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July 2010, Volume 1, No. 1 International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering Onsite Greywater Treatment Using Septic Tank Followed by

Onsite Greywater Treatment Using Septic Tank Followed by Intermittent Sand Filter- A Case Study of Abu Al Farth Village in Jordan

Almoayied K. Assayed*, Sahar S. Dalahmeh, Wael T. Suleiman

Royal Scientific Society-Environmental Research Centre Al-Jubaiha Jordan * Corresponding Author email: a.assayed@surrey.ac.uk

Abstract This paper aims at presenting a case study of onsite greywater treatment in small rural community in Jordan using septic tank followed by intermittent sand filter. A 1 m 3 septic tank followed by 6m 2 intermittent sand filter of 1m in depth were used to treat an average flow of 150L/Day of greywater effluent from single household in Abu Al Farth Village in the Badia of Jordan. The raw greywater has a total BOD 5 of about 1149mg/L, total suspended solids TSS of 606mg/L, COD of 1952mg/L and E.coli of 9400MPN/100mL. The treatment efficiency of BOD 5 , COD, total suspended solids and E.coli were 95%, 93%, 95% and 90% respectively. The treated greywater has average BOD 5 of 59 mg/L, TSS of 31 mg/L, COD of 161 mg/L and E.coli of 227 MPN/100mL. The quality of treated greywater complies with the Jordanian Standards JS (893/2006) for the Reclaimed Wastewater reuse for restricted irrigation.

1. Introduction

Greywater is commonly defined as wastewater without input from toilets and kitchen. Separation of domestic wastewater at source is wide spread practice in many of the rural communities in Jordan; blackwater from toilets discharged to cesspools and septic tanks, while greywater is directly discharged to the environment or used for irrigation without treatment [1]. This indigenous practice of source separation provides a potential for development of sustainable greywater management systems [2] based on the principle of ecological sanitation or what so called "Ecosan" [3]. Greywater can be considered an alternative that provides non-potable water for household usage, and thus reduces the per capita water use by 50% [4]. For this reason it provides an attractive and sustainable low cost water source especially in the arid and semiarid areas due to the water scarcity and fluctuation in the rainfall patterns

[5].

The issue of greywater management is gaining importance especially in low and middle income countries where inadequate wastewater management has detrimental impacts on public health and environment. In the recent years, greywater has been linked not only to environmental degradation and serious health risks, but has also been increasingly identified as a valuable source of water that if properly used for irrigation can reduce the

agricultural use of freshwater and increased food security as well as improves public health [6]. In 1997 reclaimed wastewater was officially approved in the national strategy of Jordan as a non conventional water source that shall be managed and treated to a standard level that allows its use for non domestic use [7]. Greywater management is a critical issue that not only depends on the technical feasibility of the treatment system, but also depends on human issues such as public perceptions and health [8]. According to Nolde (1999) and (2005), greywater reuse after treatment shall satisfy four criteria: Hygienic safety, aesthetics, environmental tolerance and technical and economical feasibility [9, 10]. Treatment technologies for making greywater safe for indoor use or for irrigation are many and diverse and they vary from simple systems in single household to advanced systems for large scale reuse. Course filtration with disinfection represents the most common technology used for greywater treatment in many places in the world [8]. Septic tank followed by sand filter is an alternative for greywater treatment [11]. Septic tank, acts as a settling basin for the wastewater in which heavy materials settle down to the bottom of the tank whereas water and other materials are found above the sludge, while soap and grease form a floating scum layer [12]. Intermittent sand filters provide unsaturated downward flow of wastewater

Onsite Greywater Treatment Using Septic Tank Followed by Intermittent Sand Filter-

through mineral sand, so as to provide biodegradation or decomposition of wastewater constituents by bringing the wastewater into close contact with a well developed aerobic biological community attached to the surfaces of the filter media [12]. Intermittent sand filters are proposed as an efficient and economic treatment technology for domestic-strength wastewater, and can produce an effluent with low organic and pathogenic content [13].

1.1 Study area Integrated wastewater management policies and technologies in the marginal communities on Jordan, 2003-2007" is a development research project focuses on greywater management in the rural communities in the North-eastern Badia of Jordan. Two pilot scale treatment units were constructed in two villages in the North-eastern Badia of Jordan. Selection of villages where the treatment plants were constructed based on a selection criteria took into consideration: 1. current wastewater management practices (existing greywater separation and household agriculture), 2. social acceptance & favourability for treatment, operation and maintenance of the treatment system and 3. potential for replication in other similar communities in terms of environmental conditions, practices, and building/housing style [11]. Abu Al Farth village is one of the two villages that met community selection criteria where septic tank followed by intermittent sand filter pilot unit was constructed to serve single household in the village. The household is inhibited by 9 people with the monthly income ranges from US$ 185 to US$420. The blackwater of the household is diverted to cesspool while the greywater is used to irrigate the olive trees. The average consumptive use of water of this family is about 40L/Capita.day [1].

