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STRUCTURAL MASONRY:

PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOUR

K S Nanjunda Rao

Department of Civil Engineering


INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE
BANGALORE
Research Team Publications

1. K S Jagadish 1. Materials & Structures


2. B V Venkatarama Reddy (Rilem)
3. G Sarangapani 2. Masonry International
4. S Raghunath 3. Jl of Materials in Civil
Engg. (ASCE)
5. K S Gumaste
4. Jl of Structural Engg.
6. S M Manjunath
5. National & International
7. K S Nanjunda Rao conferences
Comparison of concrete and masonry
Concrete Masonry
9 Behaviour Good in compression & Good in compression
weak in tension, & weak in tension,
Brittle, Uni-modulus Brittle, Bi-modulus

9 Composition Coarse and fine Masonry units and


aggregates mortar
and binder

9 Distribution of Random, Isotropic Orderly, Orthotropic


the component
materials
Different kinds of bonds adopted in practice

English bond Flemish bond Header bond

Stretcher bond Quetta bond Rat-trap bond


Different ways of reinforcing masonry
Prestressed masonry
Distribution of external load within masonry

In-plane loading Out-of-plane loading


Masonry is a composite construction consisting of:
• Adobe (Sun dried mud blocks)
• Stone, Laterite blocks
• Burnt clay bricks
• Masonry units • Concrete blocks (solid or hollow)
• Calcium silicate bricks
• Stabilized mud blocks (SMB)
• Fly-ash gypsum blocks

•Mud mortar
•Lime sand mortar
• Mortar •Cement, lime, sand mortar
•Cement sand mortar
•Composite mortars( cement,lime,soil,sand and additives)

• Reinforcement •Metallic
•Non-metallic

• Country brick
Based on method employed in production, three
varieties of burnt clay bricks are available in India viz. • Table moulded brick
• Wire-cut brick
Properties of burnt clay bricks

1.Compressive strength
2.Water absorption
3.Initial rate of absorption (IRA)
4.Porosity and pore size
5.Stress-strain characteristics
Compressive strength
& modulus of elasticity of
bricks
Properties of Bricks
(Table moulded bricks of Southern Peninsular India)

Dry Water IRA Soaking Compressive


No. of density absorption duration strength
Location kg/m2/min
samples
(kN/m3) (%) . (minutes) (MPa)

Bangalore (TMB1) 06 18.40 10.1 1.52 12 5.7

Bangalore (TMB2) 06 18.40 11.7 2.22 08 5.6

Bangalore (TMB3) 06 19.50 11.1 1.17 15 3.5

Bangalore (TMB4) 06 19.00 12.2 1.73 07 5.5

Bangalore (TMB5) 06 18.30 11.7 2.05 15 8.3

Harihar (TMH6) 02 17.50 12.5 2.10 15 -

Thrissur (TMK7) 02 18.70 15.4 1.90 20 -

Vijaywada (TMA8) 04 17.40 11.8 3.37 03 3.3

Vizag (TMA9) 04 16.90 10.1 3.35 03 6.8

Maharashtra (TMM10) 04 13.30 26.0 9.33 03 2.5

Maharashtra (TMM11) 04 16.10 22.0 6.97 05 5.2


Properties of Bricks (Contd.)
Table moulded bricks of North India
Location No. of Dry Water IRA Soaking Compressive
samples density absorption duration strength
(kN/m3) (%) kg/m2/min (minutes) (MPa)
Ahmedabad(TMG12) 02 16.00 13.6 1.75 20 -

