Sei sulla pagina 1di 344

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Certain copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the International Civil Aviation
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This book has been written and published to assist students enrolled in an approved JAA Air
Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL) course in preparation for the JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge
examinations. Nothing in the content of this book is to be interpreted as constituting instruction or
advice relating to practical flying.

Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained within this
book, neither Jeppesen nor Atlantic Flight Training gives any warranty as to its accuracy or
otherwise. Students preparing for the JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge examinations should not
regard this book as a substitute for the JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge training syllabus
published in the current edition of “JAR-FCL 1 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)” (the Syllabus).
The Syllabus constitutes the sole authoritative definition of the subject matter to be studied in a
JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge training programme. No student should prepare for, or is
entitled to enter himself/herself for, the JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge examinations without
first being enrolled in a training school which has been granted approval by a JAA-authorised
national aviation authority to deliver JAA ATPL training.

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JA310112-000 ISBN 0-88487-362-5 Printed in Germany

ii
PREFACE_______________________

As the world moves toward a single standard for international pilot licensing, many nations have
adopted the syllabi and regulations of the “Joint Aviation Requirements-Flight Crew Licensing"
(JAR-FCL), the licensing agency of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA).

Though training and licensing requirements of individual national aviation authorities are similar in
content and scope to the JAA curriculum, individuals who wish to train for JAA licences need
access to study materials which have been specifically designed to meet the requirements of the
JAA licensing system. The volumes in this series aim to cover the subject matter tested in the
JAA ATPL ground examinations as set forth in the ATPL training syllabus, contained in the JAA
publication, “JAR-FCL 1 (Aeroplanes)”.

The JAA regulations specify that all those who wish to obtain a JAA ATPL must study with a
flying training organisation (FTO) which has been granted approval by a JAA-authorised national
aviation authority to deliver JAA ATPL training. While the formal responsibility to prepare you for
both the skill tests and the ground examinations lies with the FTO, these Jeppesen manuals will
provide a comprehensive and necessary background for your formal training.

Jeppesen is acknowledged as the world's leading supplier of flight information services, and
provides a full range of print and electronic flight information services, including navigation data,
computerised flight planning, aviation software products, aviation weather services, maintenance
information, and pilot training systems and supplies. Jeppesen counts among its customer base
all US airlines and the majority of international airlines worldwide. It also serves the large general
and business aviation markets. These manuals enable you to draw on Jeppesen’s vast
experience as an acknowledged expert in the development and publication of pilot training
materials.

We at Jeppesen wish you success in your flying and training, and we are confident that your
study of these manuals will be of great value in preparing for the JAA ATPL ground examinations.

The next three pages contain a list and content description of all the volumes in the ATPL series.

iii
ATPL Series
Meteorology (JAR Ref 050)
• The Atmosphere • Air Masses and Fronts
• Wind • Pressure System
• Thermodynamics • Climatology
• Clouds and Fog • Flight Hazards
• Precipitation • Meteorological Information

General Navigation (JAR Ref 061)


• Basics of Navigation • Dead Reckoning Navigation
• Magnetism • In-Flight Navigation
• Compasses • Inertial Navigation Systems
• Charts

Radio Navigation (JAR Ref 062)


• Radio Aids • Basic Radar Principles
• Self-contained and • Area Navigation Systems
External-Referenced • Basic Radio Propagation Theory
Navigation Systems

Airframes and Systems (JAR Ref 021 01)


• Fuselage • Hydraulics
• Windows • Pneumatic Systems
• Wings • Air Conditioning System
• Stabilising Surfaces • Pressurisation
• Landing Gear • De-Ice / Anti-Ice Systems
• Flight Controls • Fuel Systems

Powerplant (JAR Ref 021 03)


• Piston Engine • Engine Systems
• Turbine Engine • Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
• Engine Construction

Electrics (JAR Ref 021 02)


• Direct Current • Generator / Alternator
• Alternating Current • Semiconductors
• Batteries • Circuits
• Magnetism

iv
Instrumentation (JAR Ref 022)
• Flight Instruments
• Automatic Flight Control Systems
• Warning and Recording Equipment
• Powerplant and System Monitoring Instruments

Principles of Flight (JAR Ref 080)


• Laws and Definitions • Boundary Layer
• Aerofoil Airflow • High Speed Flight
• Aeroplane Airflow • Stability
• Lift Coefficient • Flying Controls
• Total Drag • Adverse Weather Conditions
• Ground Effect • Propellers
• Stall • Operating Limitations
• CLMAX Augmentation • Flight Mechanics
• Lift Coefficient and Speed

Performance (JAR Ref 032)


• Single-Engine Aeroplanes – Not certified under JAR/FAR 25
(Performance Class B)
• Multi-Engine Aeroplanes – Not certified under JAR/FAR 25
(Performance Class B)
• Aeroplanes certified under JAR/FAR 25 (Performance Class A)

Mass and Balance (JAR Ref 031)


• Definition and Terminology
• Limits
• Loading
• Centre of Gravity

Flight Planning (JAR Ref 033)


• Flight Plan for Cross-Country • Meteorological Messages
Flights • Point of Equal Time
• ICAO ATC Flight Planning • Point of Safe Return
• IFR (Airways) Flight Planning • Medium Range Jet Transport
• Jeppesen Airway Manual Planning

Air Law (JAR Ref 010)


• International Agreements • Air Traffic Services
and Organisations • Aerodromes
• Annex 8 – Airworthiness of • Facilitation
Aircraft • Search and Rescue
• Annex 7 – Aircraft Nationality • Security
and Registration Marks • Aircraft Accident Investigation
• Annex 1 – Licensing • JAR-FCL
• Rules of the Air • National Law
• Procedures for Air Navigation

v
Human Performance and
Limitations (JAR Ref 040)
• Human Factors
• Aviation Physiology and Health Maintenance
• Aviation Psychology

Operational Procedures (JAR Ref 070)


• Operator • Low Visibility Operations
• Air Operations Certificate • Special Operational Procedures
• Flight Operations and Hazards
• Aerodrome Operating Minima • Transoceanic and Polar Flight

Communications (JAR Ref 090)


• Definitions • Distress and Urgency
• General Operation Procedures Procedures
• Relevant Weather Information • Aerodrome Control
• Communication Failure • Approach Control
• VHF Propagation • Area Control
• Allocation of Frequencies

vi
Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1
Abbreviations and Definitions

Section 1 - Common abbreviations used in the JAA Central Question Bank ................................................1-1
Section 2 - ICAO Definitions .........................................................................................................................1-6

CHAPTER 2
The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944

Background...................................................................................................................................................2-1
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................2-1
Safety ..........................................................................................................................................................2-1
International Law...........................................................................................................................................2-1
Scheduled and Non Scheduled Air Services.................................................................................................2-2
1919 Aeronautical Commission of the Paris Peace Conference...................................................................2-2
Convention of the Unification of Certain Rules to International Carriage by Air (Warsaw 1929) ...................2-2
1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation (the Chicago Convention) ..................................................2-3
Part I – Air Navigation ...................................................................................................................................2-4
Part II - The International Civil Aviation Organisation....................................................................................2-8
The Organisation ..........................................................................................................................................2-8
The Assembly ...............................................................................................................................................2-9
Annexes to the Convention ...........................................................................................................................2-9
Other International Agreements made at Chicago ......................................................................................2-11
The International Air Transport Agreement and the International Air Services Transit Agreement .............2-11
Supplementary Freedoms...........................................................................................................................2-11
The Convention of Tokyo 1963 ...................................................................................................................2-12
The Hague Convention of 1970 ..................................................................................................................2-13
The Montreal Convention of 1971...............................................................................................................2-13
Addendum to Chapter 2 ..............................................................................................................................2-14
Chapter IX - The Council ............................................................................................................................2-17
Chapter X - The Air Navigation Commission...............................................................................................2-19

CHAPTER 3
Other International and European Organisations

The International Air Transport Association (IATA).......................................................................................3-1


The Convention of Rome 1933/1952 ............................................................................................................3-1
Commercial Practices and Associated Rules (Leasing)................................................................................3-1
Leasing of Aeroplanes between JAA Operators ...........................................................................................3-2
Leasing of Aeroplanes Between a JAA Operator and Any Body Other Than a JAA Operator ......................3-2
Leasing of Aeroplanes at Short Notice..........................................................................................................3-3
European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) ................................................................................................3-3
ECAC Objectives ..........................................................................................................................................3-3
Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA).....................................................................................................................3-3
JAA Organisation ..........................................................................................................................................3-3
Functions of JAA...........................................................................................................................................3-4
Organisation and Procedures .......................................................................................................................3-4
JAA/FAA Harmonisation ...............................................................................................................................3-5
Eurocontrol....................................................................................................................................................3-5

Air Law vii


Table of Contents

CHAPTER 4
Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 4-1


JAR-FCL ...................................................................................................................................................... 4-1
Licensing Requirements and Regulations.................................................................................................... 4-2
Specific Requirements for Licence Issue PPL(A)......................................................................................... 4-3
ATPL(A) Experience .................................................................................................................................... 4-5
CPL(A) Experience ...................................................................................................................................... 4-5
Instructor Ratings ......................................................................................................................................... 4-6
Examiners (Aeroplane) ................................................................................................................................ 4-6
Class and Type Ratings ............................................................................................................................... 4-7
Instrument Rating (IR(A)) ............................................................................................................................. 4-8
Recent Experience....................................................................................................................................... 4-9
Curtailment of Privileges of Licence Holders Aged 60 Years or More.......................................................... 4-9
Medical Requirements ............................................................................................................................... 4-10
JAA Theoretical Knowledge Examinations for ATPL (A)............................................................................ 4-12

CHAPTER 5
Registration of Aircraft and Aircraft Markings

Nationality, Common, and Registration Marks ............................................................................................. 5-1


Location of Nationality, Common, and Registration Marks........................................................................... 5-2
Registration of Aircraft.................................................................................................................................. 5-3

CHAPTER 6
Airworthiness of Aircraft

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 6-1


Certificate of Airworthiness .......................................................................................................................... 6-1

CHAPTER 7
Rules of the Air

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 7-1


General Rules .............................................................................................................................................. 7-2
Negligent or Reckless Operation of Aircraft ................................................................................................. 7-2
Minimum Heights ......................................................................................................................................... 7-2
Cruising Levels............................................................................................................................................. 7-2
Prohibited and Restricted Areas................................................................................................................... 7-2
Avoidance of Collisions ................................................................................................................................ 7-2
Simulated Instrument Flight (SIF)................................................................................................................. 7-7
Flight Plans .................................................................................................................................................. 7-7
Communications ........................................................................................................................................ 7-10
Visual Flight Rules (VFR) ........................................................................................................................... 7-12
Instrument Flight Rules .............................................................................................................................. 7-14
Rules Applicable to IFR Flights within Controlled Airspace........................................................................ 7-15
IFR Flight Levels ........................................................................................................................................ 7-15
Rules Applicable to IFR Flights Outside Controlled Airspace..................................................................... 7-15
Communications ........................................................................................................................................ 7-16
Position Reports......................................................................................................................................... 7-16
Special VFR (SVFR) .................................................................................................................................. 7-16
Cruising Levels........................................................................................................................................... 7-17
Table of Cruising Levels............................................................................................................................. 7-20
Appendix 1 to Chapter 7 ............................................................................................................................ 7-22
Signals for Use in the Event of Interception ............................................................................................... 7-22

viii Air Law


Table of Contents

CHAPTER 8
Signals

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................8-1
Emergency Signals .......................................................................................................................................8-1
Aerodrome Signals .......................................................................................................................................8-2
Acknowledgement.........................................................................................................................................8-2
Visual Ground Signals ..................................................................................................................................8-3
Signals from the Pilot of an Aircraft to a Marshaller ......................................................................................8-8

CHAPTER 9
Altimeter Setting Procedures

Expression of Vertical Position......................................................................................................................9-1


Transition ......................................................................................................................................................9-2
Use of QNH or QFE ......................................................................................................................................9-3
Flight Planning ..............................................................................................................................................9-4

CHAPTER 10
Instrument Procedures

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................10-1
Publications.................................................................................................................................................10-1
Obstacle Clearance ....................................................................................................................................10-2
Abbreviations ..............................................................................................................................................10-2
Departure Procedures.................................................................................................................................10-2
The Instrument Departure Procedure .........................................................................................................10-3
Establishment of a Departure Procedure ....................................................................................................10-3
Standard Instrument Departures.................................................................................................................10-5
Contingency Procedures.............................................................................................................................10-6
Published Information .................................................................................................................................10-8
Airways Departure Routes (SID Charts) .....................................................................................................10-8
The Instrument Approach Procedure ........................................................................................................10-13
Obstacle Clearance ..................................................................................................................................10-15
Accuracy of Fixes......................................................................................................................................10-21
Descent Gradient ......................................................................................................................................10-24
Approach Segments .................................................................................................................................10-24
Standard Arrivals Routes (STARS)...........................................................................................................10-24
Missed Approach ......................................................................................................................................10-28
Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) VM(C)A in the Vicinity of the Aerodrome...................................................10-30
Published Information ...............................................................................................................................10-31
Holding Procedures ..................................................................................................................................10-36
Simultaneous Operations on Parallel or Near Parallel Instrument Runways ............................................10-42

CHAPTER 11
Aeronautical Information Service

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................11-1
Responsibilities and Function .....................................................................................................................11-1
The Integrated Aeronautical Information Package (IAIP) ............................................................................11-1
Prohibited, Restricted, and Danger Areas...................................................................................................11-2
NOTAM (Notice to Airmen) .........................................................................................................................11-3
Aeronautical Information Regulation and Control (AIRAC) .........................................................................11-6
Aeronautical Information Circulars (AIC).....................................................................................................11-7
Pre-Flight and Post Flight Information.........................................................................................................11-8
Aeronautical Information Publication (AlP)..................................................................................................11-8
Contents of Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) ..............................................................................11-9
Air Law ix
Table of Contents

CHAPTER 12
Air Traffic Services and Airspace

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ 12-1


Objective of the Air Traffic Services (ATS)................................................................................................. 12-1
Divisions of the Air Traffic Services............................................................................................................ 12-2
Determination of the need for Air Traffic Services...................................................................................... 12-2
Classes of Airspace ................................................................................................................................... 12-2
Required Navigation Performance (RNP) .................................................................................................. 12-5
Units Providing Air Traffic Services ............................................................................................................ 12-5
Flight Information Regions (FIRs) .............................................................................................................. 12-6
Control Areas ............................................................................................................................................. 12-6
Flight Information Regions or Control Areas in the Upper Airspace ........................................................... 12-7
Control Zones............................................................................................................................................. 12-7
Service to Aircraft in the event of Emergency .......................................................................................... 12-10
Time in Air Traffic Services ...................................................................................................................... 12-10
ATS Route Designators ........................................................................................................................... 12-10
Air Traffic Incident Report (ATIR) ............................................................................................................. 12-14
Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS – Airborne; TCAS – Traffic) ........................................................... 12-15
Use of ACAS/TCAS Indications ............................................................................................................... 12-15

CHAPTER 13
Air Traffic Control Services

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ 13-1


Air Traffic Control Service .......................................................................................................................... 13-1
Operation of Air Traffic Control Service...................................................................................................... 13-3
Emergency and Communication Failure .................................................................................................... 13-8

CHAPTER 14
Flight Information Service (FIS)

Application ................................................................................................................................................. 14-1


What is provided by a FIS .......................................................................................................................... 14-1
Operational Flight Information Service Broadcasts (OFIS) ........................................................................ 14-2

CHAPTER 15
Aerodrome Control Service

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ 15-1


Aerodrome Traffic Zone (ATZ) ................................................................................................................... 15-1
Functions of Aerodrome Control Towers.................................................................................................... 15-2
Traffic and Taxi Circuits ............................................................................................................................. 15-2
Information to Aircraft by Aerodrome Control Towers ................................................................................ 15-5
Control of Aerodrome Traffic ...................................................................................................................... 15-6
Control of other than Aircraft Traffic on the Manoeuvring Area .................................................................. 15-7
Control of Traffic in the Traffic Circuit......................................................................................................... 15-7
Wake Turbulence Categorization of Aircraft and Increased Longitudinal Separation Minima .................... 15-9

x Air Law
Table of Contents

CHAPTER 16
Approach Control Service

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................16-1
Departures ..................................................................................................................................................16-1
Arrivals ........................................................................................................................................................16-2
Approach Sequence (Stacking) ..................................................................................................................16-4
Information for Arriving Aircraft ...................................................................................................................16-6

CHAPTER 17
Area Control Service

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................17-1
Separation...................................................................................................................................................17-2
Vertical Separation......................................................................................................................................17-2
Horizontal Separation .................................................................................................................................17-3
Lateral Separation.......................................................................................................................................17-4
Longitudinal Separation ..............................................................................................................................17-6
Reduced Separation Minima.....................................................................................................................17-14

CHAPTER 18
Air Traffic Advisory Service

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................18-1
Objective and Basic Principles....................................................................................................................18-1
Operation ....................................................................................................................................................18-1
Aircraft Using the Air Traffic Advisory Service.............................................................................................18-2
Aircraft Not Using the Air Traffic Advisory Service ......................................................................................18-2
Air Traffic Services Units.............................................................................................................................18-2

CHAPTER 19
Radar in Air Traffic Control

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................19-1
Radar Coverage..........................................................................................................................................19-1
Identification of Aircraft ...............................................................................................................................19-3
SSR Identification Procedures ....................................................................................................................19-3
PSR Identification Procedures ....................................................................................................................19-3
Position Information ....................................................................................................................................19-4
Radar Vectoring ..........................................................................................................................................19-4
Use of Radar in the Air Traffic Control Service ...........................................................................................19-7
Radar Separation Minima ...........................................................................................................................19-7
Emergencies, Hazards, and Equipment Failures ........................................................................................19-9
Use of Radar in the Approach Control Service ...........................................................................................19-9
Radar Approaches ....................................................................................................................................19-11
Use of Radar in Aerodrome Control..........................................................................................................19-12

CHAPTER 20
Secondary Surveillance Radar

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................20-1
Operation of Transponders .........................................................................................................................20-2
Emergency Procedures ..............................................................................................................................20-3
Communication Failure Procedures............................................................................................................20-3
Unlawful Interference with Aircraft in Flight .................................................................................................20-3
Phraseology ................................................................................................................................................20-3

Air Law xi
Table of Contents

CHAPTER 21
The Alerting Service

Alerting Service .......................................................................................................................................... 21-1


Phases of the Alerting Procedure............................................................................................................... 21-2
Format of Notification of Declaration .......................................................................................................... 21-3
Additional Information for the RCC............................................................................................................. 21-3
Information to Aircraft Operating In the Vicinity of an Aircraft in a State of Emergency.............................. 21-3
Unlawful Interference ................................................................................................................................. 21-3

CHAPTER 22
Search and Rescue

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ 22-1


Organisation............................................................................................................................................... 22-1
Operating Procedures ................................................................................................................................ 22-2
Search and Rescue Signals ....................................................................................................................... 22-4
Ground/Air Signals used by Rescue Units ................................................................................................. 22-6
Air-To-Ground Signals ............................................................................................................................... 22-6

CHAPTER 23
Aerodromes

Annex 14.................................................................................................................................................... 23-1


Types of Aerodrome................................................................................................................................... 23-1
Parts of an Aerodrome ............................................................................................................................... 23-1
Aerodrome Reference Code ...................................................................................................................... 23-1
Aeronautical Data....................................................................................................................................... 23-2
Runways .................................................................................................................................................... 23-5
Taxiways .................................................................................................................................................... 23-7
Taxiway Curve ........................................................................................................................................... 23-9
Holding Bays, Taxi Holding Positions......................................................................................................... 23-9
Aprons ...................................................................................................................................................... 23-10
Visual Aids for Navigation ........................................................................................................................ 23-10
Markings .................................................................................................................................................. 23-11
Runway Markings..................................................................................................................................... 23-11
Runway Centre Line Marking ................................................................................................................... 23-12
Threshold Markings.................................................................................................................................. 23-12
Displaced Threshold Marking................................................................................................................... 23-13
Aiming Point Marking ............................................................................................................................... 23-14
Touchdown Zone Marking........................................................................................................................ 23-14
Runway Side Stripe.................................................................................................................................. 23-16
Taxiway Markings .................................................................................................................................... 23-16
Taxiway Centre Line Marking................................................................................................................... 23-16
Runway Holding Position Marking............................................................................................................ 23-16
Taxiway Intersection Marking................................................................................................................... 23-17
VOR Aerodrome Check-Point Marking .................................................................................................... 23-18
Aircraft Stand Markings ............................................................................................................................ 23-19
Apron Safety Lines................................................................................................................................... 23-19
Information Markings................................................................................................................................ 23-19
Signs ...................................................................................................................................................... 23-19
Markers .................................................................................................................................................... 23-23
Aerodrome Lighting.................................................................................................................................. 23-24
Approach Lighting Systems ..................................................................................................................... 23-25
Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI and Abbreviated PAPI) ........................................................... 23-32
Minimum Eye Height (MEHT)................................................................................................................... 23-33

xii Air Law


Table of Contents

Runway Lights ..........................................................................................................................................23-34


Taxiway Lighting .......................................................................................................................................23-34
Obstacles ..................................................................................................................................................23-38
Marking of Vehicles...................................................................................................................................23-40
Emergency Vehicles .................................................................................................................................23-40
Emergency Services .................................................................................................................................23-40
Bird Hazard ...............................................................................................................................................23-40

CHAPTER 24
Aviation Security

General .......................................................................................................................................................24-1
Aims and Objectives ...................................................................................................................................24-1
National Organisation .................................................................................................................................24-1
International Co-Operation..........................................................................................................................24-1
Preventative Security Measures .................................................................................................................24-2
Carriage of Legal Weapons ........................................................................................................................24-2
Pre-Flight Checks .......................................................................................................................................24-2
Measures Related to Passengers and their Cabin Baggage ......................................................................24-2
Missing Passengers ....................................................................................................................................24-2
Measures Relating to Access Control .........................................................................................................24-2
Management of Response to Acts of Unlawful Interference .......................................................................24-3
Flight Deck Door .........................................................................................................................................24-3
Training Programmes .................................................................................................................................24-3
Isolated Aircraft Parking Position ................................................................................................................24-3

CHAPTER 25
Aircraft Accident Investigation

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................25-1
Definitions ...................................................................................................................................................25-1
Objective of the Investigation ......................................................................................................................25-2
Protection of Evidence, Custody, and Removal of Aircraft..........................................................................25-2
Request from State of Registry or State of Operator ..................................................................................25-2
Request from State of Design or State of Manufacturer .............................................................................25-3
Notification for Accidents or Serious Incidents ............................................................................................25-3
Reports .......................................................................................................................................................25-4

CHAPTER 26
Facilitation

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................26-1
Entry and Departure of Aircraft ...................................................................................................................26-1
Entry and Departure of Persons and their Baggage ...................................................................................26-3
Departure Requirements and Procedures ..................................................................................................26-4
Inadmissible Passengers, Deportees and Persons in Custody...................................................................26-4

CHAPTER 27
National Law

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................27-1
The Law of the UK ......................................................................................................................................27-1
Major UK Differences ..................................................................................................................................27-1
Royal Flights ...............................................................................................................................................27-3
Military Aerodrome Traffic Zones (MATZ) ...................................................................................................27-3

Air Law xiii


Table of Contents

xiv Air Law


INTRODUCTION
This chapter of Aviation Law contains two sections and is intended for use with all the course
material provided:

SECTION 1 — COMMON ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE JAA CENTRAL QUESTION BANK

A
A Ampere ALT Altitude
ABM Abeam ALTN Alternate
ABN Aerodrome beacon APCH Approach
AC Alternating current APT Airport
AC Altocumulus APU Auxiliary power unit
ACAS Airborne collision avoidance system ARR Arrival
ACFT Aircraft AS Altostratus
ACT Active ASDA Accelerate stop distance available
AD Aerodrome AMSL Above mean sea level
ADC Air data computer ATA Actual time of arrival
ADDN Additional ATC Air traffic control
ADF Automatic direction finding ATIS Automatic terminal information service
ADI Attitude director indicator ATO Actual time overhead
AEO All engines operating ATS Air traffic services
AFIS Aerodrome flight information service AUX Auxiliary
AFM Aircraft flight manual AVG Average
AGL Above ground level AWY Airway
AIP Aeronautical Information Publication AZM Azimuth

B
BKN Broken BRG Bearing

C
ºC Degrees Celsius CI Cirrus
CAS Calibrated air speed CL Lift coefficient
CAT Clear air turbulence Cm Centimetre
CB Cumulonimbus CO Communications
CC Cirrocumulus CP Critical point
CD Drag coefficient CRM Crew resource management
CDI Course direction indicator CS Cirrostratus
CDU Control display unit CTR Control zone
cg Centre of gravity CU Cumulus
CWY Clearway

Air Law 1-1


Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions

D
DA Decision altitude DG Directional gyroscope
DC Direct current DH Decision height
DEG Degrees DIST Distance
DEP Departure DME Distance measuring equipment
DES Descent DP Dew point
DEST Destination DR Dead reckoning
DEV Deviation DVOR Doppler VOR
D/F Direction finding

E
E East EICAS Engine indicator and crew alerting
system
EAS Equivalent airspeed EOBT Estimated off blocks time
EAT Expected approach time EPR Engine pressure ratio
ECAM Engine condition aircraft monitoring EST Estimated
EFIS Electronic flight instrument system ETA Estimated time of arrival
EGT Exhaust gas temperature ETO Estimated time overhead

F
ºF Degrees Fahrenheit FL Flight level
FAF Final approach fix FLT Flight
FCST Forecast FMS Flight management system
FD Flight director FT Feet
FIS Flight information system FT/MIN Feet per minute
FIS Flight Information Service

G
G Gramme GP Glide path
GAL Gallons GPWS Ground proximity warning system
GND Ground GS Ground speed

H
HDG Heading HSI Horizontal situation indicator
HF High frequency HT Height
hPa Hectopascal Hz Hertz
HR Hours

I
IAS Indicated airspeed INT Intersection
ILS Instrument landing system ISA International standard atmosphere
IMC Instrument meteorological conditions ISOL Isolated
IMP GAL Imperial gallons ITCZ Inter-tropical convergence zone
INS Inertial navigation systems IVSI Instantaneous vertical speed indicator

J
J Joule

1-2 Air Law


Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1

K
kg Kilogramme kt Knot
kHz Kilohertz kW Kilowatt
km Kilometre

L
LAT Latitude LMT Local mean time
LB Pounds LONG Longitude
LDG Landing LT Local time
LDP Landing decision point LTD Limited
LEN Length LVL Level
LLZ Localiser (Localizer) LYR Layer
LMC Last minute change

M
m Metre MLS Microwave landing system
M Mass MM Middle marker
M Mach Number MNM Minimum
MAC Mean aerodynamic chord MNPS Minimum navigation performance
specification
MAP Manifold pressure
MAPt Missed approach point MOCA Minimum obstruction clearance altitude
max Maximum MORA Minimum off route altitude
MDH Minimum descent height MPH Miles per hour
MDH/A Minimum descent height/altitude MPS, mps Metres per second
MEA Minimum enroute altitude MSA Minimum sector altitude
MET Meteorological MSL Mean sea level
MIN Minutes MSU Mode selector unit

N
N Newton NDB Non-directional beacon
NGT Night NM Nautical miles
N North NOTAM Notice to airmen
NAT North Atlantic track NS Nimbostratus
NAV Navigation

O
OAT Outside air temperature OM Operating mass
OBS Omni bearing selector OM Outer marker
OCA(H) Obstacle clearance altitude (height) OPS Operations
OCL Obstacle clearance limit O/R On request
OEI One engine inoperative OVC Overcast

P
P Pressure POS Position
PAX Passenger PSI Pounds per square inch
PET Point of equal time PSR Point of Safe Return
PIC Pilot in command PTS Polar track structure
PLN Flight plan PWR Power
PNR Point of no return

Air Law 1-3


Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions

R
r Radius RNAV Area Navigation
RAC Rules of the air and air traffic services ROC Rate of climb
RAS Rectified airspeed ROD Rate of descent
REP Reporting point RVR Runway visual range
RMI Remote magnetic indicator RWY Runway
RMK Remark

S
S South SR Sunrise
SAR Search and rescue SS Sunset
SARPs Standards and Recommended Practices SSR Secondary surveillance radar
SC Stratocumulus ST Stratus
SCT Scattered STAR Standard arrival route
SDBY Standby STD Standard
SEC Seconds STN Station
SEV Severe STNR Stationary
SFC Surface STS Status
SID Standard instrument departure SVFR Special VFR
SIM Simulator SWY Stop way
SKC Sky clear

T
T Temperature THR Threshold
TA Transition altitude TL Transition level
TAS True airspeed T/O Take-off
TAT Total air temperature TOC Top of climb
TC Tropical cyclone TORA Take off run available
TCAS Traffic collision avoidance system TS Thunderstorm
TDP Take-off decision point TWY Taxiway

U
U/S Unserviceable UTC Co-ordinated universal time
US-GAL US gallons

V
V Volt VSI Vertical speed indicator
VAR Magnetic variation VV Vertical visibility
VDF VHF direction finding station VA Design manoeuvring speed
VG Vertical gyro VB Design speed for max gust intensity
VHF Very high frequency VC/MC Design cruise speed / Mach number
VIS Visibility VD Design dive speed
VLF Very low frequency VF Design flap speed
VMC Visual meteorological conditions VFE Flap extended speed
VOLMET Meteorological information for aircraft in VFO Flap operating speed
flight
VOR VHF omni directional range VLE Landing gear extended speed
vrb Variable VLO Maximum landing gear operating
speed

1-4 Air Law


Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1

VLOF Lift off speed VR Rotating speed


VMAX TYRE Maximum tyre speed VREF Landing reference speed
VMBE Maximum break energy speed VS Stalling speed or minimum steady flight
speed at which the aeroplane is
controllable
VMC Minimum control speed VSO Stalling speed or minimum steady flight
speed in landing configuration
VMCA Air minimum control speed VS1 Stalling speed or minimum steady flight
speed obtained in best configuration
VMCG Ground minimum control speed VX Speed for best angle of climb
VMO/MMO Maximum operating limit speed / Maximum VY Speed for best rate of climb
Mach number
VMU Minimum un-stick speed V1 Critical engine failure speed
VNE Never exceed speed V2 Take-off safety speed for piston engine
aircraft
VNO Normal operating speed

W
W Watt W/V Wind velocity
W West WPT Way point
WC Wind component WS Wind shear
WCA Wind correction angle WX Weather

X
X Cross XX Heavy
XTK Cross track

Y
YD Yard

Air Law 1-5


Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions

SECTION 2 — ICAO DEFINITIONS


The following definitions are from the ICAO Annexes. The learning objectives for 010 Air Law
require that the student is able to recall definitions from a given list. Do not memorise this list. By
the time you complete the course, you will be able to define all the definitions necessary to pass
the examination.

