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Unity of India

Book chapter’s Summary

India is a country which is full of diversity, for creating a nation we need various elements
like common language, religion and government but if there is a thing which we need the
most is to have a common country. Although India is democratic country but still there is a
lack in unity and it is topic which needs to worked on there are many problems which leads to
lack in our culture , cast, tradition etc.

India is diverse on many basis such as caste, creed , religion etc. Because of which India
themselves don’t have proper perspective about it. European says that India is not a single
country , instead it is combination of many countries , on the other hand Anglo Indians says
that India is a country which shows that it is united geographically , because it is surrounded
by plateaus and mountains.so the fact that the geographical unity of India is apt to be lost
sight of in her immensity and variety. There are varieties of flora and fauna found in our
country this is due to diverse longitude, altitude, temperature and moisture. In India along
and religion.

Many observers have different perception about Indian life and geography .There is unity in
diversity in India is the biggest advantage. Sir Herbert Risley has that India is strong both
geographically and socially. Shri Yusufali has pointed out from Himalayas and
Kanyakumari , the whole world India can be described. Because of diversity India is strong in
geographically socially and economically. It is generally recognised and admitted everywhere
that Indian unity is largely , not the creation of the British rule. The inevitable outcome of a
centralised administration which controls the whole country from the Himalayas to
Kanyakumari. If we discuss about the history of our country that how our country named as
India , Bharat or Hindustan. The name India was given to our country by foreigners. The
river sindhu by which the country was first known to outsiders was changed into Hindu
by Persians , and Indus by the Greeks. Bharat name was derived from ‘ Bharat’ who
was the shakuntala and Drushyant .

After reading this hymn, a beautiful picture of our country and about its fundamental unity is
been created in the minds of the reader that cannot be ignored and pleases the people. Poet
has beautifully presented the country and its fundamental unity of its reader. As we all know
that Aryan colonization was primarily knows as aryavarta. The embrace southern India by
using Vedic formulas. We all considered river as fundamental of unity. We all worship rivers.
India is considered as land of seven principles. Shankracharya placed four pilgrimages
and math in different corner of India. There are some temples for the worship of sun
these are: Konarka, Multan and Suryapura.There are 51 Pithasthanas in India. Now
Pithasthanas called as Pithanirnaya. 51 Pithasthanas are like- Varanasi-Vishalakshi, Kalipith-
Kalika, Mansa-Dakshayadi, Kashmir-Mahamaya etc. List of mahapithas the shivcharita
recognizes Upapithas of which it mentions as many as 26 at such important places as
Varanasi, Nilachala, Ayodhya, Vrindavana, Srisaila, Pundra and Svetavandha. This
descriptive list may be given in a tabular form- Varanasi, Ayodhya, Lanka etc.

Sanskrit is a literature which mainly talks about our motherland. If we take the example of
Atharava Veda all it sings are the praises of our motherland that how it is rich in everything
and how India is a chosen land and is itself a heaven on earth.

The chapter tells about the India’s beauty which is usually not used for the self-enjoyment but
for the self-restraint and meditation. It also tells about the same feeling in every Indian about
their Country the network of shrines and sacred places which constitutes one of the
distinguished and differencing features of India. Buddhism and Jainism is the part of
Hinduism. Few centuries ago, for sometime Buddhism had given the name of Hinduism. The
main contribution of Buddhism is to elevate the people and to bring unity. Too many states
such as Bihar, Delhi, and Gaya etc all these considering their widely-separated locations,
which are unified by a common artistic impulse, a single religious ideas.

In this book it is explained the need to study the development of geographical knowledge of
India.Its successive stage. We talk about the vedic age, which forces only on north part of
India. The vedic age are limited to rivers-hymns. In Rig vedic, 25 steams of river
described. The countries beyond vindhaya range & miranda river are not mentioned.
Evidence shows the colonization of Southern India did not accomplished till 7thcentury B.C.