Jaipur (TMR13) 03 16.30 12.5 5.66 03 9.4

Patna (TMP14) 02 16.00 12.0 2.58 30 -

Jammu (TMJ15) 06 18.60 16.0 3.03 04 14.4

WIRE-CUT BRICKS OF SOUTH INDIA

Bangalore (WCB1) 06 17.30 17.3 1.39 45 23.0

Bangalore (WCB2) 06 18.80 14.4 1.52 45 15.7

Cannanore (WCK3) 06 18.40 17.0 1.25 60 18.5


Porosity and pore size of burnt clay bricks
Type 1 brick (TB1)
Type 2 brick (TB2)
Mortars
Mortar is a homogeneous mixture of cementitious material/s, inert material/s and water that is
produced at site for joining the masonry units. Mortar influences the strength, durability and
resistance to rain penetration of masonry.
Some of the desirable properties of mortar for masonry construction

1. It should gain enough strength and harden in a reasonable time so that further courses
of masonry can be laid without excessive racking movements of courses below.
2. The fresh mortar should have sufficient workability so that the mason can easily fill the
joints.
3. It should have ability to retain water preventing its escape into masonry units.

Depending on the type of cementitious material used mortars can be broadly classified as;
1. Lime mortar
2. Cement mortar
3. Composite mortar
4. Lime- pozzolana mortar
5. Soil-cement mortar

The word pozzolana generally means a mixture of amorphous silica and alumina, which can
combine with calcium hydroxide at ambient temperatures in presence of moisture.
Typical sizes of prisms for
compressive strength test

Stack bonded prism English bonded prism

12 mm
thick
12 mm
460 mortar
460 mortar mm joints
mm joint

230 105 230 230


mm mm mm mm

Front view Side view Front view Side view


Typical sizes of wallettes for compressive strength tests

Stretcher bond wallette

English bond wallette


Stresses in masonry under compression
Masonry unit stiffer than mortar
(Western condition)

Eb 〉 Em
Mortar is stiffer than masonry unit
(Indian condition)

Eb 〈 Em
d
σm = σb
t
Compressive strength of brick masonry prisms

Masonry efficiency = η = Corrected prism strength ÷ brick strength


Strength and elastic properties of masonry prisms and wallettes under compression
(Wet strength of brick =6.25MPa, CM 1:6)
Prism types (no. of prisms Einitial tangent Esecant at 25 σult Strain at Masonry
tested = 4) (MPa) % σult (MPa) (MPa) σult efficiency

Stack bonded, load normal-


417.17 406.15 2.67 0.01088 0.43
to-bed-joints
½ brick thick wallettes, load
467.42 456.5 2.74 0.01123 0.44
normal-to-bed-joints
½ brick thick wallettes, load
1652.56 1486.36 1.308 0.00157 0.21
parallel-to-bed-joints
1-brick thick prisms, load
502.67 451.58 2.05 0.008 0.33
normal-to-bed-joints
1-brick thick prisms, load
1788.75 1615.40 1.62 0.002 0.26
parallel-to-bed-joints

Strength and elastic properties of masonry prisms and wallettes under tension
(Wet strength of brick =6.25MPa, CM 1:6)
Prism types (no. of prisms Einitial tangent Esecant at 25 % σult (MPa) Masonry
tested = 4) (MPa) σult (MPa) efficiency
Stack bonded, load normal- 758.88 713.79 0.0414 0.32
to-bed-joints
½-brick wallette, load 2496.32 2285.71 0.166 1.29
parallel-to-bed-joints
Specimens for tension test Equivalent modulus of elasticity for brick masonry
of brick masonry
(i) Perpendicular bed joints Prism type:
(CM 1:6,
type-1
Ec Et Et E flex.Vib Eeq
bricks) Ec
Normal-to-
bed-joints

Stack
bonded 417.17 758.88 1.82 - 550.27
prisms
467.42 758.88 1.62 597.22 586.83

½ brick thick
wallettes

(ii) Parallel to bed joints Parallel-to- 2010.06


1652.6 2496.3 1.51 1944.9
bed-joints

4 Et
Eeq = 2
⎛ E ⎞
⎜1 + t ⎟
⎜ E ⎟
⎝ c ⎠
Accelerometer
EI
ω n = Cn
mL4
Wallette
ω n = 2πf
Data acquisition system
C=3.516 for cantilever
m is mass/unit length(kg/m)
L is length in meter
PC E is modulus of elasticity
f is frequency in Hz
I is moment of inertia