Accepting Unit — ATCU next to take control of an aircraft.

Accident — An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft that takes place between
the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight, until such time as all such
persons have disembarked, in which a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of:

¾ being in the aircraft, or


¾ direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts which have become detached
from the aircraft, or
¾ direct exposure to jet blast

except when the injuries are from natural causes, self-inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or
when the injuries are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to the passengers
and crew, or the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which:

¾ adversely affects the structural strength, performance, or flight characteristics of the


aircraft, and
¾ would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component

except for engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited to the engine, its cowlings or
accessories; or for damage limited to propellers, wing tips, antennas, tyres, brakes, fairings, small
dents or puncture holes in the aircraft skin, or the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.

Note: An injury resulting in death within 30 days of the date of the accident is classified
as a fatal injury by ICAO.

Note: An aircraft is considered to be missing when the official search has been
terminated and the wreckage has not been located.

Advisory Airspace — Airspace of defined dimensions, or designated route, within which air
traffic advisory service is available.

Advisory Route — A designated route along which air traffic advisory service is available.

Aerodrome — A defined area of land or water (including any buildings, installations, and
equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure, and surface
movement of aircraft.

Aerodrome Beacon — Aeronautical beacon used to indicate the location of an aerodrome from
the air.

1-6 Air Law


Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1

Aerodrome Control Service — Air traffic control service for aerodrome traffic.

Aerodrome Control Tower — A unit established to provide air traffic control service.
Aerodrome Elevation — The elevation of the highest point of the landing area.

Aerodrome Identification Sign — A sign placed on an aerodrome to aid in identifying the


aerodrome from the air.

Aerodrome Operating Minima — The limits of usability of an aerodrome for:

¾ Take-off, expressed in terms of RVR and/or visibility and, if necessary, cloud conditions
¾ Landing in precision approach and landing operations, expressed in terms of visibility and/or
RVR and DA/DH, as appropriate to the category of the operation, and
¾ Landing in non-precision approach and landing operations, expressed in terms of visibility
and/or RVR, MDA/MDH and, if necessary, cloud conditions.

Aerodrome Reference Field Length — The minimum field length required for take-off at
maximum certificated take-off mass, sea level, standard atmospheric conditions, still air, and zero
runway slope, as shown in the appropriate aeroplane flight manual prescribed by the certificating
authority or equivalent data from the aeroplane manufacturer. Field length means balanced field
length for aeroplanes, if applicable, or take-off distance in other cases.

Aerodrome Reference Point — The designated geographical location of the aerodrome.

Aerodrome Taxi Circuit — The specified path of aircraft on the manoeuvring area during
specific wind conditions.

Aerodrome Traffic — All traffic on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome and all traffic flying in
the vicinity of an aerodrome.

Note: An aircraft is in the vicinity of an aerodrome when it is in, entering, or leaving an


aerodrome traffic circuit.

Aerodrome Traffic Zone — Airspace of defined dimensions established around an aerodrome


for the protection of aerodrome traffic.

Aeronautical Beacon — An aeronautical ground light visible at all azimuths, either continuously
or intermittently, to designate a particular point on the surface of the earth.

Aeronautical Ground Light — Any light specifically provided as an aid to air navigation, other
than a light displayed on an aircraft.

Aeronautical Information Circular (AIC) — A notice containing information that does not qualify
for the origination of a NOTAM or for inclusion in the AlP, but which relates to flight safety, air
navigation, technical, administrative or legislative matters.

Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) — A publication issued by or with the authority of a


state and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation.

Air Law 1-7


Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions

Aeronautical Mobile Service — A mobile service between aeronautical stations and aircraft
stations, or between aircraft stations, in which survival craft stations may participate; emergency
position-indicating radio beacon stations may also participate in this service on designated
distress and emergency frequencies.

Aeronautical Station — A land station in the aeronautical mobile service. In certain instances,
an aeronautical station may be located, for example, on board ship or on a platform at sea.

Aeronautical Telecommunication Station — A station in the aeronautical telecommunication


service.

Aeroplane — A power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft, deriving its lift in flight chiefly from
aerodynamic reactions on surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight.

AIP Amendment — Permanent changes to the information contained in the AIP.

AIP Supplement — Temporary changes to the information contained in the AIP that are
published by means of special pages.

AIRAC — An acronym (Aeronautical Information Regulation and Control) signifying a system


aimed at advance notification based on common dates, of circumstances that necessitate
significant changes in operating practices

Air-Ground Communication — Two-way communication between aircraft and stations, or


locations, on the surface of the earth.

Air Report — A report from an aircraft in flight prepared in conformity with requirements for
position, and operational and/or meteorological reporting.

Air Traffic — All aircraft in flight or operating on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome.

Air Traffic Advisory Service — A service provided within advisory airspace to ensure
separation, in so far as practical between aircraft which are operating on IFR flight plans.

Air Traffic Control Clearance — Authorization for an aircraft to proceed under conditions
specified by an air traffic control unit.

Note: For convenience the term “Air Traffic Control Clearance” is frequently abbreviated
to “Clearance” when used in appropriate contexts.

Note: The abbreviated term “Clearance” may be prefixed by the words “Taxi”, “Take-off”,
“Departure”, “Enroute”, “Approach”, or "Landing” to indicate the particular portion of flight
to which the Air Traffic Control Clearance relates.

Air Traffic Control Instruction — Directives issued by ATC for the purpose of requiring a pilot to
take a specific action.

1-8 Air Law


Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1

Air Traffic Control Service — A service provided for the purpose of:

¾ Preventing collisions between aircraft, and,


¾ On the manoeuvring area between aircraft and obstructions.
¾ Expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic.

Air Traffic Control Unit — A generic term meaning variously, area control centre, approach
control office, or aerodrome control tower.

Air Traffic Service — A generic term meaning variously, flight information service, alerting
service, air traffic advisory service, or air traffic control service (area control service, approach
control service, or aerodrome control service).

Air Traffic Services Airspaces — Airspaces of defined dimensions, alphabetically designated,


within which specific types of flights may operate and for which air traffic services and rules of
operation are specified.

Note: ATS airspaces are classified as Class A to G

Air Traffic Services Reporting Office — A unit established for the purpose of receiving reports
concerning air traffic services and flight plans submitted before departure.

Note: An Air Traffic Services reporting office may be established as a separate unit or
combined with an existing unit, such as another Air Traffic Services Unit, or a unit of the
Aeronautical Information Service.

Air Traffic Services Unit — A generic term meaning variously, air traffic control unit, flight
information centre, or air traffic services reporting office.

Aircraft — Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air
other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s surface.

Aircraft Category — Classification of aircraft according to specified basic characteristics (e.g.


aeroplane, helicopter, glider, free balloon).

Aircraft Certified For Single-Pilot Operation — A type of aircraft that the State of Registry has
determined, during the certification process, can be operated safely with a minimum crew of one
pilot.

Aircraft Equipment — Articles, other than stores and spare parts of a removable nature, for use
on board an aircraft during flight, including first aid and survival equipment.

Aircraft Identification — A group of letters, figures, or a combination thereof which is either


identical to, or the coded equivalent of, the aircraft callsign to be used in air-ground
communications, and which is used to identify the aircraft in ground-ground ATS communications.

Aircraft Observation — The evaluation of one or more meteorological elements made from an
aircraft in flight.

Air Law 1-9


Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions

Aircraft Proximity — A situation in which, in the opinion of a pilot or ATS personnel, the distance
between aircraft, as well as their relative positions and speed, have been such that the safety of
the aircraft involved may have been compromised. Aircraft proximity is classified as follows:

Risk Of Collision — The risk classification of aircraft proximity, in which serious risk of
collision has existed.

Safety Not Assured — The risk classification of aircraft proximity, in which the safety of
the aircraft may have been compromised.

No Risk Of Collision — The risk classification of aircraft proximity, in which no risk of


collision has existed.

Risk Not Determined — The risk classification of aircraft proximity in which insufficient
information was available to determine the risk involved, or inconclusive or conflicting
evidence precluded such determination.

Aircraft Stand — A designated area on an apron intended for parking aircraft.

Aircraft Type — All aircraft of the same basic design, including all modifications thereto, except
those modifications which result in a change in handling or flight characteristics.

AIRMET Information — Information issued by a meteorological watch office concerning the


occurrence or expected occurrence of specified enroute weather phenomena that may affect the
safety of low-level aircraft operations and which was not already included in the forecast issued
for low-level flights in the FIR concerned or sub-area thereof.

Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) — An aircraft system based on SSR


transponder signals that operates independently of ground based equipment to provide advice to
the pilot on potential conflicting aircraft that are equipped with SSR transponders.

Airline — As provided in Article 96 of the Convention, any air transport enterprise offering or
operating a scheduled international air service.

AIRPROX — The code word used in an air traffic incident report to designate aircraft proximity.

Airway — A control area or portion thereof established in the form of a corridor equipped with
radio navigation aids.

ALERFA — The code word used to designate an alert phase.

Alert Phase — A situation wherein apprehension exists as to the safety of an aircraft and its
occupants.

Alerting Service — A service provided to notify appropriate organisations regarding aircraft in


need of search and rescue aid, and assist such organisations as required.

1-10 Air Law


Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1

Alternate Aerodrome — An aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed when it becomes either
impossible or inadvisable to proceed to or land at the aerodrome of intended landing. Alternate
aerodromes include the following:

Take-off Alternate — An alternate aerodrome at which an aircraft can land should this
become necessary shortly after take-off and it is not possible to use the aerodrome of
departure.

Enroute Alternate — An aerodrome at which an aircraft would be able to land after


experiencing an abnormal or emergency condition while enroute.

Destination Alternate — An aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed should it


become impossible or inadvisable to land at the aerodrome of intended landing.

Note: The aerodrome from which a flight departs may also be an enroute or a
destination alternate aerodrome for that flight.

Altitude — The vertical distance of a level, a point, or an object considered as a point measured
from mean sea level (MSL).

Approach Control Office — A unit established to provide ATC service to controlled flights
arriving at, or departing from, one or more aerodromes.

Approach Control Service — ATC service for arriving or departing controlled flights.

Appropriate ATS Authority — The relevant authority designated by the state responsible for
providing air traffic services in the airspace concerned.

Appropriate Authority

¾ Regarding flight over the high seas — The relevant authority of the state of registry.
¾ Regarding flight other than over the high seas — The relevant authority of the state
having sovereignty over the territory being over flown.

Apron — A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for the
purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail, or cargo, fuelling, parking, or maintenance.

Apron Management Service — A service provided to regulate the activities and the movement
of aircraft and vehicles on an apron.

Area Control Centre — A unit established to provide Air Traffic Control Service to controlled
flights in control areas under its jurisdiction.

Area Control Service — Air Traffic Control Service for controlled flight in Control Areas.

Area Navigation (RNAV) — A method of navigation which permits aircraft operation on any
desired flight path within the coverage of the station referenced navigation aids or within the limits
of the capability of self contained aids, or a combination of these.

Air Law 1-11


Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions

Area Navigation Route — An ATS route established for the use of aircraft capable of employing
area navigation.
ATIS — The symbol used to designate automatic terminal information service.

ATS Route — A specified route designed for channelling the flow of traffic as necessary for the
provision of air traffic services.

Note: The term “ATS route” is used to mean variously, airway, advisory route, controlled
or uncontrolled route, arrival or departure route, etc.

Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) — A surveillance technique in which aircraft


automatically provide, via a data link, data derived from on board navigation and position fixing
systems, including aircraft identification, four dimensional position, and additional data as
appropriate.

Automatic Terminal Information Service — The provision of current, routine information to


arriving and departing aircraft by means of a continuous and repetitive broadcast throughout the
day, or a specified portion of the day.

Baggage — Personal property of passengers or crew carried on an aircraft by agreement with


the operator.

Barrette — Three or more aeronautical ground lights closely spaced in a traverse line so that
from a distance they appear as a short bar of light.

Base Turn — A turn executed by the aircraft during the initial approach between the end of the
outbound track and the beginning of the intermediate or final approach track. The tracks are not
reciprocal.

Note: Base turns may be designated as being made either in level flight or while
descending, according to the circumstances of each individual procedure.

Blind Transmission — A transmission from one station to another station in circumstances


where two-way communication cannot be established, but where it is believed the called station is
able to receive the transmission.

Broadcast — A transmission of information relating to air navigation that is not addressed to a


specific station or stations.

Cargo — Any property carried on an aircraft other than mail, stores, and accompanied or
mishandled baggage.

Ceiling — The height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below
6000 metres (20 000 ft) covering more than half the sky.

Certify as Airworthy (to) — To certify that an aircraft or parts thereof comply with current
airworthiness requirements after maintenance has been performed on the aircraft or parts
thereof.

1-12 Air Law


Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1

Change-over Point — The point at which an aircraft navigating over an ATS route segment,
defined by reference to very high frequency omni directional radio ranges, is expected to transfer
its primary navigational reference from the facility behind the aircraft to the next facility ahead of
the aircraft.

Note: Change-over points are established to provide the optimum balance in respect of
signal strength and quality between facilities at all levels to be used and to ensure a
common source of azimuth guidance for all aircraft operating along the same portion of a
route segment.

Circling Approach — An extension of an instrument approach procedure which provides for


visual circling of the aerodrome prior to landing.

Clearance Limit — The point to which an aircraft is granted an Air Traffic Control Clearance.

Clearway — A defined rectangular area on the ground or water under the control of the
appropriate authority, selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may make
a portion of its initial climb to a specified height.

Code (SSR) — The number assigned to a particular multiple pulse reply signal transmitted by a
transponder in Mode A or Mode C.

Commercial Air Transport Operation — An aircraft operation involving the transport of


passengers, cargo, or mail for remuneration or hire.

Configuration (as applied to the aeroplane) — A particular combination of the positions of the
moveable elements, such as wing flaps, landing gear etc, which affect the aerodynamic
characteristics of the aeroplane.

Control Area — A controlled airspace extending upwards from a specified limit above the earth.

Controlled Aerodrome — An aerodrome at which Air Traffic Control Service is provided to


aerodrome traffic.

Note: The term “Controlled Aerodrome” indicates that Air Traffic Control Service is
provided to Aerodrome Traffic, but does not necessarily imply that a Control Zone exists.

Controlled Airspace — An airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service
is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification.

Note: Controlled airspace is a generic term which covers ATS airspace Class A, B, C, D,
and E.

Controlled Flight — Any flight which is subject to an Air Traffic Control Clearance.

Control Zone — A controlled airspace extending upwards from the surface of the earth to a
specified upper limit.

Air Law 1-13


Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions

Co-Pilot — A licensed pilot serving in any piloting capacity other than as PIC, but excluding a
pilot who is on board the aircraft for the sole purpose of receiving flight instruction.

Crew Member — A person assigned by an operator to duty on an aircraft during flight time.

Critical Power Unit(s) — The power unit(s) failure of which gives the most adverse effect on the
aircraft characteristics relative to the case under consideration.

Cruise Climb — An aeroplane cruising technique resulting in a net increase in altitude as the
aeroplane mass decreases.

Cruising Level — A level maintained during a significant portion of a flight.

Current Flight Plan — The flight plan, including changes, if any, brought about by subsequent
clearances.

Danger Area — An airspace of defined dimensions within which activities dangerous to the flight
of aircraft may exist at specified times.

Dead Reckoning (DR) Navigation — The estimating or determining of position by advancing an


earlier known position by the application of direction, time, and speed data.

Decision Altitude (DA) or Decision Height (DH) — A specified altitude or height in the precision
approach at which a missed approach must be initiated if the required visual reference to
continue the approach has not been established.

Note: DA is referenced to mean sea level, DH is referenced to threshold elevation

Note: The required visual reference means that section of the visual aids or of the
approach area which should have been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to have
made an assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of position, in relation to
the desired flight path. In Category III operations with a DH the required visual reference
is that specified for the particular procedure and operation.

Declared Distances

Take-Off Run Available (TORA) — The length of runway declared available and
suitable for the ground run of an aircraft.

Take-Off Distance Available (TODA) — The length of the take-off run available, plus
the length of the clearway, if provided.

Accelerate-Stop Distance Available (ASDA) — The length of the take-off run available,
plus the length of the stopway, if provided.

Landing Distance Available (LDA) — The length of the runway that is declared
available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing.

1-14 Air Law


Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1

Dependent Parallel Approaches — Simultaneous approaches to parallel or near parallel


instrument runways where radar separation minima between aircraft on adjacent extended
runway centre lines are prescribed.

Design Landing Mass — The maximum mass of the aircraft at which, for structural design
purposes, it is assumed that it will be planned to land.

Design Take-off Mass — The maximum mass at which the aircraft, for structural design
purposes, is assumed to be planned to be at the start of the take-off run.

Design Taxiing Mass — The maximum mass of the aircraft at which structural provision is made
for load liable to occur during use of the aircraft on the ground prior to the start of take-off.

DETRESFA — The code word used to designate a distress phase.

Displaced Threshold — A threshold not located at the extremity of the runway.

Distress Phase — A situation wherein there is a reasonable certainty that an aircraft and its
occupants are threatened by grave and imminent danger or require immediate assistance.

DME Distance — The line of sight distance (slant range) from the source of a DME signal to the
receiving antenna.

Dual Instruction Time — Flight time, during which a person is receiving flight instruction from a
properly authorised pilot on board the aircraft.

Elevation — The vertical distance of a point on or affixed to the surface of the earth, measured
from mean sea level.

Emergency Phase — A generic term meaning, as the case may be, uncertainty phase, alert
phase, or distress phase.

Estimated Elapsed Time — The estimated time to fly from one significant point to another.

Estimated Off-Blocks Time — The estimated time at which the aircraft will commence
movement associated with departure.

Estimated Time of Arrival — For IFR flights, the time at which it is estimated that the aircraft will
arrive over the designated point, defined by reference to navigation aids, from which it is intended
that an instrument approach procedure will be commenced, or, if no navigation aid is associated
with the aerodrome, the time at which the aircraft will arrive over the aerodrome. For VFR flights,
the time at which it is estimated that the aircraft will arrive over the aerodrome.

Expected Approach Time — The time at which ATC expects that an arriving aircraft, following a
delay, will leave the holding point to complete its approach for a landing.

Note: The actual time of leaving the holding point will depend upon the approach
clearance.

Air Law 1-15


Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions

Filed Flight Plan — The flight plan, as filed with an ATS unit by the pilot or a designated
representative, without any subsequent changes.

Final Approach — That part of an instrument approach procedure which commences at the
specified final approach fix or point, or where such a fix or point is not specified:

¾ At the end of the last procedure turn, base turn or inbound turn of a racetrack procedure, if
specified, or
¾ At the point of interception of the last track specified in the approach procedure, and ends at
a point in the vicinity of an aerodrome from which:

¾ A landing can be made, or


¾ A missed approach procedure is initiated

Final Approach and Take-Off Area (FATO) — A defined area over which the final phase of the
approach manoeuvre to landing is completed and from which the take-off manoeuvre is
commenced.
Final Approach Segment — The segment of an instrument runway procedure in which
alignment and descent for landing are accomplished.

Fixed Light — A light having constant luminous intensity when observed from a fixed point.

Flight Crew Member — A licensed crew member charged with duties essential to the operation
of an aircraft during flight time.

Flight Information Centre — A unit established to provide flight information service and alerting
service.

Flight Information Region — An airspace of defined dimensions within which flight information
service and alerting service are provided.

Flight Information Service — A service provided for the purpose of giving advice and
information useful to the safe and effective conduct of flights.

Flight Level — A surface of constant atmospheric pressure, which is related to a specific


pressure datum, (1013.2 Hectopascals (hPa)) and is separated from other surfaces by specific
pressure intervals.

Note: A pressure type altimeter calibrated in accordance with the Standard Atmosphere:

¾ When set to a QNH — altimeter setting indicates altitude


¾ When set to a QFE — altimeter setting indicates height above the QFE reference
datum
¾ When set to a pressure of 1013.2 hPa — altimeter can be used to indicate flight
levels.

Note: The terms “height” and “altitude” used in the above note, indicate altimetric rather
than geometric heights and altitudes.

1-16 Air Law


Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1

Flight Plan — Specified information provided to Air Traffic Services Units, relative to an intended
flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft.

Flight Procedures Trainer — See Synthetic Flight Trainer.

Flight Recorder — Any type of recorder installed in the aircraft for the purpose of complementing
accident/incident investigation.

Flight Simulator — See Synthetic Flight Trainer.

Flight Time — The total time from the moment an aircraft first moves under its own power for the
purpose of taking-off until the moment it comes to rest at the end of the flight.

Note: Flight time as here defined is synonymous with the term “block to block” time or
“chock to chock” time in general usage which is measured from the time an aircraft
moves from the loading point until it stops at the unloading point.

Flight Manual — A manual associated with the certificate of airworthiness, containing limitations
within which the aircraft is to be considered airworthy, and instructions and information necessary
to the flight crew members for the safe operation of the aircraft.

Flight Visibility — The visibility forward from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight.

Flow Control — Measures designed to adjust the flow of traffic into a given airspace, along a
given route, or bound for a given aerodrome, so as to ensure the most effective utilization of the
airspace.

Forecast — A statement of expected meteorological conditions for a specified time or period, and
for a specified area or portion of airspace.

Frangible Object — An object of low mass designed to break, distort, or yield on impact so as to
present the minimum hazard to aircraft.

Glide Path — A descent profile determined for vertical guidance during a final approach.

Ground Equipment — Articles of a specialised nature for use in the maintenance, repair, and
servicing of an aircraft on the ground, including testing equipment and cargo/passenger-handling
equipment.

Ground Visibility — The visibility at an aerodrome, as reported by an accredited observer.

Hazard Beacon — An aeronautical beacon used to designate a danger to air navigation.

Heading — The direction in which the longitudinal axis of an aircraft is pointed, usually expressed
in degrees from North (true, magnetic, compass, or grid).

Heavier-than-air Aircraft — Any aircraft deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic forces.

Air Law 1-17


Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions

Height — The vertical distance of a level, a point, or an object considered as a point, measured
from a specified datum, other than mean sea level (MSL).

Heliport — An aerodrome, or a defined area on a structure, intended to be used wholly or in part


for the arrival, departure, and surface movement of helicopters.

Holding Bay — A defined area where aircraft can be held, or bypassed, to facilitate efficient
surface movement of aircraft.

Holding Point — A specified location, identified by visual or other means, in the vicinity of which
the position of an aircraft in flight is maintained in accordance with ATC clearances.

Holding Procedure — A pre-determined manoeuvre that keeps an aircraft within a specified


airspace while awaiting further clearance.

Identification Beacon — An aeronautical beacon emitting a coded signal by means of which a


particular point of reference can be identified.

IFR — The symbol used to designate the instrument flight rules.

IFR Flight — A flight conducted in accordance with instrument flight rules.

IMC — The symbol used to designate instrument meteorological conditions.

INCERFA — The code word used to designate an uncertainty phase.

Incident — An occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft
that affects, or could affect, the safety of operation

Initial Approach Segment — That segment of an instrument approach procedure between the
initial approach fix and the intermediate approach fix or, where applicable, the final approach fix
or point,

Instrument Approach Procedure — A series of pre-determined manoeuvres by reference to


flight instruments with specified protection from obstacles from the initial approach fix, or where
applicable, from the beginning of a defined arrival route to a point from which a landing can be
completed and thereafter, if a landing is not completed to a position at which holding or enroute
obstacle clearance criteria apply.

Instrument Flight Time — Time during which a pilot is piloting an aircraft solely by reference to
instruments and without external reference points,

Instrument Ground Time — Time during which a pilot is practising, on the ground, simulated
instrument flight in a synthetic flight trainer approved by the licensing authority,

Instrument Meteorological Conditions — Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of


visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, less than the minima specified for visual meteorological
conditions.

Note: The specified minima for VMC are contained within the Aviation Law Notes.

1-18 Air Law


Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1

Instrument Runway — One of the following types of runways intended for the operation of
aircraft using instrument approach procedures:

Non-Precision Approach Runway — An instrument runway served by visual aids and a


non-visual aid providing at least directional guidance adequate for a straight-in approach.

Precision Approach Runway, Category I — An instrument runway served by ILS


and/or MLS and visual aids intended for operations with a decision height not lower than
60 m (200 ft) and either a visibility not less than 800 m, or a runway visual range not less
than 550 m.

Precision Approach Runway, Category II — An instrument runway served by ILS


and/or MLS and with visual aids intended for operations with a decision height lower than
60 m (200 ft) but not lower than 30 m (100 ft) and a runway visual range not less than
350 m.

Precision Approach Runway, Category III — An instrument runway served by ILS


and/or MLS to and along the surface of the runway and:

CAT IIIA — Intended for operations with a decision height lower than 30 m
(100 ft), or no decision height and a runway visual range not less than 200 m.

CAT IIIB — Intended for operations with a decision height lower than 15 m
(50 ft), or no decision height and a runway visual range less than 200 m but not
less than 50 m (JAR-OPS: 75 m).

CAT IIIC — Intended for operations with no decision height and no runway visual
range limitations.

Instrument Time — Instrument flight time or instrument ground time.

Integrated Aeronautical Information Package — A package which consists of the following


elements:

¾ AIP, including the AIP Amendment service.


¾ Supplements to the AIP.
¾ NOTAM and pre-flight information bulletins (PIB).
¾ AIC.
¾ Checklists and summaries.

Intermediate Approach Segment — That segment of an instrument approach procedure


between either:

¾ The intermediate approach fix and the final approach fix or point, or
¾ Between the end of a reversal, racetrack or DR track procedure and the final approach fix or
point.

Air Law 1-19


Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions

International Airport — Any airport designated by the Contracting State in whose territory it is
situated as an airport of entry and departure for international air traffic, where the formalities
incident to customs, immigration, public health, animal and plant quarantine, and similar
procedures are carried out.

International NOTAM Office — An office designated by a State for the exchange of NOTAM
internationally.

Investigation — A process conducted for the purpose of accident prevention that includes the
gathering and analysis of information for the drawing of conclusions, including the determination
of causes, and when appropriate, the making of safety recommendations.

Landing Area — That part of a movement area intended for the landing or take-off of aircraft.

Landing Direction Indicator — A device to indicate visually the direction currently designated
for landing and for take-off.

Landing Surface — That part of the surface of an aerodrome which the aerodrome authority has
declared available for the normal ground or water run of aircraft landing in a particular direction.

Level — A generic term relating to the vertical position of an aircraft in flight, and meaning
variously, height, altitude, or flight level.

Location Indicator — A four letter code group formulated in accordance with rules prescribed by
ICAO and assigned to the location of an aeronautical fixed station.

Maintenance — Tasks required ensuring the continued airworthiness of an aircraft including any
one or combination of: overhaul, repair, inspection, replacement, modification, or defect
rectification.

Manoeuvring Area — That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing, and taxiing
of aircraft, excluding aprons.

Marker — An object displayed above ground level in order to indicate an obstacle or delineate a
boundary.

Marking — A symbol or group of symbols displayed on the surface of the movement area in
order to convey aeronautical information.

Maximum Mass — Maximum certificated take-off mass.

Medical Assessment — The evidence issued by a Contracting State that the licence holder
meets specific requirements of medical fitness. It is issued following an evaluation by the
licensing authority of the report submitted by the designated medical examiner who conducted
the examination of the applicant for the licence.

Meteorological Office — An office designated to provide a meteorological service for


international air navigation.

1-20 Air Law


Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1

Meteorological Information — A meteorological report, analysis, forecast, and any other


statement relating to existing or expected meteorological conditions.

Meteorological Report — A statement of observed meteorological conditions related to a


specified time and location.

Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Minimum Descent Height (MDH) — A specified altitude
or height in a non-precision approach or circling approach below which descent must not be
made without the required visual reference.

Note: MDA is referenced to mean sea level and MDH is referenced to the aerodrome
elevation or to the threshold elevation if that is more than 2 m (7 ft) below the aerodrome
elevation. A MDH for a circling approach is referenced to the aerodrome elevation.

Note: The required visual reference means that section of the visual aids or of the
approach area that should have been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to make an
assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of position, in relation to the
desired flight path. In the case of a circling approach the required visual reference is the
runway environment.

Minimum Sector Altitude — The lowest altitude which may be used which will provide a
minimum clearance of 300 m (1000 ft) above all objects located in an area contained within a
sector of a circle of 46 km (25 nm) radius centred on a radio aid to navigation.

