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This information was compiled using notes from several sources, over a 2 year period.

Mid ‘05 – Mid ‘07.


They were as correct as possible at that point, but were still being worked on and things change.
If you are in any doubt about the information, check out the QRH, AFM, Ground Course notes etc.
These were useful for me to get my head around the 1900. Hopefully you’ll find them good too.
Enjoy the 1900, it’s great fun.

Beech 1900D
Aircraft General 3
Electrical Power Systems 4
Lighting 10
Annunciator Systems 11
Fuel System 14
Power plant 16
Prop 19
Fire Protection 23
Pneumatics 24
Ice & Rain Protection 25
Environmental 27
Pressurisation 30
Landing Gear and Brakes 32
Flight Controls 34
Avionics 35
Oxygen 38
Limitations 40
Performance 44
Emergency Situations 49
Other notes. 52

26/3/07 1
Aircraft General

Eagle 1900’s are UE-424 - UE-439

T Tail – widens CofG envelope

Tailets
Increased directional
stability.

Stabilons
Provide additional pitch stability
allowing extended C of G range.

Strakes
Increase directional stability & allow
dispatch with the Yaw Damper U/S

Doors Security Check

8x cam locks - locked when the red indicator lines line up

Bellows lock linkage pin engaged with notch in red arm. Locks door button so as the door can’t be opened whilst the A/C is
pressurised.

CABIN DOOR - fed by 5x microswitches


 2 on lower rotating cams
 1 on safety lock pin
 1 on top door adjar plunger
 1 on latck handle

CARGO DOOR - Microswitches – on bottom 4 pin-locks.


- Check - Poppet pin out
- Handle won’t open
- Orange line in sight window

Emergency Exits
- 1x left, row 5, & 2x right row 5 & 7
- plug type ie pull inwards.
- Lockable against outside entry, ie using a padlock

Door Seal – inflated in flight by cabin press to improve cabin air sealing

26/3/07 2
Electrical Power Systems

- 28V DC electrical system: Battery - 24V, 34 amp-hr (20 cell Ni-cad). Earth return
- Battery -right wing , quick disconnect.
- Aircooled / vented - in case of an overflow.
- 2 x starter/generators - 28VDC and 300 amp.
- STBY Batt - EFIS

External Power
- located underside rear of left engine
- Aircraft batt - 20V minimum.
- must give 28.0 - 28.4V, 300amps continuously , 1000 amps momentarily (starting)
- Standard AN type plug. Order - plug in. EXTERNAL POWER
- Check Batt & GPU Voltage
- Batt ON - for avionics Master (powered to OFF)
- Ext Pwr ON
- AC Bus’s ON
- Some captains like to GEN TIES⇒MAN CLOSE.
- external pwr switch - ON ,. Entire system powered. (Gen ties, Batt Bus Tie, Batt Relay – all
closed)
- Overvoltage sensor – 32V – prevents ext pwr relay from closing.

Starter Generator
Driven by N1 accessory drive
Air cooled via NACA duct on lower engine
cowl.
- 28.25 V DC ±.25V, 300 amps
– Max cont load.
If starter is engaged after start
1- generators drop off line
2 - battery rapid discharge.

- ELECTRICAL BUSES:
- Hot bus
- Left and Right generator bus
- Centre bus
- Battery bus
- Triple fed bus

- N.o.1 + 2 + 3 Avionics bus


- L + R AC Bus

Generally, Left and Right gen bus’s function


eg L and R LDG Lights
- pwr from respective buses.

- Hot bus - Always connected - feeds mostly essential items


- Firewall shut off valves & Fire extinguisher
- Lights - Door entry, Cargo Door area
- emergency cabin,
- emergency instrument lights
- External power over voltage sensor
- Ground comms power

- Centre bus:
- Powered from each Gen Bus and Batt bus.
- Centre bus failure - indicated by L/R GEN TIE OPEN and BAT TIE OPEN

26/3/07 3
- Triple fed bus:
- powered by - Battery bus, Left gen bus and Right gen bus. Cannot feed any other bus.
- amp meter should be on Triple bus during flight for monitoring.
- Triple fed bus reads 1 amp less than all others – 3 x 60 amp current limiters & 3 diodes -provide fault isolation
protection.
- each diode absorbs a third of a volt to operate
- If Triple fed bus failure - lose all intercom, engine gauges, aircraft lighting and landing gear position indicator.

- Left and Right generator buses:


- Powered by respective generator, once on line, GEN TIES⇒MAN CLOSE = both L & R Gen buses powered.
(Automatic when GEN TIES – NORM)
- 325 amp HED (Hall Effect Device) between Gen buses & Centre Bus give protection during start up.
- de-energised during engine start

ALL SWITCHES THAT DON’T RECEIVE PWR FROM GEN BUSES – WHITE RING
(ie receive pwr from Centre, Hot, Battery or Triple feed buses)
- (Primary items to consider turning off if double generator failure.) The Battery will be powering these.