2. Materials and Method

2.1Quality and Quantity Measurements Greywater quality and quantity was monitored for seven months before the construction of the septic tank- Intermittent sand filter system, from March 2005 to September 2005. 14 greywater samples were collected and analyzed from three sampling points in the household; kitchen sink, washing machine & bath tub and hand washing basin & moping basin. Composite greywater samples were collected over 24 hrs using barrels that were previously graduated over the height for the purpose of flow measurement. Contents of the barrels were mixed thoroughly before sampling. Collected samples were transferred to Royal Scientific Society RSS labs and analyzed for pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD 5 ), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Phosphorus (T-P), Ammonia (NH 4 ), Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG), total and faecal coliform and E.coli. All chemical analyses were carried out according to the

68

Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [14].

2.2Design Calculations

a. Septic tank

V liq = Q× HRT

V sl

=

Q

×

C

TSS

×

R

TSS

× 365

 

C

sl .

V scum = H scum × A ST

V ST = (V liq + V sl. + V scum ) + 0.2 ×

Where: V liq is the volume needed for the liquid (m 3 ); Q is the flow rate (m 3 /d); HRT is the hydraulic retention time (d); V sl is the volume needed for the sludge (m 3 ); C TSS is the concentration of TSS (kg/m 3 ); R TSS is the percentage removal of the TSS; C sl. is the concentration of the sludge (kg/m 3 ); V scum is the volume needed for the scum (m 3 ); H scum is the height of the scum layer (m); A ST is the surface area of the septic tank (m 2 ); V ST is the volume of the septic tank (m 3 ); OLR is the organic loading rate [15].

(V liq + V sl. + V scum )

Intermittent sand filter Area (A) = Flow (Q) / Organic Application rate

A =

Q

×

BOD

5

0.024

kgBOD

5

/

2

m

.

d

Table (1) shows the design criteria of the sand filter.

Filter Media Sieve analysis of the filter media was done to find the effective size and uniformity coefficient. The sieve analysis was done According to ASTM procedures C136, 2006 and C117 2004.

2.3 Layout and Effluent Distribution System

The sand filter was laid out based on the area, length and width of the sand filter. Number of lateral pipes was decided taking into consideration the spacing requirements based on design criteria in Table (1). Spacing between orifices was designed based on design criteria in Table (1). Flow /dose = Daily Flow/ Dosing Frequency Flow /Lateral /Dose = (Flow /Dose) / Number of Laterals Number of Orifices = (Flow/Lateral/Dose) / Flow in Orifices Flow in Orifice = 2.45 C (D 2 ) (2gh n ) 1/2 (Metcalf, 1991) Where 2.45 is a conversion factor, C is an orifice discharge coefficient, D is diameter of orifice (m), g is gravitation acceleration (m/s 2 ), and h n is the head loss in orifice (m).

2.4 Head Loss in Laterals

Hlfp = 10.5 L (Q/C) 1.85 D 4.87 (Metcalf, 1991) Where Hlfp is the head loss in pipe through orifice (m), Q

Onsite Greywater Treatment Using Septic Tank Followed by Intermittent Sand Filter-

is the pipe discharge (m 3 /s), C is Hazen Williams discharge coefficient (150 for plastic pipes) and D is the diameter of the pipe (m).

2.5 Efficiency & Performance of the Treatment System Efficiency of treatment system was measured by analyzing greywater samples from three locations:

1. Collection tank: Gives the quality of untreated greywater,

2. Outlet of septic tank: Gives the quality of greywater treated in septic tank

3. Outlet of Sand Filter: Gives the quality of

greywater treated in the sand filter. 19 samples from the each of the above mentioned three sampling points were collected over 14 months from March 2006 to May 2007. The samples were analyzed for the physical, chemical and microbiological parameters mentioned earlier according to the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [14].

Table 1 Design criteria of sand filter

Treatment

Parameters

Value/criteria

Ref.

components

Intermittent

BOD loading rate Hydraulic loading rate BOD removal efficiency COD removal efficiency Dosing rate

24

g/m2.d

[16]

sand filter

44

L/m2.d.

