOPHQ6WUXPHQWL,PSRVWD]LRQLGLVHJQR

'LVHJQRGHOODVTXDGUDWXUDHGHOFDUWLJOLR
'LVHJQRGHOODVTXDGUDWXUDHGHOFDUWLJOLR

5HQGLDPR FRUUHQWH LO OD\HU 6TXDGUDWXUD VHOH]LRQDQGR GDOOD EDUUD GHJOL VWUXPHQWL
3URSULHWj RJJHWWR LO SXOVDQWH &RQWUROOR OD\HU ,O OD\HU FRUUHQWH YLHQH YLVXDOL]]DWR QHO
SXOVDQWHFRQLOFRORUHHLOWLSRGLOLQHDGHILQLWL










 CAD Tutor 2004

)LJ
$WWLYD]LRQHGHOOD\HU
6TXDGUDWXUDGDOODEDUUDGHJOL
VWUXPHQWL3URSULHWjRJJHWWR












6HOH]LRQLDPRLOFRPDQGR5(77$1*2/2 HLQVHULDPROHFRRUGLQDWHGHOSULPR
SXQWRHTXLQGLOHFRRUGLQDWHUHODWLYHGHOVHFRQGRSXQWRGHOODGLDJRQDOH#

,O UHWWDQJROR UHODWLYR FRUULVSRQGH DOOD VTXDGUDWXUD GL XQ IRJOLR $ FRQ  PP GL
PDUJLQH  ,O UHWWDQJROR GLVHJQDWR q XQ XQLFR RJJHWWR PHQWUH SHU OH RSHUD]LRQL
VXFFHVVLYHFLVHUYRQRVRORVRQRQHFHVVDULHVLQJROHOLQHH3HUWDQWRVLGHYHHVSORGHUHLO
UHWWDQJROR LQVHULWR FLRq VFRPSRUOR QHOOH OLQHH VHPSOLFL FKH OR FRVWLWXLVFRQR FRQ OD
IXQ]LRQH(63/2', 

3HU LQVHULUH LO FDUWLJOLR XWLOL]]LDPR OD IXQ]LRQH 2))6(7  GXSOLFDQGR OD OLQHD GL
EDVHYROWHFRQGLVWDQ]DXQLWj

Comando: OFFSET
Specificare distanza dello sfalsamento o [Punto]
>Punto>: 10
Selezionare oggetto da sfalsare o <Esci>: Selezionare
la linea di fondo
Specificare punto sul alto da sfalsare: Puntare con il
mouse sopra la linea per indicare la direzione di copia

2WWHQLDPRXQDOLQHDSDUDOOHODDOODOLQHDGLIRQGRLQVHULWDDGXQDGLVWDQ]DGLXQLWj
PP 5LSHWLDPRODVWHVVDRSHUD]LRQHSHUWUHYROWHSHURWWHQHUHOHDOWUHOLQHHSDUDOOHOH
,QVHULPHQWRGHOOHOLQHHGLPH]]HULD
,QVHULDPRRUDXQDOLQHDGLPH]]HULDVXOFDUWLJOLRXWLOL]]DQGRLOILOWURGL6QDSDG
RJJHWWR0HGLR
3HUDWWLYDUHLOILOWURVFHJOLHUHO·LFRQD3XQWR0HGLR QHOOD%DUUDGL6QDSDG2JJHWWR
RSSXUHSUHPHUH&75/WDVWRGHVWURGHOPRXVHSHUVFHJOLHUHLOILOWUR0HGLR






Claudio Gasparini Layout e stampa dei disegni 79


)LJ
,QVHULPHQWR
GHOODOLQHDGL
PH]]HULDQHO
FDUWLJOLRGRSR
DYHUDWWLYDWRLO
ILOWURGL6QDS
DGRJJHWWR
SXQWR0HGLR





7DJOLRGHOOHOLQHHHFFHGHQWL

6HPSUHFRQLOFRPDQGR2))6(7 GXSOLFDQGRODOLQHDGLPH]]HULDLQPRGRGD
VXGGLYLGHUHLOGXHSDUWLXJXDOLLOFDUWLJOLRQHOODSDUWHGHVWUD'HILQLDPRXQDGLVWDQ]DGL
XQLWjODGLVWDQ]DGDFRSLDUHODOLQHDGLPH]]HULD