Missed Approach Point (MAPt) — That point in an instrument approach procedure at or before
which the prescribed missed approach procedure must be initiated in order to ensure that the
minimum obstacle clearance is not infringed.

Missed Approach Procedure — The procedure to be followed if the approach cannot be


continued.

Mode (SSR) — The conventional identifier related to specific functions of the interrogation signals
transmitted by an SSR interrogator.

Movement Area — That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing, and taxiing of
aircraft, consisting of the manoeuvring area and the aprons.

Non-Instrument Runway — A runway intended for the operation of aircraft using visual
approach procedures.

Normal Operating Zone (NOZ) — Airspace of defined dimensions extending either side of an
ILS localizer course and/or MLS final approach track. Only the inner half of the normal operating
zone is taken into account in independent parallel approaches.

NOTAM — A notice distributed by means of telecommunication containing information


concerning the establishment, condition, or change in any aeronautical facility, service,
procedure, or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with
flight operations.

Air Law 1-21


Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions

No-transgression Zone (NTZ) — In the context of independent parallel approaches, a corridor of


airspace of defined dimensions located centrally between the two extended runway centre lines,
where a penetration by an aircraft requires a controller intervention to manoeuvre any threatened
aircraft on the adjacent approach.

Obstacle — All fixed (whether temporary or permanent) and mobile objects, or parts thereof that
are located on an area intended for the surface movement of aircraft or that extend above a
defined surface intended to protect aircraft in flight.

Obstacle Assessment Surface (OAS) — A defined surface intended for the purpose of
determining those obstacles to be considered for the calculation of obstacle clearance
altitude/height for a specific ILS facility and procedure.

Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OCA) or Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH) — The lowest
altitude or the lowest height above the elevation of the relevant runway threshold or the
aerodrome elevation as applicable, used in establishing compliance with appropriate obstacle
clearance criteria.

Note: OCA is referenced to mean sea level and OCH is referenced to the aerodrome
elevation or to the threshold elevation if that is more than 2 m (7 ft) below the aerodrome
elevation. An OCH for a circling approach is referenced to the aerodrome elevation.

Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ) — The airspace above the inner approach surface, inner transitional
surfaces, and balked landing surface and that portion of the strip bounded by these surfaces,
which is not penetrated by any fixed obstacle other than a low-mass and frangible mounted one
required for air navigation purposes.

Operational Control — The exercise of authority over the initiation, continuation, diversion, or
termination of a flight in the interest of the safety of the aircraft and the regularity and efficiency of
the flight.

Operator — A person, organisation, or enterprise engaged in or offering to engage in aircraft


operation.

Pavement Classification Number (PCN) — A number expressing the bearing strength of a


pavement for unrestricted operation.

Pilot (to) — To manipulate the flight controls of an aircraft during flight time.

Pilot in Command — The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft during
flight.

Power Unit — A system of one or more engines and ancillary parts that are together necessary
to provide thrust, independently of the continued operation of any other power-unit(s), but not
including short period thrust producing devices.

Precision Approach Procedure — An instrument approach procedure utilizing azimuth and


glide path information provided by ILS, MLS, or PAR.

1-22 Air Law


Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1

Precision Approach Runway — See Instrument Runway.

Pre-flight Information Bulletin (PIB) — A presentation of current NOTAM information of


operational significance prepared prior to flight.

Pressure Altitude — An atmospheric pressure expressed in terms of altitude that corresponds to


that pressure in the standard atmosphere.

Primary Area — A defined area symmetrically disposed about the nominal flight track in which
full obstacle clearance is provided.

Primary Radar — A radar system that uses reflected radio signals.

Primary Runway(s) — Runway(s) used in preference to others whenever conditions permit.

Procedure Turn — A manoeuvre in which a turn is made away from a designated track followed
by a turn in the opposite direction to permit the aircraft to intercept and proceed along the
reciprocal of the designated track.

Note: Procedure turns are designated “left” or “right” according to the direction of the
initial turn.

Note: Procedure turns may be designated as being made either in level flight or while
descending, according to the circumstances of each individual procedure.

Prohibited Area — An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial waters
of a state, within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited.

Racetrack Procedure — A procedure designed to enable the aircraft to reduce altitude during
the initial approach segment and/or establish the aircraft inbound when the entry into a reversal
procedure is not practical.

Radar Approach — An approach in which the final approach phase is executed under the
direction of a radar controller.

Radar Clutter — The visual indication on a radar display of unwanted signals.

Radar Contact — The situation which exists when the radar position of a particular aircraft is
seen and identified on a radar display.

Radar Control — Term used to indicate that radar derived information is employed directly in the
provision of ATC service

Radio Direction Finding Station — A radio station intended to determine only the direction of
other stations by means of transmissions from the latter.

Radar Identification — The situation that exists when the radar position of a particular aircraft is
seen on a radar display and positively identified by the ATC controller.

Air Law 1-23


Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions

Radar Monitoring — The use of radar for the purpose of providing aircraft with information and
advice relative to significant deviations from nominal flight path, including deviations from the
terms of their ATC clearances.

Radar Position Indication (RPI) — The visual indication, in non symbolic and/or symbolic form,
on a radar display, of the position of an aircraft obtained after automatic processing of positional
data derived from primary and/or SSR.

Radar Position Symbol (RIPS) — The visual indication, in symbolic form, on a radar display, of
the position of an aircraft obtained after automatic processing of positional data derived from
primary and/or SSR.

Radar Separation — The separation used when aircraft position information is derived from
radar sources.

Radar Service — The term used to indicate a service provided directly by means of radar.

Radar Vectoring — Provision of navigational guidance to aircraft in the form of specific


headings, based on the use of radar.

Rating — An authorisation entered on or associated with a licence and forming part thereof
stating special conditions, privileges, or limitations pertaining to such a licence.

Receiving Unit/Controller — ATS unit/ATC controller to which a message is sent.

Rendering (a Licence) Valid — The action taken by a Contracting State, as an alternative to


issuing its own licence, in accepting a licence issued by any other Contracting State as the
equivalent of its own licence.

Repetitive Flight Plan — A flight plan related to a series of frequently recurring, regularly
operated individual flights with identical basic features, submitted by an operator for retention and
repetitive use by ATS units.

Reporting Point — A specified geographical location in relation to which the position of an


aircraft can be reported.

Required Navigation Performance (RNP) — A statement of the navigation performance


accuracy necessary for operation within a defined airspace.

Rescue Co-ordination Centre — A unit responsible for promoting efficient organization of


search and rescue services and for coordinating the conduct of search and rescue operations
within a search and rescue region.

Restricted Area — An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial waters
of a state, within which the flight of aircraft is restricted in accordance with certain specified
conditions.

1-24 Air Law


Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1

Reversal Procedure — A procedure designed to enable aircraft to reverse direction during the
initial approach segment of an instrument approach procedure. The sequence may include
procedure turns or base turns.

Runway — A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off
of aircraft.

Runway End Safety Area (RESA) — An area symmetrical about the extended runway centre
line and adjacent to the end of the strip primarily intended to reduce the risk of damage to an
aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the aerodrome.

Runway Guard Lights — A light system intended to caution pilots or vehicle drivers that they are
about to enter an active runway.

Runway Strip — A defined area including the runway and stop way, if provided, intended:

¾ To reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off the runway, and
¾ To protect aircraft flying over it during take-off and landing operations.

Runway Visual Range (RVR) — The range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centre line
of a runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or
identifying its centre line.

Secondary Area — A defined area on each side of the primary area located along the nominal
flight track in which decreasing obstacle clearance is provided.

Secondary Radar — A radar system wherein a radio signal transmitted from the radar station
initiates the transmission of a radio signal from another station.

Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) — A surveillance radar system that uses a transmitter
receiver system of interrogators and transponders.

Serious Incident — An incident involving circumstances indicating that an accident nearly


occurred.

Note: The difference between an accident and a serious incident lies only in the result.

Serious Injury — An injury which is sustained by a person in an accident and which:

¾ Requires hospitalisation for more than 48 hours, commencing within 7 days from the date the
injury was received, or
¾ Results in a fracture of any bone (Not simple fractures of fingers, toes, or nose), or
¾ Involves lacerations which cause severe haemorrhage, nerve, muscle, or tendon damage, or
¾ Involves injury to any internal organ, or
¾ Involves second or third degree burns, or any burns affecting more than 5% of the body
surface, or
¾ Involves verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation.

Air Law 1-25


Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions

Shoulder — An area adjacent to the edge of a pavement so prepared as to provide a transition


between the pavement and the adjacent surface.

SIGMET Information — Information issued by a meteorological watch office concerning the


occurrence or expected occurrence of specified enroute weather phenomena which may affect
the safety of aircraft operations.

Signal Area — An area of an aerodrome used for the display of ground signals.

Significant Point — A specified geographical location used in defining an ATS route or the flight
path of an aircraft, and for other navigation and ATS purposes.

Slush — Water-saturated snow, which with a heel-and-toe slap down motion against the ground
will be displaced with a splatter; Specific Gravity: 0.5 up to 0.8.

Snow (On the ground)

Dry Snow — Snow that can be blown if loose or, if compacted by hand, will fall apart
again upon release: Specific Gravity is up to but not including 0.35.

Wet Snow — Snow which, if compacted by hand, will stick together and tend to form a
snowball: Specific Gravity is 0.35 up to but not including 0.45.

Compacted Snow — Snow that has been compressed into a solid mass that resists
further compression and will hold together or break up into lumps if picked up: Specific
Gravity is 0.45 and over.

SNOWTAM — A special series NOTAM notifying the presence or removal of hazardous


conditions due to snow, slush, and ice on the movement area, by means of a special format.

Special VFR Flight — A VFR flight cleared by air traffic control to operate within a control zone in
meteorological conditions below VMC.

Standard Instrument Arrival (STAR) — A designated IFR arrival route linking a significant point,
normally on an ATS route, with a point from which a published instrument approach procedure
can be commenced.

Standard Instrument Departure (SID) — A designated IFR departure route linking the
aerodrome or a specified runway of the aerodrome with a specified significant point, normally on
a designated ATS route, at which the enroute phase of a flight commences.

State of Design — The State having jurisdiction over the organization responsible for the type
design.

State of Manufacture — The State having jurisdiction over the organization responsible for the
final assembly of the aircraft.

State of Occurrence — The State in the territory of which an accident or incident occurs.

1-26 Air Law


Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1

State of the Operator — The State in which the operator’s principal place of business is located
or, if there is no such place of business, the operator’s permanent residence.

State of Registry — The State on whose register the aircraft is entered.

Stopway — A defined rectangular area on the ground at the end of TORA prepared as a suitable
area in which an aircraft can be stopped in the case of an abandoned take-off.

Synthetic Flight Trainer — Any one of the following three types of apparatus in which flight
conditions are simulated on the ground:

Flight Simulator — A flight simulator, which provides an accurate representation of the


flight deck of a particular aircraft type to the extent that the mechanical and electrical
systems control functions, the normal environment of flight crew members, and the
performance and flight characteristics of that type of aircraft are realistically simulated.

Flight Procedures Trainer — A flight procedures trainer, which provides a realistic flight
deck environment, and which simulates instrument responses, simple control functions of
mechanical and electrical systems, and the performance and flight characteristics of
aircraft of a particular class.

Basic Instrument Flight Trainer — A basic instrument flight trainer, which is equipped
with appropriate instruments, and which simulates the flight deck environment of an
aircraft in flight in instrument flight conditions.

Take-off Runway — A runway intended for take-off only.

Take-off Surface — That part of the surface of an aerodrome which the aerodrome authority has
declared available for the normal ground or water run of aircraft taking off in a particular direction.

Taxi-Holding Position — A designated position at which taxiing aircraft and vehicles shall stop
and hold position, unless otherwise authorised by the aerodrome control tower.

Taxiing — The movement of an aircraft on the surface of an aerodrome under its own power,
excluding take-off and landing, but including, in the case of helicopters, operation over the
surface of an aerodrome within a height band associated with ground effect and at speeds
associated with taxiing (e.g. air-taxiing).

Air Law 1-27


Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions

Taxiway — A defined path on a land aerodrome established for the taxiing of aircraft and
intended to provide a link between one part of the aerodrome and another, including:

Aircraft Stand Taxi Lane — A portion of an apron designated as a taxiway and intended
to provide access to aircraft stands only.

Apron Taxiway — A portion of a taxiway system located on an apron and intended to


provide a through taxi route across the apron.

Rapid Exit Taxiway — A taxiway connected to a runway at an acute angle and


designated to allow landing aeroplanes to turn off at higher speeds than are achieved on
other exit taxiways and thereby minimizing runway occupancy times.

Taxiway Intersection — A junction of two or more taxiways.

Taxiway Strip — An area including taxiway intended to protect an aircraft operating on the
taxiway and to reduce the risk of damage to an aircraft accidentally running off the taxiway.

Terminal Control Area — A control area normally established at the confluence of ATS routes in
the vicinity of one or more major aerodromes.

Threshold (THR) — The beginning of that portion of the runway usable for landing.

Total Estimated Elapsed Time — For IFR flights, the estimated time required from take-off to
arrive over that designated point, defined by reference to navigation aids, from which it is
intended that an instrument approach procedure will be commenced, or, if no navigation aid is
associated with the destination aerodrome, to arrive over the destination aerodrome. For VFR
flights, the estimated time required from take-off to arrive over the destination aerodrome.

Touchdown — The point where the nominal glide path intercepts the runway.

Touchdown Zone — The portion of a runway, beyond the threshold, where it is intended landing
aeroplanes first contact the runway.

Track — The projection on the earth’s surface of the path of an aircraft, the direction of which
path at any point is usually expressed in degrees from North (true, magnetic, or grid).

Traffic Avoidance Advice — Advice provided by Air Traffic Services Unit specifying manoeuvres
to assist a pilot to avoid a collision.

Traffic Information — Information issued by an air traffic services unit to alert a pilot to other
known or observed air traffic, which may be in proximity to the position or intended route of flight,
and to help the pilot avoid a collision.

Transfer of Control Point — A defined point located along the flight path of an aircraft, at which
the responsibility for providing ATC service to the aircraft is transferred from one control unit or
control position to the next.

1-28 Air Law


Abbreviations and Definitions Chapter 1

Transferring Unit — ATCU in the process of transferring the responsibility for providing ATC
service to an aircraft to the next ATCU along the route of flight.

Transition Altitude — The altitude at or below which the vertical position of an aircraft is
controlled by reference to altitudes.

Transition Layer — The airspace between the transition altitude and the transition level.

Transition Level — The lowest flight level available for use above the transition altitude.

Uncertainty Phase — A situation wherein uncertainty exists as to the safety of an aircraft and its
occupants.

VFR — The symbol used to designate the visual flight rules.

VFR Flight — A flight conducted in accordance with the visual flight rules.

Visibility — The ability, as determined by atmospheric conditions and expressed in units of


distance, to see and identify prominent unlighted objects by day and prominent objects by night.

Visual Approach — An approach by an IFR aircraft when either part or all of an instrument
approach procedure is not completed and the approach is executed in visual reference to terrain.

Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) Area — The area in which obstacle clearance should be taken
into consideration for aircraft carrying out a circling approach.

Visual Meteorological Conditions — Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility,


distance from cloud, and ceiling equal to or better than the specified minima.

Note: The specified minima are contained within these notes.

VMC — The symbol used to designate visual meteorological conditions.

Way-Point — A specified geographical location used to define an area navigation route or the
flight path of an aircraft employing area navigation.

Air Law 1-29


Chapter 1 Abbreviations and Definitions

1-30 Air Law


BACKGROUND
Today, decisions concerning international civil aviation are taken by the member states of the
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The JAR Aviation Law exam follows the Annexes
and other documents of ICAO. These notes are designed to follow the JAR syllabus and are a
summary of the reference material. Some of the language is difficult to follow because of the use
of the words SHALL and SHOULD. SHALL refers to Standards; SHOULD refers to recommended
practices.

INTRODUCTION
For commercial aviation to operate, it is necessary for states to afford the airlines of other states
the right to fly into and across their territory for both traffic and non-traffic purposes. Agreements
are necessary to achieve this:

¾ Multilateral Agreements or conventions are entered into by a number of different states.


The most obvious one to the aviator is the Chicago Convention, from which ICAO was
established.
¾ Bilateral Agreements are agreements between two states. The two most important of
these are the International Air Transport Agreement and the International Air Services
Transit Agreement, discussed later in this chapter.

SAFETY
International air transport is not just about navigation. The competitive nature of the business
could create the obvious temptation to 'cut corners' and increase profit, so strict regulation is
required to maintain safety. Over the years, the philosophy of ‘a safe airline is a profitable airline'
has evolved. Both Authorities and Operators have embraced safety through a system of
international agreements, which have been translated into law in the contracting states.

INTERNATIONAL LAW
Just as no state has the right to interfere in the internal affairs of another state, no convention has
the right to impose rules and regulations. Only the legislative body of a state can make and
impose law in that state. So the agreements reached at international conventions have to be
translated into national law. If a state accepts the agreement without modification, or after agreed
modification, and it becomes national law, the process is known as 'ratification’. Because the text
of the agreement is accepted by all states that ratify the agreement, the agreement is then
'international' in nature, and the ensuing law is also 'international'. The principal sources of
International Air Law are treaties. They are the international agreements entered into between
states. Such treaties or conventions may be multilateral or bilateral.

Air Law 2-1


Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944

SCHEDULED AND NON-SCHEDULED AIR SERVICES


Since the Paris conference in 1919, the need has been recognised for international air services to
be organised. Scheduling of flights by route and timing is essential for a successful commercial
operation by giving the revenue paying users a reliable timetable and route structure. Within a
state, scheduled operations are a matter for the authority of that state, whereas international
scheduled operations require the compliance of the authorities of the states concerned. A
scheduled air service requires international agreement negotiated at government level. A
schedule implies that, once scheduled, the flight will be flown. An operator is not permitted to
cancel a flight at short notice due to insufficient passengers. However, persistent low passenger
numbers may force a revision or cancellation of the schedule or the combination of schedules
(code sharing). Non-scheduled or charter operations are not generally open to the public. Charter
operations are subject to international agreement for repetitive operations, whereas non-
scheduled operations are 'one-off' and each flight is individually approved.

1919 AERONAUTICAL COMMISSION OF THE PARIS PEACE


CONFERENCE
At the time of the Paris Conference in 1919, the first international scheduled air service began
between Croydon and Paris. This convention recognized that every state has complete and
exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above its territory, and provided for the innocent passage
of civil aircraft of other contracting states over that state’s territory. The conference recommended
the creation of an international body to regulate civil aviation, which led to the formation of the
International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN). The conference also decided that each state
should keep a register of aircraft used for commercial purposes.

CONVENTION OF THE UNIFICATION OF CERTAIN RULES TO


INTERNATIONAL CARRIAGE BY AIR (WARSAW 1929)
This convention, to which 108 states are party, is one of the most widely accepted unifications of
private law. It unifies legislation on:

¾ Documentation on the carriage of passengers, baggage, and cargo.


¾ The financial liability of airlines (operators).
¾ The question of jurisdiction, by defining the courts before which any action may be
brought.

This convention was amended and simplified by the 1955 Hague Protocol. The Montreal
Agreement of 1966 further amended the financial liability of operators. The convention lays down
uniform rules governing the air carrier's liabilities in respect of passengers and goods. The
Warsaw Convention deals only with rights and obligations of contracting carriers and applies to
the international carriage of persons, baggage, or cargo performed by aircraft for reward.

2-2 Air Law


The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2

PASSENGER TICKET
A passenger ticket shall be issued for each flight containing:

¾ The place and date of issue.


¾ An indication of the place of departure and destination.
¾ The agreed stopping places, provided that the carrier may reserve the right to alter
the stopping places, and that if he exercises that right, the alteration shall not have
the effect of depriving the carriage of its international character.
¾ The name and address of the carrier or carriers.
¾ A statement that the carriage is subject to the rules relating to the liability established
by this convention usually printed on the ticket jacket.

The absence, irregularity, or loss of the passenger ticket does not affect the validity of the
contract of carriage, which shall be subject to the rules of the convention. If a carrier accepts a
passenger without a ticket, the carrier will not be able to fall back on the provisions of the
convention that limit liability. If a carrier issues an 'electronic' ticket, then the provisions of the
Warsaw Convention must be communicated by other means.

BAGGAGE CHECK
For luggage, other than small personal objects that the passengers take themselves, the carrier
must issue a luggage ticket. The luggage ticket is made out in duplicate, one for the passenger
and the other for the carrier.

LIABILITY OF THE CARRIER


The Treaty also imposed limitations on the liability of the operator. However, where gross
negligence can be proved, the limit of liability is removed. Currently, the limit of liability for death
of a passenger is $100 000.

1944 CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION


(THE CHICAGO CONVENTION)
During the Second World War, the United States Government convened a conference at Chicago
in 1944 to determine the future of commercial aviation when the war ended. Such importance
was attached to the subject matter that 55 allied and neutral states sent representatives to
Chicago. The outcome was the Convention on International Civil Aviation, which is now the
fundamental basis for agreement upon which the industry is founded.

The 'agreement' is in two parts. The first covers International Air Navigation, and the second
covers the organisation that administers the terms and conditions of the agreement. In common
with other international conferences, the agreement is laid out in article form, where each
individual article stands alone as a definitive statement. You are not required to recall the content
of articles by number, but to have a broad understanding of what the agreement contains.

Air Law 2-3


Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944

PART I – AIR NAVIGATION

Article 1 — Sovereignty
The Contracting States recognise that every State has complete and exclusive sovereignty over
the airspace above its territory.

Article 2 — Territory
For the purposes of this convention, the territory of a State shall be deemed to be the land areas
and territorial waters adjacent thereto under the sovereignty, suzerainty, protection, or mandate of
such a State.

Suzerainty
Is the acceptance by one state of the protection of another state. It has origins in feudal
relationships. In aviation, it relates to the acceptance by one state of the regulation of its
airspace by another state (e.g. the relationship between France and Monaco. Monaco
has no aerodromes and no ATC system and has asked France to administer the control
of air traffic over the territory of the State. French law is applied to Monegasque [Monaco]
airspace).

Article 3 — Civil and State Aircraft


This convention shall be applicable only to civil aircraft, and not to State aircraft:

¾ Aircraft used in military, customs, and police services shall be deemed to be State
aircraft.
¾ No State aircraft of a Contracting State shall fly over the territory of another State or
land without authorization by special agreement or otherwise.
¾ The Contracting States undertake, when issuing regulations for their State aircraft,
that they will have due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft.

Article 4 — Misuse of Civil Aircraft


Each Contracting State agrees not to use civil aviation for any purpose inconsistent with the aims
of this convention.

Article 5 — Right of Non-Scheduled Aircraft


Each Contracting State agrees that all aircraft of other Contracting States, not engaged in
scheduled international air services, shall have the right to make flights into or transit non-stop
across its territory and to make stops for non-traffic purposes without the necessity of obtaining
prior permission. This is subject to the right of the state flown over, which may require the aircraft
to land. Each Contracting State reserves the right, for reasons of safety of flight, to require aircraft
desiring to proceed over regions which are inaccessible or without adequate air navigation
facilities to follow prescribed routes, or to obtain special permission for such flights. Such aircraft,
if engaged on the carriage of passengers, cargo, or mail for remuneration or hire on other than
scheduled international air services, shall also subject to the provisions of Article 7, have the right
to take on or discharge passengers, cargo, or mail. This is subject to the right of any State, where
such embarkation or discharge takes place, to impose such regulations, conditions, or limitations
as it may consider desirable.

Article 6 — Scheduled Air Services


No operation of scheduled international air service may be operated over or into the territory of a
Contracting State, except with the special permission or other authorization of that State, and in
accordance with the terms of such permission or authorization.

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Article 7 — Cabotage
Each Contracting State shall have the right to refuse permission to the aircraft of other
Contracting States to take on in its territory passengers, mail, and cargo carried for remuneration
or hire and destined for another point within its territory. Each Contracting State undertakes not to
enter into any arrangements that specifically grant any such privilege on an exclusive basis to any
other State or an airline of any other State, and not to obtain any such exclusive privilege from
any other State.

Article 10 — Landing At Customs Airport


Except in a case where, under the terms of this Convention or a special authorization, aircraft are
permitted to cross the territory of a Contracting State without landing, every aircraft which enters
the territory of a Contracting State shall, if the regulations of that State so require, land at an
airport for the purpose of customs and other examination. On departure from the territory of a
Contracting State, aircraft shall also depart from a designated customs airport. Particulars of all
designated customs airports shall be published by the State and transmitted to the ICAO
established under Part II of this Convention for communication to all other Contracting States.
Customs Airports are frequently called 'International' airports.

Article 11 — Applicability of Air Regulations


Subject to the provisions of this Convention, the laws and regulations of a Contracting State
relating to the admission to or departure from its territory of aircraft engaged in international air
navigation, or to the operation and navigation of such aircraft while within its territory, shall be
applied to the aircraft of all Contracting States without distinction as to nationality, and shall be
complied with by aircraft upon entering or departing from or while within the territory of that State.

Article 12 — Rules of the Air


Each Contracting State agrees to adopt measures to ensure that all aircraft flying over or
manoeuvring within its territory and that every aircraft carrying its nationality mark shall comply
with the rules and regulations relating to the flight and manoeuvres of aircraft there in force. Each
Contracting State undertakes to keep its own regulations uniform, to the greatest possible extent,
with those rules established under the Convention. Over the high seas, the rules in force shall be
those established under the Convention. Each Contracting State undertakes to ensure the
protection of all persons violating the regulations applicable.

Article 13 — Entry and Clearance Regulations


The laws and regulations of a Contracting State as to the admission to or departure from its
territory of passengers, crew, or cargo of aircraft, such as entry clearance, immigration,
passports, customs, and quarantine, shall be complied with by or on behalf of passengers, crew
or cargo upon entrance into or departure from, or while within the territory of that State.

Article 17 — Nationality of Aircraft


Aircraft have the nationality of the State in which they are registered.

Article 18 — Dual Registration


An aircraft cannot be validly registered in more than one State, but its registration may be
changed from one State to another.

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Article 19 — National Laws Governing Registration


The registration or transfer of registration of aircraft in any Contracting State shall be made in
accordance with its laws and regulations.

Article 20 — Display of Marks


Every aircraft engaged in international air navigation shall bear its appropriate nationality and
registration marks.

Article 22 — Facilitation of Formalities


Each Contracting State agrees to adopt all practicable measures to facilitate and expedite
navigation by aircraft between the territories of Contracting States. This includes the prevention of
unnecessary delays to aircraft, crews, passengers, and cargo, especially in the administration of
the laws relating to immigration, quarantine, customs, and clearance.

Article 24 — Customs Duty

¾ Aircraft on a flight to, from, or across the territory of another Contracting State shall
be admitted temporarily free of duty, subject to the customs regulations of the State.
Fuel, lubricating oils, spare parts, regular equipment and aircraft spares on board an
aircraft of a Contracting State, on arrival in the territory of another Contracting State
and retained on board on leaving the territory of that State shall be exempt from
customs duty, inspection fees or similar national or local duties and charges. This
exemption shall not apply to any quantities or articles unloaded, except in
accordance with the customs regulations of the State, which may require that they
shall be kept under customs supervision.
¾ Spare parts and equipment imported into the territory of a Contracting State for
incorporation in or use on an aircraft of another Contracting State engaged in
international air navigation shall be admitted free of customs duty, subject to
compliance with the regulations of the State concerned, which may provide that the
articles shall be kept under customs supervision and control.

Article 25 — Aircraft In Distress


Each Contracting State undertakes to provide such measures of assistance to aircraft in distress
in its territory as is practicable, and to permit, subject to control by its own authorities, the owners
of the aircraft or authorities of the State in which the aircraft is registered to provide assistance as
may be necessitated by the circumstances. Each Contracting State, when undertaking a search
for missing aircraft, will collaborate in co-ordinated measures which may be recommended from
time to time by the convention.

Article 26 — Investigation of Accidents


In the event of an accident to an aircraft of a Contracting State occurring in the territory of another
Contracting State, and involving death or serious injury, or indicating serious technical defect in
the aircraft or air navigation facilities, the State in which the incident occurs will institute an inquiry
into the circumstances of the accident, in accordance, so far as its laws permit, with the
procedure which may be recommended by the ICAO. The State holding the inquiry shall
communicate the report and findings in the matter to the other State.

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Article 31 — Certificates of Airworthiness


All aircraft engaged in international air navigation shall be provided with a certificate of
airworthiness issued or rendered valid by the State in which it is registered.

Article 32 — Licences of Personnel


The pilot of every aircraft and the other members of the operating crew of all aircraft engaged in
international navigation shall be provided with:

¾ Certificates of competency, and


¾ Licences issued or rendered valid by the State in which the aircraft is registered.

Each Contracting State reserves the right to refuse to recognize, for the purposes of flight above
its own territory, certificates of competency and licences granted to any of its nationals by other
Contracting States.

Article 33 — Recognition of Certificates And Licences


Certificates of airworthiness and certificates of competency and licences issued or rendered valid
by the Contracting State in which the aircraft is registered, shall be recognized as valid by other
Contracting States, provided that the requirements under which certificates or licences were
issued or rendered valid are equal to or above the minimum standards established by the
Convention.

Article 36 — Photographic Apparatus


Each Contracting State may prohibit or regulate the use of photographic apparatus in aircraft over
its territory.

Article 37 — Adoption of International Standards And Procedures


Each Contracting State undertakes to collaborate in securing the highest practicable degree of
uniformity in regulations, standards, procedures and organization in relation to aircraft, personnel,
airways and auxiliary services in all matters in which such uniformity will facilitate and improve air
navigation.

