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The most common thyroid disorder is:

The correct answer is A. Hypothyroidism.

The most common thyroid disorder is hypothyroidism. This means an underactive thyroid. This is when
the gland doesn’t make enough thyroid hormone. The most common cause used to be a diet with not
enough iodine in it. In the U.S. in the early to mid-1900s, about half of all adults in the Great Lakes and
inland mountain areas had a goiter. This area was called the "goiter belt.” A goiter is an enlargement of
the thyroid gland. It happens when a person doesn't get enough iodine. Today iodine is added to table
salt. Because of this, most U.S. diets don't lack this trace element. Today, the most common cause of
hypothyroidism in the U.S. is Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This is a type of autoimmune disease. The normal
job of your body’s immune system is to protect against bacteria, viruses, and other foreign items. If you
have Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, your immune system attacks the thyroid cells. It treats them as foreign
cells and destroys them. The thyroid gland is then not able to make enough thyroid hormone to meet
the body’s need. Other causes of hypothyroidism include surgery to remove the gland or radiation
treatment to the gland. Hypothyroidism can be something you are born with (congenital). Or it may be
caused by medicines or conditions of the pituitary gland.

2. Hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto's thyroiditis is much more common in women than in men.

The correct answer is A. True.

This condition is 8 times more likely to occur in women than in men. Other risk factors include having a
family history of thyroid disease, being age 50 or older; or using certain medicines. You are also more at
risk if you have an autoimmune disease or had radiation treatment to your neck.

3. One of the symptoms of hypothyroidism is:

The correct answer is D. All of the above.

More than half of those with hypothyroidism have 1 or more of the symptoms. Common symptoms
include weakness, feeling low in energy (lethargy), joint and muscle pain, intolerance to cold, dry skin,
dry and thinning hair, inability to concentrate, memory loss, heavy or irregular menstrual periods, slow
heart rate, fertility problems, constipation, and weight gain.

4. The symptoms of hypothyroidism may be difficult to detect, so the condition can best be diagnosed

The correct answer is C. A thyroid stimulating hormone test (TSH).

Hypothyroidism can be detected by a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) test. This is a blood test that
checks for the hormone made by the pituitary gland. TSH is a hormone that stimulates the thyroid. If the
levels of this hormone are high, it often means that the thyroid gland is not making enough hormones.
The pituitary gland is trying to cause the thyroid to make more. It does this by boosting the amount of
TSH it sends to the thyroid. Your test results can be affected by medicines. Tell your healthcare provider
about any medicines and herbs you are taking. Routine screening is not advised for thyroid disease. But
if you have symptoms of thyroid problems or are at high risk for thyroid disease, ask about the TSH test.

5. In women, hypothyroidism can affect pregnancy by:

The correct answer is A. Reducing the chance of getting pregnant.

When a woman with an underactive thyroid does become pregnant, her condition may be overlooked.
This is because fatigue and weight gain are symptoms of both an underactive thyroid and pregnancy. An
underactive thyroid can also cause changes to a woman's menstrual cycle. It can cause irregular, heavy
periods. Or it can cause periods to stop.

6. A person with untreated hypothyroidism may also have:

The correct answer is A. High cholesterol.

People with untreated hypothyroidism also have high total and LDL ("bad") cholesterol levels.

7. How is hypothyroidism treated?

The correct answer is C. With a synthetic hormone.

If the cause of the hypothyroidism is the thyroid itself, the condition is treated with a daily dose of a
synthetic hormone. These are taken as a tablet by mouth. They often are taken for life. Anyone taking
this medicine must be checked with regular TSH tests. This is because the dose may need to be changed
for age, weight, and changes in health.

1. Answer: c

Explanation: Grave’s disease is an immune system disorder. It results in the overproduction of thyroid
hormones. The thyroid gets enlarged.

2. Answer: a

Explanation: Myxoedema is loss of brain function as a result of severe low level of thyroid hormone in
the blood. It is life threatening.

3. Answer: a

Explanation: It is an autoimmune disorder. Immune system attacks the thyroid gland. Thyroid are
damaged and can’t make enough hormone.

4. Answer: b

Explanation: Thyroid follicles are reasonable for the production and secretion of thyroid hormone. They
are made up of Cuboidal epithelium.

5. Answer: b

Explanation: Parathyroid gland is tiny glands. It controls the body’s calcium level. Each gland is about the
size of a grain of rice.

6. Answer: b
Explanation: PTH is known as parathyroid hormone. It is secreted by parathyroid gland. It is important in
bone remodeling.

7. Answer: a

Explanation: There are four tiny parathyroid gland present. It weighs about 30mg and3-4 mm in

8. Answer: b

Explanation: Oxyphil cell is present. Along with that chief cells are also present. Oxyphilcellsappear at
the onset of puberty.

9. Answer: a

Explanation: Parathyroid glands are endocrine glands in the neck of humans. It is located on the back of
the thyroid gland. They are four in numbers.