90%

 

80%

12

times/day

Media

Filter

medium

Washed

durable

[12]

Specifications

Material

granular material

Effective size

0.25-0.75 mm

Uniformity

<0.4

 

coefficient

 

Depth

450-900 mm 80-200 L/m 2 /day 25- 50 mm

Application Rate

Pipe size

Distribution

Orifice size Head on orifice Lateral spacing Orifice spacing

3-6 mm 1-2 m 0.3- 1.2 m 0.3- 1.2 m

 

[12]

system

Dosing

Frequency

12- 48 times/day

[12]

Volume/orifice

0.6-

1

L/orifice/dose

3. Results and discussion

3.1Greywater Characteristics Greywater generation in the targeted household fluctuates from day to day according to the indoor activities. Hence, it varied from 52L/day to 345L/day, with average flow of 150L/day; Average of 60L/day was generated in the kitchen basin, 80L/day was from washing machine and bath tub and 10L/day was from hand washing basin. The average values of BOD 5 , COD and TSS of the total generated greywater were 1149 mg/L, 1952 mg/L,

and 797 mg/L respectively. These concentrations are very high, and attributed to the low consumptive use of water in the household (<40L/ca.day) as well as to hygienic behaviours of household inhabitants, types of detergent used by households (locally manufactured), amount of detergent used, food style and meals patterns. Average BOD 5 /COD ratio was 0.48 and BOD 5 Filtered /BOD 5 ratio was about 0.3 which means that most of the suspended solid in the greywater was organic. Thus, pre- treatment using septic tank is necessary and will considerably enhance the quality of the greywater. In addition, high pathogenic counts at 2.85× 10 4 MPN/100 ml were found for greywater samples. Faecal input from hand washing after defecation and babies washing in hand washing basin were the key factors for this high numbers of E.coli. Table (2) shows greywater quality parameters of the household in which septic tank and sand filter treatment unit was constructed.

3.2 Size of Septic Tank and Sand Filter 1 m 3 septic tank with retention time of 5 days was designed and constructed. A sand filter with overall surface area of 6 m 2 (2x3) and 1m depth was designed and

constructed. The filter media consisted of 3 layers; top

layer of 10 cm of (11 mm) gravel, intermediate layer of 10 cm of (5mm) fine gravel and filtering sand of 60 cm of effective size of (0.32 mm). The sand layer was under laid by 10 cm fine gravel and another 10 cm of under drain. Greywater was distributed over the sand filter using 5

laterals each of 12 orifices. Fig. 1 shows schematic diagram of the septic tank and sand filter units.

Table .2 Greywater Quality Parameters of greywater effluent from household subject of the study

   

Hand

     

Washing

washing

weighted average (1) & (2)

weighted average (1), (2) &

Parameter

machine

basin &

Kitchen

& Bath

Moping

sink (3)

Tub (1)

basin

(3)

(2)

 

PH

7.30

8.30

5.60

7.41

8.29

EC

1286

2812

1357

1456

1756

TSS

810

698

410

798

797

TDS

793

1271

918

TSS TS (g/d.ca) BOD 5 BOD 5 Filtered

1603

1969

1328

1517

14.3

2.2

8.8

25.29

657

650

1092

656

1030

298

168

551

284

391

COD

1466

1906

2039

1515

2138

BOD/COD

0.45

0.34

0.53

0.43

0.48

NO

3

2.20

2.10

2.70

2.19

2.97

NH

3

76

152

82

84

103

MBAS

53.0

43.0

36.0

51.9

56.4

E.coli

2.30E+04

4.70E+04

1.90E+04

2.57E+04

2.85E+04

69

Onsite Greywater Treatment Using Septic Tank Followed by Intermittent Sand Filter-

Using Septic Tank Followed by Intermittent Sand Filter- a. Top view Fig 1 (a&b). Schematic diagram

a. Top view

Fig 1 (a&b). Schematic diagram of septic tank and sand filter treatment unit

diagram of septic tank and sand filter treatment unit b. Sectional view 3.3Performance of Septic Tank

b. Sectional view

3.3Performance of Septic Tank and Sand Filter The performance data of BOD 5 , COD, TSS, Fat-Oil- Grease (FOG), NO 3 , NH 4 , T-P and E.coli for both septic tank and sand filter are shown in Table (3). The septic tank allowed solids to separate from liquid, while encouraged oils and fats to float at the surface of liquid. The accumulated solids have undergone into biological degradation that resulted in reducing the BOD 5 , COD and TSS by 63%, 58% and 66% respectively. FOG was reduced 89% by floating on the surface of water in septic tank. The anaerobic condition in the septic tank has resulted in de-nitrification of 95% NO 3 -N into (NH 4 -N); as a result, higher concentrations of NH 4 -N were measured at the outlet of the septic tank than in raw greywater. Storage of greywater and presence of organic materials in the septic tank has resulted in the reproduction of E.coli in the septic tank by 2.4 logs. The partially clarified greywater in septic tank was vertically distributed into the sand filter on intermittent bases. 87% of the BOD 5 , 83% of the COD and 85% of TSS were removed by both physical and biological processes within the filter media. 50% of NH 4 entering the sand filter was removed by being assimilated into cell tissues of the biomass in the top layer of the sand filters. 68% of synthetic detergents (MBAS) were removed by biodegradation. 3.4 log reduction in E.coli was estimated in the sand filter which was accomplished by physical filtration in the sand bed. The septic tank-sand filter overall removal efficiencies of BOD 5 , COD, TSS, FOG, NO 3 , NH 4 ,