To this end the ICAO shall adopt and amend, as may be necessary, international standards and
recommended practices and procedures dealing with:

¾ Communications systems and air navigation aids, including ground marking


¾ Characteristics of airports and landing areas
¾ Rules of the air and air traffic control practices
¾ Licensing of operating and mechanical personnel
¾ Airworthiness of aircraft
¾ Registration and identification of aircraft
¾ Collection and exchange of meteorological information
¾ Log books
¾ Aeronautical maps and charts
¾ Customs and immigration procedures
¾ Aircraft in distress and investigation of accidents

and other such matters concerned with the safety, regularity, and efficiency of air navigation as
may from time to time appear appropriate.

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Article 38 — Departures From International Standards and Procedures


Any State which finds it impracticable to comply in all respects with the Standards and
Recommended Practices adopted by ICAO may give notice of such to the Council. Many states
adopt the ICAO SARPS without reservation whilst others (the UK, the USA and Russia in
particular) have notified extensive 'differences' in their procedures. The list of 'differences' is
recorded in GEN section 7 of the AIP of the state.

PART II — THE INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION


ORGANISATION
An organization to be named the International Civil Aviation Organization is formed by the
Convention. It is made up of an Assembly, a Council, and such other bodies as may be
necessary.

THE ORGANISATION
ASSEMBLY
All Contracting States one member one vote

COUNCIL
33 Contracting States elected by the Assembly
(President of the Council is elected by the Council)

Air Navigation Air Transport Legal Committee Committee on Joint Finance Committee Committee on
Commission Committee Support of Air Navigation Unlawful Interference
Services

Air Navigation Commission


15 members appointed by the Council.

Air Transport Committee


Appointed by the Council.

Legal Committee

Committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services


Not more than 11 members, with not less than 9 members, appointed by the Council.

Finance Committee
Not more than 13 members, with not less than 9 members, appointed by the Council.

Committee on Unlawful Interference


15 members appointed by the Council.

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Objectives
The aims and objectives of the organization are to develop the principles and techniques of
international air navigation and to foster the planning and development of international air
transport so as to:

¾ Ensure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout the world.
¾ Encourage the arts of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purposes.
¾ Encourage the development of airways, airports and air navigation facilities for
international civil aviation.
¾ Meet the needs of the peoples of the world for safe, regular, efficient and economical
air transport.
¾ Prevent economic waste caused by unreasonable competition.
¾ Ensure that the rights of Contracting States are fully respected and that every
Contracting State has a fair opportunity to operate international airlines.
¾ Avoid discrimination between Contracting States.
¾ Promote safety of flight in international air navigation.
¾ Promote generally the development of all aspects of international civil aeronautics.

THE ASSEMBLY
The Assembly shall meet not less than once every three years and shall be convened by the
Council at a suitable time and place. An extraordinary meeting of the Assembly may be held at
any time upon the call of the Council or at the request of not less than 1/5th of the total number of
Contracting States. All Contracting States shall have an equal right to be represented at the
meetings of the Assembly and each Contracting State shall be entitled to one vote. A majority of
the Contracting States is required to constitute a quorum for the meetings of the Assembly.
Unless otherwise provided in this Convention, decisions of the Assembly shall be taken by a
majority of the votes cast.

ANNEXES TO THE CONVENTION


The annexes are the basis of the ICAO procedures and practices:

Annex 1 — Personnel Licensing.


Annex 2 — Rules of the Air.
Annex 3 — Meteorological Services.
Annex 4 — Aeronautical Charts.
Annex 5 — Dimension Units.
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft.
Annex 7 — Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks.
Annex 8 — Airworthiness of Aircraft.
Annex 9 — Facilitation.
Annex 10 — Aeronautical Telecommunications.
Annex 11 — Air Traffic Services.
Annex 12 — Search and Rescue.
Annex 13 — Aircraft Accident Investigation.
Annex 14 — Aerodromes.
Annex 15 — Aeronautical Information Service.
Annex 16 — Environmental Protection.
Annex 17 — Security.
Annex 18 — Transport of Dangerous Goods.

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ICAO regulations are not automatically the law of a contracting state. All regulations have to be
enacted as part of the law of that state.

Status of Annex Components


All Annexes are made up of the following components, not all of which are necessarily found in
every Annex:

Standards and Recommended Practices


Standards and Recommended Practices (generally known as SARPs) are adopted by the
ICAO Council under the provisions of the Chicago Convention. They are defined as
follows:

Standard
Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, material,
performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of which is
recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of International Navigation
and to which Contracting States will conform in accordance with the convention.
In the event of non-compliance then notification to the council is compulsory. The
word 'SHALL' defines a standard.

Recommended Practice
Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, material,
performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of which is
recognized as desirable for the safety or regularity of International Navigation
and to which Contracting States will endeavour to conform in accordance with
the convention. In the event of non-compliance then notification to the council is
not compulsory. The word 'SHOULD' defines a recommended practice.

Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS)


These are procedures that have been adopted by the council for worldwide use. They can
contain:

¾ New procedures, or those which are too complicated or detailed for inclusion in an
Annex.
¾ Operating procedures that have not attained a status for adoption as International
Standards and Recommended Practices.

Regional Supplementary Procedures (SUPPS)


These procedures are similar in status to the PANS but are for application in their respective
regions.

Technical Manuals
These documents amplify the SARPs and PANS. They are designed to assist in the use of the
relevant document.

Air Navigation Plans


Air Navigation Plans detail the requirements for facilities and services for international air
navigation in the respective ICAO Air Navigation Regions.

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ICAO Circulars
Any information that is of specific interest to contracting states is transmitted by these documents.

OTHER INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS MADE AT CHICAGO


By the nature of the assembled national delegations at Chicago in 1944, it was not possible to
reach unanimous agreement on all the matters discussed. Individual states demanded to retain
territorial rights over their airspace, and in general this was respected. In order to make the
agreements work, a system of bilateral agreements was established which permitted states to be
selective in which other states they entered into the agreements with. In essence, if state A did
not want the aircraft of state B flying unrestricted over its airspace, then it did not enter into an
agreement with that state.

THE INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT AGREEMENT AND THE


INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES TRANSIT AGREEMENT
These bilateral agreements established what are known as the “The Five Freedoms of the Air”.
These freedoms are:

One The freedom of innocent passage. The right to fly across the territory of a state
without landing.

Two Freedom of Facilities. The right to use (land in) foreign territory to refuel or carry
out maintenance. This does not give any traffic rights.

Three The right to carry revenue traffic(1) from the operator state (A) to a treaty partner
state (B).

Four The right to carry revenue traffic from a treaty partner state (B) to the operator
state (A).

Five The right to carry revenue traffic between any points of landing on flights
between 3 or more treaty partner nations (A to B to C). This is the most important
'freedom' as it effectively facilitates international traffic operations. The term 'a
fifth freedom flight' is used extensively.
(Do not get this freedom mixed up with Cabotage)

Note 1: Revenue traffic is defined as the carriage of passengers, mail, or cargo.

Freedoms one and two are known as technical freedoms, and freedoms three, four, and five are
the commercial freedoms.

SUPPLEMENTARY FREEDOMS
Since 1944, evolution of international air transport has led to situations not envisioned at Chicago.
These are now embodied in 'new' freedoms. (These are outside the learning objectives for 010 —
Air Law).

Six A combination of Freedoms 3 and 4. Revenue traffic flown between two treaty
partner states (A to C) through the carrier state (B).

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Seven Revenue traffic flown between two nations (A and B) by carrier of a third nation
(C) without the flight originating, terminating, or landing in state C.

Eight Cabotage (within the EEC) The right to carry revenue traffic between two
points within a treaty (EEC) nation by the carrier of another EEC nation, whilst
allowing the treaty organisation (EEC) to apply cabotage to non-treaty nations.

Nine Code Sharing. The combining of two or more scheduled flights under one
operation. This preserves the schedules but economises on aircraft and
effectively increases passenger loading. Technically, this is a breach of the
schedule agreement between states. However, reduced pollution, reduced noise
nuisance, increased profits, and reduced aerodrome loading all make code
sharing attractive to both aviation authorities and operators alike.

THE CONVENTION OF TOKYO 1963


Following concern about unlawful seizure of aircraft in the early 1960s, the Japanese
Government convened a meeting to tackle the problem. Unfortunately, there was no mechanism
for the imposition of authority over flights outside the territory of a state as there was for shipping,
so the convention was mainly concerned with establishing jurisdiction rather than addressing the
problem of air piracy. The agreements made at this convention cover offences and certain other
acts committed on board aircraft including unlawful seizure. The convention covers the
jurisdiction of the pilot in command and national jurisdiction.

National Jurisdiction
The convention states that the State of Registry of an aircraft is responsible for exercising
jurisdiction over offences and acts committed on board, with the stipulation that the
authority of any other state does not apply (see Jurisdiction of Other States). The State of
Registry should take all legal steps necessary to ensure this.

Jurisdiction of Other States


A contracting state, which is not the State of Registry, may interfere with an aircraft in
flight in order to exercise legal control over any offence committed on board when:

¾ An offence has been committed on board in the territorial airspace of that state.
¾ An offence committed on board has an effect on the territory of the state.
¾ An offence has been committed on board against a national, or permanent resident,
of that state.
¾ An offence has been committed on board against the security of that state.
¾ The offence committed is a breach of the rules or regulations relating to the flight of
aircraft in that state.
¾ The exercise of jurisdiction is necessary to ensure the observance of any multi-
national agreements between states.

Pilot in Command
If a person commits, or is about to commit, an unlawful act on board an aircraft, the
aircraft commander may impose reasonable measures, including restraint, considered
necessary:

¾ To protect the safety of the aircraft, persons or property on board.


¾ To maintain good order and discipline.

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¾ To enable handing a person over to the competent authorities. This can include
removal of a passenger from an aircraft, or refusal of permission for a person to
board an aircraft.

To carry out his task the aircraft commander may require the assistance of other crew
members. Passengers may also be asked to assist, if necessary.

THE HAGUE CONVENTION OF 1970


Following the Tokyo Convention, and after a spate of politically motivated terrorists hijackings,
ICAO called a convention hosted by the Dutch government to address this problem. The
Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft defines the act of unlawful seizure
and the measures to be taken by contracting states to enforce severe punishment upon
perpetrators. This agreement specifies extradition of offenders and obliges contracting states to
extradite offenders.

THE MONTREAL CONVENTION OF 1971


The Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the safety of Civil Aviation
compliments the Hague Convention by making it an offence to:

¾ Commit acts of violence on board aircraft that endanger people and property and the
safety of the aircraft.
¾ Destroy an aircraft in service or cause damage which renders the aircraft incapable of
flight or which is likely to endanger the safety of flight.
¾ Place a device on board an aircraft that is likely to destroy the aircraft, damage it, or
render it unfit for flight.
¾ Destroy or damage any navigation facility or interference with its correct operation.
¾ Interfere with aircraft communications or transmit information known to be false that
endangers the safety of an aeroplane in flight.

THE PROTOCOL TO THE MONTREAL CONVENTION OF 1971


This extended the Montreal Convention to include offences committed at aerodromes serving
international civil aviation, including the intentional use of any device, substance or weapon:

¾ Likely to cause serious injury or death.


¾ To destroy or seriously damage the facilities of an airport.
¾ To destroy or damage aircraft not in service at the airport.
¾ To disrupt the services at an airport.

Note: In this context, a protocol is a diplomatic method whereby the content of an agreement can
be amended without the need to re-convene the entire convention.

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ADDENDUM TO CHAPTER 2
The LOs for 010 Air Law require the student to have knowledge of defined parts of the Chicago
Convention. For completeness, the remaining Articles of the Convention (those not covered in the
body of Chapter 2) are reproduced below.

The Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention)

Article 8 — Pilotless Aircraft


No aircraft capable of being flown without a pilot shall be flown without a pilot over the territory of
a Contracting State without special authorization by that State and in accordance with the terms
of such authorization. Each Contracting State undertakes to ensure that the flight of such aircraft
without a pilot in regions open to civil aircraft shall be controlled as to obviate danger to civil
aircraft.

Article 9 — Prohibited Areas

¾ Each Contracting State may, for reasons of military necessity or public safety, restrict
or prohibit the aircraft of other States from flying over certain areas of its territory.
This is provided that no distinction in this respect is made between the aircraft of the
State whose territory is involved. Prohibited areas shall be of reasonable extent and
location so as not to interfere unnecessarily with air navigation. Descriptions of
prohibited areas in the territory of a Contracting State, as well as any subsequent
alterations, shall be communicated as soon as possible to other Contracting States
and to the ICAO.
¾ Each Contracting State reserves the right, in exceptional circumstances or during a
period of emergency, or in the interests of public safety, and with immediate effect, to
restrict or prohibit flying over the whole or any part of its territory temporarily. Such a
restriction or prohibition shall be applicable without distinction of nationality to aircraft
of all other States.
¾ Each Contracting State, under any regulations as it may prescribe may require any
aircraft entering the areas in the paragraphs above to effect a landing as soon as
practicable thereafter at a designated airport within its territory.

Article 14 — Prevention of Spread of Disease


Each Contracting State agrees to take effective measures to prevent the spread by means of air
navigation of cholera, typhus (epidemic), smallpox, yellow fever, plague, and such other
communicable disease as the Contracting States shall from time to time decide to designate. To
that end Contracting States will keep in close consultation with the agencies concerned with
international regulations relating to sanitary measures applicable to aircraft. Consultation shall be
without prejudice to the application of any existing international convention on this subject to
which the Contracting States may be parties.

Article 16 — Search of Aircraft


The appropriate authorities of each of the Contracting States shall have the right without
unreasonable delay, to search aircraft of the other Contracting States on landing or departure,
and to inspect the certificates and other documents prescribed by this Convention.

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Article 21 — Report of Registrations


Each Contracting State undertakes to supply to any other Contracting State or to the ICAO, on
demand, information concerning the registration and ownership of any particular aircraft
registered in that State. Each Contracting State shall furnish reports to the ICAO, under any
regulations as the latter may decide upon, pertinent data concerning the ownership and control of
aircraft registered in that State and engaged in international air navigation. The data obtained by
the ICAO shall be made available to the other Contracting States.

Article 23 — Customs and Immigration Procedures


Each Contracting State undertakes, so far as practicable, to establish customs and immigration
procedures affecting international air navigation in accordance with the practices which may be
established or recommended by the Convention. Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as
preventing the establishment of customs free airports.

Article 28 — Air Navigation Facilities and Standard Systems


Each Contracting State undertakes, so far as it may be practicable, to:

¾ Provide, in its territory, airports, radio services, meteorological services and other air
navigation facilities to facilitate international air navigation, in accordance with the
standards and practices recommended or established by the Convention.
¾ Adopt and put into operation the appropriate standard systems of communications
procedures, codes, markings, signals, lighting and other operational practices and
rules which may be recommended or established by the Convention.
¾ Collaborate in international measures to secure the publication of aeronautical maps
and charts in accordance with standards that may be recommended or established
by the Convention.

Article 29 — Documents Carried in Aircraft


An aircraft of a Contracting State, engaged in international air navigation, shall carry the following
documents in order to conform with the Convention:

¾ A certificate of registration
¾ A certificate of airworthiness
¾ The appropriate licences for each member of the crew
¾ A journey log book
¾ If equipped with radio apparatus, the aircraft radio station licence
¾ If passengers are carried, a list of their names and places of embarkation and
destination
¾ If cargo is carried, a manifest and detailed declarations of the cargo

Article 30 — Aircraft Radio Equipment

¾ Aircraft of a Contracting State may, in or over the territory of other Contracting States,
carry radio-transmitting apparatus if a licence to install and operate the radio has
been issued by the appropriate authorities of the State in which the aircraft is
registered. The use of radio transmitting apparatus in the territory of the Contracting
State whose territory is flown over shall be in accordance with the regulations
prescribed by that State.
¾ Radio transmitting apparatus can only be used by members of the flight crew who are
provided with a radio licence issued by the appropriate authorities of the State in
which the aircraft is registered.

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Article 34 — Journey Log Books


All aircraft engaged in international navigation shall have a journey log book in which shall be
entered particulars of the aircraft, its crew and of each journey.

Article 35 — Cargo Restrictions


No munitions of war or implements of war may be carried in or above the territory of a State by
aircraft engaged in international navigation, except by permission of that State. Each State shall
determine what constitutes munitions of war for the purposes of this article, giving due
consideration, for the purposes of uniformity, to the recommendations made by ICAO.

Each Contracting State reserves the right, for reasons of public order and safety, to regulate or
prohibit the carriage in or above its territory of articles other than those listed in the paragraph
above, provided that:

¾ No distinction is made in this respect between its national aircraft engaged in


international navigation and the aircraft of the other States, and
¾ No restriction shall be imposed which may interfere with the carriage and use on
aircraft of apparatus necessary for the operation or navigation of the aircraft or the
safety of the personnel or passengers.

Article 39 — Endorsement of Certificates and Licences

¾ Any aircraft or part thereof with respect to which there exists an international
standard of airworthiness or performance, and which failed in any respect to satisfy
the standard at the time of its certification, shall have endorsed on or attached to its
airworthiness certificate a complete list of the details in respect of which it failed.
¾ Any person holding a licence who does not satisfy in full the conditions laid down in
the international standard relating to the class of licence or certificate which he holds
shall have endorsed on or attached to his licence the details of the particulars in
which he does not satisfy such conditions.

Article 40 — Validity of Endorsed Certificates and Licences


No aircraft or personnel having certificates or licences so endorsed shall participate in
international navigation, except with the permission of the State or States whose territory is
entered. The registration or use of any such aircraft, or of any certificated aircraft part, in any
State other than that in which it was originally certificated shall be at the discretion of the State
into which the aircraft or part is imported.

Article 47 — Legal Capacity


The organization shall enjoy in the territory of each Contracting State such legal capacity as may
be necessary for the performance of its functions.

Article 49 — Powers and Duties of the Assembly


The powers and duties of the Assembly shall be to:

¾ Elect at each meeting its president and other officers


¾ Elect the Contracting States to be represented on the Council, in accordance with the
provisions of Chapter IX
¾ Examine and take appropriate action on the reports of the Council and decide on any
matter referred to it by the Council
¾ Determine its own rules of procedure and establish such subsidiary commissions as
it may consider to be necessary or desirable
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¾ Vote annual budgets and determine the financial arrangements of the organization, in
accordance with the provisions of Chapter XII
¾ Review expenditures and approve the accounts of the organization
¾ Refer, at its discretion, to the Council, to subsidiary commissions, or to any other
body any matter within its sphere of action
¾ Delegate to the Council the powers and authority necessary or desirable for the
discharge of the duties of the organization and revoke or modify the delegations of
authority at any time
¾ Carry out the appropriate provisions of Chapter XIII
¾ Consider proposals for the modification or amendment of the provisions of this
Convention and, if it approves of the proposals, recommend them to the Contracting
States in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XXI
¾ Deal with any matter within the sphere of action of the Organization not specifically
assigned to the Council

CHAPTER IX — THE COUNCIL

Article 50 — Composition and Election of the Council

¾ The Council shall be a permanent body responsible to the Assembly. It is composed


of 33 Contracting States elected by the Assembly. An election shall be held at the
first meeting of the Assembly and thereafter every 3 years. Elected members of the
Council hold office until the following election
¾ In electing the members of the Council, the Assembly shall give adequate
representation to:
• The States of chief importance in air transport
• The States not otherwise included which make the largest contribution to the
provision of facilities for international civil air navigation, and
• The States not otherwise included whose designation will insure that all the major
geographic areas of the world are represented
• The Assembly shall fill any vacancy on the Council as soon as possible; any
Contracting State so elected to the Council shall hold office for the unexpired
portion of its predecessor’s office
¾ No representative of a Contracting State on the Council shall be actively associated
with the operation of an international air service or financially interested in such a
service

Article 51 — President of Council


The Council shall elect its president for a term of 3 years. He may be re-elected. He shall have no
vote. The Council shall elect from its members one or more vice presidents who shall retain their
right to vote when serving as acting president. The president need not be selected from among
the representatives of the members of the Council but, if a representative is elected, his seat shall
be deemed vacant and it shall be filled by the State that he represented. The duties of the
president shall be to:

¾ Convene meetings of
¾ The Council
¾ The Air Transport Committee
¾ The Air Navigation Commission
¾ Serve as representative of the Council
¾ Carry out on behalf of the Council the functions which the Council assigns to him
Air Law 2-17
Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944

Article 54 — Mandatory Functions of the Council


The Council shall:

¾ Submit annual reports to the Assembly


¾ Carry out the directions of the Assembly and discharge the duties and obligations
which are laid on it by this Convention
¾ Determine its organization and rules of procedure
¾ Appoint and define the duties of an Air Transport Committee, which shall be chosen
from among the representatives of the members of the Council, and which shall be
responsible to it
¾ Establish an Air Navigation Commission, in accordance with the provisions of
Chapter X
¾ Administer the finances of the Organization in accordance with the provisions of
Chapter XII and XV
¾ Determine the emoluments of the president of the Council
¾ Appoint a chief executive officer who shall be called the secretary-general, and make
provision for the appointment of such other personnel as may be necessary, in
accordance with the provisions of Chapter XI
¾ Request, collect, examine and publish information relating to the advancement of air
navigation and the operation of international air services including information about
the costs of operation and particulars of subsidies paid to airlines from public funds
¾ Report to Contracting States any infraction of this Convention, as well as any failure
to carry out recommendations or determinations of the Council
¾ Report to the Assembly any infraction of this Convention where a Contracting State
has failed to take appropriate action within a reasonable time after notice of the
infraction
¾ Adopt, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VI of this Convention,
international standards and recommended practices; for convenience designate them
as Annexes to this Convention; and notify all Contracting States of the action taken
¾ Consider recommendations of the Air Navigation Commission for amendment of the
Annexes and take action in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XX
¾ Consider any matter relating to the Convention to which any Contracting State refers

Article 55 — Permissive Function of the Council


The Council may:

¾ Where appropriate and as experience may show to be desirable, create subordinate


air transport commissions on a regional or other basis and define groups of States or
airlines with or through which it may deal to facilitate the carrying out of the aims of
this Convention
¾ Delegate to the Air Navigation Commission duties additional to those in the
Convention and revoke or modify such delegations of authority at any time
¾ Conduct research into all aspects of air transport and air navigation which are of
international importance, communicate the results of its research to the Contracting
States, and facilitate the exchange of information between Contracting States on air
transport and air navigation matters
¾ Study any matters affecting the organization and operation of international air
transport, including the international ownership and operation of international air
services on trunk routes, and submit to the Assembly plans in relation thereto
¾ Investigate, at the request of any Contracting State, any situation which may appear
to present avoidable obstacles to the development of international air navigation; and
after such investigation, issue such reports as may appear to be desirable
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The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944 Chapter 2

CHAPTER X — THE AIR NAVIGATION COMMISSION

Article 56 — Nomination and Appointment of the Commission


The Air Navigation Commission is composed of 15 members appointed by the Council from
among the persons nominated by Contracting States; these persons shall have suitable
qualifications and experience in the science and practice of aeronautics. The Council shall
request all Contracting States to submit nominations. The Council shall appoint the president of
the Air Navigation Commission.

Article 57 — Duties of the Commission


The Air Navigation Commission shall:

¾ Consider and recommend to the Council for adoption, modifications of the Annexes
to this Convention
¾ Establish technical sub-commissions on which any Contracting State may be
represented, if it so desires
¾ Advise the Council concerning the collection and communication to the Contracting
States of all information which it considers necessary and useful for the advancement
of air navigation

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Chapter 2 The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944

2-20 Air Law


THE INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION (IATA)
IATA is a body whose members are composed of airlines. The functions of IATA include the
establishment of uniform fares, uniform ticketing arrangements, and other procedures. The IATA
interlining agreements led to carriers accepting other carriers’ tickets and waybills. This not only
allows 'consortium' operations (One World, etc.) but also makes regional feeder services viable.
IATA acts as the fare distribution agent, paying the small feeder/regional airline, then recovers the
cost from the primary (international) carrier.

THE CONVENTION OF ROME 1933/1952


This convention produced uniformity in place of the differing national laws covering the liability of
the owner or operator of an aircraft that causes damage to persons or property on the ground. In
simple terms, the operator is liable for any damage, but the liability is limited to a sum that is
proportionate to the weight of the aircraft. The Convention makes it compulsory to insure against
this liability. A later Rome Convention looked at the problems of damage caused by foreign
aircraft to third parties on the surface of the earth. The amount of compensation is limited, but
carriers are liable for damage caused to third parties. The convention does accept compulsory
recognition and execution of any foreign judgement on damage to third parties. The 1933
convention also regulated the right of arrest where an aircraft is seized in the case of debt.

COMMERCIAL PRACTICES AND ASSOCIATED RULES


(LEASING)
The learning objectives require the student to have knowledge of the practice and terminology of
leasing aeroplanes. The reference for Leasing is JAR-OPS. Terms used in JAR-OPS 1.165 have
the following meaning:

AOC Air Operators Certificate, a document issued by the Authority of a State


allowing an Operator to conduct public transport flights.
Dry lease The aeroplane is operated under the AOC of the lessee (the company
leasing the aeroplane).
Wet lease The aeroplane is operated under the AOC of the lessor (the company
who let the aircraft out).
JAA operator An operator certificated under JAR-OPS Part 1 by one of the JAA
Member States.
Lease In The process of 'borrowing' an aeroplane.
Lease Out The process of 'lending' an aeroplane.

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Chapter 3 Other International and European Organisations

LEASING OF AEROPLANES BETWEEN JAA OPERATORS


Wet lease-out.
If a JAA operator retains all functions and responsibilities prescribed in Subpart C of JAR-
OPS when providing an aeroplane and complete crew to another JAA Operator, then that
operator remains the operator of the aeroplane.

All leases except wet lease-out.


Any leasing activity other than the wet lease out described above requires approval of the
appropriate JAA authority.

LEASING OF AEROPLANES BETWEEN A JAA OPERATOR AND ANY BODY


OTHER THAN A JAA OPERATOR
Dry lease-in
A JAA operator may not dry lease-in an aeroplane from any entity other than a JAA
operator, unless approved by the Authority. Any conditions that are part of this approval
must be included in the lease agreement. The JAA operator shall ensure that, with regard
to aeroplanes that are dry leased-in, any differences from the prescribed instrument,
navigation, communication, and safety equipment are notified to, and are acceptable to,
the Authority.

Wet lease-in
A JAA operator shall not wet lease-in an aeroplane from a body other than a JAA
operator without the approval of the Authority. The JAA operator shall ensure that, with
regard to aeroplanes that are wet leased-in:
¾ The safety standards of the lessor with respect to maintenance and operation are
equivalent to the JAR regulations
¾ The lessor is an operator holding an AOC issued by a State which is a signatory
to the Chicago Convention
¾ The aeroplane has a standard Certificate of Airworthiness issued in accordance
with ICAO Annex 8. Standard Certificates of Airworthiness issued by a JAA
Member State other than the State responsible for issue the AOC will be
accepted without further showing when issued in accordance with JAR, and
¾ Any JAA requirements are complied with by the lessee's Authority.

Dry lease-out
A JAA operator may dry lease-out an aeroplane for the purpose of commercial air
transportation to any operator of a State which is signatory to the Chicago Convention. In
this case, the JAA Authority will exempt the JAA operator from the relevant provisions of
JAR-OPS Part 1. Further, after the foreign regulatory authority has accepted
responsibility in writing for surveillance of the maintenance and operation of the
aeroplane(s), the aeroplane(s) will be removed from the JAA operator's AOC. Part of the
leasing agreement is that the aeroplane(s) will be maintained according to an approved
maintenance programme.

Wet lease-out
A JAA operator providing an aeroplane and complete crew to another entity and retaining
all the prescribed functions and responsibilities shall remain the operator of the
aeroplane.

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Other International and European Organisations Chapter 3

LEASING OF AEROPLANES AT SHORT NOTICE


In circumstances where a JAA operator is faced with an immediate, urgent, and unforeseen need
for a replacement aeroplane, the required approval may be deemed to have been given, provided
that the lessor is an operator holding an AOC issued by a State which is a signatory to the
Chicago Convention, the lease-in period does not exceed 5 consecutive days, and the Authority
is immediately notified of the use of this provision.

EUROPEAN CIVIL AVIATION CONFERENCE (ECAC)


INTRODUCTION
In 1953 a European conference convened on Co-ordination of Air Transport in Europe (CATE), to
discuss methods of improving commercial and technical co-operation between the airlines of the
European countries participating in the conference, as well as the possibility of securing closer
co-operation by the exchange of commercial rights between the European countries. In order to
follow up on the recommendations adopted at the meeting, CATE proposed the establishment of
a permanent organisation of the European aeronautical authorities. This organisation was called
the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) and held its inaugural session in 1955.

ECAC OBJECTIVES

¾ Continuing the work of the CATE conference.


¾ Reviewing the development of intra-European air transport with the object of
improvement.
¾ Considering any special problem that might arise from the above.

ECAC membership, which includes all EC countries, needed to institute procedures consistent
with those resulting from the EC treaty and the Single European Act. The recommendations
made by the European Parliament and the Council of Europe needed a co-ordinated approach to
ensure air safety within Europe. In 1970, some European civil aviation authorities started to co-
operate with a view to producing common Joint Airworthiness Requirements so as to facilitate
certification of products built jointly in Europe. This led to the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA)
Board becoming an associated body to ECAC in 1989. The JAA Board oversees arrangements
between a number of ECAC states providing for co-operation in developing and implementing
common safety standards and procedures.