A/D
converter
1/2-brick thick wallette, stresses normal-to-bed-joints
0.06

response at top
Schematic diagram of 0.04
response at
flexural vibration test set-up mid-height
0.02
Displacement (mm)

-0.02

-0.04

-0.06
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Time (s)
Brick-mortar bond strength
Type C Type D

Concrete base

Modified bond-wrench test setup

Bond enhancement techniques


Type A: Cement slurry coating
Type B: Epoxy coating
Type C: Additional frog
Type D: Additional frog Shear-bond test setup
8.25
3.05
2.90
2.46

Type of Compressive Secant modulus


brick strength (MPa) @ 25% Ult.Stress(MPa)
B1 10.67 509

B2 4.29 467

B3 3.17 485

Shear bond
Bond enhancing technique
strength (MPa)

Nil 0.054

Type A 0.138

Type B 0.265

Type D 0.131
Flexure bond strength of stack bonded prisms
using wire-cut bricks
Mean compressive strength of brick = 23 MPa
Mortar Mortar No. of Flexural bond strength Compressive Mode of failure
strength joints (MPa) strength
C:L:So:Sa (MPa) tested (MPa)
Range Average
M1:1/2:0:4 12.21 10 0.22-0.52 0.414 10.0 Brick-mortar interface

M1:0:1:6 5.93 08 0.16-0.27 0.210 7.4 Brick-mortar interface

M1:0:2:5 7.60 06 0.10-0.22 0.149 6.9 Brick-mortar interface

M1:0:0:6 7.30 06 0.02-0.19 0.100 6.7 Brick-mortar interface


Relation between masonry compressive strength &
Brick-mortar bond strength
Factors that influence masonry compressive
strength

bonding
Relation between masonry compressive strength &
Brick & mortar compressive strength

f = 0.317 ( f b ) 0.86
( fm ) 0.134 for stack bonded prisms

f = 0.225( f b ) 0.85
( fm ) 0.146
for English bonded prisms

Hendry and Malek’s relationship

f = 1.242( f b ) 0.531
( fm ) 0.208
for stretcher bonded walls

f = 0.334( f b ) 0.778
( fm ) 0.234 for English bonded walls

Stretcher bonded wall is stronger than English bonded wall


Failure patterns in brick masonry prisms & wallettes

Bond failure in stack bonded Splitting failure in English


Crushing of table moulded bricks in English prisms: cement-soil mortar bonded prisms: cement-lime
bonded wallettes :cement-soil mortar mortar

Splitting and crushing of table moulded bricks in


English bonded wallettes : cement mortar Splitting and diagonal shear failure in wallettes
Modes of failure in 230mm thick
English bonded wall:
table moulded bricks (Wall
No.2).

Separation of the
two leaves of the
wall

Hourglass type
Splitting, crushing of failure of bricks
bricks and
Diagonal shear failure
of wall
Testing of storey height wire cut brick masonry wall

Back
Face
of
the
wall
storey height masonry wall test results
Designation Type* and Mortar Size of wall (mm) Wall strength Wallette Wall strength
strength of
brick
Proportion
C:So:Sa#
bxtxh (MPa) strength
(MPa) ÷
Wallette
strength

1:0:6 720 x 105 x 2770


Wall No.1 TMB1 (5.7MPa) 1.08 1.18 0.91
(6.2MPa) Stretcher bond

1:0:6 970 x 230 x 2770


Wall No. 2 TMB1 (5.7MPa) 1.32 1.35 0.98
(6.4MPa) English bond

1:1:6 750 x 115 x 2770


Wall No. 3 WCB1 (23MPa) 6.64 8.0 0.83
(6.2MPa) Stretcher bond

*TMB- Table moulded brick, WCB- Wire-cut brick. #C:cement, So:soil, Sa:sand.
Values in parenthesis indicate average compressive strength.
Designation Slenderness Basic Stress reduction Area reduction Permissible Safety
ratio compressive factor factor compressive Factor
stress (MPa) stress
(MPa)
As per IS: 1905 - 1987