&RQ LO FRPDQGR 7$*/,$  HOLPLQLDPR OH SDUWL HFFHGHQWL GHOOH OLQHH LQVHULWH
6HOH]LRQLDPRFRPHVSLJROLGLWDJOLROHOLQHHYHUWLFDOLHFRPHRJJHWWLGDWDJOLDUHOHSDUWL
GHOOHOLQHHLQWHUHVVDWH

)LJ

(OLPLQD]LRQHGHOOH
SDUWLGLOLQHHFRQLO
FRPDQGR
7$*/,$3ULPD
GHYRQRHVVHUH
VHOH]LRQDWHOHOLQHH
YHUWLFDOLHLQ
VHJXLWROHGXHOLQHH
RUL]]RQWDOLGD
WDJOLDUH



6DOYDWDJJLRLQWHUPHGLR
$TXHVWRSXQWRVDOYLDPRLOGLVHJQRLSRWL]]DQGRGLGRYHUVRVSHQGHUHLOODYRUR9LVWR
FKHLOQRVWURGLVHJQRQRQKDDQFRUDXQQRPHVFHJOLDPRGDOPHQX)LOH6DOYDFRQ
QRPH SHU DVVHJQDUH LO QRPH OD SULPD YROWD ,Q VHJXLWR SHU VDOYDUH LO GLVHJQR q
VXIILFLHQWHDWWLYDUHLOFRPDQGR6$/9$ SHUVDOYDUHLOGLVHJQRFRQORVWHVVRQRPH
GLDSHUWXUD




 CAD Tutor 2004

$SHUWXUDGHOGLVHJQR
3HU DSULUH XQ GLVHJQR LQ XQD QXRYD VHVVLRQH GL ODYRUR VFHJOLHUH )LOH  $SUL H QHOOD
ILQHVWUDGLGLDORJRVHOH]LRQLDPRLOILOHGLGLVHJQRFKHqVWDWRVDOYDWRLQSUHFHGHQ]D/D
PRGDOLWjGLVHOH]LRQHqWLSLFDGL:LQGRZVXWLOL]]DWDLQWXWWLLSURJUDPPL
6H VL SXQWD FRQ LO PRXVH XQ ILOH QHOOD SDUWH GHVWUD GHOOD ILQHVWUD YLHQH YLVXDOL]]DWD
XQ·DQWHSULPD GHO GLVHJQR ,Q 7LSR GL ILOH VL SRVVRQR DSULUH ILOH JUDILFL LQ IRUPDWL
GLYHUVLFRPH';)H':7

,QVHULPHQWRGHLWHVWL
2UD LQVHULDPR L WHVWL QHO FDUWLJOLR FKH DEELDPR GLVHJQDWR 6HOH]LRQLDPR GDO PHQX
'LVHJQD7HVWR7HVWR0XOWLOLQHDRSSXUHGLUHWWDPHQWHO·LFRQD 7HVWRPXOWLOLQHD

1HOODILQHVWUD0RGLILFDWHVWR0HFKHqODVWHVVDVLDSHUO·LQVHULPHQWRGHOWHVWR
VLDSHUODPRGLILFDVFHJOLDPR
y FDUDWWHUH$ULDO
y $OWH]]D
y *UDVVHWWR

(QHOODFDUWHOOD3URSULHWjVFHJOLDPROD*LXVWLILFD]LRQH0H]]R6LQLVWUD06

)LJ)LQHVWUDGLLQVHULPHQWR
GHOWHVWRPXOWLOLQHD1HOODFDUWHOOD
&DUDWWHUL LQDOWR VLVFHJOLHLOIRQW
$ULDOFRQDOWH]]DHWLSR%
*UDVVHWWRPHQWUHQHOODFDUWHOOD
3URSULHWjOD*LXVWLILFD]LRQHqGHOWLSR
0H]]R6LQLVWUD06

&RPSOHWDPHQWRGHLWHVWL
,QVHULDPR WXWWL L WHVWL QHO FDUWLJOLR QHOOD SRVL]LRQH LQGLFDWD QHO GLVHJQR ULSHWHQGR OD
VWHVVDSURFHGXUD
,WLWROLVRQRLVHJXHQWL6FXROD7LWROR&ODVVHGDWD6DOD7DYROD19RWR