GENERATOR CONTROL UNITS (GCU)


- Differential, Overvoltage, and reverse current protection.
- Line contactor control.
- regulate generator output to 28-28.5 volts DC & parallel load within 10%
- limit output of operating generator during second engine start
- Adjusts output of the Gene - 400 amps during cross generator start. At this time all HED’s
desensitised

INDICATORS - all overhead panel


1. dual load gene meters - % of max output
2. 2 x voltmeter - selectable to each bus – 2b
3.battery charge ammeter
4.single AC volt / frequency meter - AC volts / Hz (cycles per second)
5. prop de-ice Amps.

1 1 2 3 2b 4 5

st
- Emergency lighting button - situated far right overhead panel, powered from HOT BUS. -instrument lights –Do 1 if dual
gen failure.

POWER DISTRIBUTION
- Master ON – closes Bat Bus tie → Centre Bus → Starter Relay
– closes Bat relay → Battery Bus → Triple Fed Bus.
- if Batt low, GPU or Gen’s can operate Battery relay

26/3/07 4
BUS TIE SYSTEM.
- HED,s ( Hall Effect Devices), operate 3 bus ties.
- Bus ties between - L Gen Bus and Centre Bus - 325 amps max
- R Gen Bus and Centre Bus - 325 amps max
- Battery and Centre Bus. - 275 amps max

Both Gene fail – Both Gene Bus ties open.

GEN TIES allows L & R Gen Bus Pwr, not required for start.
- After Start, GEN sw → RESET, GCU brings Gen up to voltage, GEN sw → ON, closes line contactor & both Gen Ties to
both GEN Buses, PWR to entire system - charging Bat.

BUS SENSE – tests HED’s, (Gen Ties & Bus Tie).


RESET-NORM-TEST. sprung → NORM
Switch → TEST, applies test current to all 3 HED’s. L GEN TIE OPEN and R GEN TIE OPEN and BAT TIE OPEN
Switch → RESET. Closes Bus Ties.

GEN TIES, MAN CLOSE – NORM – OPEN. Sprung→ NORM. Lever lock → OPEN
NORM- Allows both Gen Ties to close when either Gen online. OR Ext Power-ON
MAN CLOSE- connects L & R Gen Bus’s to Centre Bus. (NO effect on Battery Bus Tie)
OPEN- isolates L & R Gen Bus’s from Centre Bus.

Battery Charge Current Detector – protect overheat.


If current flow rate → battery 7amps for 6 secs, BATTERY CHARGE - often after battery start. – Check Batt Ammeter –
ovhd panel

IGNITION AND ENGINE START, ON-OFF-START ONLY,


ON or STARTER ONLY –engages Starter.
- With a Cross-Gen start (400amps) all HED’s / Bus ties are deenergised – keeping the bus tie closed.
- don’t engage starter in flight. Fast discharge because Gen goes offline.

26/3/07 5
AC SYSTEM
- 2 x Solid state Inverters, 28 V DC → 115V / 400 Hz - basically used for EFIS data.
26V / 400 Hz AC – RMI’s, YDRB Comp, Compass Ref

- Inverters powered by respective generator Bus. If generator off line - centre bus. - Auto transfer
- Inverters located in each engine nacelle.
- Either Inverter can, if one fails, pwr all AC systems. TRANSFER – connects AC Bus to other inverter.
- Dual GEN failure – Items on AC load shed bus looses power. – (Basically the Right AC Bus is the load shed)
- so we loose - #1 compass RMI reference
- Needle 2, on both RMI’s
- YDRB Comp - right
- #2 Compass reference
- # 2 Vert gyro pwr
- # 2 Compass Ref
- #2 DPU AC Ref
- Can still do a VOR / ILS / LLZ approach from left seat. Just no NDB app – no compass system
AC Buses
Powers - RMI needle’s
- yaw damper / rudder boot Computer
- compass system
- primary attitude gyro
- TCAS Computer
- Flight Data Recorder

AC System Monitoring
-The AC volt / frequency meter - overhead panel, next to Prop Ammeter
-If the voltage and/or frequency varies more than ± 10% - L/R AC BUS

AUX PWR battery (control in centre panel)


– 2.5 amp-hr
- in nose bay, powers
- standby AH & light.
- co-pilots LED ALTIMETER.
- horn attached to signal - in use.
- 5 second test position – upper mid panel – beside STBY A/H
- Horn to announce “in use”

Captains Jetpack for EFIS - AUX power - primarily used to protect the information between DPU and Captains EFIS
Screens,
- it does not power Captains EFIS Screens,
- they will continue to operate, until the A/C Battery is below 18.4V
- in event of air start, leaves captains EFIS running while the co-pilots will drop off line.
- Horn to announce “in use”
- normally

AVIONICS MASTER - Powered to off position. If avionics master switch fails, pull its associated circuit breaker.