Wall1 19.8 0.57 0.54 0.81 0.25 4.32

Wall 2 9.0 0.57 0.92 1.0 0.52 2.54

Wall 3 18.0 1.39 0.67 0.83 0.77 8.62


Influence of axial stress on Collapse analysis of
flexural bond strength of masonry unreinforced masonry vault

Dimensions of vault
Length= 3m; Span=1.5m
Rise=0.52m; R=0.796m
Semi-central angle=70 degree
Thickness=0.075m
Cement:soil:sand mortar (1:10:8)

Comparison of collapse load


Experimental FEM
(N/m2) (N/m2)
14651 13734
Performance of Masonry Buildings during Earthquakes
&
Earthquake Resistant Design Concepts for Masonry Buildings
Unreinforced masonry (URM) structures are the most vulnerable during an
earthquake due to the following reasons:

•Brittle nature of URM


•Large mass of masonry structures
•Large initial stiffness
•Large variability in masonry material properties

The breakdown of earthquake fatalities by cause for each half of the last
century indicates that 75% of the fatalities are due to collapse of buildings.
(Coburn and Spence, 2002)

From the above it is clear that collapse of masonry buildings is the primary cause for
loss of life during an earthquake
BIS CODAL PROVISIONS: IS: 4326-1993

• HORIZONTAL RC BANDS AT LINTEL


AND ROOF LEVELS

• VERTICAL STEEL AT CORNERS,


JUNCTIONS AND DOOR & WINDOW
JAMBS
Details of providing vertical steel bars in brick masonry as per IS 4326:1993
It is always useful to study the behaviour of masonry buildings after an earthquake as
it gives an insight into the performance of various kinds of masonry materials used and
earthquake resistant features adopted in the buildings. Following slides shows
photographs of failure patterns of masonry buildings observed after Latur and Kachchh
earthquakes of 1993 and 2001 respectively

Plate 1: Out-of plane collapse of wall of a school


Plate 2: Timber post supported wall of a shop
building (Sastur)
building intact after earthquake (Sastur)
Out-of-plane collapse of sandstone in lime mortar masonry wall
(MORBI)
House with lintel band and columns (SAMAKHYALI)
Separation of
corner column
from the
neighbouring
masonry
(SAMAKHYALI)
Out-of-plane failure of wall leading to collapse of lintel band (BHUJ)
Corner failure in presence
of corner reinforcement
(BHUJ)
Rigid box like behaviour above lintel band (BHACHAU)
Collapse of walls between openings (KHAVDA)
Wall flexure – RC roof
on stone-in-CM
(Lodhrani)
Following typical types of damage can be identified from the earthquake survey

•Cracks between walls and floor


•Cracks at corners and at wall intersections
•Out-of –plane collapse of perimetral walls
•Cracks in spandrel beams
•Diagonal cracks in structural walls
•Partial disintegration or collapse of walls
•Partial or complete collapse of building

Figure below shows the deformation and typical damages suffered by a simple
masonry building subjected earthquake ground motion.
Fundamental mode shape of building without roof, with openings
Fundamental mode shape of building with roof and
openings
STRESSES IN MASONRY WALLS DURING EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTIONS

Cross wall

(a) Shear wall (b) B2


B1
Figure 1: Buildings without roof (a) without bands (b) with RC lintel and roof bands

B3
Figure 2: Building with RC roof and lintel band
Parameter Property

Size of cross-wall (height x length) 3.0m x 6.0m; one cross-wall with a door and a
window opening, other cross-wall with two window
openings
Table 1: Details of finite Size of shear-wall (height x length) 3.0m x 3.0m; no openings in shear-walls

element analysis
Masonry 0.23m (1 – brick thick); table moulded burnt bricks
of Bangalore; mortar: CM 1:6

