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1.What is Active Directory?

2.What is LDAP?
3.Can you connect Active Directory to other 3rd-party Directory Services? Name a few
options.
4.Where is the AD database held? What other folders are related to AD?
5.What is the SYSVOL folder?
6.Name the AD NCs and replication issues for each NC
7.What are application partitions? When do I use them
8.How do you create a new application partition
9.How do you view replication properties for AD partitions and DCs?
10. What is the Global Catalog?

11. How do you view all the GCs in the forest?


12. Why not make all DCs in a large forest as GCs?
13. Trying to look at the Schema, how can I do that?
14. What are the Support Tools? Why do I need them?
15. What is LDP? What is REPLMON? What is ADSIEDIT? What is NETDOM? What is
REPADMIN?
16. What are sites? What are they used for?
17. What?s the difference between a site link?s schedule and interval?
18. What is the KCC?
19. What is the ISTG? Who has that role by default?
20. What are the requirements for installing AD on a new server?
21. What can you do to promote a server to DC if you?re in a remote location with
slow WAN link?
22. How can you forcibly remove AD from a server, and what do you do later? ? Can I
get user passwords from the AD database?
23. What tool would I use to try to grab security related packets from the wire?
24. Name some OU design considerations.
25. What is tombstone lifetime attribute?
26. What do you do to install a new Windows 2003 DC in a Windows 2000 AD?
27. What do you do to install a new Windows 2003 R2 DC in a Windows 2003 AD?
28. How would you find all users that have not logged on since last month?
29. What are the DS* commands?
30. What?s the difference between LDIFDE and CSVDE? Usage considerations?
31. What are the FSMO roles? Who has them by default? What happens when each
one fails?
32. What FSMO placement considerations do you know of?
33. I want to look at the RID allocation table for a DC. What do I do?
34. What?s the difference between transferring a FSMO role and seizing one? Which
one should you NOT seize? Why?
35. How do you configure a ?stand-by operation master? for any of the roles?
36. How do you backup AD?
37. How do you restore AD?
38. How do you change the DS Restore admin password?
39. Why can?t you restore a DC that was backed up 4 months ago?
40. What are GPOs?
41. What is the order in which GPOs are applied?
42. Name a few benefits of using GPMC.
43. What are the GPC and the GPT? Where can I find them?
44. What are GPO links? What special things can I do to them?
45. What can I do to prevent inheritance from above?
46. How can I override blocking of inheritance?
47. How can you determine what GPO was and was not applied for a user? Name a few
ways to do that.
48. A user claims he did not receive a GPO, yet his user and computer accounts are in
the right OU, and everyone else there gets the GPO. What will you look for?
49. Name a few differences in Vista GPOs
50. Name some GPO settings in the computer and user parts.
51. What are administrative templates?
52. What?s the difference between software publishing and assigning?
53. Can I deploy non-MSI software with GPO?
54. You want to standardize the desktop environments (wallpaper, My Documents,
Start menu, printers etc.) on the computers in one department. How would you do that?

HTTP ———- 80
FTP ———— 20,21
TelNet ———- 23
SMTP ———- 25

DNS ———– 53
TFTP ———– 69
SNMP ———- 161
RIP ————- 520
IMAP 4——— 143
IMAP 3 ——— 220
RPC ———— 135
LDAP ———- 389
Net Stat ——– 15
WINS ———- 42
BootP ———- 67
DHCP ———- 68
POP2 ———- 109
POP3 ———- 110
Net BIOS —— 139
SSL(HTTPS) — 443
SQL Server —- 1433
NFS ———— 2049
SSH ———— 22
RAP ———– 38
BGP ———– 179
Networking:

Network engineer/architect interview questions

1. Explain how traceroute, ping, and tcpdump work and what they are used for?
2. Describe a case where you have used these tools to troubleshoot.
3. What is the last major networking problem you troubleshot and solved on your own in the
last year?
4. What LAN analyzer tools are you familiar with and describe how you use them to
troubleshoot and on what media and network types.
5. Explain the contents of a routing table (default route, next hop, etc.)
6. What routing protocols have you configured?
7. Describe the commands to set up a route.
8. What routing problems have you troubleshot?
9. How do you display a routing table on a Cisco? On a host?
10. How do you use a routing table and for what?
11. What is a route flap?
12. What is a metric?
13. When do you use BGP, IGRP, OSPF, Static Routes?
14. What do you see as current networking security issues (e.g. NFS mounting, spoofing, one
time passwords, etc.)?
15. Describe a routing filter and what it does.
16. Describe an access list and what it does.
17. What is a network management system?
18. Describe how SNMP works.
19. Describe the working environment you are currently in, e.g. frequent interruptions,
frequent priority shifting, team or individual.
20. What do you use to write documentation? Editor? Mail reader?
21. What platform (s) do you currently work on at your desk?
22. How do you manage multiple concurrent high level projects?
23. Describe a recent short term stressful situation and how you managed it.
24. How do you manage a long term demanding stressful work environment?
25. Have you worked in an assignment based environment, e.g. work request/trouble ticket
system, and if so, describe that environment.
26. Describe what network statistics or measurement tools you are familiar with and how you
have used them.
27. Describe what a VPN is and how it works.
28. Describe how VoIP works.
29. Describe methods of QoS.
30. How does ToS bit work?