JOINT AVIATION AUTHORITIES (JAA)


JAA ORGANISATION
The JAA has developed since the 1970s and the members are bound by the “Arrangements”
signed in Cyprus by the then member states in 1990. The main JAA objectives are:

¾ To ensure through co-operation common high levels of safety within the member
states.
¾ Through the application of uniform safety standards, to contribute to fair and equal
competition within the member states.
¾ To aim for cost effective safety and minimum regulatory burden so as to contribute to
the European industries’ international competitiveness.

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Chapter 3 Other International and European Organisations

The JAA operates in a manner that is as close as possible to a single authority, without yet
formally or legally becoming a single international body where each individual state gives up its
ultimate responsibilities. JAA membership is open to the civil aviation authorities of the ECAC
member States. Each National Aviation Authority (NAA) continues to exist and carry out specific
delegated roles within the JAA. The NAA issues licences and regulates the operators of that
state.

FUNCTIONS OF JAA
The authorities use the JAA to perform the following functions:

¾ To develop, adopt, and publish Joint Aviation Requirements (JARs) for the use of the
Authorities in the field of design, manufacture, maintenance and operations, and the
licensing of aviation personnel.
¾ To develop administrative and technical procedures for the implementation of JARs.
¾ To implement JARs and related administrative and technical procedures in a co-
ordinated and uniform manner.
¾ To adopt measures to ensure, whenever possible, that pursuance of the JAA safety
objective does not unreasonably distort competition between the aviation industries
of member states or place companies of member states at a competitive
disadvantage with those of non-member states.
¾ To provide the principal centre of professional expertise in Europe on the
harmonisation of aviation safety regulations.
¾ To establish procedures for joint certification of products and services and where it is
considered appropriate to perform joint certification.
¾ To co-operate on the harmonisation of requirements and procedures with other
safety regulatory authorities, especially the US Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA).
¾ Where feasible, to co-operate with foreign safety regulatory authorities, especially the
FAA, on the certification of products and services.

ORGANISATION AND PROCEDURES


The JAA is controlled by a committee that works under the authority of the Plenary Conference of
the ECAC and reports to the JAA Board of Directors General (better known as the JAA Board).
The JAA Board considers and reviews the general policies and long term objectives of the JAA.

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Other International and European Organisations Chapter 3

JOINT AVIATION AUTHORITIES

JAA Board

JAA Committee
Executive Board
Foundation Board

JAA/FAA Harmonisation Joint Steering Committee

Secretary General

Regulation Certification Maintenance Operations Licensing Administration

JAA/FAA HARMONISATION
The two major aircraft producers in the world are the United States and Europe. In the USA the
FAA regulates the industry, whereas in Europe the disparate national authorities were
uncoordinated. In order to overcome this, the JAA acts as the regulatory body to bring the
European procedures into line with the FAA. The effect of this has been to make European
products acceptable to the North American market and also to give European manufacturers a
market in Europe for spares for aircraft made in North America. It is no coincidence that the
regulations concerning large aeroplanes are contained in JAR 25, whereas the FAA equivalent is
FAR 25. Likewise, commuter category aircraft regulations are contained in JAR 23 and FAR 23.

INTENTION
It is the intention to eventually form the European Aviation Authority. This is in keeping with the
aims of the EU and the Council of Europe. Once established, the EAA will be the regulatory body
responsible for civil aviation in Europe. Until then, the NAAs will provide the regulatory framework
and the necessary manpower.

EUROCONTROL
Eurocontrol was formed in 1965, and its membership encompasses most of Europe and some
non-European adjacent states. The stated objectives of Eurocontrol are:

¾ To plan European air traffic management to meet future needs.


¾ To optimise the use of airspace by matching capacity to demand to carry out the
above.

From its origins as the Maastricht (Holland) ACC, providing a centralised ATC service for the
Benelux countries and Northern Germany, Eurocontrol now provides ATC services for most
European flight information regions (FIRs). It actually controls operations in the upper airspace
from two ATCC (Maastricht and Vienna) and has R&D facilities in Luxembourg, Maastricht, and
Bretigny near Paris. Eurocontrol also provides a very efficient centralised enroute charge
recovery service on behalf of the states, which even non-Eurocontrol states use.

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Chapter 3 Other International and European Organisations

FLOW MANAGEMENT
Since 1988, Eurocontrol has provided the centralised flow management unit (CFMU) for
European airspace. Virtually all flights within Europe are subject to flow management and the
process is expanding to cover 'gate to gate' operations, including operations on the ground at
airports. The R&D operations of Eurocontrol are involved in the use of PRNAV to eliminate
airways and also the elimination of voice communications by the use of data link systems.

ATC HARMONISATION
Eurocontrol is also at the heart of the ATC harmonisation process in Europe and the surrounding
states, which will lead to the development of a data processing and handling system capable of
taking inputs from any ATC system in the world. The first link in this network is the new ATCC at
Swanwick, near Southampton, providing area control for the London FIR and UIR.

3-6 Air Law


INTRODUCTION
For this particular subject, the Learning Objectives require the student to have knowledge of
ICAO Annex 1 (Personnel Licensing) and JAR Flight Crew Licensing, commonly referred to as
JAR-FCL. However, the majority of the questions in the CQB are drawn from ICAO.
Unfortunately, there are areas where JAR FCL differs from Annex 1.

As these notes are intended only to provide the references to pass the examinations, they must
not be used as a reference for matters relating to your licence. In such cases, consult JAR FCL or
your national Civil Aviation Authority. In the U.K., the U.K. CAA publishes LASORS as guidance.

JAR-FCL
JAR-FCL is published in four parts:

¾ JAR-FCL 1 Aeroplanes
¾ JAR-FCL 2 Helicopters
¾ JAR-FCL 3 Medical Requirements
¾ JAR-FCL 4 Flight Engineers

The LOs require knowledge of JAR-FCL 1 and JAR-FCL 3.

In addition to the general requirements, JAR-FCL 1 contains JARs for the licensing of:

¾ Student pilots
¾ Private Pilots - PPL(A)
¾ Commercial pilots - CPL(A)
¾ Instrument Rating (Aeroplane) - IR(A)
¾ Class and Type Rating (Aeroplane)
¾ Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Aeroplane) - ATPL (A)
¾ Instructor ratings
¾ Examiners
¾ Theoretical knowledge requirements for examinations (1)

Note 1: Because knowledge of the requirements for examinations is required by the LOs for
010 Air Law, the JAA FCL Committee have determined that the knowledge requirements for
all subjects are examinable under subject 010 Air Law. For this reason, there are questions in
the Air Law exam relating to Met, Mass and Balance, Communications etc.

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Chapter 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)

Annex 1
Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) have been established for licensing the
following personnel:

¾ Private pilot (aeroplane and helicopter)


¾ Commercial pilot (aeroplane and helicopter)
¾ Airline transport pilot (aeroplane and helicopter)
¾ Glider pilot
¾ Balloon pilot
¾ Flight navigator
¾ Flight engineer

LICENSING REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATIONS


Authority to Act as a Flight-crew Member
A person shall not act as a flight-crew member of an aircraft unless a valid licence is held.

ICAO
To be valid, the licence must have been issued by the State of Registry of that aircraft or by
any other contracting state and rendered valid by the State of Registry.

JAR-FCL
A person shall not act as a flight-crew member of a civil aeroplane registered in a JAA
Member State unless that person holds a valid licence and rating complying with the
requirements of JAR-FCL. The licence shall have been issued by:

¾ A JAA Member State, or


¾ Another ICAO Contracting State and rendered valid in accordance with JAR-FCL

Validity of Licence
In order to exercise the privileges of the licence, the licence must remain valid by maintaining
competency; maintaining necessary ratings; meeting recent experience requirements, and
holding a valid medical assessment.

Period of Licence Issue


Providing the requirements for a valid licence are maintained, a licence issued will remain in force
for a period determined by the State of Licence Issue (ICAO).

JAR-FCL
A licence holder shall not exercise the privileges granted by any licence or rating issued by a
JAA Member State unless the holder maintains competency by meeting the relevant
requirements of JAR-FCL. The validity of the licence is determined by the validity of the
ratings contained therein and the medical certificate. The licence will be issued for a
maximum period of 5 years. Within this period of 5 years the licence may be re-issued by the
authority:

¾ After initial issue or renewal of a rating;


¾ When the licence is full (no space available for a renewal certificate);
¾ For any administrative reason; or
¾ At the discretion of the authority when a rating is revalidated.

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Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Chapter 4

The licence holder must apply for the re-issue of the licence. This application must include all
necessary documentation. Valid ratings will be transferred to a new licence document by the
authority.

State of Licence Issue


An applicant shall demonstrate the satisfactory completion of all requirements for licence issue to
the authority of the State under whose authority the training and testing for the licence were
carried out. Following licence issue, this State shall thereafter be referred to as the “State of
licence issue”. Further ratings may be obtained under JAR-FCL requirements in any JAA Member
State and will be entered into the licence by the State of Licence issue.

Normal Residency
Normal residency means the place where a person usually lives for at least 185 days in each
calendar year because of personal and occupational ties or, in the case of a person with no
occupational ties, because of personal ties which show close links between that person and the
place where they are living.

Exercising the Privileges of the Licence


The holder of a licence or rating shall not exercise privileges other than those granted by that
licence or rating.

Licences, Ratings, Authorisations, Approvals or Certificates Issued by JAA Member States


Where a person, organization, or a service has been licenced, issued with a rating, authorisation,
approval, or certificate by the authority of a JAA member state in accordance with the
requirements of JAR-FCL and associated procedures, such licences, ratings, authorisations,
approvals or certificates shall be accepted without formality by other JAA member states.

Licences Issued by Non-JAA States


A licence issued by a non-JAA State may be rendered valid for use on aircraft registered in a JAA
member state, at the discretion of the authority of that JAA member state. Validation of a
professional pilot’s licence shall not exceed one year from the date of validation, provided that the
basic licence remains valid. Any further validation for use on aircraft registered in any JAA
member state is subject to agreement by the JAA member states and to any conditions seen fit
within the JAA. The user of a licence validated by a JAA member state shall comply with the
requirements stated in JAR-FCL. If the validation of a non-JAA licence is revoked for any reason,
the State of Licence Issue will be informed by the JAA state.

SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR LICENCE ISSUE PPL(A)


Minimum Age
17

Medical Fitness
Class 1 or Class 2

Privileges and Conditions


To act as PIC or co-pilot of an aeroplane engaged in non-revenue flights.

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Chapter 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)

Experience and Crediting


An applicant must have completed 45 hours flight time as a pilot of aeroplanes. Five hours may
have been completed in an FNPT or a flight simulator. Where an applicant is the holder of one of
the following licences then 10% of their total flight time up to a maximum of 10 hours may be
credited towards the issue of the PPL(A):

¾ Helicopter
¾ Microlight helicopters
¾ Gyroplanes
¾ Microlights with fixed wings and moveable aerodynamic control surfaces

Flight Instruction
The applicant for a PPL(A) must have completed 25 hours dual instruction and 10 hours
supervised solo, including 5 hours of cross-country flight time. One cross-country flight must be of
at least 150 nm, and include full stop landings at two aerodromes different from the original
departure aerodrome. Where previous credit for PIC time is granted the dual instruction may be
reduced to not less than 20 hours.

Commercial Pilot Licence Airline Transport Licence


(Aeroplane) CPL(A) Aeroplane (ATPL)
Minimum Age 18 21
Medical Class 1 medical certificate Class 1 medical certificate
Fitness
Privileges Subject to any other conditions Subject to any other conditions
and specified in JARs, the privileges specified in JARs, the privileges
Conditions of the holder of a CPL(A) are to: of the holder of a ATPL(A) are to:

¾ Exercise all the ¾ Exercise all the privileges


privileges of the holder of a of the holder of a PPL(A),
PPL(A) CPL(A) and an IR(A)
¾ Act as PIC or co-pilot of ¾ Act as PIC or co-pilot in
any aeroplane engaged in aeroplanes engaged in air
operations other than transportation
commercial aviation
¾ Act as PIC in An applicant for an ATPL(A) shall
commercial air transportation have fulfilled the requirements for
of any single pilot aeroplane the issue of an ATPL(A)
¾ Act as co-pilot in containing a type rating for the
commercial air transportation aeroplane type used on the skill
test
An applicant for a CPL(A) shall
have fulfilled the requirements
for the issue of at least a CPL(A)
containing the class/type rating
for the aeroplane type used on
the skill test and, if an instrument
rating course and test are
included, the instrument rating
Experience See CPL Experience below See ATPL experience below
and Crediting

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Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Chapter 4

ATPL(A) EXPERIENCE
An applicant for an ATPL(A) shall have completed as a pilot of aeroplanes at least 1500 hours of
flight time. A maximum of 100 hours flight simulator time may be included in this figure. Specific
qualifications required within the 1500 hours flight time are:

¾ 500 hours in multi-pilot operations on aeroplanes type certificated in accordance with


JAR/FAR 25 (Transport Category) or JAR/FAR 23 (Commuter Category) or equivalent
codes;
¾ 250 hours as PIC or at least 100 hours PIC and 150 hours as co-pilot performing under
the supervision of the PIC the duties and functions of a PIC (the method of supervision
must be acceptable to the authority);
¾ 200 hours cross country flight of which at least 100 hours shall be as PIC or as co-pilot
performing under the supervision of the PIC the duties and functions of a PIC (the
method of supervision must be acceptable to the authority);
¾ 75 hours instrument flight time of which not more than 30 hours may be instrument
ground time; and
¾ 100 hours of night flight as PIC or co-pilot.

CREDIT TIME FOR ATPL:


¾ Helicopter flight time will be credited up to 50% of the flight time requirements; and
¾ Flight engineers will be credited with up to 50% of the flight time to a maximum of 250
hours flight engineer time

CPL(A) EXPERIENCE
Integrated Course 150 hours of flight time

Modular Course 200 hours of flight time

The applicant must have completed:


¾ 100 hours as PIC, 70 hours if completed during a course of integrated training;
¾ 20 hours of cross country flight time as PIC. This must include a cross-country flight of at
least 300 nm during which include full stop landings at two aerodromes different from the
original departure aerodrome;
¾ 10 hours of instrument instruction time of which not more than 5 hours is to be instrument
ground time; and
¾ 5 hours of night flight time.

CREDITING OF FLIGHT TIME


Unless otherwise specified, the following apply:

Pilot in Command or Under Instruction


¾ Credited in full with all solo, dual instruction or pilot in command (PIC) flight time towards
the total flight time required for the licence or rating;
¾ An ATPL/CPL graduate of an integrated CPL/ATPL course is entitled to be credited with
up to 50 hours student pilot in command (SPIC) instrument time towards the pilot in
command time required for the issue of the ATPL, CPL and a multi engine type or class
rating.

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Chapter 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)

Co-Pilot
¾ Credited in full with all co-pilot time towards the total flight time required for a higher
grade of pilot licence;
¾ The holder of a pilot licence when acting as co-pilot performing under the supervision of
the PIC the functions and duties of a PIC shall be entitled to be credited in full with this
flight time required for a higher grade of licence. The method of supervision must be
approved by the authority.

INSTRUCTOR RATINGS
An instructor rating is valid for 3 years. To be allowed to begin a Flight Instructor (FI(A)) course
the pilot must have 200 hours of flight time of which 100 hours must be PIC if the pilot is the
holder of an ATPL(A) or CPL(A); 150 hours PIC if the holder of a PPL(A) and be the holder of the
knowledge requirements for CPL(A).

The following must also have been carried out:

¾ Completed at least 30 hours on single engine piston aeroplanes of which 5 hours


shall have been completed during the 6 months preceding the pre-flight entry flight
test
¾ Received at least 10 hours instrument instruction of which not more than 5 hours may
be instrument ground time in an FNPT or flight simulator
¾ Completed at least 20 hours of cross country as PIC including a flight totalling not
less than 300 nm in the course of which full stop landings at two different aerodromes
must have been made
¾ Passed a pre-entry flight test

The minimum applicant age is 18 years old.

INSTRUCTOR RATINGS – PRIVILEGES AND REQUIREMENTS


To Instruct for the Issue of a PPL
Completion of 15 hours on the relevant type in the preceding 12 months
To Instruct for the Issue of a CPL
500 hours of flight time including at least 200 hours of flight instruction
To Instruct for the Issue of an IR
200 hours flight time in accordance with IFR, 50 hours of which may be instrument
ground time and have completed an approved course of at least 5 hours of flight
instruction in an aeroplane, flight simulator or FNPT II

EXAMINERS (AEROPLANE)
The following examiner roles are recognised:

¾ Flight examiner (FE(A))


¾ Type rating examiner (TRE(A))
¾ Class rating examiner (CRE(A))
¾ Instrument rating examiner (IRE(A))
¾ Synthetic flight examiner (SFE(A))
¾ Flight instructor examiner (FIE(A))

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Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Chapter 4

Qualification
An applicant for authorisation as an examiner is to hold a licence and rating at least equal to the
licence or rating for which they are applying to be authorised to examine.

Validity of Authorisation
An examiner’s authorisation is valid for a period of not more than 3 years. Examiner’s
authorisation is renewed at the discretion of the Authority.

FE(A)
An FE(A) is permitted to conduct skill tests and proficiency checks for the issue of PPL(A) and
CPL(A) licences provided he/she has not less than 2000 hours (1000 hours for PPL(A) only) flight
experience including not less than 250 hours flight instruction.

CLASS AND TYPE RATINGS


The holder of a licence is not permitted to act in any capacity as a pilot (except when undergoing
skill testing or receiving flight instruction) unless he/she holds a valid class or type rating for the
type or class of aircraft to be flown. Any rating issued may limit the holder to operating as co-pilot
only, in which case, the rating will be annotated accordingly. Presently, there is no limit to the
number of class/type ratings a pilot may hold at any one time, however, the need to remain
current on each type/class will be limiting. JAR OPS suggests that a pilot should not hold more
class/type ratings than he/she can maintain.

Type rating requires attendance at and successful completion of an approved type rating course.
To successfully complete a TR course the candidate must pass an aircraft specific practical
knowledge test that can be written, oral, or a combination of both. The flying practice element of a
TR course may be flown in the specific type of aircraft or an approved flight simulator. Class and
type ratings are valid for one year (JAR-FCL). ICAO does not set a validation period but leaves
this to the individual contracting state to determine.

CLASS RATINGS
Class ratings are established for single pilot aeroplanes not requiring a type rating as follows:

ICAO:
¾ Single engine land
¾ Single engine sea
¾ Multi engine land
¾ Multi engine sea

JAR-FCL:
¾ All single engine piston aeroplanes (land and sea)
¾ All touring motor gliders
¾ Each manufacturer of single engined turbo-prop aeroplanes (land and sea)
¾ All multi engined piston aeroplanes (land and sea)

Air Law 4-7


Chapter 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)

TYPE RATINGS
Other than those aeroplanes included in the class ratings above, the following aeroplanes require
type ratings:

¾ Each type of multi-pilot aeroplane


¾ Each type of single pilot multi engine aeroplane fitted with turbo prop or turbojet engines
¾ Each type of single pilot single engine aeroplane fitted with a turbojet engine
¾ Any other type of aeroplane the authority considers necessary

REVALIDATION OF TYPE/CLASS RATINGS


Type ratings and multi engine class ratings are revalidated by successful completion of skill tests
or proficiency checks, which may be carried out in a flight simulator. If a type rating has expired,
refresher training may be required prior to the pilot taking a re-validating test.

ICAO
Annex 6 (Operation of Aircraft) requires a pilot to demonstrate competency at two skill tests
during any 12 month period with the proviso that the period between the tests is not less than
4 months.

JAR-FCL
Requires the pilot to pass a proficiency check once in every period of 12 months. The
revalidation check taken is not more than 3 months before the expiry of the current rating.
The new period of validation begins at the date of expiry of the old period. JAR-FCL also
requires the pilot fly at least 10 sectors as pilot of the relevant type of aircraft, or one sector
as pilot of the relevant type of aircraft with an examiner, during the period of the rating.

Note: It is usual to revalidate the type rating at the same time as the renewal of the IR(A).

INSTRUMENT RATING (IR(A))


In order to fly an aircraft under IFR, a pilot requires a valid instrument rating (IR). JAR-FCL
generally requires a pilot to hold a valid IR for any flight under IFR but accepts national variations
in law.

Privileges
To pilot a multi- or single-engined aeroplane under IFR to a minimum decision height of 200 ft.

Experience
The pilot must hold a PPL(A) with a night qualification or a CPL(A) and have completed at least
50 hours of cross country flight time as PIC in aeroplanes or helicopters of which at least 10
hours shall be in aeroplanes.

Application to ATPL(A)
An instrument rating is an integral part of an ATPL (A), and a separate rating added to a CPL(A)
to give the holder a CPL/IR. Without a valid IR the holder of an ATPL(A) is only permitted to
exercise the privileges of a CPL licence.

4-8 Air Law


Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Chapter 4

Rating and Re-validation


An IR(A) is gained by successful completion of an instrument rating test (IRT) carried out by an
approved Instrument Rating Examiner (IRE). The IRT may be carried out in an approved flight
simulator. An IR(A) is valid for a period of 1 year. Revalidation is achieved by successful
completion of another full IRT conducted by an IRE. No period of extension is permitted for an
IR(A). The revalidation IRT may be carried out during the last 3 months of validity of the current
IR. If successful, the new IR will be valid from the original date of expiry of the previous IR. If
unsuccessful, the current IR is then invalid and the pilot is not permitted to exercise the privileges
of the IR until successful completion of another IRT. In the latter case, the period of validity of the
new IR will be from the date of successful completion of the IRT.

RECENT EXPERIENCE
A pilot shall not operate an aeroplane carrying passengers as the pilot in command or co-pilot
unless he has carried out:

¾ At least 3 take-offs and 3 landings as pilot flying in the same type/class or flight simulator
in the preceding 90 days, and
¾ If the flight is at night, and the holder does not hold a valid Instrument Rating, one of the
take-offs and one of the landings must be carried out at night.

Operators who apply more stringent requirements may apply limiting criteria to pilots (in terms of
Decision Height and prevailing RVR) who nevertheless meet the general recent experience
criteria.

CURTAILMENT OF PRIVILEGES OF LICENCE HOLDERS AGED 60 YEARS OR MORE


Generally, a commercial pilot may not exercise the privileges of his/her licence unrestricted after
attaining the age of 60. France and Italy prohibit commercial flying totally by pilots when they
reach the age of 60, and the Czech Republic, at the age of 62.

Age 60 – 64
The holder of a pilot licence who has reached the age of 60 years shall not act as a pilot of an
aeroplane engaged in commercial air transport operations except:

¾ As a member of a multi-pilot crew and, provided that


¾ The holder is the only pilot in the flight crew who has reached age 60.

Age 65
The holder of a pilot licence who has reached the age of 65 years shall not act as a pilot of an
aeroplane engaged in commercial air transport operations.

Note: Age 60 means the first day of the pilot’s 61st year of life. In other words, the day
after he/she is 59 years and 364 days old. Generally, a pilot may exercise the privileges
of an ATPL(A) licence throughout the inclusive ages of 21 – 59.

Air Law 4-9


Chapter 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)

MEDICAL REQUIREMENTS
Fitness
The holder of a medical certificate shall be mentally and physically fit to exercise safely the
privileges of the applicable licence.

Medical Fitness
An applicant for a licence must hold a medical assessment applicable for the type of licence
being applied for. An initial issue medical assessment in accordance with Annex 1 pt 6 or JAR-
FCL 3 is required for flight-crew members. Re-validation of assessment is achieved by periodic
examination accordance with Annex 1 part 6 or JAR-FCL 3, which is generally less demanding
than the initial assessment. Only an approved aeromedical examiner (AME) may issue a medical
assessment. Flight-crew members shall not exercise the privileges of their licence unless their
medical assessment is in date.

ICAO
Each contracting state designates medical examiners that are authorized to issue the medical
assessment. ICAO has established 3 classes of medical assessment (Classes 1, 2, and 3). The
class 3 medical is applicable to Air Traffic Controllers only.

JAR-FCL
In order to apply for or to exercise the privileges of a licence, the applicant or holder shall hold a
medical certificate issued in accordance with the provisions of JAR-FCL Part 3 (Medical) and
appropriate to the privileges of the licence. The JAA has established 2 classes of medical
assessment (Classes 1 and 2).

Periods of Validity of Medical Assessment


A medical assessment has a period of validity after which re-validation (by medical examination)
is required. Upon expiry of validation, a class 1 medical assessment is automatically reduced to
class 2. Therefore the holder of an ATPL(A) or CPL(A) will then not be permitted to exercise the
privileges of their licence.

ATPL(A)
A class 1 medical assessment is required. The validity of the assessment certificate is
12 months. This reduces to 6 months after the licence holder passes their 40th birthday.

CPL(A)
A class 1 medical assessment is required. The validity of the assessment certificate is
12 months. This reduces (JAR-FCL) to 6 months (is recommended to reduce to
6 months - ICAO) after the licence holder passes their 40th birthday.

PPL(A)
A minimum of class 2 medical assessment is required. The validity of the assessment
certificate is 24 months. ICAO recommends that this is reduced to 12 months after the
licence holder has reached their 40th birthday.

Deferment
ICAO permits the deferment of the required medical examination to revalidate a medical
assessment under certain circumstances. JAR-FCL does not. According to ICAO, a licence
holder engaged in commercial operations in a remote area where an aeromedical examiner is not
resident, may, upon receipt of a favourable report by a physician, extend the period of validity of
the medical assessment for two consecutive periods of three months. The report of the physician
is to be sent to the authority issuing the licence.
4-10 Air Law
Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) Chapter 4

Failure to Re-Validate the Medical Assessment


After the expiry of a medical assessment, an examination, meeting the requirements of the initial
issue assessment, will be required. At the discretion of the licence issuing authority, this may be
waived and the medical assessment revalidated with a periodic assessment only. Students
engaged on an approved course of training are not required to maintain their class 1 assessment
throughout the course. The class 1 assessment will be revalidated on the successful completion
of the course by periodic assessment to enable the licence holder to fly commercially.

Decrease in Medical Fitness


Licence holders or student pilots shall not exercise the privileges of their licences, related ratings
or authorizations at any time when they are aware of any decrease in their medical fitness which
might render them unable to safely exercise those privileges, and they shall, without undue delay,
seek the advice of the authority or an AME when becoming aware of:
¾ Hospital or clinic admission for more than 12 hours
¾ Surgical operation or invasive procedure
¾ The regular use of medication
¾ The need for regular use of correcting lenses

Notification
Every holder of a medical certificate issued in accordance with JAR-FCL Part 3 (Medical) who is
aware of any significant personal injury involving incapacity to function as a member of a flight
crew, or any illness involving incapacity to function as a member of a flight crew throughout a
period of 21 days or more, or being pregnant, is to inform the authority in writing immediately of
injury or pregnancy, and as soon as the period of 21 days has elapsed in the case of illness.

Suspension of Certificate
After notification, the medical certificate shall be suspended and in the case of injury or illness,
the suspension will be lifted after the holder has been subsequently medically examined and
pronounced fit to function as a member of the flight crew, or the authority lifts the suspension. In
the case of pregnancy, the suspension may be lifted by the authority after the pregnancy has
ended and the licence holder pronounced fit to resume her functions as a member of the flight
crew. The suspension may be temporarily lifted during the initial pregnancy period until the pilot is
unable to continue her duties.

Note: The suspension of a certificate is not the same as cancellation. A suspended


certificate is in ‘suspended animation’. Once the suspension is lifted, the certificate will
still be valid, providing the validity expiry date has not passed. If the expiry date has
passed, the examination required to lift the suspension will also re-validate the certificate
for a further year.

Air Law 4-11


Chapter 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)

JAA THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATIONS FOR


ATPL(A)
ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE FOR STUDENTS (JAR-FCL 1.490A)
There are 14 subject examinations which you must achieve 75% or more in each to pass. You
are permitted to attend 6 examination sittings. If after you have attended 6 sittings and you have
not attained 14 passes, you must sit all 14 examinations over again. If any subject examination is
failed on four occasions, all the examinations must be retaken.

Any candidate who has failed to obtain a pass in the ATPL(A) examinations within the permitted
sittings, attempts or time limits, will be required to complete the minimum approved theoretical
knowledge training specified below, prior to re-entering the examinations. For the integrated or
modular ATPL theory course, this is a minimum of 60 hours theoretical knowledge instruction.

18 Month Rule (JAR-FCL 1.490b)


You must pass all the examinations within a period of 18 months starting from the last day of the
month in which you sat the first examination. For instance: If you sat the first examination in June
2004, you would have until the end of December 2005 to pass all the remaining examinations.

36 Month Rule (JAR-FCL 1.495a)


After you have passed all 14 examinations, you then have 36 months from the date of passing
the last examination to attain an IR(A). If you fail to attain an IR(A) within 36 months, you will have
to start the examinations all over again.

7 Year Rule (JAR-FCL 1.495b) Having attained an IR(A) as above, the pass in the theoretical
knowledge examinations will remain valid for a period of 7 years from the last validity date of the
IR(A).

4-12 Air Law


The Conference of Paris in 1919 required all contracting states to establish registers of all aircraft
in that state other than military. When establishing the register for that state, the state becomes
the State of Registration for all the aircraft in the register. Annex 7 of the Convention of
International Civil Aviation contains the Standards adopted by the ICAO for the marking of
aircraft.

NATIONALITY, COMMON, AND REGISTRATION MARKS


A ‘registration’ marking on an aircraft consists of two parts:

¾ The nationality mark or common mark, and


¾ The registration mark (as entered in the register of that state)

Composition
Apart from Switzerland and Liechtenstein where the national symbols of the States are part of the
markings, the nationality and registration marks consist of a group of characters (Letters or letters
and numbers).