Reinforced concrete RC lintel and roof bands: 0.15m thick; 0.23m


wide;
RC slab: 0.15m thick

Boundary conditions Base clamped

Masonry properties [5]


Modulus of elasticity normal-to-bed-joints (Ey) 600.0 MPa
Modulus of elasticity parallel-to-bed-joints (Ex) 1800.0 MPa
Modulus of rigidity (Gxy assumed) 800.0 MPa
Poisson’s ratio (ν, assumed) 0.2
Flexural strength normal-to-bed-joints 0.137 MPa
Flexural strength parallel-to-bed-joints 0.36 MPa
Shear strength [9] 0.06 MPa
Density Masonry: 2000.0 kg/m3
Dynamic analysis Linear transient dynamic analysis (base
acceleration input); no. of modes chosen: 10

Element adopted Masonry:


4 noded orthotropic shell element, each node
having 6 d-o-f
RC lintel and roof band:
2 noded 3d beam element, each node having 6 d-
o-f
RC roof:
4 noded orthotropic shell element, each node
having 6 d-o-f
Table 3: Details of earthquakes used as input

Earthquake Details

EQ-1 Kangra earthquake, Himachal Pradesh, India; date: 26th April 1986; 3.05 IST;
total duration: 20.08s; PGA: 0.248g at 3.04s; median frequency: 5.86Hz

EQ-2 Koyna earthquake, Maharashtra, India; date: 10th December 1967, longitudinal
component; total duration: 10.33s; PGA: 0.613g at 3.85s; median frequency:
11.86Hz

EQ-3 Koyna earthquake, Maharashtra, India; date: 10th December 1967, transverse
component; total duration: 10.33s; PGA: 0.473g at 3.13s; median frequency:
12.43Hz
Table 2: Natural frequencies (Hz) of buildings

Mode Buildings without roof Building with


no. roof

B-1 B-2 B-3

1 6.43 8.17 14.87

2 6.88 9.05 17.11

3 14.01 18.61 18.95

4 15.92 20.12 20.03


Table 4: Results of stress analysis

Buildin Maximum flexural stress Maximum flexural stress Maximum shear stress
g type* (MPa) σx at top edge of (MPa) σy at base of (MPa) τyz at the base of
cross-wall (parallel-to-bed- cross-wall (normal-to- shear-wall
joints) bed-joints)

EQ-1 EQ-2 EQ-3 EQ-1 EQ-2 EQ-3 EQ-1 EQ-2 EQ-3

B-1 0.42 0.368 0.302 0.113 0.12 0.092 0.09 0.09 0.078

B-2 0.14 0.163 0.158 0.156 0.192 0.18 0.095 0.132 0.121

B-3 0.032 0.062 0.055 0.12 0.242 0.186 0.14 0.208 0.172

* B-1, B-2 : Buildings without roof; B-3: Building with roof


Regions of maximum flexural stress for buildings without roof (a) σx (b) σy

Regions of maximum flexural stress for buildings with roof (a) σx (b) σy

Regions of maximum shear stress in shear-walls (τ)


Behaviour of URM wall subjected to vertical and out-of-plane lateral load
CONTAINMENT REINFORCEMENT AS AN EARTHQUAKE
RESISTANT FEATURE
• Should always be accompanied by
horizontal RC bands
• ‘Containment reinforcement’ is a
vertical reinforcement provided on
both faces in a parallel manner. It
may be either on the surface or
hidden in 3.0 cm grooves beneath the
surface
• It is generally provided every 1.0m in
the horizontal direction and also next
to door and window jambs
(a) Un-reinforced (b) core-reinforced (c)Containment
reinforcement
Containment reinforcement in grooved blocks
• Reinforcement on both faces to be
held by ties going through the wall
in alternate courses or once in 3
courses
• Following materials are possible
9 GI wire – 3.0 to 4.0 mm
9 Corrosion resistant steel ~ 6.0mm
9 Stainless steel – 3.0 to 4.0 mm
9 Bamboo
9 Timber
• Function is to prevent growth of
flexural cracks
• Experiments show good flexural
ductility
Masonry building with horizontal bands
and ‘Containment reinforcement’
Testing of masonry beams with containment reinforcement
1400