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CCNA/Cisco admin interview questions

1. You need to retrieve a file from the file server for your word processing
application, which layer of the OSI model is responsible for this function?
1. Presentation layer
2. Application layer
3. Session layer
4. Transport layer
5. Datalink layer
2. You are working in a word processing program, which is run from the file server.
Your data comes back to you in an unintelligible manner. Which layer of the OSI
model would you investigate?
1. Application layer
2. Presentation layer
3. Session layer
4. Network layer
5. Datalink layer
3. The IEEE subdivided the datalink layer to provide for environments that need
connectionless or connection-oriented services. What are the two layers called?
1. Physical
2. MAC
3. LLC
4. Session
5. IP
4. You are working with graphic translations. Which layer of the OSI model is
responsible for code formatting and conversion and graphic standards.
1. Network layer
2. Session layer
3. Transport layer
4. Presentation layer
5. Which is the best definition of encapsulation?
1. Each layer of the OSI model uses encryption to put the PDU from the upper layer
into its data field. It adds header and trailer information that is available to its
counterpart on the system that will receive it.
2. Data always needs to be tunneled to its destination so encapsulation must be
used.
3. Each layer of the OSI model uses compression to put the PDU from the upper layer
into its data field. It adds header and trailer information that is available to its
counterpart on the system that will receive it.
4. Each layer of the OSI model uses encapsulation to put the PDU from the upper
layer into its data field. It adds header and trailer information that is available to
its counterpart on the system that will receive it.
6. Routers can be configured using several sources. Select which of the following
sources can be used.
1. Console Port
2. Virtual Terminals
3. TFTP Server
4. Floppy disk
5. Removable media
7. Which memory component on a Cisco router contains the dynamic system
configuration?
1. ROM
2. NVRAM
3. Flash
4. RAM/DRAM
8. Which combination of keys will allow you to view the previous commands that
you typed at the router?
1. ESC-P
2. Ctrl-P
3. Shift-P
4. Alt-P
9. Which commands will display the active configuration parameters?
1. show running-config
2. write term
3. show version
4. display term
10. You are configuring a router, which prompt tells you that you are in the
privileged EXEC mode?
1. @
2. >
3. !
4. :
5. #
11. What does the command “IP name-server 255.255.255.255″ accomplish?
1. It disables domain name lookup.
2. It sets the domain name lookup to be a local broadcast.
3. This is an illegal command.
4. The command is now defunct and has been replaced by “IP server-name ip any”
12. The following selections show the command prompt and the configuration of the
IP network mask. Which two are correct?
1. Router(config-if)#netmask-format { bitcount | decimal | hexadecimal }
2. Router#term IP netmask-format { bitcount | decimal | hexadecimal }
3. Router(config-if)#IP netmask-format { bitcount | decimal | hexadecimal }
4. Router#ip netmask-format { bitcount | decimal | hexadecimal }
13. Which layer is responsible for flow control with sliding windows and reliability
with sequence numbers and acknowledgments?
1. Transport
2. Application
3. Internet
4. Network Interface
14. Which processes does TCP, but not UDP, use?
1. Windowing
2. Acknowledgements
3. Source Port
4. Destination Port
15. Select which protocols use distance vector routing?
1. OSPF
2. RIP
3. IGRP
4. PPP

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Networking and Unix interview questions

What is UTP?

UTP — Unshielded twisted pair 10BASE-T is the preferred Ethernet medium of the 90s. It is based
on a star topology and provides a number of advantages over coaxial media:

It uses inexpensive, readily available copper phone wire. UTP wire is much easier to install and
debug than coax. UTP uses RG-45 connectors, which are cheap and reliable.

What is a router? What is a gateway?

Routers are machines that direct a packet through the maze of networks that stand between its
source and destination. Normally a router is used for internal networks while a gateway acts a
door for the packet to reach the ‘outside’ of the internal network

What is Semaphore? What is deadlock?

Semaphore is a synchronization tool to solve critical-section problem, can be used to control


access to the critical section for a process or thread. The main disadvantage (same of mutual-
exclusion) is require busy waiting. It will create problems in a multiprogramming system, where a
single CPU is shared among many processes.

Busy waiting wastes CPU cycles.


Deadlock is a situation when two or more processes are waiting indefinitely for an event that can
be caused by only one of the waiting processes. The implementation of a semaphore with a
waiting queue may result in this situation.

What is Virtual Memory?

Virtual memory is a technique that allows the execution of processes that may not be completely
in memory. A separation of user logical memory from physical memory allows an extremely large
virtual memory to be provided for programmers when only a smaller physical memory is available.
It is commonly implemented by demand paging. A demand paging system is similar to a paging
system with swapping. Processes reside on secondary memory (which is usually a disk). When we
want to execute a process, we swap it into memory.

Explain the layered aspect of a UNIX system. What are the layers? What does it mean to
say they are layers?

A UNIX system has essentially three main layers:

. The hardware

. The operating system kernel

. The user-level programs

The kernel hides the system’s hardware underneath an abstract, high-level programming
interface. It is responsible for implementing many of the facilities that users and user-level
programs take for granted.

The kernel assembles all of the following UNIX concepts from lower-level hardware features:

. Processes (time-sharing, protected address space)

. Signals and semaphores

. Virtual Memory (swapping, paging, and mapping)

. The filesystem (files, directories, namespace)

. Pipes and network connections (inter-process communication)

Mysql

1. Which will be faster out of these two queries - one with OR or one with IN?
2. Where does MyISAM cache table records?
3. Which will be faster out of queries with explicit INNER JOIN and implicit one?
4. Is InnoDB faster/better than MyISAM?
5. Is CHAR faster than VARCHAR?
6. Is VARCHAR(80) faster than VARCHAR(255)?
7. Are there performance issues when joining tables from different storage engines?
8. If I change a derived table to a view, will performance increase?
9. If I see Using temporary; Using filesort” in the Extra column of EXPLAIN output, does that mean a
temporary table is created on disk?
10. Is it possible to do a FULL OUTER JOIN in MySQL?