70

MBAS and E.coli were 95%, 93%, 95%, 95%, 53%, 98%, 5% and 90% respectively with concentration of 59mg/L, 161mg/L, 31 mg/L, 8mg/L, 12 mg/L, 1mg/L, 50 mg/L and 227MPN/100 ml in the same order. The septic tank followed by intermittent sand filter has achieved a level of treatment that exceeded the requirement of Jordanian standards JS (893/2006) for the reclaimed wastewater reuse for fodder, industrial crops and vegetable eaten cooked. The septic tank-sand filter overall removal efficiencies of BOD 5 , COD, TSS, FOG, NO 3 , NH 4 , MBAS and E.coli were 95%, 93%, 95%, 95%, 53%, 98%, 5% and 90% respectively with concentration of 59mg/L, 161mg/L, 31 mg/L, 8mg/L, 12 mg/L, 1mg/L, 50 mg/L and 227MPN/100 ml in the same order. The septic tank followed by intermittent sand filter has achieved a level of treatment that exceeded the requirement of Jordanian standards JS (893/2006) for the reclaimed wastewater reuse for fodder, industrial crops and vegetable eaten cooked.

Table.3

Performance

of

Septic

tank/sand

filter

treatment

unit

Parameter

A

B

C

D

E

F

BOD 5 mg/l

1182

438

59

63

87

95

COD

mg/l

2248

951

161

58

83

93

TSS

mg/l

609

206

31

66

85

95

FOG

mg/l

159

17

8

89

53

95

MBAS mg/l

27

39

12

**

68

53

NO 3 -N mg/l

47

2

1

95

58

98

NH 3- N mg/l

53

100

50

**

50

5

E.coli

 

5.86

       

MPN/100ml

2172

E+05

227

**

90

90

A: Raw greywater B: Effluent from septic tank C: Effluent from sand filter D: Efficiency of septic tank % E: Efficiency of sand filter % F: Overall efficiency %

Greywater is generated by the use of soap products and detergent, and it contains organic materials, suspended solids and pathogens. Organic content of the raw generated greywater from the household is higher than raw greywater quality mentioned in literature. The type of local manufactured detergent used by households, amount of detergent used, food style and meals patterns as well as the low consumptive of water are the key factors that lead to the high organic loadings which all reflected on the performance of the treatment system used [17] Clogging of sand is still a problem in the sand filtration processes. A risk of clogging was expected and happened once after one year of operation. The clogging depth of the sand layer was about 50 cm whereas the sand layer depth is 60 cm. Therefore, depth of sand layer of less than 60 cm will lead to more frequent clogging events.

Onsite Greywater Treatment Using Septic Tank Followed by Intermittent Sand Filter-

The high concentration of TSS in greywater entering the sand filter is the main factor of clogging. Colonization and growth of bacteria within the sand grains enhances the removal of SS but at the same time it may increase the risk of sand’s pores clogging.

4. Conclusion

1. The low consumption rate of water in the household has resulted in high pollution loads of the generated greywater, and this pollution requires the greywater to be treated before use to conserve environment and to protect health.

2. The composition and characteristics of greywater significantly vary and very dependant on the practices of household's inhabitants.

3. Septic tank followed by intermittent sand filter was found very effective treatment system for the highly polluted greywater with overall efficiency of more than 90%.

4. The quality of the treated greywater is in compliance with Jordanian standards for the reclaimed wastewater reuse in restricted irrigation.

5. Failure of sand filter due to clogging is the main concern in the long term operation of the treatment system.

Acknowledgment

Authors would like to express their deep thanks for the International Development Research Centre IDRC/ Canada, Ottawa for their financial support for the project "Integrated wastewater management policies and technologies of the marginal communities in Jordan", under which this research has been done by Environmental Research Centre of Royal Scientific Society.

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the

[14]

APHA,

1995.

Standard

methods

for

examination of water and wastewater.

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