1200

1000
moment (Nm)

800

600 RB-11
RB-12
RB-13
400 RB-14
1st crack
200

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
curv ature (/m)
Specimen details Curvature ductility
(/m)
1-brick thick 22.5
2 x 6mm MS 12.61
12.0
1-brick thick 12.21
2 x 3.16mm GI 11.23
13.07
½-brick thick 16.4
2 x 3.4mm GI 17.09
23.24
11.42
½-brick thick 24.60
2 x 3.7mm GI 17.34
12.88
10.69
Shock table testing
• Quick evaluation of earthquake resistant
features using simple impacts

• Developed in 1956 at Roorkee, used at


Omerga/Latur for model testing

• Pendulum impact method also developed at


I.I.Sc

• Tests at I.I.Sc, Bhuj, BMS College of Engg.


Construction of one fourth scale masonry building models
Acceleration response: Impact number 4
SHOCK TABLE RESPONSE RESPONSE OF CONTAINMENT REINFORCEMENT
MODEL AT TOP
5
ACCELERATION (m/Sec )

5
2

ACCELERATION (m/Sec )
4

2
4
3 3
2 2
1
1
0
0
-1
-1 -2
-2 -3
0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

TIME (Sec) TIME (Sec)

RESPONSE OF BIS MODEL AT TOP RESPONSE OF CONTAINMENT REINFORCEMENT


MODEL AT MIDDLE
3
ACCELERATION (m/Sec )

2.5 3
2

ACCELERATION (m/Sec )
2 2 2
1.5
1
1
0.5 0
0 -1
-0.5
-2
-1
-1.5 -3
0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

TIME (Sec) TIME (Sec)


Near-fault ground motion record of an earthquake

(873 cm/sec2)
FREQUENCY REDUCTION AFTER SUCCESSIVE IMPACT

Impact BIS model Containment reinforcement


no. peak frequency in Hz model peak frequency in Hz
1 40.039 64.82
2 30.273 52.002
3 19.531 36.621
4 11.475 27.466
5 8.545 20.264
6 7.08 12.573
7 - 10.01
8 - 7.568
9 - 6.104
10 - 5.127
11 - 5.127
12 - 2.93
13 - 3.052
14 - 2.808
CONTACT DURATION
With mass Without mass
Pendulum side Rebound side Pendulum side Rebound side
Angle of
release of Contact Contact
Contact Contact
pendulum duration duration
duration in Avg. duration in Avg. Avg. Avg.
in milli- in milli-
milli-seconds milli-seconds
seconds seconds
10 45 173 44 132
43.6
10 44 144 150.0 38 41 119 122.33
7
10 42 133 41 116
20 25 87 32 99
20 23 24.0 85 86.67 30 30.67 83 86.67
20 24 88 30 78
30 21 77 _ _ _ _
30 21 21.0 80 79.0 _ _ _ _
30 21 80 _ _ _ _
Model
BeforeTest

Containment
reinforcement

After Test
Shock table test results

Model Energy input Final state


Un-reinforced 135.0 Nm Collapse

Model with 671.0 Nm Partial collapse


horizontal
bands
Model with 1967.0 Nm Not collapsed,
horizontal but with a
bands and number of
‘Containment cracks
reinforcement’
Our sincere thanks to
1.Shanthakumar
2.Arogiaswamy
3.Vasudevan
4.Sagairaju
5.Raghavendra
6.Muniraju
and all others who have directly or indirectly
helped us in conducting the experimental
investigations
THANK YOU