Common Mark
In order to meet the requirements of an international organisation, aircraft operated by such an
organisation may be required to be registered in more than one state. As no aircraft is permitted
to display nationality markings of more than one state, a common marking is used instead of the
nationality mark. ICAO maintains the list of aircraft registered under any common mark, but
allocates responsibility to a contracting state (usually a state involved in the operation) to act as
the State of Registration for the purpose of determining the airworthiness of the aircraft
concerned. The common mark is assigned by ICAO (the Common Mark Agency) from an
available list produced by the International Telecommunications Agency.

Nationality Mark
The nationality mark is selected from the nationality symbols included in the radio call signs
allocated to the State of Registry by the International Telecommunication Union.

Air Law 5-1


Chapter 5 Registration of Aircraft and Aircraft Markings

Combination
The nationality or common mark precedes the registration mark. When the first character of the
registration mark is a letter it is preceded by a hyphen.

G - ABCD
Nationality Registration
Mark Mark
Hyphen

Acceptable Combinations
The normal combination is one character for the nationality mark and four characters for the
registration mark. Where the nationality mark consists of two characters (i.e. Eire - EI) the
registration mark consists of only 3 characters (i.e. EI – ABC). Where the nationality mark
consists of three characters (i.e. Oman – A4O) the registration mark consists of only two
characters (i.e. A4O – AB).

Prohibited Combinations
When letters are used for the registration mark, combinations containing (in sequence) the
following are not used:

¾ The five letter combinations used in the International Code of Signals (1) ;and
¾ The three letter combinations beginning with Q used in the Q code (ie QUG – ‘I am
ditching’); and
¾ SOS, XXX, PAN and TTT (2)

Note 1: These are the arrangement of signal flags, each of which indicates a particular
letter or number, used at sea to pass messages visually. Certain arrangements of 5 flags
(hence 5 letters) indicate specific meanings.

Note 2: SOS = distress; XXX and PAN = urgency; TTT = safety (a third level of
emergency communication alert now only used in maritime operations).

LOCATION OF NATIONALITY, COMMON, AND REGISTRATION


MARKS
GENERAL
The nationality or common mark and registration mark is painted on the aircraft or affixed by any
other means ensuring a similar degree of permanence. The marks must be kept clean and visible
at all times.

5-2 Air Law


Registration of Aircraft and Aircraft Markings Chapter 5

HEAVIER-THAN-AIR AIRCRAFT
Wings
On heavier-than-air aircraft the marks shall appear once on the lower surface of the wing
and shall be at least 50 cm in normally viewed vertical size.

Fuselage and Vertical Tail Surfaces


On heavier-than-air aircraft the marks shall appear on each side of the fuselage between
the wings and the tail surface and shall be at least 30 cm in normally viewed vertical size.

TYPE OF CHARACTERS FOR NATIONALITY, COMMON AND


REGISTRATION MARKS
The letters shall be in capital letters in Roman characters without ornamentation. Numbers shall
be Arabic numbers without ornamentation.

REGISTRATION OF AIRCRAFT
CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRATION
The certificate of registration shall be carried in the aircraft at all times. The certificate of
registration, in wording and arrangement, shall be a replica of the form shown below.

Registration Certificate

State or
Common Mark Registering Authority
Ministry
Department or Service

CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRATION
1. Nationality or Common 2. Manufacture and 3. Aircraft Serial No
Mark and Registration Mark Manufacturer’s Designation
of Aircraft

4. Name of Owner ………………………………………………………………….


5. Address of Owner ………………………………………………………………..
6. It is hereby certified that the above described aircraft has been duly entered on the (Name
of Register) in accordance with the Convention on International Civil Aviation dated 7th
December 1944 and with the ………………………….
Signature …………………
Date of Issue ……………..
* For use by the State of Registry or common mark registering authority

Air Law 5-3


Chapter 5 Registration of Aircraft and Aircraft Markings

IDENTIFICATION PLATE
All aircraft must carry an identification plate, secured to the aircraft in a prominent position near
the main entrance plate, made of fireproof metal, or fireproof material inscribed with:

¾ Nationality or common mark


¾ Registration mark

CLASSIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT

AIRCRAFT

Lighter-than-air Heavier-than-air

Non-Power driven Power driven Non-Power driven Power driven

Free Balloon Captive Airship Glider Aeroplane Rotorcraft Ornithopter


Balloon Kite

Gyroplane Helicopter

Spherical free Spherical captive Rigid airship Landplane Land gyroplane Land helicopter Land ornithopter
balloon balloon Semi-rigid airship Seaplane Sea gyroplane Sea helicopter Sea ornithopter
Non spherical Non spherical Non-rigid airship Amphibian Amphibian Amphibian Amphibian
free balloon captive balloon gyroplanes helicopter ornithopter

5-4 Air Law


INTRODUCTION
Annex 8 contains the standards for airworthiness required for aircraft to meet the performance
and operational requirements of Annex 6 (Operation of Aircraft). States should not attempt to
impose operational requirements on visiting aeroplanes other than those established by the State
of Registry, providing they comply with Annex 6. Annex 8 is published in three parts; with part 3
applicable to aircraft engaged in commercial air transport with a MTOM greater than 5700 Kg.
The standards are applicable to the entire aircraft and in order for the standards to be applicable
the aircraft must have at least 2 engines.

CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS (C OF A)
The C of A for an aircraft is issued by the State of Registration (or approved representatives). A
state can withhold a C of A if the aircraft is known, or suspected, to have dangerous features not
specifically covered by the airworthiness requirements. An aircraft is not permitted to fly without a
valid C of A. For the initial C of A to be issued the following are required:

¾ An approved design to show that the aircraft complies with the airworthiness
requirements;
¾ Records kept to establish the identification of the aircraft with its approved design;
¾ An inspection of the aircraft during the course of construction to determine that it
conforms to the approved design;
¾ An inspection of the aircraft to establish that its construction and assembly are
satisfactory;
¾ Flight tests as deemed necessary to show compliance with the airworthiness
requirements.

Flight Crew
The minimum number of flight crew personnel necessary to operate the aeroplane should be
listed on the C of A.

Transfer of Registration
When an aircraft which has a valid C of A is entered on the register of another state, the new
State of Registry may accept the C of A as satisfactory evidence that the aircraft is airworthy.

Continuing Airworthiness of Aircraft


The continuing airworthiness of an aircraft shall be determined by the State of Registry in relation
to the requirements in force for that aircraft. The State of Registry shall also develop or adopt
requirements to ensure the continuing airworthiness of an aircraft throughout its life.

Air Law 6-1


Chapter 6 Airworthiness of Aircraft

Validity of Certificate of Airworthiness


A Certificate of Airworthiness shall be renewed, or shall remain valid, subject to the laws of the
State of Registry. The State of Registry shall require that the continuing airworthiness of the
aircraft shall be determined by periodical inspections at appropriate intervals.

Method of Rendering a Certificate of Airworthiness Valid


A State of Registry can validate the Certificate of Airworthiness issued by another state, as an
alternative to issuing its own certificate. This validation shall not extend beyond the period of
validation of the original Certificate of Airworthiness.

Temporary Loss of Airworthiness


Any failure to maintain an aircraft in an airworthy condition, will result in the suspension of the C
of A until the aircraft is restored to an airworthy condition.

Damage To Aircraft
When an aircraft has sustained damage, the State of Registry shall judge whether the
damage renders the aircraft un-airworthy. If the damage is sustained when the aircraft is
in another state, the authorities of that state have the right to prevent the aircraft from
flying. That state is to inform the State of Registry immediately.

Aircraft Limitations and Information


Each aircraft shall be provided with a flight manual, or other documents, stating the approved
limitations within which the aircraft is considered airworthy.

Instruments and Equipment


The aeroplane has to be provided with approved instruments and equipment necessary for the
safe operation of the aeroplane. These shall include the instruments and equipment necessary to
enable the crew to operate the aeroplane within its operating limitations.

Safety and Survival Equipment


The specified safety and survival equipment is to be reliable, readily accessible and easily
identified, and its method of operation plainly marked.

Least-risk Bomb Location


A least-risk location on the aeroplane shall be identified where a bomb or other explosive device
may be placed to minimize the effects on the aeroplane in the case of detonation.

6-2 Air Law


Airworthiness of Aircraft Chapter 6

CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS

* *

State of Registry
Issuing Authority

CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS
1. Nationality or Common 2. Manufacture and 3. Aircraft Serial No
Mark and Registration Mark Manufacturer’s Designation
of Aircraft

4. Categories ………………………………………………………………….
This Certificate of Airworthiness is issued pursuant to the Convention on International Civil
Aviation dated 7th December 1944 and …………………….. in respect of the above-mentioned
aircraft which is considered to be airworthy when maintained and operated in accordance with
the foregoing and the pertinent operating limitations.

Date of Issue ……………… Signature …………………………..


* For use by the State of Registry or common mark registering authority

Air Law 6-3


Chapter 6 Airworthiness of Aircraft

6-4 Air Law


INTRODUCTION
From the early days of flying, rules were established to prevent accidents. Many of the basic rules
now in force have their origins in the days before the use of radios in aircraft and are based on
visual observation of activity in the air and on the ground. Whilst these may seem somewhat
quaint or unnecessary in the age of digital data and radar systems, when the new technology
fails, the ‘mark one eyeball’ still functions. These rules are now known as the Rules of the Air
(RoA). The Rules are defined as general rules with additional rules for flight under VFR and flight
under IFR. Together the general rules and rules for flight under VFR are known as the Visual
Flight Rules. The general rules and rules for flight under IFR are known as the Instrument Flight
Rules.

Reference: Annex 2— Rules of the Air

Territorial Application of the RoA


Wherever an aircraft is flying in the world, the rules of the air of the State of Registry of that
aircraft apply to that aircraft. When flying over the territory of another state, the rules of the air of
that state have priority over the rules of the air of the State of Registry. When an aircraft is flying
outside of the airspace of the State of Registry and outside of the airspace of any other state, the
rules of the air as defined in ICAO Annex 1 apply, without exception.

Compliance with the Rules of the Air


When an aircraft is in flight or on the movement area of an aerodrome it must comply with a set of
rules known as the Rules of the Air. When in flight it must comply with either the Instrument Flight
Rules (IFR), or the Visual Flight Rules (VFR).

Responsibility for Compliance with the Rules of the Air


The PIC, whether at the controls or not, is responsible for the operation of the aircraft in
accordance with the rules of the air. The PIC may depart from the rules of the air in the interests
of safety.

Note: ‘PIC’ should not be confused with ‘Commander’. The JAA recently revised the
definitions of PIC and Commander to cover the situation where a ‘cruise crew’ is
employed on long haul operations. PIC is the pilot who, for the time being, is responsible
for piloting the aeroplane. The Commander is the pilot (he/she must be a pilot)
responsible for the conduct of the flight. It could be that the Commander is absent from
the flight deck resting, whilst another designated pilot is the PIC. ICAO Annex 1 retains
the original definition of Commander which is synonymous with PIC.

Air Law 7-1


Chapter 7 Rules of the Air

Pre-Flight Action
The PIC of an aircraft must plan the flight after having pre-briefed himself with all available
information appropriate to the flight. Flights away from the vicinity of an aerodrome, and all IFR
flights shall include a meteorological brief; a consideration of the fuel requirements and alternative
actions if the flight cannot be completed as planned.

Authority of the Pilot in Command (PIC) of an Aircraft


The PIC of an aircraft shall have final authority over the disposition of an aircraft while in
command. If for safety reasons the PIC decides to ignore the rules of the air or not comply with
an ATC clearance, he/she must report the non-compliance as soon as possible. In any event, a
report is to be submitted to the authority within 10 days.

Use of Intoxicating Liquor, Narcotics, or Drugs


No person is permitted to pilot an aircraft, or act as flight crew while under the influence of
intoxicating liquor, or any narcotic or drug, by reason of which that person’s capacity to act is
impaired.

GENERAL RULES
NEGLIGENT OR RECKLESS OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT
An aircraft shall not be operated in a manner so as to endanger life or property of others.

MINIMUM HEIGHTS
An aircraft is not to be flown over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements, or over an
open air assembly of persons, unless at a height that will permit, in the event of an emergency
(the failure of the critical power unit), a landing to be made without undue hazard to persons or
property on the surface. Exceptions to this rule are during take-off and landing, or with specific
permission from the appropriate authority. Minimum heights for VFR and IFR flights are covered
in the later sections.

CRUISING LEVELS
When established in the cruise, flights are conducted at flight levels (FLs) for flights above the
lowest useable FL or where applicable, above the Transition Altitude; or at an altitude for flights
below the lowest usable FL, or where applicable, at or below the Transition Altitude.

PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED AREAS


Aircraft are not to be flown in Prohibited or Restricted Areas except in accordance with the
conditions of the restrictions, or by the permission of the state, over whose territories the areas
are established.

AVOIDANCE OF COLLISIONS
Always maintain a good look-out to detect potential collisions, regardless of the type of flight, the
flight conditions or the class of airspace in which the aircraft is operating, and while operating on
the movement area of an aerodrome.

Note: The movement area of an aerodrome includes the apron and the manoeuvring
area.

7-2 Air Law


Rules of the Air Chapter 7

Proximity
An aircraft is not to be operated so close to another aircraft so as to create a collision hazard.

Right of Way
Right of way means the right to proceed without alteration of course. The aircraft that has the
right of way is required to maintain its heading and speed, and observe the other aircraft whilst
the collision risk exists.

Nothing in these rules relieves the PIC of an aircraft that has the right of way, from the
responsibility of taking such action where necessary, including collision avoidance manoeuvres
based on resolution advisories provided by ACAS equipment.

Giving Way
Any aircraft that is obliged to keep out of the way of another aircraft (give way), must not pass
over, under, or in front of that aircraft, unless it is well clear and takes into account the effect of
wake turbulence.

Approaching Head-On
When two aircraft are approaching head-on, or approximately so (+/- 10° of aircraft heading), and
there is a danger of collision, both are required to alter heading to the right. There is no priority of
aircraft type in this case. (“Turn the RIGHT way”. Why to the right? Because it is the RIGHT thing
to do!)

Approaching Head-On

In the event that you see an aircraft


approaching head-on, you and the
pilot of the other aircraft must alter
your courses to the right.

Air Law 7-3


Chapter 7 Rules of the Air

Converging
When two aircraft are converging at approximately the same level, the aircraft that has the other
on its right shall give way.
Converging

This aircraft, on the other's right, has


the right-of-way.

If you are in this aircraft to the left,


you must give way by turning away
in a manner that will not interfere
with the other aircraft's flight path.

Old Pilots saying: Green to Green, all serene.


Red to Red, go ahead.
Red to Green, you must be seen.
Green to Red, you could end up dead.

Converging Exceptions
The following exceptions apply to the general rule for converging aircraft:

¾ Power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft (aeroplanes) shall give way to airships, gliders,


and balloons.
¾ Airships shall give way to gliders and balloons.
¾ Gliders shall give way to balloons.
¾ Power-driven aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are seen to be towing other
aircraft or objects.

7-4 Air Law


Rules of the Air Chapter 7

Overtaking
An aircraft that is being overtaken has the right of way and the overtaking aircraft, whether
climbing, descending, or in horizontal flight, shall keep out of the way by altering its heading to the
right. No change in the relative positions of the two aircraft absolves the overtaking aircraft from
this obligation until it is entirely past and clear. An overtaking aircraft is an aircraft that
approaches from the rear on a line forming an angle of less than 70º. The pilot of an aircraft is to
be alert at all times to the possibility of being overtaken, therefore before commencing a turn, a
good visual scan is to be made to starboard and port as far as the view from the flight deck
window will allow.

Overtaking

This aircraft, being overtaken,


has the right-of-way.

As you overtake another aircraft


travelling in the same direction,
you must pass well clear on the

Note: The overtaking aircraft is in a position where it is unable to see either the
aircraft’s left (red light) or right (green light) navigation lights.

Landing
An aircraft in flight, or operating on the ground, shall give way to aircraft landing or in the final
stages of an approach to land.

Approaching to land
When two or more heavier-than-air aircraft are approaching an aerodrome to land (straight in
approach or final to land), aircraft at the higher level shall give way to aircraft at the lower level.
No aircraft shall take advantage of this rule by cutting in front of another aircraft that is on its final
approach. Power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to gliders.

Emergency Landing
An aircraft that is aware that another aircraft is compelled to land shall give way to that aircraft.

Taking-off
An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall give way to aircraft taking-off
or about to take-off.

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Surface Movement of Aircraft


When there is a danger of collision between two aircraft taxiing on the movement area of an
aerodrome the following rules apply:

Head-On
Where two aircraft are approaching head-on, or approximately so, each shall stop, or
where practicable, alter its course to the right so as to keep well clear.

Converging
When two aircraft are on a converging course, the one that has the other on its right shall
give way.

Overtaking
An aircraft that is being overtaken by another aircraft shall have the right of way. The
overtaking aircraft shall keep well clear of the other aircraft.

Stopping
An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area shall stop and hold at all taxi-holding
positions unless authorized by the aerodrome control tower to continue. This includes
lighted stop bars. When the stop bar lights are switched off the aircraft may proceed.

Lights to be Displayed by Aircraft


The manner of lighting aircraft is covered in Operational Procedures. The law specifies the use of
lights.

When Lights must be Displayed


From sunset to sunrise (or during any other period prescribed by the appropriate authority), all
aircraft in flight or on the movement area of an aerodrome must display:

¾ Anti collision lights intended to attract the attention of other aircraft.


¾ Navigation lights intended to indicate the relative path of the aircraft to an observer. No
other lights shall be displayed if they are likely to be mistaken for the navigation lights.
¾ Unless stationary, and otherwise adequately illuminated, all aircraft on the movement
area of an aerodrome shall display lights intended to indicate the extremities of their
structure and to attract attention to the aircraft. (1)
¾ All aircraft operating on the movement area of an aerodrome whose engines are running
shall display lights which indicate that fact. (2)

Note 1: Lights such as landing lights and airframe floodlights may be used in addition to the
anti collision light to enhance aircraft conspicuity.

Note 2: Red anti collision lights may meet the requirements above provided that they do not
subject observers to harmful dazzle.

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Rules of the Air Chapter 7

Failure of Lights
When a pilot is aware that a navigation light has failed, ATC is to be informed and the aircraft is to
land and have the light repaired before continuing the flight.

Anti-Collision Lights
All aircraft, in flight or operating on the movement area of an aerodrome, that are fitted with anti-
collision lights, shall display these lights at all times. If an anti-collision light fails in flight, the light
is to be repaired prior to the next flight.

Harmful or Dazzling Lights


Pilots are permitted to switch off, or reduce the intensity of, any flashing lights if they adversely
affect the satisfactory performance of duties, or subject an outside observer to harmful dazzle.

SIMULATED INSTRUMENT FLIGHT (SIF)


In order to train pilots in instrument flying, instrument meteorology conditions (IMC) have to be
simulated. This requires some means of limiting the vision of the pilot flying. Non-compliance with
the Rules of the Air will be in effect during visual meteorological conditions (VMC). Therefore, an
aircraft shall not be flown under SIF conditions unless it has fully functioning dual controls and a
qualified pilot (who does not need to be class/type rated on the aircraft) occupies a control seat to
act as safety pilot for the person who is flying under simulated instrument flying conditions. The
safety pilot should have adequate vision forward and to each side of the aircraft. Where the vision
of the safety pilot is not adequate, a competent observer, in communication with the safety pilot,
shall occupy a position in the aircraft from which the field of vision of the observer adequately
supplements that of the safety pilot.

Practice Instrument Approaches


When a pilot is making an instrument approach for practice in VMC, ATC is to be informed and
the aircraft landing lights are to be illuminated to draw the attention of other pilots to the aircraft.

Operation on and In the Vicinity of an Aerodrome


Pilots of aircraft operating on, or in the vicinity, of an aerodrome (inside or outside of an
Aerodrome Traffic Zone (ATZ)) are to:

¾ Observe other aerodrome traffic for the purpose of avoiding collision;


¾ Conform with, or avoid, the pattern of traffic formed by other aircraft in operation;
¾ Make all turns to the left, when approaching for landing or taking-off unless otherwise
instructed; and
¾ Land and take-off into the wind unless safety, the runway configuration, or an air traffic
consideration determines that a different direction should be used.

FLIGHT PLANS
In this section, the term ‘Flight Plan’ refers to an ATC flight plan (FPL). An ATC FPL is the method
by which the authority is notified of the intention of a pilot to make a flight where that flight is to be
provided with an ATC service, or is to be conducted in airspace where the authority has
determined that a FPL is to be submitted. The process of submitting a FPL is called ‘filing’ a FPL.
ATC authorities provide approved formats for the information required in filing a full FPL. The UK
CAA format is the form CA48 that follows the ICAO standard FPL filing form. The student should

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Chapter 7 Rules of the Air

note that a FPL is what the pilot intends to do, not the form upon which the plan is filed. Indeed, in
some circumstances it is not practical to use a form, and the pilot’s intention (his/her flight plan)
may be communicated by radio to the ATC unit. FPLs are required to be filed before:

¾ Any flight or portion of a flight requiring an ATC service;


¾ Any IFR flight in advisory airspace;
¾ Any flight into authority designated areas or along designated routes where the
appropriate ATC service is required to provide a flight information service (FIS),
alerting service, and search and rescue (SAR) service;
¾ Where the authority has determined that a FPL should be filed to facilitate co-
ordination between civilian and military authorities or between the ATC services
of adjacent states to avoid the need for interception for identification purposes;
and
¾ Any flight across international borders.

Note: Flight across a Flight Information Region (FIR) boundary does not necessarily
require the filing of a FPL. For instance, a flight across the English/Scottish border
crosses the FIR boundary but does not cross an international boundary.

Where and When to File a FPL


When a FPL is necessary for a flight, file it to an Air Traffic Services (ATS) reporting office before
departure. The method of delivering the completed FPL form may be by hand, mail, fax,
electronic media, or verbally (phone). If the FPL is filed directly to the ATC Centre (ATCC), it
cannot be delivered by hand because the security staff will not let you in. A pilot can file an FPL in
flight by radio to an ATS unit, or an Air/Ground radio station. In the case of scheduled operations
or multiple repeats of a flight, a repetitive FPL (RPL) may be filed. To file an RPL, the flight must
be repeated 10 times or more, or repeated over a period of not less than 10 days.

60 minutes
For a flight to be provided with an ATC service or advisory ATC, the FPL is to be filed at
least 60 minutes before departure.

10 minutes
For the filing of a FPL in flight, the FPL is to be filed at least 10 minutes before the aircraft
is estimated to reach:

¾ The intended point of entry into an area where ATC or advisory ATC is to be
provided; or
¾ The point of crossing an airway or advisory route.

Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM)


To comply with the requirements of ATFM, a FPL is to be filed not less than 3 hours before
departure. This period is also required for filing FPLs for flight in Oceanic Control Areas (OCAs).
For flights subject to ATFM, the ATC authority issues an estimated off-blocks time (EOBT), which
becomes the defined departure time for that flight.

Delays after Filing


In the event of a delay of 30 minutes in excess of the estimated off-block time for a controlled
flight or a delay of one hour for an uncontrolled flight for which a flight plan has been submitted,
the flight plan should be amended or a new flight plan submitted and the old flight plan cancelled.

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Rules of the Air Chapter 7

Non-scheduled Non-commercial International Flights


Annex 9 requires that non-scheduled, non-commercial flights crossing an international boundary
are to be filed at least 2 hours before the aircraft is planned to land in the destination state.

Note: ‘Departure’ is not defined. It is generally accepted to be the time at which the flight
is intended to begin.

Changing a FPL
If it becomes necessary to change an IFR FPL, or a VFR FPL for a controlled VFR flight,
communicate the necessary changes to the ATCU as soon as practicable. For other VFR flights,
only significant changes need to be reported.

Closing a FPL
Until a FPL is closed, it remains active and subject to ATC action, including overdue action and
costly SAR operations. At the completion of a flight for which a FPL is filed, the pilot is to make a
report to the ATCU at the arrival aerodrome in person, by radio, or by data link. At an uncontrolled
aerodrome, make the report to the nearest ATCU. If the facilities at the destination aerodrome are
inadequate and no other procedures are in force, the pilot is to make a report shortly before
landing by RTF to the appropriate ATCU providing the ATC service. Such a report is to contain:

¾ Aircraft identification;
¾ Departure aerodrome;
¾ Destination aerodrome in the case of a diversion to an alternate aerodrome;
¾ Arrival aerodrome;
¾ Time of arrival.

Time
In all communications, time is to be expressed as Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC) utilising the
24 hour clock. A time check is to be obtained before operating a controlled flight.

ATC Clearances
Commencement of a controlled flight may only be commenced after the receipt of an ATC
clearance. An initial ATC clearance includes the words ‘clear to….’ It also includes ATC
instructions to be complied with by the pilot. If an ATC clearance received is not satisfactory or
cannot be complied with, the PIC may request an amended clearance. Before taxiing at a
controlled aerodrome a taxi clearance is to be obtained.

Current Flight Plan (CPL)


Flight in accordance with an ATC clearance and any subsequent re-clearance, is defined as flight
in accordance with the current FPL (CPL).

Adherence to the FPL


A pilot operating a controlled flight is required to adhere to the CPL. When flying along a defined
ATS route, the aircraft is to be flown along the centre line of the route. If no defined ATS route
exists, fly the aircraft directly between the navigation facilities used or the points that define the
route.

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Chapter 7 Rules of the Air

Inadvertent Changes
If a controlled flight deviates from the CPL, the following action is to be taken:

¾ Deviation from Track


Adjust the heading to regain the desired track as soon as practicable.
¾ Variation in TAS
If TAS at cruising level changes (or is expected to change) by 5% or more from that given
in the FPL, inform the ATC.
¾ Change in ETA
If the ETA changes by more than +/-3 minutes, the ETA is to be revised to ATC. In an
Oceanic Control Area, report changes in ETA of +/- 3 mins or more.

Position Reports
Unless specifically exempted by the ATC authority, a pilot of a controlled flight is to make position
reports at the designated reporting points. If no reporting points are specified for a route, position
reports are to be made at intervals determined by the ATC authority. Such reports are to be made
30 minutes after commencement of the flight, then at hourly intervals. A position report includes:
aircraft identification, position, time at that position, and altitude or FL. Where automatic altitude
reporting has been confirmed, omit the altitude report. Additional information may be requested
by the ATC authority. For an airways report, the next position and ETA should be included and
optionally the ensuing position. An example of a full airways position report is:

“London Control this is Atlantic 123, Daventry at 33, FL 170,


Bookman’s Park at 49, Midhurst next”

Termination of Control
When a controlled flight leaves controlled airspace (CAS), the pilot reports that the aircraft is
‘clear of CAS’ at which point the provision of an ATC service ceases.

COMMUNICATIONS
A controlled flight is required to maintain two way RTF communications with the controlling
ATCU. Where approved a SELCAL watch is an acceptable alternative. If Controller/Pilot Data
Link Communication (CPDLC) has been established, the requirement to maintain voice RTF
remains.

Communication Failure(1)
If an aircraft is unable to communicate (receive and acknowledge ATC instructions and indicate a
state of emergency), in addition to squawking Mode A/7600 and maintaining a visual watch for
signals, if flying in VMC, maintain VMC and land at the nearest suitable aerodrome. ATC is to be
informed as soon as possible once the aircraft lands. If flying in IMC (2):

¾ Maintain the last assigned speed and/or level, for a period of 20 minutes after the
failure to report over the last compulsory reporting point(3) ; then;
¾ Proceed in accordance with the FPL to the navigation facility serving the destination
aerodrome and hold on that facility; and
¾ Descend from the facility at the last received and acknowledged Expected Approach
Time (EAT), or where no EAT has been issued, at the ETA from the FPL (4); then
¾ Fly a normal instrument approach; and
¾ Land within 30 minutes of the ETA.

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Rules of the Air Chapter 7

Note 1: An aircraft may have many different systems for communication. These may
include VHF, HF, Data Link, SATCOM, satellite telephone, cell phones, and SSR. ATC
can also transmit voice RTF on the localiser channel of ILS. Total communications failure
in a modern aircraft is a remote possibility.

Note 2: Clearly, at any time during the procedure for failure in IMC, if the pilot finds VMC
then the aircraft should attempt to land whilst maintaining VMC.

Note 3: This would be the time when it can be assumed safely that the ATC authority is
now aware of the communications failure situation.

Note 4: If a communication failure occurs to an aircraft in a terminal holding pattern after


the receipt of an ATC message indicating ‘delay not determined’ the descent at ETA
would be dangerous as aircraft may still be in the holding pattern below. In this case, the
advice is to leave the holding pattern in a safe direction maintaining the last assigned
level, find VMC and land. Consideration should be given to squawking A/7700.

Communications Failure During a Standard Instrument Departure in European Airspace


A departing controlled IFR flight operating in IMC, having acknowledged an initial intermediate
clearance to climb to a level other than the one specified in the current flight plan for the enroute
phase of the flight, and experiencing two-way radio communication failure should, if no time limit
or geographical limit was included in the climb clearance, maintain the level to which it was
cleared for a period of 7 minutes and then continue its flight in accordance with the current flight
plan. A departing controlled IFR flight vectored by radar away from the route specified in its
current flight plan and experiencing two-way radio communication failure should proceed in the
most direct manner to the route specified in the current flight plan.

Interception
Each State has the right to protect its territory and to satisfy itself that any aircraft applying the
freedoms of the air is bona-fide. If the authority of a state has suspicions that a flight is not what is
supposed to be, or has entered the airspace of a state without permission, it may invoke a
process of interception.

Interception Phraseology
It is usual for military interceptor aircraft to be used for this purpose, and there is a strong
likelihood that the military pilot may not speak English. ICAO has formulated standard
phraseology (reproduced below) and signals to be used in this situation.