Panini the writer mention the some places of Southern India such as kacchha,avanti ,koala,
Krauss and kalinga. Pali literature mention about the Dakhsinapatna which means remote
settlement of Godaveri.TheNikayas refers to the sea-voyages, to kalinga ,Dantapura , near the
cost.The Buddhists pali book enumerate the sixteen principles political division of the
countries like avanti,gandhar,magadha ,panchal,anga etc. Govind sutra mention about
the seven provinces and lalitavistara mention the existence of sixteen great state in different
countries of jambudvipa. The sanskrit and pali references does not embrace the southern
India and ceylon.

Southern India first floats in Indian geophysical Horizon in 4th century. Greek evidence
shows the time of Alexander invosion. Two trade routes were mentioned i.e northern routes
&southern routes.Southern were the sources of valuables like diamonds, gold.

The Ashoka mentioned southern independence kingdoms. During maurya empire the
evidence of whole India geographical is given.

A book call Pantanjali was found before 150 B.C, gave advance upon katayana & also large
knowledge about the south. In this chapter its difficult to tell the chronological order of
Ramayana &Mahabharata. But popular hindi beliefs, says Ramayana was the 1st to come, as
it describes less about southern part when compared to Mahabharata. Mahabharata describes
all the river streams which include south rivers also,& other details about the southern part.

The era of puranas came after the geographical knowledge of Mahabharata. In India, it was
famous for its sacred places and extensive knowledge. This country made up of divisions was
described as a geographical units . This division is INDRA , KASERUMATH ,
TAMARPAN , KUMARIKA etc . Apart from this ,varahamihiranaga has given different
details to 9 division .

 CENTRAL DIVISION– May river ,pachal , pandu were mentioned .


 EASTERN DIVISION – Kashi desh Kushal udra etc
 NORTH EAST DIVISION- Nishad ,adhar , deshanga etc
 SOUTHERN DIVISION – Kerala ,mahendra , karnat , rivers ( Krishna)
 SOUTH EAST DIVISION – Tribe(Arvas Berber)Countries (Kaboj,Dravid)
 WESTERN DIVISION – Shakam , Vaishya adhi
 NORTH WESTERN DIVISION – Female state and Venumati
 NORTHERN DIVISION- Tribes (hun,kaikeya) Desh (kalash)
 NORTH EAST DIVISION – Kashmiri

Kalidas has also given geographical consideration which is helpful in concluding the above
description of India’s geographical development. Raghu’s vishvavijaya( in the east ) vang ,
kapis river , (south), kaveri river(in the west) across the mural river which is the middle of the
sea, (in the north) yavan , the mountainous region near kailash mountain . Meghdoot is
included in the place mentioned in the path of meghdoot going from ramgiri to akala. The
hills of sattpura are malwa, the capital vidisha ,gangavati , Gambhir, devangiri , kankhal hill
near the ganges , gomukh , mansa lake and alaka. Before the era of steam locomotive and
mechanical vehicles, the Indian was a brawler and had extensive knowledge of tribes and
tribes. This geographical unity had religious implications as well as some political influences
and saw this raradra in the unit . between 606 and 608 AD, the ganges basin was ruled by
HARSH VARDAN. It acquired the role of the best self on the land of India , and
Chandragupta was also the same shakha , who forgets to make Samprabhusask in India.

It is wrong to believe that Chandragupta conceptualized a single autopsy in Indians politics


which is dominated by the whole of India. This concept has passed down from generation to
generation and preceded Chandragupta in ancient hindu CHAKRAVARTI RAJA and
SAMPRABHU has been the concept of ruler.