ELECTRICAL LIMITATIONS
- Maximum Generator load in flight - 100%, only above 72% N1
- ground - 75%
- Minimum battery power for battery start = 23V -
- If the battery voltage falls below 20V do not attach GPU, battery must be replaced.
- A current flow of more than 7 amps for 6 seconds on the battery will trigger the BATTERY CHARGE – normal after Bat start.
NOTE- Battery will not charge with Centre Bus failure.
Triple Fed Bus Short – current limited to max 60amps from Gen Buses or Battery Bus.
Current limit in HED gene circuits – Gen buses ⇐⇒ Centre Bus = 325 amps Max.
– Battery ⇒ Centre Bus = 275 amps Max.
External power limits : 28.0V to 28.4V. Delivers 1000amps momentarily and 300amps continuously
32V external power over-voltage sensor’s – Gene & GPU

26/3/07 6
26/3/07 7
26/3/07 8
Lighting

Independent circuits that light:- Cockpit - controls on ovhd panel


- each group BRT→OFF, Rheostat.
- Master Light SW – Pilot and Co flight lights
- subpanel & side panel
- ovhd floodlight
- avionics

-Emergency instrument lights - hot batt bus

Cabin - Three settings: OFF - PARTIAL - FULL. – Partial on Hot bus


- Battery off - get four cabin lights on.
-Battery ON - partial or full but only 50% of cabin.
-GPU ON or R Gene ON - 100% of all lighting.

- Seat belt signs - powered by generator bus. No smoking signs -permanently on.

Entrance area – Switch on steps, Hot BUS – off when door closed.

Cargo Area – Switch at floor level – Hot BUS – off when door closed.

Aircraft exterior – ovhd Panel


- 2 x Beacons: white - on the top of tail & underside of aircraft.
- Nav lights; Dual bulbs. Battery ON - one bulb. Generators ON - both bulbs.
- Recognition Lights: - wing tips.
- Taxi Lights: - nose gear. – Must manually turn off after take off. TAXI LIGHT

- All lights ON until transition, everything off except - nav, beacon and strobes.

26/3/07 9
Annunciator Systems

Flashers Master Warning Master Caution

Can be reset to off- but this does not ext Ann panel light.
If reset – will flash if another reason exists.
Even if fault is corrected – continues to flash until PRESS TO RESET.

Annunciators

Master Warning panel (red) – centre glareshield.


- illumination of a light is accompanied by a Master Warning flasher on top panel – in-front of
pilots
-
LAVATORY
L FUEL PRES LO CABIN ALT HI CABIN DIFF HI R FUEL PRES LO
SMOKE
L OIL PRES LO L ENVIR FAIL CABIN DOOR R ENVIR FAIL R OIL PRES LO

——————— L AC BUS CARGO DOOR R AC BUS ---------------


ARM EMER
L BL AIR FAIL A/P TRIM FAIL A/P FAIL R BL AIR FAIL
LITES
——————— ——————— ——————— ——————— ———————

Caution / Advisory panel – centre sub panel, above power levers, has:
- amber caution lights
- green advisory lights
- white status lights
- illumination of an amber caution light is accompanied by a Master Caution flasher

BATTERY PROP GND


L DC GEN L FUEL QTY STALL HEAT R FUEL QTY R DC GEN
CHARGE SOL
L COL TANK L GEN TIE BATT TIE R GEN TIE R COL TANK
L FW VALVE R FW VALVE
LOW OPEN OPEN OPEN LOW
L BK DI HYD FLUID ANTI SKID ANN PWR R BK DI R ENG ICE
L ENG ICE FAIL
OVHT LOW FAIL SOURCE OVHT FAIL
L PITOT XFR VALVE PWR STEER MAN STEER R PITOT
L FIRE LOOP R FIRE LOOP
HEAT FAIL FAIL FAIL HEAT
AUTOFTHER PITCH TRIM AFX R NO AUX
L NO AUX XFR ——————— ———————
OFF OFF DISABLE XFR
INBD WING RUD BOOST OUTBD WING
YD/RB FAIL ——————— TAIL DEICE ———————
DEICE OFF DEICE
L L IGNITION PWR STEER R IGNITION R AUTO
——————— ———————
AUTOFEATHER ON ENGA ON FEATHER
L ENG ANTI- L BK DE-ICE MAN TIES R BK DE-ICE R ENG ANTI-
——————— ———————
ICE ON CLOSE ON ICE
RDR PWR FUEL EXTERNAL
L ENVIR OFF TAXI LIGHT ——————— R ENVIR OFF
ON TRANSFER POWER
A press to test button, adjacent to the Warning Panel ⇒ tests the bulbs in all panels. -