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Chapter 7 Rules of the Air

Table: Interception Phraseology

Phrases for use by INTERCEPTING Aircraft Phrases for use by INTERCEPTED Aircraft
Phrase Pronunciation Meaning Phrase Pronunciation Meaning
What is your call
CALL SIGN KOL SA-IN CALL SIGN KOL SA-IN My call sign is
sign?
Understood, will
FOLLOW FOL-LO Follow me WILCO VILL-CO
comply
Descend for
DESCEND DEE-SEND CAN NOT KANN-NOTT Unable to comply
landing
Land at this Repeat your
YOU LAND YOU-LAND REPEAT REE-PEET
aerodrome instruction
You may
PROCEED PRO-SEED AM LOST AM LOSST Position unknown
proceed
MAYDAY MAYDAY I am in distress
I have been
HIJACK HI-JACK
hijacked
LAND I request to land at
LAAND
(Place name) (Place name)
DESCEND DEE-SEND I require descent

International Interception Signal Tables


The carriage of the International Interception Signal Tables is mandatory for international flights
and as such, learning the tables is not required. Indeed, it is considered dangerous to do so. In an
interception situation, the pilot is required to have the tables available and use them. It is
recommended that an aircraft being intercepted squawks A/7700. If interception occurs after
communication with the ATC authority of a state by military aircraft of that state, then ATC will be
aware of, and may have been instrumental in ordering the interception. The International
Interception Signal Tables are reproduced at Appendix 1 at the end of this chapter.

Unlawful Interference
An aircraft subject to unlawful interference is to attempt to communicate the fact to the ATC
authority together with details of any deviation from the CPL necessitated by the situation. The
SSR system should be set to A/7500 unless A/7700 is more appropriate. Further advice on the
management of situations of unlawful interference will be the subject of specific instruction by the
operator during airline indoctrination.

VISUAL FLIGHT RULES (VFR)


When permitted by the class of airspace and in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) a pilot
may elect to fly under the Visual Flight Rules (VFR). In conditions less than VMC in a control
zone (CTR) a pilot may request an ATC clearance to fly under modified VFR called Special VFR
(SVFR). In determining the existence of VMC, the pilot is the sole arbiter. If a pilot is unsure as to
the existence of VMC he/she should assume IMC and fly under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). In
any event, a pilot without authorisation to fly under IFR is required to satisfy him/herself that
before beginning a flight under VFR, VMC exists along the entire route, or that alternate
aerodromes are available for landing without flight in IMC.

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Rules of the Air Chapter 7

VMC Minima
VMC is determined by a required forward visibility from the flight deck (flight visibility) and
required vertical and horizontal distances from cloud. As the reference for this section of the LOs
is ICAO Annex 2, the VMC minima applicable to the RoA as defined in Annex 2 are stated in
Annex 2; Chapter 3; and paragraph 3.9. These are graphically illustrated in table 3-1 which is
reproduced below. The ICAO minima are different from those stated in JAR OPS-1 and those
applied by the UK CAA. The major difference is in the VMC minima specified for class B airspace.

Airspace A, B, C, D & E F G
Class (Note 3) Above 900 m (3000 ft) At and below 900 m
AMSL or above 300 m (3000 ft) AMSL or 300 m
(1000 ft) above terrain, (1000 ft) above terrain,
whichever is higher whichever is higher
Distance 1500 m horizontally Clear of cloud and
From Cloud 300 m (1000 ft) vertically in sight of the surface
Flight 8 km at and above 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL 5 km (Note 2)
Visibility 5 km below 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSLA (Note 1)
Notes:
1. When the height of the transition altitude is lower than 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL, FL 100 should
be used in lieu of 10 000 ft.
2. When the ATS authority prescribe:
a. Lower flight visibilities to 1500 m may be permitted for flights operating:
1) At speeds that, in the prevailing visibility, give adequate opportunity to observe other
traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision, or
2) In circumstances in which the probability of encounters with other traffic would normally
be low e.g. in areas of low volume traffic and for aerial work at low levels.
b. Helicopters may be permitted to operate in less than 1500 m flight visibility, if manoeuvred at
a speed that gives adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to
avoid collision.
3. The inclusion of VMC minima for Class A airspace does not imply permitted VFR in Class A
airspace.

Take-off and Landing


Except when a clearance is given from an ATCU, VFR flights cannot take-off or land at an
aerodrome in a CTR, or enter an aerodrome traffic zone or traffic pattern when:

¾ The ceiling is less than 1500 ft


¾ The visibility is less than 5 km

Night
ATS authorities may impose conditions, or proscribe VFR flights between sunset and sunrise.

Limits
Unless authorized by the appropriate ATS authority, VFR flights are not operated above FL200 or
at transonic and supersonic speeds.

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Chapter 7 Rules of the Air

Minimum Heights
Except when necessary for take-off and landing, or where permission has been granted from the
appropriate authority, a VFR flight shall not be flown:

¾ Over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements, or over an open air assembly of
persons, at a height less than 300 m (1000 ft) above the highest obstacle within a radius
of 600 m from the aircraft.
¾ Elsewhere, at a height less than 150 m (500 ft) above the ground or water.

VFR Flight Levels


Except where indicated in ATC clearances or specified by the appropriate ATS authority, VFR
flights in level cruising flight when operated above 900 m (3000 ft) from the ground or water, or a
higher datum as specified by the appropriate ATS authority, are to be conducted at a flight level
appropriate to the magnetic track as specified in the table of cruising levels.

ATC Clearances
VFR flights shall comply with the provisions laid out in ATC clearances when operated in Class B,
C and D airspace, when forming part of aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome, or when
operated as special VFR flights.

Radio Watch
A VFR flight operating within ATS routes, or areas specified by the appropriate ATS authority,
shall maintain a continuous listening watch on the appropriate radio frequency. The aircraft must
report its position as necessary to the ATS unit providing the FIS.

Weather Deterioration below VMC


If it becomes evident that a controlled VFR flight will not remain in VMC, the pilot is to:

¾ Request an amended clearance to continue to the destination aerodrome by another


route remaining in VMC; or
¾ Land at the nearest useable aerodrome; or
¾ If operating in a CTR, request a SVFR clearance; or
¾ File an IFR FPL.

VFR Flight Plan


When a flight plan for a VFR flight is filed using the ICAO standard form, the flight rules to be
observed are indicated in field 8 of the form. For VFR, the entry in field 8 is “V”. If it is intended
that the flight will start under VFR and at some point change to IFR, the letter “Z” is entered in
field 8.

Aide memoir: VFR requires good VIZ. V to I = Z. (VIZ)

INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES


Where VMC does not exist, IMC must exist. In IMC the ability to navigate with reference to the
ground and to maintain a good look out for possible collision hazards is not always possible. In
order for commercial aviation to meet the expectations of the travelling public, flight in IMC has to
be made possible and safe. In order to fly in IMC a commercial pilot must elect to fly under the
Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). Before electing to fly under IFR, the commercial pilot must be
satisfied that the aircraft is properly equipped for IFR flight and that any commercial pilot
permitted to fly the aeroplane under IFR has an instrument rating (IR).

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Rules of the Air Chapter 7

Aircraft Equipment
All aircraft flying under IFR are required to be equipped with suitable instruments and navigation
equipment appropriate to the route to be flown. The exact requirements are detailed in JAR OPS-
1 and are covered in Operational Procedures.

Minimum Levels
Except when necessary for take-off and landing, or when specifically authorized by the
appropriate authority, an IFR flight is to be flown at a level which is not below the minimum flight
altitude established by the state whose territory is being over flown. If a minimum altitude has not
been established, an IFR flight shall be flown at a level which is at least 300 m (1000 ft) above the
highest obstacle within 8 km (5 nm) of the estimated position of the aircraft. In mountainous
terrain, this is increased to 600 m (2000 ft).

Note: Mountainous terrain is defined as terrain over which the prevailing wind of 37 kts
produces significant downdraughts.

Change from IFR Flight to VFR Flight


An aircraft wishing to change from IFR to VFR in flight shall notify the appropriate ATS unit that
the IFR flight is cancelled and communicate the changes to be made to the current flight plan to
allow the flight to continue under VFR. The phraseology used is:

“Coventry Approach this is Atlantic 123, cancel IFR, joining visually for runway….”
The reply must be “Atlantic 123 roger, IFR cancelled at time ….”

Note: It is the IFR flight that is cancelled, not the IFR flight plan.

Temporary Cancellation of IFR


When an aircraft operating under IFR is flown in, or encounters VMC, IFR shall not be cancelled
unless it is anticipated, and intended, that the flight will be continued for a reasonable period of
time in uninterrupted VMC.

Note: ‘Reasonable period’ is interpreted as about 1/3rd of the total expected flight time.

RULES APPLICABLE TO IFR FLIGHTS WITHIN CONTROLLED


AIRSPACE
IFR flights shall comply with the provisions of the rules laid out in ATC clearances.

IFR FLIGHT LEVELS


An IFR flight operating in cruising flight shall be flown at a cruising level, or if authorized to
employ cruise climb techniques, between two levels or above a level, selected from the table of
cruising levels found after this section. The correlation to track does not apply when indicated in
ATC clearances or specified in the appropriate ATS authority AIP.

RULES APPLICABLE TO IFR FLIGHTS OUTSIDE CONTROLLED


AIRSPACE
An IFR flight operating in level cruising flight outside controlled airspace is flown at a cruising
level appropriate to the magnetic track as specified in the table of cruising levels.

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COMMUNICATIONS
All IFR flights operating outside controlled airspace but within or into areas, or along routes
designated by the appropriate ATS authority shall maintain a listening watch on the appropriate
radio frequency. Two-way communications must be established with the ATS unit providing the
FIS.

POSITION REPORTS
Position reports are to be made by all IFR flights operating outside controlled airspace, and by
aircraft which are required by the appropriate ATS authority to submit a flight plan, maintain a
listening watch on the appropriate frequency or establish two way communications with the
appropriate ATS authority.

IFR FLIGHT PLAN


When a flight plan for an IFR flight is filed using the ICAO standard form, the flight rules to be
observed are indicated in field 8 of the form. For IFR, the entry in field 8 is “I”. If it is intended that
the flight will start under IFR and at some point change to VFR, the letter “Y” is entered in field 8.

Aide memoir: IFR to VFR = Y. (IVY).

SPECIAL VFR (SVFR)


SVFR is defined as a clearance to fly within a CTR in conditions less than VMC in which the pilot
remains clear of cloud and in visual contact with the ground.

Provision of SVFR
Where a pilot cannot, or has good reason not to, comply with IFR in a CTR he/she may request a
special VFR (SVFR) clearance to:

¾ Enter a CTR to land at an aerodrome within the CTR;


¾ Take off from an aerodrome within a CTR and depart from the CTR; or
¾ To fly between aerodromes within a CTR.

Procedure
The clearance given permits flight in meteorological conditions less than VMC providing the pilot
remains clear of cloud and in sight of the ground, and can navigate the aircraft by visual means.
In class A airspace, a SVFR clearance overrides the requirement for mandatory compliance with
IFR. A pilot must request SVFR. It will not be offered by ATC. SVFR is only applicable to CTRs.
The limit of the clearance is to or from the CTR boundary and does not extend beyond the CTR.
In busy CTRs, SVFR traffic lanes (SVFR corridors) are established as standard SVFR routes
beginning at specified points on the CTR boundary and terminating at the aerodrome served by
the route. Under certain circumstances, ATCOs will provide separation of IFR flights from SVFR
flights.

Take-off Conditions
According to ICAO a SVFR flight may take off from an aerodrome in a CTR providing the ground
visibility is not less than 1500 m. JAR OPS requires a ground visibility of not less than 3000 m.
Both references require a minimum flight visibility of 1500 m to continue a SVFR flight.

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Rules of the Air Chapter 7

CRUISING LEVELS
Semi Circular Rule
The table of flight levels is based on VFR and IFR flight levels determined by reference to the
magnetic track flown. In areas where RVSM is applied, the table is modified. The basic rule is that
vertical separation between IFR FLs below FL290 is 1000 ft, as is the separation between VFR
FLs. Above FL290, the separation is increased to 2000 ft to allow for the inaccuracies in
barometric altimeters at altitudes where the barometric lapse rate is high (see Met notes).

000° Mag 000° Mag

FLs FLs
40 FLs 45 FLs
60 50 65 55
80 70 85 75
etc… 90 etc… 95
Even up to etc… Even up to etc…
FLs 280 up to FLs 285 up to
then 290 Odd +500ft then 275 Odd
310 then FLs 320 then FLs
350 330 360 300 +500ft
390 370 400 340
etc… 410 etc… 380
etc… etc…

180° Mag 180° Mag

IFR Flight Levels VFR Flight Levels


In non – RVSM Airspace

000° Mag 000° Mag


FLs
40, 60, 80 FLs
etc… up to 30, 50, 70
280 etc… up to FLs
then 290 45
300 then 65 FLs
Even 320
Even
310 55
FLs 340 330 FLs 85
etc… up to 350 Odd +500ft etc… 75 Odd
400 etc… up to FLs up to 95 FLs
then 410 285 etc… +500ft
430 then
470
up to
450
Etc… 490 275
Etc…

180° Mag 180° Mag

IFR Flight Levels VFR Flight Levels

In RVSM Airspace

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Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM)


The desired cruising levels for turbo-jet aircraft are adjacent to the tropopause (typically FL350 –
370). In the upper airspace (in UIRs and OCAs) these levels quickly become occupied and
congestion arises. To overcome this (in part), a system of reduced vertical separation is applied
whereby the 1000 ft separation between FLs is maintained up to FL410. Above FL410, the
inaccuracy in the altimeter operation is too great for continuation of the reduced minima. This
immediately doubles the available FLs between FL290 and the limit of the application, FL410.
This standard is known as Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM). Where RVSM is
applied, VFR flight is not permitted under any circumstance above FL285.

Domestic Airspace
In the upper airspace where RVSM is applied, the RVSM levels are defined as FL300 – FL410
(implying that FL290 is not an RVSM level).

Oceanic Airspace
In the upper airspace of an OCA, from 24 Jan 2002 RVSM is applied between FL290 and FL410
inclusive (implying that FL290 is an RVSM level).

Requirements
To fly in airspace where RVSM is applied, an aircraft must be equipped with two independent
altitude measuring systems; an altitude alerting system (activated by deviation from the selected
altitude); an automatic altitude control system (height lock), and an SSR system with altitude
reporting (mode C) connected to the system used for the automatic altitude control system.
Additionally, the operator must be approved for RVSM operations.

7-18 Air Law


Rules of the Air Chapter 7

CRUISING LEVELS APPROPRIATE TO DIRECTION OF FLIGHT

Track from 180° to 359° Track from 000° to 179°


FL 430 (Outside of RVSM airspace)

FL 410
FL 400
FL 390
FL 380

FL 370
FL 360
FL 350
FL 340
FL 330
FL 320
FL 310
FL 300
FL 290
FL 280 (Outside of RVSM airspace)

Air Law 7-19


Chapter 7 Rules of the Air

TABLE OF CRUISING LEVELS


The cruising levels to be observed when required by Annex 2 are listed in the two tables below.

In areas where Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) of 300 m (1000 ft) is applied
between FL 290 and FL 410 inclusive (1)

(2)
TRACK
(3) (3)
From 000º to 179º From 180º to 359º
IFR Flights VFR Flights IFR Flights VFR Flights
Altitude Altitude Altitude Altitude
FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet
10 300 1000 20 600 2000
30 900 3000 35 1050 3500 40 1200 4000 45 1350 4500
50 1500 5000 55 1700 5500 60 1850 6000 65 2000 6500
70 2150 7000 75 2300 7500 80 2450 8000 85 2600 8500
90 2750 9000 95 2900 9500 100 3050 10 000 105 3200 10 500

110 3350 11 000 115 3500 11 500 120 3650 12 000 125 3800 12 500
130 3950 13 000 135 4100 13 500 140 4250 14 000 145 4400 14 500
150 4550 15 000 155 4700 15 500 160 4900 16 000 165 5050 16 500
170 5200 17 000 175 5350 17 500 180 5500 18 000 185 5650 18 500
190 5800 19 000 195 5950 19 500 200 6100 20 000 205 6250 20 500

210 6400 21 000 215 6550 21 500 220 6700 22 000 225 6850 22 500
230 7000 23 000 235 7150 23 500 240 7300 24 000 245 7450 24 500
250 7600 25 000 255 7750 25 500 260 7900 26 000 265 8100 26 500
270 8250 27 000 275 8400 27 500 280 8550 28 000 285 8700 28 500
290 8850 29 000 300 9150 30 000

310 9450 31 000 320 9750 32 000


330 10 050 33 000 340 10 350 34 000
350 10 650 35 000 360 10 950 36 000
370 11 300 37 000 380 11 600 38 000
390 11 900 39 000 400 12 200 40 000

410 12 500 41 000 430 13 100 43 000


450 13 700 45 000 470 14 350 47 000
490 14 950 49 000 510 15 550 51 000

etc etc etc etc etc etc

Note 1: Except when, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, a modified table of cruising levels
based on a nominal vertical separation minimum of 300 m (1000 ft) is prescribed for use, under specified
conditions, by aircraft operating above FL 410 within designated portions of the airspace

Note 2: Magnetic track, or Polar areas at a latitude higher than 70º and within such extensions to those
areas as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authorities, grid tracks as determined by a network of
lines parallel to the Greenwich Meridian superimposed as a Polar Stereographic chart in which the direction
towards the North Pole is employed as Grid North

Note 3: Except where, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, from 090º to 269º and from 270º
to 089º is prescribed to accommodate predominant traffic directions and appropriate transition procedures to
be associated therewith are specified

7-20 Air Law


Rules of the Air Chapter 7

In Other Areas

(1)
TRACK
(2) (2)
From 000º to 179º From 180º to 359º
IFR Flights VFR Flights IFR Flights VFR Flights
Altitude Altitude Altitude Altitude
FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet
10 300 1000 20 600 2000
30 900 3000 35 1050 3500 40 1200 4000 45 1350 4500
50 1500 5000 55 1700 5500 60 1850 6000 65 2000 6500
70 2150 7000 75 2300 7500 80 2450 8000 85 2600 8500
90 2750 9000 95 2900 9500 100 3050 10 000 105 3200 10 500

110 3350 11 000 115 3500 11 500 120 3650 12 000 125 3800 12 500
130 3950 13 000 135 4100 13 500 140 4250 14 000 145 4400 14 500
150 4550 15 000 155 4700 15 500 160 4900 16 000 165 5050 16 500
170 5200 17 000 175 5350 17 500 180 5500 18 000 185 5650 18 500
190 5800 19 000 195 5950 19 500 200 6100 20 000 205 6250 20 500

210 6400 21 000 215 6550 21 500 220 6700 22 000 225 6850 22 500
230 7000 23 000 235 7150 23 500 240 7300 24 000 245 7450 24 500
250 7600 25 000 255 7750 25 500 260 7900 26 000 265 8100 26 500
270 8250 27 000 275 8400 27 500 280 8550 28 000 285 8700 28 500
290 8850 29 000 300 9150 30 000 310 9150 31 000 320 9750 32 000

330 10 050 33 000 340 10 350 34 000 350 10 650 35 000 360 10 950 36 000
370 11 300 37 000 380 11 600 38 000 390 11 900 39 000 400 12 200 40 000

410 12 500 41 000 420 12 800 42 000 430 13 100 43 000 440 13 400 44 000
450 13 700 45 000 460 14 000 46 000 470 14 350 47 000 480 14 650 48 000
490 14 950 49 000 500 15 250 50 000 510 15 550 51 000 520 15 850 52 000

etc etc etc etc etc etc etc etc etc etc etc etc

Note 1: Magnetic track, or Polar areas at a latitude higher than 70º and within such extensions to those
areas as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authorities, grid tracks as determined by a network of
lines parallel to the Greenwich Meridian superimposed as a Polar Stereographic chart in which the direction
towards the North Pole is employed as Grid North

Note 2: Except where, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, from 090º to 269º and from 270º
to 089º is prescribed to accommodate predominant traffic directions and appropriate transition procedures to
be associated therewith are specified.

Air Law 7-21


Chapter 7 Rules of the Air

APPENDIX 1 TO CHAPTER 7
SIGNALS FOR USE IN THE EVENT OF INTERCEPTION

Air-to-Air Visual Signals


Both intercepting and intercepted aircraft must adhere strictly to the following signals. All signals
must be given as per the tables below. The intercepting aircraft must pay particular attention to
any signals given by the intercepted aircraft that indicate it is in a state of distress.

Signals Initiated by Intercepting Aircraft and Responses by Intercepted Aircraft

Intercepting Aircraft Meaning Intercepted Aircraft Meaning


Signals Responds

1 DAY or NIGHT DAY or NIGHT


Rocking aircraft and flashing You have been Rocking aircraft, flashing Understood
navigational lights at irregular intercepted navigational lights at irregular will comply
intervals (and landing lights follow me intervals and following
in the case of a helicopter)
from a position slightly above
and ahead of, and normally
to the left of, the intercepted
aircraft (or to the right if the
intercepted aircraft is a
helicopter) and after
acknowledgement, a slow
level turn, normally to the left,
(or to the right in the case of
a helicopter) on the desired
heading

NOTE:
Meteorological conditions or
terrain may require the
intercepting aircraft to
reverse the positions and
directions of the turn above.

If the intercepted aircraft is


not able to keep pace with
the intercepting aircraft, the
latter is expected to fly a
series of racetrack patterns
and to rock the aircraft each
time it passes the intercepted
aircraft

7-22 Air Law


Rules of the Air Chapter 7

Intercepting Aircraft Meaning Intercepted Aircraft Meaning


Signals Responds
2 DAY or NIGHT DAY or NIGHT
An abrupt breakaway You may Rocking the aircraft Understood
manoeuvre from the proceed will comply
intercepted aircraft consisting
of a climbing turn of 90º or
more without crossing the
line of flight of the intercepted
aircraft
3 DAY or NIGHT DAY or NIGHT
Lowering landing gear (if Land at this Lowering landing gear (if Understood
fitted), showing steady aerodrome fitted), showing steady will comply
landing lights and overflying landing lights and following
the runway in use or, if the the intercepting aircraft and,
aircraft is a helicopter, if, after overflying the runway
overflying the helicopter in use or helicopter landing
landing area. In the case of area, landing is considered
helicopters, the intercepting safe, proceeding to land
helicopter makes a landing
approach coming to hover
near the landing area

Signals Initiated by Intercepted Aircraft and Responses by Intercepting Aircraft

Intercepted Aircraft Signals Meaning Intercepting Aircraft Meaning


Responds
4 DAY or NIGHT DAY or NIGHT
Raising landing gear (if fitted) Aerodrome you If it is desired that the Understood
and flashing landing lights have intercepted aircraft follow the follow me
while passing over runway in designated is intercepting aircraft to an
use or helicopter landing inadequate alternate aerodrome, the
area at a height exceeding intercepting aircraft raises its
1000 ft but not exceeding landing gear (if fitted) and
2000 ft (in the case of a uses Series 1 signals
helicopter, at a height prescribed for intercepting
exceeding 170 ft but not aircraft
exceeding 330 ft) above the
aerodrome level, and If it is decided to release the
continue to circle runway in intercepted aircraft, the
use or helicopter landing intercepting aircraft uses the
area. If unable to flash Series 2 signals prescribed
landing lights, flash any other for intercepting aircraft
lights available
5 DAY or NIGHT DAY or NIGHT
Regular switching on and off Cannot comply Use Series 2 signals Understood
of all available lights but in prescribed for intercepting
such a manner as to be aircraft
distinct from flashing lights
6 DAY or NIGHT DAY or NIGHT
Irregular flashing of all In distress Use Series 2 signals Understood
available lights prescribed for intercepting
aircraft

Air Law 7-23


Chapter 7 Rules of the Air

7-24 Air Law


Reference: Annex 2 – Rules of the Air

INTRODUCTION
When observing or receiving any of the following signals, the pilot of an aircraft shall take the
actions required by the signal. The signals are to be used only for the purposes indicated. No
other signals that are likely to be confused with the authorised signals shall be used.

EMERGENCY SIGNALS
Distress and Urgency Signals These signals are used to indicate that an aircraft (or other
vehicle) is in a state of emergency. However, an aircraft in distress may use any means at its
disposal to attract attention, make known its position, and obtain help.

Distress Signals
The state of DISTRESS means that an aircraft is in grave and imminent danger and requires
immediate assistance. The following signals may be used separately or together:

¾ Use of the Morse code group SOS (yyy - - - yyy)


¾ The spoken word MAYDAY (repeated 3 times as an alerting signal)
¾ Rockets or shells showing red lights, fired one at a time or at intervals
¾ A parachute flare showing a red light

Urgency Signals
The state of URGENCY exists when an aircraft has an urgent message to transmit regarding the
safety of persons or property on board or within sight. The following signals may be used
separately, or together:

¾ Use of the Morse code group XXX (- yy - - yy - - yy -)


¾ The spoken words PAN PAN (repeated 3 times as an alerting signal)

Assistance not Required


When used separately, or together, the following signals mean that an aircraft wishes to give
notice of difficulties that compel it to land without requiring immediate assistance:

¾ The repeated switching on and off of the landing lights, or


¾ The repeated switching on and off of the navigation lights in a manner that is
distinctive from flashing navigation lights

Air Law 8-1


Chapter 8 Signals

AERODROME SIGNALS
Signals for Aerodrome Traffic
Aircraft manoeuvring on or flying in the vicinity of an aerodrome are required to look out for and
comply with visual signals from the ground. If an aerodrome accepts non-radio traffic, a signal
square is positioned on the aerodrome side of the control tower to give information to aircraft
airborne. To complement this, a signals mast is positioned near the control tower to give
information to aircraft taxiing or stationary on the ground. All visual control rooms (VCR) in control
towers are required to be equipped with a signal lamp capable of being aimed at a particular
aircraft; showing red, green, and white light; and capable of transmitting visual Morse code. VCRs
and where situated, runway caravans, are also equipped with pyrotechnic (flare) cartridges and a
means of firing them. The following table contains the lamp and pyrotechnic signals from the VCR
or a runway caravan.

LIGHT FROM AERODROME CONTROL TO


AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT AIRCRAFT ON THE
GROUND
Steady Green Cleared to land Cleared for take-off

Steady Red Give way to other aircraft and Stop


continue circling

Series of Green flashes Return for landing* Cleared to taxi

Series of Red flashes Aerodrome unsafe, do not Taxi clear of landing area in
land use

Series of White flashes Land at this aerodrome and Return to starting point on
proceed to apron the aerodrome

Notwithstanding any previous


Red Pyrotechnic
instructions, do not land for
the time being

* Clearances to land and taxi


will be given in due course

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
When seen an acknowledgement is given by:

¾ When in Flight
¾ During the hours of daylight by rocking the aircraft’s wings;
¾ During the hours of darkness by flashing the aircraft’s landing lights on and off twice
or, if not so equipped, by switching its navigation lights on and off twice.
¾ When on the Ground
¾ During the hours of daylight by moving the aircraft’s ailerons or rudder.
¾ During the hours of darkness by flashing the aircraft’s landing lights on and off twice
or, if not so equipped, by switching its navigation lights on and off twice.

8-2 Air Law


Signals Chapter 8

VISUAL GROUND SIGNALS


These signals are displayed in the signal square:

Prohibition of Landing
A horizontal red square with yellow diagonals when displayed in a signal area indicates that
landings are prohibited and that prohibition is likely to be prolonged.

A horizontal red square with one yellow diagonal when displayed in a signal area indicates that
owing to the bad state of the manoeuvring area, or for any other reason, special precautions must
be observed in approaching to land or in landing.

Use of Runways and Taxiways


A horizontal white dumbbell (the name of the shape) when
displayed in a signal area indicates that aircraft are required
to land, take-off, and taxi on runways and taxiways only.

The same dumbbell but with black bars indicates


that aircraft are required to land and take-off on
runways only, but other manoeuvres need not be
confined to runways and taxiways.

Direction for Take-off or Landing


A horizontal white or orange landing T indicates the direction to be used by aircraft for landing
and take-off. The same signal may be displayed on the surface of a grass aerodrome without
defined runways, to indicate the landing direction. In the absence of a landing “T” pilots should
observe the wind indicator (wind-sock) and land in the appropriate direction.
L AND ING D IRE C T IO N

L AND O R T AK E O FF T HIS WAY

Air Law 8-3


Chapter 8 Signals

Right Hand Traffic


A right hand arrow of conspicuous colour (usually red and yellow stripes)
indicates that turns are to be made to the right, before landing and after
take-off. Turns are normally made to the left and the absence of this
signal implies left turns.

Glider Flights in Operation


A double white cross displayed horizontally in the signal area
indicates that gliders are using the aerodrome.

QDM Boards

26
Two digits displayed vertically at or near to the aerodrome control tower
indicate the direction for take-off. These units are expressed in units of 10°
to the nearest 10° of the magnetic compass.

Closed Runways or Taxiways


A cross of a single contrasting colour, yellow or white, displayed horizontally on runways or
taxiways indicate an area unfit for the movement of aircraft.

X Runway
X Taxiway

Air Traffic Services Reporting Office


The letter C vertically in black against a yellow background indicates the

C
location of the ATS reporting office.

Mandatory and Information Signs


These signs are used on aerodromes. They are covered in detail in the aerodrome section of the
notes.