SAMPRABHU RELATED WORDS REFER TO LIKE :-

 ADHIRAJ – This word is mentioned in the Rived and Ardhaveda


 RAJADHIRAJA – The king of kings mentioned in the later Aranyak.
 SAMRAJ – It is more powerful than the king. Its description in the Riveda.
 EKRAJA- It mean the only ruler. It is used in the Riveda and Ardveda.
In addition to these words for samprabhu , many other words to express the almighty
samprabhu and sarvopari are mentioned. Like – the Ardhaveda ,kakhaka Samhita, Taittiriya
Samhita , the Jamini Upanishad Brahmana, Etteriya Brahmana indicate the potential of
different types and capacities. For example, in the state Samrajya ,Pachanvish Brahman and
Chhadogya Upanishad , there is also the use of dominion word.

Vajpayee and the Rajasuya are the two ceremonies in connection with the
coronation of the emperors. So according to Satapatha Brahasma and Katyayana Strauta
Sutra Vajpayee means sovereignty means becoming king and Rajasuya means royal dignity
means becoming emperors. Latyayana defines Vajpayee, amongst the rites peculiar to the
Vajpayee, is chariot race, then mounting of the sacrificial post by the throne as a symbol is
also mentioned in Atharvaveda. The Rajasuya, or inauguration of a king, was a more
complex ceremony, which consisted of a long succession of sacrificial performances spread
over a period of upwards of two years. One of the most interesting features of rajasuya is the
ceremony of jewel offerings which are offered to the state representing officer. The next
interesting ceremony in Rajasuya was the consecration ceremony. Then follow the
preparation of the consecration water, made up no less than the seventeen kinds. And then the
king is officially announced.

Beside the Vajpayee and the Rajasuya, we find two other forms of the inauguration of great
kings described in the Aitareya Brahmana. The priest who wishes that his Ksatriya king-elect
should achieve all kinds of conquest, should know all people, should secure sovereignty as a
ruler, fulfillment of highest desires, that he might be a universal overlord. Such a priest
should inaugurate the Kshatriya with India’s great inauguration ceremony, demanding from
him a promise on oath that he will lose everything, even his life, if he attempts violation of
right and truth.

The elaboration of the rituals connected with these imperial inaugurations, which it is
unnecessary to follow in greater detail for our present purpose, indicates without doubt the
nature of political environment. The highest class in the hierarch of Hindu kings was made up
of those who were Asamudrakstisa. The territorial synthesis leads the way to the political
synthesis and is in turn emphasized by it. Side by side with these ideals and conceptions of an
all-India over lordship, the books also preserve for us traditional traditional lists of kings who
are said to have succeeded in realizing them in life – giving another proof that at least the
conception of India. Besides the list of great kings, there is another list to be found and were
therefore recognized as paramount sovereigns.

There lists of great kings preserve in Vedic literature are also supplemented by other lists in
the Puranas and other works the kurma purana mention king Vasunama, the Padma Purana
mention king Dilip, the Agni purana mention Prithu etc.
The Mahabharata in many places refers to the great Indian kings there are following names:-

 Ram
 Bharata
 Dilip
 Bhagiratha

The Arthasatra of kautilya also gives expression to the conception of an all-india overlord and
a list of kings who realised that ideal.

There is a list of kings which includes the following names:-

 Ravan
 Duroydhana
 Alia

These kings all failed to be great because of there want & self control and subjection of the
senses

We come across the illustrious name of YUDHISHTHIRA, who proclaimed his over
lordship and paramount-power before the imperial Durbar at Indraprastha , invited kings
from the remote area and realise the unity of that vast empire into which were federated their
small kingdoms. Mutual jealousies and animosities afterwards culminated in the great war of
the MAHABHARTA. It was left upto the Yudhishthira to arrest these disruptive tendencies
for a time by the evolution of a peaceful confederation. That this task of political
reconstruction was not so easy one thus recognised by Yudhisthira : “There are kings
everywhere living independently, doing what they like, but they have not attained to the rank
of emperor , for that appellation is difficult to obtain.” Situation was full of difficulties. There
were powerful kings on every side aiming at over lordship but the most powerful king was
JARASANDHA from Magadha. Four grand military expeditions were then organised.
ARJUNA assumed the command of the northern. BHIMA was led towards the east. The
southern advance was under SAHADEVA. NAKULA leading the western expedition. Thus
the whole India for the time resounded with the din of the conquering marches of the
Pandavas. India once again was imagined and used as a political unit.