Annunciator Dimming
Automatic (light sensor) - provided that:
- at least on generator is on line, and
- cockpit overhead floodlights are off, and
- master panel light switch is on, and
- low ambient light level

Dims -Warning Ann, Caution Ann, Advisory Ann, Master Caution flasher.
- LDG Gear handle and Position lights

26/3/07 10
- Master Warning Flasher & T-handles remain bright, cannot DIM

To replace bulbs – use unallocated lamps on panel. . ▬▬▬▬ . ▬▬▬▬ . or use spare bulbs – beside F/O Left knee

pressure from EDP drops below 10psi. Phase 1 - Turn on STBY Pump.
L FUEL PRES LO Monitor Oil Temp / Press.
Beware of Destination, DDPG - Engineer needs to inspect fuel filter for pump debri
L OIL PRES LO Triggered at around 60psi. Phase 1 - Secure Eng or land asap. Use Min Pwr.
L BL AIR FAIL Under 18psi in EVA Tube. Phase 1 - BLEEDS INST & ENVIR OFF
CABIN ALT HI Cabin Alt exceeds 10,000ft +0 / - 500.
L ENVIR FAIL Over Temp / Press to ACM. Phase 1 - BLEED AIR  ENVIR OFF  OPEN
AC BUS or Inverter Fail. Phase 1 - RESET
L AC BUS
__ DDPG - One inverter may be inop for day VFR,
LAVATORY
Smoke in Toilet. Could be pump (FURN)Motor. Phase 1 - FURN OFF
SMOKE
CABIN DOOR All Occupants seated with seatbelts fastened. DDPG – crew must confirm closed visually for t/o
CARGO DOOR All Occupants seated with seatbelts fastened. DDPG – crew must confirm closed visually for t/o
CABIN DIFF HI over 5.25psid. BLEEDS  ENVIRON OFF
R ENVIR FAIL Over Temp / Press to ACM. Phase 1 - BLEED AIR  ENVIR OFF  OPEN
R AC BUS AC BUS or Inverter Fail. Phase 1 - RESET
pressure from EDP drops below 10psi. Phase 1 - Turn on STBY Pump.
R FUEL PRES LO Monitor Oil Temp / Press.
Beware of Destination, DDPG - Engineer needs to inspect fuel filter for pump debri
R OIL PRES LO Triggered at around 60psi. Phase 1 - Secure Eng or land asap. Use Min Pwr.
R BL AIR FAIL Under 18psi in EVA Tube. Phase 1 - BLEEDS INST & ENVIR OFF
L DC GEN Left Gen is Off line DDPG – Both required for dispatch
L FW VALVE firewall fuel valve disagree's with selector position. Must be rectified prior to next takeoff
Left ice vane fails to extend. 30 seconds delay - motor. Immediately - electrics. -
L ENG ICE FAIL
. DDPG – Extend ice vaines before takeoff
L FIRE LOOP Problem with the Left fire loop detection system DDPG – Must be rectified prior to next takeoff
L NO AUX XFR No fuel transfer from L Aux to main tank, pressure dropped below 5psi
L FUEL QTY Maximum of 324lbs of usable fuel remaining DDPG – Must confirm adequate fuel for flight
L COL TANK LOW 53lbs left in each collector tank = 8 mins@400lb/hr DDPG – Must confirm adequate fuel for flight
L PITOT HEAT Insufficient current to L pitot heat DDPG – Need 2 operative for ATO’s
AUTOFTHER OFF Auto Fx is turned off with Gear down - do landing checks. DDPG – AutoFX must stay Armed.
YD/RB FAIL Yaw Damp / Rudder boost Failed DDPG - System not required.
Insufficient current to heat stall warning DDPG – cant operate in known or forecast icing
STALL HEAT

L GEN TIE OPEN L Gen Bus is disconnected from the Centre Bus DDPG – Day VMC Only
HYD FLUID LOW Landing Gear Hyd Fluid level is below 0.6 USGal in filler can May need Man Gear Extension.
XFR VALVE FAIL Disagree light. When valve is not in the position of the switch. DDPG – ok if gauges OK
BATTERY Excessive charge rate. Over 7amps charge for more than 6seconds (Ref AFM Sect IV 4-41).
CHARGE
BATT TIE OPEN Battery is isolated from the Gen Buses – no charging

26/3/07 11
Elect failure or low hyd oil press in Antiskid brake system.
ANTI SKID FAIL
Pump cant keep pressure up. Master cylinder control still available.