)LJ

&DUWLJOLRFRPSOHWDWRGRSR
O·LQVHULPHQWRGHLWHVWLFRQLO
FRPDQGR7HVWL0XOWLOLQHD









Claudio Gasparini Layout e stampa dei disegni 81

'LVHJQRGHOVLPERORGLSURLH]LRQH

3HUGLVHJQDUHLOVLPERORGLSURLH]LRQHHXURSHDXWLOL]]LDPROHOLQHHGLFRVWUX]LRQHSHU
LQGLYLGXDUHLOFHQWURGHOSULPRFHUFKLR'RSRDYHUWUDFFLDWROHGLDJRQDOHXWLOL]]DQGRL
ILOWUL GL 6QDS )LQH VL LQVHULVFH OD OLQHD RUL]]RQWDOH D SDUWLUH GDOO·LQWHUVH]LRQH GHOOH
GLDJRQDOLHDWWLYDQGRODPRGDOLWj2572 ) FLRqWUDFFLDVROROLQHHRUWRJRQDOL
,QVHULUHTXLQGLGXHFHUFKLGLUDJJLRHFRPHFHQWURVXOSXQWR0HGLRGHOODOLQHD,O
VHFRQGRFHUFKLRSXzHVVHUHLQVHULWRFRQ2))6(7GDOSULPRFRQGLVWDQ]D

)LJ

/LQHHGL
FRVWUX]LRQHSHU
O·LQVHULPHQWRGHL
FHUFKLGHOVLPEROR
GLSURLH]LRQH
HXURSHD7XWWHOH
OLQHHXVDQRLILOWUL
GL6QDS




'RSR DYHU FDQFHOODWR WXWWH OH OLQHH GL FRVWUX]LRQH LQVHULDPR OH OLQHH RUL]]RQWDOL
DWWLYDQGR OR VQDS DG RJJHWWR TXDGUDQWH VXO FHUFKLR HG HVWHQGHQGR OH OLQHH YHUVR
VLQLVWUDFRQ2572DWWLYDWR ) 
4XLQGLWUDFFLDPRODSULPDOLQHHYHUWLFDOHDFRQORVQDS9LFLQRH3HUSHQGLFRODUHDOO·DOWUR
HVWUHPR
/DVHFRQGDOLQHDVDUjWUDFFLDWDFRQ2))6(7GLXQLWj
/HOLQHHLQFOLQDWHVRQRLQVHULWHFRQVQDS,QWHUVH]LRQHVXTXHOOHHVLVWHQWL
&RQ7$*/,$H&$1&(//$HOLPLQLDPROHOLQHHGLFRVWUX]LRQHQRQ
QHFHVVDULHDOGLVHJQR

)LJ
,QVHULPHQWRGHOOHOLQHH
RUL]]RQWDOLFRQLOILOWURGL
6QDS4XDGUDQWHLQGLYLGXDWR
VXOFHUFKLR/HDOWUHOLQHH
VRQRWUDFFLDWHFRQOD
IXQ]LRQH257+2LQVHULWD





6WDPSDGHOGLVHJQR

'RSRDYHUVDOYDWRLOGLVHJQRFRQ6$/9$VWDPSLDPRRUDLOGLVHJQRFRQLO
FRPDQGR67$03$ 



 CAD Tutor 2004

&RPH,PSRVWD]LRQLGLVWDPSDVFHJOLDPROD6FDODGLVWDPSDSHUFKpqOD'LPHQVLRQHGHO
IRJOLR$HFRPH$UHDGLVWDPSDL/LPLWL2ULHQWDPHQWRGHOGLVHJQR9HUWLFDOH
3HUYLVXDOL]]DUHXQ·DQWHSULPDSUHPHUHLOSXOVDQWH7XWWR

6DOYDWDJJLRGHOGLVHJQRPRGHOOR

'RSR DYHU FRQWUROODWR FKH LO GLVHJQR VLD FRPSOHWDWR VDOYLDPR LO GLVHJQR FRPH
0RGHOOR LQ PRGR GD SRWHU HVVHUH XWLOL]]DWR FRPH EDVH SHU L GLVHJQL VXFFHVVLYL GL
GLPHQVLRQH$


)LJ'LVHJQRVDOYDWRFRPHPRGHOORGLGLVHJQRSHUHVVHUHXWLOL]]DWRLQVHJXLWR
FRPHSHUDOWULGLVHJQL
4XLQGLVFHJOLDPR)LOH6DOYDFRQQRPHHQHOODILQHVWUDGLGLDORJRVHOH]LRQLDPRFRPH
7LSRILOHLOWLSR)LOHPRGHOORGLGLVHJQR GZW FKHVDUjSRVL]LRQDWRGDOVLVWHPDQHOOD
FDUWHOOD7HPSODWHGL$XWR&$'/