The story of Yudhishthira known to every Hindu. They were very popular and intelligent.
They were a lot of energy in ideology.
The raja of Buddha’ chakarvarti raja’, he was also influenced to Hindu dharma. Chakarvarti
raja, he had great rule and the owner of state treasure. They had four treasures.

1. Treasure of the wheel, which is a symbol of moving forward.


2. White elephant, which can carry its master across the broad earth to its very ocean
boundary like airvata of Indra.
3. Treasure of the horse.
4. Treasure of gem called the veluriya.
Fifthly, the king of kings is the possessor of a pearl among women and the two
treasures are a treasure advisor, faithful.

Such a king of kings the early Buddhism saw in Buddha who becomes the ruler of
supernaturalism world. This was adopted by the ideas of Hinduism.

It is clear that in the days of ancient Buddhism the whole of India was comprehended as a
single territory. Chandra Gupta was not the first to conceive and realise the ideal of
paramount sovereignty, but only came into the possession of a rich inheritance. The problem
“How can a king become a king of kings?” soon became a favourite familiar topic of
discussion. It gave rise to scientific, systematic speculation, which was embodied in the
theory of the Mandala or circle of kings as outlined in the works on Niti-Sastra. We find
expositions of this theory both in the Arthasastra of Kautilya and the Niti-Sastra of
Kamandaka.

The whole country is conceived of as a political circle at the centre of which is the head who
is technically called Vijigishu the would-be conqueror, who is to emerge as the paramount
power dominating the system, who “shines in his sphere like the full moon”. The normal
political circle is that formed by twelve kings, including the central victorious king or
sovereign, round whom are ranged, both in the front and rear, nine subordinate kings in
varying degrees of friendliness and hostility, and two neutral kings called Madhyam and
Udaseen. The central monarch will find his sphere of action embracing both friendly and
hostile kingdoms, but if he is self possessed, strong in all the elements of sovereignty.

The ideal of paramount sovereign dominating the whole of India, besides expressing itself in
literature, utters itself in no uncertain tones through some of the early Indian epigraphic
records. Thus the term Maharaja a great king, was used as one of the tittles of paramount
sovereignty by Kaniska, Huniska and Vasudev, who there is every reason to believe were
paramount sovereigns, in their inscription of the year 9, 39 and 83. In the inscriptions of the
Gupta the following titles are used to indicate supreme paramount sovereignty. Maharajad
Hiraja, Paramesvara, Paramabhattaraka, Rajadhiraja and Chakoavarti.
Examples:

 The udayagiri cave inscription of Chandra Gupta refers to him as


Parambhatturka and Maharajadhiraj. The Mathura stone inscription of
Chandra Gupta refers to both Samudra Gupta and Chandra Gupta as
Maharajadhiraja and to himself as the exterminator of all kings.
 The Mandasor stone pillar inscription of Yasodharman describes him as a
paramount sovereign. Another Mandosar stone inscription of Vishnuvardhana
applies to him the titles of Rajadhiraja and Paramesvara and refers to his
subjection of many mighty kings of the east and north.

Early Hindu history shares that the political consciousness of people had from very early time
grasped the whole of India as a unit. There can be a hardly be a more convincing proof of the
reality and strength of Indian unity than the story of Indian colonising activity and the
gradual development of a greater India across the seas.

India for centuries sent out streams of colonists and emigrants to countries in the Far East,
including pegu, Siam, Cambodia and among islands. Masterpieces of Indian art exist outside
India in these countries which came within her influence the ideas and institutions travelled
with the spread of Buddhism which in its Mahayanist form & development was accepted by
Tibet, Nepal, & china with the neighbouring countries.