PWR STEER FAIL Elect failure or low hyd oil press in Pwr steering system
PITCH TRIM OFF Electric trim OFF using quick disconnect. pedestal sw still ON.
PROP GND SOL One or both gnd idle low-pitch-stop solenoids are in malfunctioning - disagree light.
R GEN TIE OPEN R Gen Bus is disconnected from the Centre Bus DDPG – Day VMC Only
ANN PWR
Partial Power loss to some Ann lights
SOURCE
MAN STEER FAIL Nose gear will not free-caster with pwr steering not engaged
R FUEL QTY Maximum of 324lbs of usable fuel remaining DDPG – Must confirm adequate fuel for flight
R COL TANK LOW 53lbs left in each collector tank = 8 mins@400lb/hr DDPG – Must confirm adequate fuel for flight
R PITOT HEAT Insufficient current to R pitot hea. Batt Master could be OFF.DDPG – Need 2 for ATO’s
AFX DISABLE On engine failure. Disable's auto feather on good eng.
RUD BOOST OFF Rudder boost system is turned off.
R DC GEN right DC Gen is Off line DDPG – Both required for dispatch
R FW VALVE firewall fuel valve disagree's with selector position. Must be rectified prior to next takeoff
Left ice vane fails to extend. 30 seconds delay - motor. Immediately - electrics. -
R ENG ICE FAIL
. DDPG – Extend ice vaines before takeoff
R FIRE LOOP Problem with the Left fire loop detection system DDPG – Must be rectified prior to next takeoff
R NO AUX XFR No fuel transfer from R Aux to main tank, pressure dropped below 5psi
INBD WING DEICE Press applied to end of boots - 18psi
L AUTOFEATHER
L ENG ANTI-ICE Eng Anti-ice vane extended
L IGNITION ON igniters will automatically operate when the engine torque falls below 750 Ft/Lbs
TAIL DEICE Press applied to end of boots - 18psi
MAN TIES CLOSE Gen Ties are manually closed
R IGNITION ON igniters will automatically operate when the engine torque falls below 750 Ft/Lbs
OUTBD WING
Press applied to end of boots - 18psi
DEICE
R AUTO FEATHER
R ENG ANTI-ICE Eng Anti-ice vane extended
L ENVIR OFF Environment Valve OFF
FUEL TRANSFER Shows that fuel tansfer valve is in the full open position
TAXI LIGHT Taxi light ON with Nose Gear fully UP
EXTERNAL
External Power plug is connected
POWER
R ENVIR OFF Environment Valve OFF

26/3/07 12
Fuel System

Main (lb) 1621 1621


Aux (lb) 621 621
TotalUsuable (lb) 4484

Collector tank – filled by gravity (flapper valves) and 2 Jet pumps (venturi) scavenge from Main tank to keep collector tank
full.
- filled by AUX TXFR

Fuel Vents - heated protruding vents, provide positive press


- unheated recessed vents
- flush hole vents, with flame arrestor

- Pumps x 2 (low press EDP & STBY boost) – collector tank ⇒ Eng
- Provides A) 40 psi to the H.P Pump - prevents cavitation
B) Motive flow for 3 transfer jet pumps (main, fwd, aft)
Main = In collector tank
Forward = Draws fuel from fwd of main wing spar to collect tank
Aft = Also in the collector tank, Draws fuel from main tank to collect tank

- Standby Boost Pump - also mounted in & draws directly from the collector tanks
- used to transfer to opposite collector tank & provide motive flow for start
- 3 ways to turn on Auto - IGNITION & ENG START ⇒ ON
Auto - transfer
Manual - when EDP low press pump fails. FUEL PRESS LO

- AUX tanks must be used first - a loss of electrical power ⇒ electrical AUX XFR pump stops ⇒ fuel in AUX become
unusable.
- powered by respective Gen Bus.
- AUX PUMP. ON – AUTO – OFF
ON- power applied to aux transfer Pump, run’s continuously until thermal cut-out , if dry Float switch gives NO
AUX XFR
AUTO - transfer pump on with 10 psi switch (same switch as for FUEL PRESS LO), if fuel in tank.
- Float switch & 5 psi transfer press switch - NO AUX XFR

Firewall Shutoff Handles - pull to shutoff fuel, and arm fire extinguishes
- motor driven gate type Valve – require elect pwr.
- powered by the hot batt bus, and opposite gen bus

26/3/07 13
- red light in T handle (& Master Warning Flasher) gives engine fire warning

High press Fuel Pump - spur gear type


- 850 + psi
- self lubricating

Fuel Gauges - capacitance type


- Max error 3%
- density compensated
- Yellow arc = 363 lbs of fuel
remains
- 6 probes each MAIN. 2 each
AUX

Capacitance Probe
- measures electrical resistance between the inner
& outer wall of the capacitance tube
- 6x probes -each main tank
- 2x probes -each aux tank
- supposed to allow for differing densities.

SIGHT GAUGES: Underside of wings- Placarded beside sight glasses.

Fuel Filter has auto bypass if blocked. Red Spigot protrudes from filter housing.

FUEL PRESS LO - pressure from Low Press EDP - below 10psi. Standby electric fuel pump ⇒ ON –should extinguish
the light.
If light not extinguished – STBY pump failed, high pressure pump doing all the work to get fuel from tank.
Max of further 10 hours operation before replacement High Press Pump - cavitation and possible failure.
- BE CAREFULL ABOUT DESTINATION. DDPG NEEDS ENGINEER TO INSPECT THE
FUEL BOWL FOR PUMP DEBRE

L/R FUEL QTY under 324 lbs in mains


L/R COL TANK LOW under 53 lbs in collector tanks
XFR VALVE FAIL Switch disagree’s with valve position
FUEL TRANSFER transfer valve is fully open. @900 lb / hr = 15lb / min

FUEL PURGE SYSTEM


- Assures that residual fuel is burnt off on shutdown.
- Normal ops, P3 ⇒ small tank. On shutdown, air discharges, forcing unburnt fuel ⇒ combustion chamber. Surge in N1 on
shut down.

TRANSFER FLOW - Move switch in direction you want flow. Transfer valves and correct standby fuel boost pump operate
automatic
- 900 lbs/hr
- Transfer is from collector tank to collector tank.
st
FUEL DRAINS – 1 flight daily.
- 5 each side. - Main Tank (2) = Underside of tank outboard of nacelle
- Collect Tank (1) = Outboard side of nacelle
- Fuel Filter (1) = Underside of wing outboard of nacelle
- Aux Tank (1) = Underside of wing inboard of nacelle

SHADON FUEL COMPUTER


- nautical miles / lb
- lb to dest
- lb Reserve at Dest
- Endurance

AVGAS LIMITATIONS
- Max 150 hours of use between overhauls – measured in volume.
- Not flights above 18000ft
26/3/07 14
- Standby pumps must be operational, and ON for take off, approach and landing. And AVGAS ops, & above FL180

+ GENERAL LIMITATIONS
- max 10 hrs without boost Pump (limits cavitation wear) FUEL PRESS LO
- Max fuel imbalance is 200lbs. SE operation – fuel monitored correctly.
- anti-ice additive req. at -40º or colder (advisory only)
- no aux tank fuel unless mains are full
- Eagle SOPS stipulate that AUX tanks are not to be use for normal operations

26/3/07 15
Powerplant

2x PT6A-67D free turbine, reverse flow turbo prop engines, flat rated at 1279 shp to +48ºC @ sea level.

4 stage axial compressor- good efficiency at low rpm, 1 stage centrifugal compressor- good efficiency at high rpm.
Diffuser tubes – convert velocity to static press ⇒ annular combustion chamber. – Around 25% air burned / 75% centres
flame & cooling.
1 stage compressor turbine (absorbs approx 60-70% of energy), 2 stage power turbine.
Sections rotate in opposing directions to counter torque (gyro forces).

- Two spark igniters, at 8 & 2 o’clock, provide positive ignition start. Units convert low (9-30v) DC current to high voltage.
- 28VDC supply , operates in 9-30 volt range. High Capacitance Ignitor box can produce up to 3000 volts.
- when 24-28 V ⇒ exciter unit, IGNITION ON
- ENG AUTO IGN – ARMED. IGNITION ON - automatic when Torque drops below 750 Ft/Lbs - auto-fx disarmed on opposite
eng.

- IGNITION & ENG START, ON – OFF – STARTER ONLY.


- Normal ignition occurs within 20 seconds, the following limits don’t apply.
- Restart NO IGNITION = 20 sec ON and 30 sec OFF
20 sec ON and 60 sec OFF
20 sec ON and 5 min OFF

Combustion Gas Temperature reference is ITT = Interstage Turbine Temperature


st
Sensed midway between the compressor turbine and the 1 power turbine. – station 5

Exhaust produces approx. 73hp (181 lbs) of thrust @ T/off & 66hp (171 lbs) thrust in the cruise. Just a bonus, not part of
1279 shp.

PT6A-67D Terms - Compressor turbine speed - N1 (Ng)


- 100% N1 = 37468 RPM
- 104% N1 = 39,000 rpm Max Cont (max sustained)
- Prop rpm designated Np or N2
- torque values quoted in ft-lbs
- Compression Ratio 12:1
- Prop Gearbox ratio 17.6:1

SHP = Torque x Prop RPM x K . K for PT6A-67D = 0.00019


T/O = 3950 x 1700 x 0.00019 = 1279 shp
MCP = 3750 x 1700 x 0.00019 = 1214 shp
Climb= 3750 x 1550 x 0.00019 = 1105 shp
Cruise= 3000 x 1400 x 0.00019 = 800 shp

Normal Power Settings


T/O 1700 rpm 3950 ft-lbs 800ºC ITT max. Not normally Limiting. @ 720-740ºC
Climb 1550 rpm + app 3750 ft-lbs 780ºC ITT max
Cruise 1400 rpm 3000 ft-lbs 760ºC ITT max
26/3/07 16
Airstart Problems – must have positive N1. Shroud may have cooled/contracted onto compressor turbine.

BLEED VALVE / JET FLAP


- A low N1 rpm, axial stage compressor produces more compressed air than the centrifugal stage can handle.
- can lead to compressor stall (back pressure).
Compressor bleed valve compensates – sending P2.5 bleed air back to engine intake – reducing back press on Axial
Compressors.
- 72% N1 bleed valve / jet flap fully open. 90% N1 bleed valve / jet flap fully closed.
- If valve stuck open @ high N1 speeds, power output reduced. At a given N1 rpm, ITT slightly high and Torque lower than
normal.
Bleed system takes P3 air or P2.5 air (if jet flap open)

- Fuel via 14 duplex nozzles, the 14 primary ports (very fine spray pattern) - initial start. 14 secondary ports open @ 40-45%
N1.
Flow Dividers - divide fuel flow between primary & secondary nozzle ports during start sequence
- No secondary ports/nozzles – hung start @ 45% N1

ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM

1. engine driven (Low Pressure) boost Pp -45psi - FUEL PRESS ۞ – runs off the Accessory shaft – from N1 Shaft.
2. a firewall shutoff Vv / Filter – hot bus & opp gene - a fuel press switch comes off this. Gate type valve.
3. Oil / fuel heat exchanger
4. High press fuel Pump (eng driven) – 850 psi output. If fails - flame out
5. Fuel control unit (FCU) Φ – fuel control heat – always ON
6. Cut-off Vv (condition lever)
7. Fuel flow transmitter⇒ DC signal to fuel flow gauges. Between fuel cut-off valve & flow divider.
8. Minimum px flow Vv (min 100psi)
9. Flow divider – purge tank outlet.
10. Duplex nozzles. Primary – Start. Secondary – above 35% N1.

۞ STBY boost pump ON, if press rises to 11psi ± 2 - ann will extinguish.
If FUEL PRESS stays on - aircraft may only operate 10 hours before the Eng Driven High Press Fuel Pump must be
overhauled. Primary EDP & Oil Pump on same shaft. If FUEL PRESS – watch Oil Press / Temp.

Φ - FCU compares N1 to power lever settings ⇒ regulates fuel to fuel nozzles & to maintain the required N1.
- P3 air ⇒ diaphragm. Amount of P3 forcing diaphragm – governed by 1) Fuel Topping governer (Top)
2) N1 governor (controlled by condx and PWR
lever’s)
- N1 governor - does all the work. Fuel topping governor – back-up.
- Min fuel stop – 90 lb / hr /eng – keeps engine running.

CONDITION LEVERS
- High idle = 71% N1. On GND use only for a X-GEN start
- Low idle = 67% N1. Used for all normal GND operations

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LUBRICATION SYSTEM
- Total oil system capacity 3.9 us gallons, including the 2.3 us gallon oil tank.- just fwd of accessory gearbox.
- Max consumption, 1Q every 10 hours (can be as little as 1Q every 50)
- Exxon 2328, Synthetic oil
- Normal oil press, 90-135psi, above 72%N1. Under 85psi – Torque reads low . OIL PRESS LO – below 60psi

Tank ⇒ Pump ⇒ T&P sensor ⇒ Lube. Nose case & Eng Bearings ⇒ Scavenge ⇒ Oil Cooler ⇒ Tank.

- External oil cooler housed below engine - activated by thermostat. Scavenge oil reaches 71’C ⇒ valve opens to oil cooler.
- Oil scavenge pump - same drive shaft as EDBP. If EDBP fails could be the drive shaft. Monitor oil temp, 110ºC Max - 10
minutes

Engine Gauges – all require 28V DC power

ITT - 28v DC powered. Signal from Thermocouple


- company start limit of 900º ⇒ abort start
- between 800 & 840 ⇒ recorded
- Beech / Pratt & Whitney limit of 1000º for 5 secs
- 870º ⇒ 1000º between 5 & 20 secs = engineer inspection and recorded
- 1000º ⇒ 1100º - 5 secs max - engineer inspection and recorded.

Torque - ft/lb (max cont) – 2 sensors for Auto Fx (750 & 350 ft-lb)
- yellow arc - 3750 ⇒ 3950 ft/lb
- red - 3950 ft/lb (5 mins)
- Measured with oil press against fixed piston.
Below 85psi Oil press, 2000ft-lbs max
- momentary over-torque approved ⇒ 5000 ft/lbs up to 20 secs. – 870ºC ITT

Propeller RPM - red arc, 400 - 950 & 1250 - 1395, not for ground ops
- because of prop resonance.
- Props → Taxi, keeps RPM
in Green.
- max rpm of 1700 rpm
- signal from tacho gene.
- Reduction Gearbox ⇒ Prop - planetary type
17.6 : 1 reduction ratio (Turbine : Prop) 24640 : 1400

N1 Gas generator – speed controlled by power lever position


- Signal from a tacho Generator
100% = 37468rpm
104% = 39000rpm , Max Cont
Low idle – 65%N1
High idle – 71% N1

Fuel Flow
Normal T/O = @720 lbs/hr
Climb = @550 lbs/hr
Cruise = 400-440 lbs/hr

Oil Press & Temp


Norm Press 90 – 135 psi
Temp 10 – 105ºC

Moving Power or Condition levers – only changes N1.

ITT, Tq & Fuel Flow changes are a byproduct of N1 changing.

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Climbing with a fixed N1. ITT Tq and fuel flow will all vary.

Inertial separators (ENG ANTI ICE)-


- Should be ON for T/O, APP, LDG, all GND ops., in-flight when visible moisture and temp below +5ºC. (+10 IOAT)
- Dual motors - Main and Standby
-fails to extend within 30 seconds the ENG ICE FAIL – disagree light. Immediate – no power. 30 sec delay – actuator
failed
- normal ext – L & R ENG ANIT-ICE – when ON – engine Tq drops approx 400ft/lbs.

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Propeller System

- 4 Hartzell, composite blades. Free turbines - no direct mechanical link between compressor & power turbines.

BETA VALVE
- Controls the amount of oil to the primary governor.
- Pressure to the dome ⇒ low pitch (high rpm). Loss of oil pressure ⇒ high pitch (low rpm) and feathered position.
- Shutdown- automatically towards feather – no oil press ⇒ dome

PRIMARY GOVERNOR
- Controls blade angle through normal governing range, 1200 – 1700 rpm ⇒ moving the prop levers.
- Governor oil pump – increases oil press ⇒ 750 psi.
- Prop control adjusts tension on speeder spring vs flyweights – equilibrium = on speed. Attatched to pilot valve – allows oil to
dome.
- Dome attatched to Prop Blade trailing edge. More oil = Dome FWD = Prop fine = higher rpm.
- Primary governor fail ⇒ over speed governor (1802rpm max). Limit available torque to 3535ft/lbs

- Overspeed Governor Test - Resets the value from 1802 down to 1535 - 1595 rpm
- Low Pitch Test – By-passes squat switch – tricks aircraft into thinking it’s airborne . Blade angle decreases - to flight idle.
RPM drops.

- Fuel topping governor (reduces fuel flow) - extra backup. Limits N1 to 106% of Power lever setting. Reverse – 93 - 97%
- prevents Power Turbine overspeed in event of Prop malfunction.

FINE PITCH STOP


- Hydraulicly controlled / mechanically monitored. When Prop Rpm is lower than that set – on low pitch stop.
- As aircraft slows – eg approach to land, primary governor no longer able to maintain desired rpm. Props move toward full
fine.
Position of low pitch stop - controlled by power levers. Flt Idle- minimum blade angle of 12.7’ – feed back ring / beta rod -
pulls Beta valve closed, stops oil to primary governor.
- On touch down, either Main sq switch - activates prop-ground-solenoid to pull back the reversing rod, & open the beta valve
slightly.
-Therefore: On touch down, the props automatically 12.7º ⇒ 4.9º (ground idle blade angle) giving more drag.

- To de-activate ground idle system if abnormal drag or yaw is experienced on approach - pull solenoid CB.

- to reverse, pwr levers move back, opening beta valve – allowing dome fwd, blade angle decreases, until feed back ring /
beta rod pulls beta valve closed again.
When Beta valve is open, oil will always flow to dome, while primary governor is in under speed condition.

BLADE ANGLES – measured using chord - 42” from hub.


- FEATHER = 79º
- FLIGHT IDLE = 12.7º
(-7.8º difference)
- GROUND IDLE = 4.9º
(-10.8º difference)
- GROUND FINE = - 5.9 º
- BETA RANGE = 4.9 TO -5.9 º
- MAX REVERSE = -14.5 º

Max reverse is 85% N1 (fuel topping governor) = 900 shp, with limits of 760 ITT and 1650 rpm
CAUTION: Max reverse not available if full fine isn’t selected.

AUTO FEATHER SYSTEM


-Must be armed for TakeOff, Climb, Approach & Landing
- Required for dispatch, AutoFeather Check follows this sequence.
- System is armed when power levers are advanced thru 90% N1 & 1000 ft-lbs.
L and R AUTOFEATHER and L and R AFX Annunciators
- Torque drops thru 750 ft/lbs: Auto ignition ON
AFX DISABLE– on good engine
AUTOFEATHER and AFX extinguished

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