Marshalling Signals
These signals are designed for use by the marshaller with hands illuminated as necessary to
facilitate observation by the pilot, and facing the aircraft in a position:

¾ For Fixed Wing Aircraft Forward of the left wing tip within view of the pilot
¾ For Helicopters Where the marshaller can best be seen by the pilot
8-4 Air Law
Signals Chapter 8

The aircraft engines are numbered:


1 Port (left) outer
2 Port (left) inner
3 Starboard (right) inner
4 Starboard (right) outer

To Proceed Under Guidance of another Marshaller


Marshaller directs pilot if traffic conditions on aerodrome require
this action. Right or left arm down, the other arm moved across the
body and extended to indicate position of the other marshaller.

This Bay
Arms above head in vertical position with palms facing forward.

Proceed to Next Marshaller


Right or left arm down, other arm moved across the body and
extended to indicate direction of next marshaller.

TURN

Turn to Your Left


Right arm downward, left arm repeatedly moved upward-
backward. Speed of arm movement indicating rate of turn.

Turn to Your Right


Left arm downward, right arm repeatedly moved upward-
backward. Speed of arm movement indicating rate of turn.

Move Ahead
Arms a little aside, palms facing backward and repeatedly
moved upward-backward from shoulder height.

Air Law 8-5


Chapter 8 Signals

Stop
Arms repeatedly crossed above the head (the rapidity
of the arm movement should be related to the urgency
of the stop ie the faster the movement the quicker the
stop).

BRAKES

Engage Brakes
Raise arm, and hand with fingers extended, horizontally in front of the body,
then clench the fingers.

Release Brakes
Raise arm, with fist clenched, horizontally in front of body, then extend fingers.

CHOCKS

Chocks Inserted
Arms down, palms facing inwards, move arms from
extended position inwards.

Chocks Removed
Arms down, palms facing outwards, move arms outwards.

Start Engine(s)
Left hand overhead with appropriate number of fingers extended, to indicate
the number of the engine to be started, and circular motion of right hand at
head level.

Cut Engines
Either arm and hand level with shoulder, hand across the
throat, palm downward. The hand is moved sideways with
the arm remaining bent.

Slow Down
Arms down with palms toward ground.

8-6 Air Law


Signals Chapter 8

Slow Down Engine(s) on Indicated Side


Arms down with palms towards ground, then either right or
left hand waved up and down indicating the left or right side
engine(s) respectively should be slowed down.

Move Back
Arms by sides, palms facing forward, swept forward and upward
repeatedly to shoulder height.

All Clear
Right arm raised at elbow with thumb erect.

Air Law 8-7


Chapter 8 Signals

SIGNALS FROM THE PILOT OF AN AIRCRAFT TO A


MARSHALLER
These signals are designed for use by a pilot in the cockpit with hands plainly visible to the
marshaller, and illuminated as necessary to facilitate observation by the marshaller.

(a) Raise arm and hand with fingers extended


horizontally in front of face, then clench fist.

Meaning Brakes engaged.

(b) Raise arm with fist clenched horizontally in front of


face, then extend fingers.

Meaning Brakes released.

(c) Arms extended palms facing outwards, move


hands inwards to cross in front of face.

Meaning Insert chocks.

(d) Hands crossed in front of face, palms facing


outwards, move arms outward.

Meaning Remove chocks.

(e) Raise the number of fingers on one hand


indicating the number of the engine to be started. For
this purpose the aircraft engines shall be numbered as
follows, No. 1 engine shall be port outer engine. No. 2,
the port inner engine, No. 3, the starboard inner engine
and No. 4, the starboard outer engine.

Meaning Ready to start engine.

8-8 Air Law


References: Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations (Document 8168-
Ops/611, Volume 1), Volume I - Flight Procedures

Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services
(Document 4444 –RAC/501)

EXPRESSION OF VERTICAL POSITION


Altitude
The vertical position of an aircraft with reference to mean sea level is referred to as altitude. To
display this on the aircraft altimeter, the mean sea level barometric pressure derived for a known
location is set in the altimeter sub scale. This setting is referred to as QNH.

Height
The vertical position of an aircraft with reference to a defined position on the surface of the Earth
is referred to as height. To display this on the aircraft altimeter, the barometric pressure observed
at a known location is set in the altimeter sub scale. This setting is referred to as QFE.

Unit of Measure
Altitude and height are measured in metres (the SI unit defined in Annex 5) or by use of the
alternative SI unit of measure, feet. The majority of altimeters in use in aircraft are calibrated in
feet. The alternative unit of measure will continue to be used until the North American states
decide to fully metricise units of measure used in those states.

Flight Levels
Cruising levels are usually defined as Flight Levels (FLs). A flight level (FL) is the vertical position
of an aircraft above a constant plane of equal barometric pressure. The standard pressure setting
(SPS) is 1013 hPa (or the more commonly used unit; mb. 1hPa = 1 mb). FLs are defined by
thousands of feet with intervals of 500 ft. FL0 (flight level zero) exists at the vertical position
where the barometric pressure is (or would be) 1013 mb. Therefore FL50 is 5000 feet above the
pressure level of 1013 mb, and FL55 is 5500 ft above the pressure level of 1013 mb. By using
FLs all transiting aircraft in the vicinity of each other can be separated vertically without the need
to reference to either local QNH or local QFE.

QNE
If the local QNH is below the limit of the altimeter subscale (usually about 930 mb), the altitude at
touchdown will not be displayed. In order to overcome this, the pilot is instructed to set the SPS
(1013 mb) and land with a reference altitude displayed on the altimeter. This reference altitude is
referred to as QNE. Many pilots mistakenly think that QNE is the SPS. It is not. It is the altitude
displayed at touchdown with 1013 mb set in the sub scale of the altimeter.

Air Law 9-1


Chapter 9 Altimeter Settings Procedures

TRANSITION
Changing from QNH to SPS and the Reverse
In order to maintain ATC separation between arriving and departing IFR flights, the points at
which the altimeter setting is changed from QNH to SPS for departing aircraft, and from SPS to
QNH for arriving aircraft is defined by the authority. ICAO requires that the authorities of all states
define a transition altitude either generally or for each individual aerodrome. At the transition
altitude the QNH is replaced by SPS for departing aircraft. By use of defined tables, the ATC
authority at an aerodrome calculates the transition level at which arriving aircraft reset the
altimeter subscale from SPS to QNH.

Transition Altitude (TA)


ICAO requires the TA at an aerodrome to be not less than 3000 ft. States are permitted to specify
a general TA as in the case of the USA and Canada. In these states the TA is 18 000 ft. In the UK
the TA varies between 3000 ft as generally applied, and 6000 ft for the London CTR. It has been
suggested that a general TA of 6000 ft be applied over the whole of the UK.

Transition Level (TL)


Approach control offices or aerodrome control towers are required to establish the TL to be used
in the vicinity of the aerodrome(s) for the appropriate period of time, on the basis of QNH reports
and forecast msl pressure if required. Adjacent aerodromes may define a common TL based on
the lowest of the aerodromes QNH. The TL is defined as the first available FL above the TA.

Example of Determining the TL


If the TA at an aerodrome is 3000 ft and the QNH is 1012 mb, when a departing pilot
reaches 3000 ft the altimeter is reset from QNH to 1013 mb. This requires 1 mb to be
‘wound on’, increasing the displayed altitude by approx 27 ft. Thus the altimeter will read
3027 ft with 1013 set. The first FL above 3027 ft is FL35. This is then the TL. This
assumes that FL35 is the first available FL. Some states specify a minimum depth to the
Transition Layer (see below). For IFR traffic the first available FL would be FL40 (FL35 is
a VFR FL).

Transition Layer
The airspace between the TA and TL is called the Transition Layer. Generally the maximum
depth of the Transition Layer is 500 ft. However, some states (Norway for example) specify a
minimum depth for the Transition Layer. In the case of Norway, it is 1000 ft.

Note: In the above example of determining the TL, if the state specified a minimum depth
of the Transition Layer of 1000 ft, the TL in that example would be 3027 + 1000 = 4027 ft.
First available FL above 4027 is FL45.

9-2 Air Law


Altimeter Settings Procedures Chapter 9

Climbing through transition level, 1013 set, report FL


Altimeter reads
Descending through transition level, QNH set, report altitude 3230 ft

Set QNH
1003

TL

Altimeter reads Transition Layer Transition


3270 ft 230 ft Level
FL35

TAlt

Set 1013

Transition QNH
Altitude 1003 mb
3000 ft

1003 mb

1013 mb

Reporting Vertical Position in the Transition Layer


While ascending through the transition layer, vertical position is reported as a flight level (SPS is
set), and as altitude when descending (QNH is set).

USE OF QNH OR QFE


Instrument Approach
Pilots are normally instructed to set the QNH at the commencement of an instrument approach
procedure even though the aircraft is above the TL.

Use of QFE
A pilot may elect to use either QNH or QFE as the reference for vertical position during an
approach to land. When an aircraft is completing its approach using QFE, the datum reference for
height will be the aerodrome elevation except where the elevation of a runway being used for an
instrument approach is 2 m (7 ft) or more below the aerodrome elevation. Runway threshold
elevation is always used as the reference for precision instrument approaches.

Air Law 9-3


Chapter 9 Altimeter Settings Procedures

FLIGHT PLANNING
Enroute
Where a transition altitude has not been established, for flights enroute the vertical position of
aircraft is expressed in terms of:

¾ Flight levels at or above the lowest usable flight level


¾ Altitudes below the lowest usable flight level

Provision of Information
Altimeter setting information is available from ATCUs and FICs to allow pilots to verify lowest
enroute altitudes and lowest safe FLs and to calculate terrain clearance. The transition level
should be included in an approach clearance when requested by the pilot or when the appropriate
authority deems it necessary. QNH is included in approach clearances or clearances to enter the
traffic circuit, and in taxi clearances for departing aircraft, except when it is known that the aircraft
has already received the information. QFE is provided to aircraft on request or on a regular basis
in accordance with local arrangements.

Round Down
Altimeter settings provided to aircraft are rounded down to the nearest lower whole hectopascal
(mb).

Pre-Flight Altimeter Operational Test


The following test is carried out in an aircraft by flight crew members prior to commencement of a
flight. With the aircraft at a known elevation on the aerodrome:

¾ Set the altimeter pressure scale on the current QNH/QFE setting


¾ Vibrate the instrument by tapping unless mechanical vibration is provided
¾ A serviceable altimeter indicates the elevation of the point selected, plus the height of
the altimeter above this point, within a tolerance of:

¾ ± 20 m (60 ft) for altimeters with a test range of 0 to 9000 m (0 to 30 000 ft)
¾ ± 25 m (80 ft) for altimeters with a test range of 0 to 15 000 m (0 to 50 000 ft)

Minimum Sector Altitude


Within 25 nm of an aerodrome, the authority defines minimum sector altitudes (MSA) for each
quadrant of the magnetic compass. The MSA is the lowest altitude to which an approaching
aircraft (under approach control) is permitted to descend prior to commencing an instrument
approach or before visual contact with the ground is established and maintained. The MSA is
published on each approach plate for the aerodrome.

9-4 Air Law


Altimeter Settings Procedures Chapter 9

MSA shown on arrival plate


MSA shown on SID plate

Air Law 9-5


Chapter 9 Altimeter Settings Procedures

9-6 Air Law


References: Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations (Document 8168-
OPS/611, Volume 1), Volume I - Flight Procedures

INTRODUCTION
It is not always possible to operate in good visual met conditions. Modern aircraft and radio
navigation facilities permit operations in poor weather and low visibility so that a scheduled
commercial service can meet the commitment of the schedule and the expectation of the
travelling public. In ATC the use of radar has revolutionised terminal control but there is still a
need for the pilot to gain some sort of visual criteria (visual contact with the ground) during
landing operation. To this end, highly technical systems and strictly imposed procedures have
been devised to reduce reliance on visual contact to the minimum. This chapter of the notes
explores the instrument procedures and associated systems which permit what is termed as ‘low
visibility’ operations.

PUBLICATIONS
ICAO details the SARPs for low visibility operations in Annex 6. Because the subject is large and
technically complex, technical details, procedural amplification, and guidance to operators is
contained in ICAO Document 8168 - Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations
(This book is known as PANS-OPS). The document consists of two volumes:

Volume I - Flight Procedures


This volume describes the operational procedures recommended for the guidance of flight
operations personnel. It also outlines the various parameters on which the criteria in Volume II
are based so as to illustrate the need for operational personnel including flight crew to adhere
strictly to the published procedures in order to achieve and maintain an acceptable level of safety
in operations.

Volume II - Construction of Visual and Instrument Procedures


This volume is intended for the guidance of procedure specialists and describes the essential
areas and obstacle clearance requirements for the achievement of safe, regular instrument flight
operations. It provides the basic guidelines to States, and those operators and organizations
producing instrument flight charts, that will result in uniform practices at all aerodromes where
instrument flight procedures are carried out. The LOs do not require the student to study this part
of Doc 8168.

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

OBSTACLE CLEARANCE
The overriding concern with regard to low visibility operations is the unwanted occurrence of
‘controlled flight into terrain’. Once above the transition level or whilst in the cruise, the
procedures outlined in Chapter 9 provide the necessary elements of safety from terrain. However,
in the process of taking-off and landing the aircraft must inevitably be flown below the defined
safety altitude. During these phases of flights, strict adherence to the procedures and the laid
down minima is required; complying with these minima will keep the aircraft on the specified flight
path and, therefore, safe. However, the man/machine system, despite being highly trained and
technically complex, is not perfect, and tolerances have to be applied to cover inadvertent
deviation. This must inevitably lead to the introduction of risk. In compiling the procedures using
the systems specified in PANS-OPS, an acceptable risk factor has been defined at 1:10 000 000.

ABBREVIATIONS
In Chapter 1, there is a comprehensive list of abbreviations used in the examinations. In this
section, certain specific abbreviations are detailed as required knowledge. These are reproduced
below.

Abbreviations Used
ATIS Automatic terminal information NOZ Normal operating zone
service NTZ No transgression zone
C/L Centre line OCA/H Obstacle clearance altitude/height
DA/H Decision altitude/height OIS Obstacle identification surface
DER Departure end of the runway OM Outer marker
DR Dead reckoning PAR Precision approach radar
EFIS Electronic flight instrument system PDG Procedure design gradient
FAF Final approach fix RNAV Area navigation
FAP Final approach point RSR En-route surveillance radar
FMS Flight management system RSS Root sum square
HSI Horizontal situation indicator SID Standard instrument departure
IAF Initial approach fix SOC Start of climb
IF Intermediate fix SPI Special position indicator
MAPt Missed approach point STAR Standard instrument arrival
MDA/H Minimum descent altitude/height TAR Terminal area surveillance radar
MOC Minimum obstacle clearance TP Turning point

DEPARTURE PROCEDURES
The natural environment of an aircraft is in the air. On the ground or during the transition from
ground to air the machine is at its most vulnerable. Departure procedures ensure the safe take-off
and initial climb to safe flying speed, and then concentrate on positioning the aircraft at the right
point and altitude to commence the en-route portion of the flight. The criteria in part 1 of PANS-
OPS are designed to provide flight crews and other flight operations personnel with an
appreciation, from the operational point of view, of the parameters and criteria used in the design
of instrument departure procedures which include, but are not limited to, standard instrument
departure (SID) routes and associated procedures. These assume that all engines are operating
normally. The ‘engine-out’ case or other emergency situation is the subject of special instructions
which the operator is required by law to define. Such procedures are outside the LOs for Air Law.
In order to ensure acceptable clearance above obstacles during the departure phase, instrument
departure procedures may be published as specific routes to be followed (SIDs), or omni-
directional departures (which may specify sectors to be avoided), together with procedure design
gradients (PDGs) and details of significant obstacles.

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

THE INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE PROCEDURE


The design of an instrument departure procedure, including the positioning of navigation aids, is
dictated by factors such as the terrain surrounding the aerodrome and ATC requirements. At
many aerodromes, a defined departure route is not required for ATC purposes. However, there
may be obstacles in the vicinity of the aerodrome that will have to be considered in determining
whether restrictions to departures are to be applied. In these cases, departure procedures may
be restricted to a given sector(s), or published with a PDG in the sector containing the obstacle.

Noise Abatement
The use of automatic take-off thrust control systems (ATTCS) and noise abatement
procedures will need to be taken into consideration by the pilot and the operator.

Lack of Navigation Aids


Where no suitable navigation aid is available, the criteria for omni-directional departures
are applied.

Visual Minima
Where obstacles cannot be cleared by the appropriate margin when the aeroplane is
flown on instruments, aerodrome operating minima are established to permit visual flight
clear of obstacles. Visual minima are defined as required ground visibility and cloud base
prevailing at the departure aerodrome.

Straight Departures
Wherever possible, a straight departure will be specified which is aligned with the runway
centre line.

Turning Departures
When a departure route requires a turn of more than 15° to avoid an obstacle, a turning
departure is constructed. Wherever limiting speeds or flight speeds are promulgated, they
must be complied with to remain within the appropriate areas. If an aeroplane operation
requires a higher speed, then an alternative departure procedure must be requested.

ESTABLISHMENT OF A DEPARTURE PROCEDURE


A departure procedure will be established for each runway where instrument departures are
expected to be used. This will define a departure procedure for the various categories of aircraft
based on all-engines running PDG of 3.3% or an increased PDG if required to achieve minimum
obstacle clearance.

Wind Effect
The procedures will assume that pilots will not compensate for wind effects when being radar
vectored, but will compensate for known or estimated wind effect when flying departure routes
which are expressed as track to be made good.

Procedure Design Gradient


Obstacle clearance is a primary safety consideration in the development of instrument departure
procedures. The criteria used and the detailed method of calculation are covered in the PANS-
OPS Volume II.

The protected areas and obstacle clearance applicable to individual types of departure are
discussed later in this chapter. Unless otherwise published, a PDG of 3.3% is assumed.

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

The PDG is made up of 2.5% gradient of obstacle identification surfaces or the gradient based on
the most critical obstacle penetrating these surfaces, whichever is the higher gradient, plus 0.8%
increasing obstacle clearance. Gradients published will be specified to an altitude/height after
which the minimum gradient of 3.3% is used. The final PDG continues until obstacle clearance is
ensured for the next phase of flight. At this point the departure procedure ends and is marked by
a significant point.

The minimum obstacle clearance equals zero at the DER and increases by 0.8% of the horizontal
distance in the direction of flight assuming a maximum turn of 15°. In the turn initiation area and
turn area a minimum obstacle clearance of 90 m (295 ft) is provided.

Where mountainous terrain exists, consideration is given by the procedure designer to increasing
the minimum obstacle clearance.

Whenever a suitably located DME exists, additional specific height/distance information intended
for obstacle avoidance may be published. RNAV way-points or other suitable fixes may be used
to provide a means of monitoring climb performance.

Where obstacles exist affecting the departure route, PDGs greater than 3.3% are promulgated to
an altitude/height after which the 3.3% gradient is considered to prevail. Gradients to a height of
60 m (200 ft) or less, caused by close-in obstacles, are not specified.

Mountainous Terrain
In areas where the terrain is described as ‘mountainous’ the minimum obstacle clearance (MOC)
is increased from 1000 ft to 2000 ft. Mountainous terrain is defined as terrain over which the
prevailing wind of 37 km/h generates significant downdraughts.

PDG = 3.3%

This altitude/height
is to be published if
2.5%
more than 200 ft = 0.8%

4.5%

3.7% OIS
2.5%

5m (16ft)
Aerodrome Elevation
DER Obstacle

Procedure Design Gradient

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

Aircraft Categories
In defining procedures where turns are required, the aircraft speed must be taken into account so
that the aircraft remains in the protected zone, established by the procedure designer, during the
turn. The following table defines the maximum speeds for the different categories of aircraft:

Maximum Speeds For Turning Departures


Aeroplane Maximum
Category Speed km/h (kts)
A 225(120)
B 305(165)
C 490(265)
D 540(290)
E 560(360)
Table: Max Speed for Turning Departures

STANDARD INSTRUMENT DEPARTURES


A SID is normally developed to accommodate as many aircraft categories as possible.
Departures that are limited to specific aircraft categories are clearly annotated. The SID
terminates at the first fix/facility/way-point of the enroute phase following the departure procedure.
There are two basic types of departure route, straight and turning. The design of instrument
departure routes and the associated obstacle clearance criteria are based on the definition of
tracks to be followed by the aeroplane. When flying the published track, the pilot is expected to
correct for known wind to remain within the protected airspace.

STRAIGHT DEPARTURES
A straight departure is one in which the initial departure track is within 15° of the runway centre
line. Track guidance may be provided by a suitably located facility (VOR or NDB) or by RNAV. By
definition, track guidance for a straight departure must be attained from a navigation facility within
20 km (10.8 nm) from DER.

VOR 7.8°/NDB 10.3°

DER 15° Area 1 3.7 km (2 nm) VOR Departure Track


4.6 km (2.5nm) NDB

Max 15°
15° C/L VOR/NDB Area 2

1.9 nm VOR 7.8°/NDB 10.3°

Area for a Straight Departure with Track Guidance

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

TURNING DEPARTURES
When a turning departure requires a turn of more than 15°, a turning area is constructed and the
turn required is commenced upon reaching a specified altitude/height, at a fix or at a facility
(VOR/NDB). Straight flight is assumed until reaching an altitude of 120 m (394 ft) above the
elevation of DER. Track guidance must be obtained within 10 km (5.4 nm) after the completion of
the turn.

Splay angle
VOR 7.8°/NDB 10.3°

C/L
VOR/NDB
15°

Departure Track

3.7 km (2 nm) VOR


4.6 km (2.5nm) NDB
30°

30°

Fix Tolerance

15° 15°

DER

Turning Departure – Turn at a Fix

CONTINGENCY PROCEDURES
Development of contingency procedures required covering the case of engine failure or an
emergency in flight that occurs after V1, is the responsibility of the operator. When it is necessary
to develop turning procedures to avoid an obstacle which would have become limiting, then the
procedure should be detailed in the appropriate operator’s manual. The point for a start of a turn
in this procedure must be readily identifiable by the pilot when flying under instrument conditions.

Omni-directional Departures
Where no track guidance is provided in the design, the departure criteria are developed by using
the omni-directional method.

The departure procedure commences at the DER, which is the end of the area declared suitable
for take-off, either the end of the runway or clearway as appropriate. Since the point of lift-off will
vary, the departure is constructed on the assumption that a turn at 120 m (394 ft) above the
elevation of the aerodrome will not be initiated sooner than 600 m from the beginning of the
runway.

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

Unless otherwise specified, a 3.3% PDG is presumed. The basic procedure ensures that the
aircraft will climb on the extended runway centre line to 120 m (394 ft) before turns can be
specified, and at least 90 m (295 ft) of obstacle clearance will be provided before turns greater
than 15° can be specified. Where obstacles do not permit the development of omni-directional
procedures, it is necessary to fly a departure route, or ensure that the ceiling and visibility will
permit obstacles to be avoided by visual means. The omni-directional departure procedure is
designed using any one of a combination of the following:

30°

15°

Centre Line
Area 1
d = distance where the aircraft
climbing at the minimum gradient
Area 2 (3.3% or the gradient specified in
3.5 km the procedure whichever is the
(1.9 nm) higher) will have reached the
or less specified turn height/altitude. If
the turn height is 120m above the
DER this distance is 3.5 km (1.9
d nm) for a 3.3% gradient.

Turn Initiation Area for Omnidirectional Departure

Standard Case
Where no obstacles penetrate the 2.5% OIS and 90 m (295 ft) of obstacle prevails; a 3.3% climb
to 120 m (394 ft) will satisfy the obstacle clearance requirements.

Specified Turn Altitude/Height


Where obstacle(s) preclude omni-directional turns at 120 m (394 ft), the procedure will specify a
3.3% climb to an altitude/height where omni-directional turns can be made.

Specified Procedure Design Gradient


Where obstacle(s) exist, the procedure may define a minimum gradient of more than 3.3% to a
specified altitude/height before turns are permitted.

Sector Departures
Where obstacle(s) exist, the procedure may identify sector(s) for which either a minimum gradient
or a minimum turn altitude/height is specified. A clearance for such a procedure

“Climb straight ahead to 1000 ft before commencing a turn to the South”

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

PUBLISHED INFORMATION
Departure routes and standard instrument departures (SIDs) are produced and published in
accordance with Annex 11 and Annex 4. The information listed will be published for operational
reasons. For departure routes, the following information is promulgated:

¾ Significant obstacles which penetrate the OIS;


¾ The position and height of close-in obstacles penetrating the OIS. A note is included on
the SID chart whenever close-in obstacles exist which were not considered for the
published PDG;
¾ The highest obstacle in the departure area, and any significant obstacle outside the area
which dictates the design of the procedure;
¾ The altitude/height at which a gradient in excess of 3.3% is no longer used. A note is
included whenever the published PDG is based only on airspace restriction;
¾ All navigation facilities, fixes or way points, radials and DME distances depicting route
segments are clearly indicated on the SID chart.

RNAV Routes
Departure routes are labelled as RNAV only when that is the primary means of navigation
utilized.

Omnidirectional Departures
For omni-directional departures, the restrictions will be expressed as sectors in which
minimum gradients and/or minimum altitudes are specified to enable an aeroplane to safely
overfly obstacles. The published minimum gradient will be the highest in any sector that may
be expected to be overflown. The altitude to which the minimum gradient is specified will
permit the aircraft to continue at the 3.3% minimum gradient through that sector; a
succeeding sector, or to an altitude authorized for another phase of flight eg en-route, holding
or approach. A fix may also be designated to mark the point at which a gradient in excess of
3.3% is no longer required.

AIRWAYS DEPARTURE ROUTES (SID CHARTS)


For aerodromes which are used for IFR flights for commercial aviation, SIDs are published to
cater for the operator preferred departure directions. A SID will provide track and altitude
information to place the departing aircraft in the most advantageous position to enter the
appropriate airway at the commencement of the enroute phase.

The SID will also specify limitations to altitude and specific track requirements to avoid arriving
traffic, restricted, prohibited, and danger areas, and also other aerodromes and their specific
departure and arrival routes. Typically, a SID will require more than one radio beacon (VOR/NDB)
and will normally use DME information from VOR/DME or VORTAC facilities. Due to the limited
requirements for IFR navigation equipment in aircraft (1 ADF and 2 NAV receivers), SIDS will not
specify data to be obtained at any one instant from more than 2 VORs and 1 NDB. SIDs will
normally be restricted to 25 nm from DER, and ATC service will be provided by the approach
controller responsible for traffic in the CTR.

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

Radar
Where radar is used for approach control, once identified by SSR a pilot may be instructed to
route directly to position. In such cases the aircraft will be navigated directly to that position
without compliance with the SID.

Noise Abatement
SIDs reflect the preferred noise abatement routes. Initially, the SID will require a climb to 120 m
(394 ft) but in practice (and to make system management easier) a climb to 500 ft is specified. At
500 ft turns may be commenced, and the pilot is required to continue the climb as required by the
SID with power, gear, flaps and lift enhancers in the noise abatement configuration, and to fly at
the specified speed. In an emergency, or when the PIC considers that his aircraft would be
hazarded by compliance with noise abatement procedures, any power or configuration may be
used, however, the operator/pilot will have to justify the action subsequently.

GNSS Procedures
The use of GNSS is approved for departure procedures in many states and procedures are
published in the form of GNSS/FMS/RNAV SIDS. Where a GNSS SID is used, the pilot must
have available data from non GNSS sources (i.e. VOR/DME) so that a cross check can be made
to ensure the system is functioning correctly. GNSS SIDs are titled RNAV (PRNAV).

SID Chart Publication


Each state publishes SID charts in the AIP AD section as part of the entry for the appropriate
aerodrome. Charts are also commercially published by Jeppesen, Aeradio, and some operators
print their own (e.g. Airtours). The SARPs specify the basic information to be displayed but the
commercial charts are usually far more comprehensive. If a pilot is instructed to fly a procedure
for which he/she doesn’t have the chart, ATC will, on request, detail the procedure by RTF.

The following SID charts are reproductions of aerodrome procedures from the UK AIP. The first
chart depicts the Midhurst SIDs from Heathrow. These departure procedures would be used for
flights to Northwest France, The Channel Islands and possibly Spain and Portugal. They place
the departing aircraft in a position to join airway A34 and then into A1 at FL75 and above. The
Manchester SIDs via Honiley depict the route flown by flights joining A1 southbound. The final
chart depicts a trial route for FMS/GNSS operations from Luton to the East and South East. Note
the accuracy of the check positions for the waypoints (accurate to 1/100 of a second of longitude,
approximately 30 cm).

SID Designators
SIDs are ATS routes (see Chapter regarding ATS and Airspace). Each SID is given a unique
identifier called a designator. The chart below (London Heathrow – Midhurst SIDs) shows all the
current SIDs from the departure runways at Heathrow terminating at the Midhurst VOR. The route
from 27R is called MID4F. The full designator would be ‘London Heathrow SID MID4F’. The
number relates to the progressive series of routes. At some point in history there was MID1, the
current MID series is 3 and 4. The letter shows the ‘amendment/change’ status of the SID route.
When the series reaches 9 and a new series is required, the number reverts to 1. An amendment
to SID MID4F would be called MID4G.

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

Standard Instrument Departures from Heathrow via Midhurst VOR


Note that SIDs 3G; 3H and 4F use the Burnham NDB as well as the London and Midhurst VORs
with their associated DME. The ‘S’ bend on the westerly routes is to avoid the airspace
associated with Farnborough.

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

Standard Instrument Departures from Manchester via Honiley VOR

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

Example of a GNSS SID for London Luton

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

THE INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE


The objective of an instrument approach procedure is to provide the pilot with specific track
guidance such that a descent can be made to an altitude where the required visual criteria are
obtained and the aircraft landed visually. The design of an instrument approach procedure is, in
general, dictated by the terrain surrounding an aerodrome, the type of operations contemplated,
and the aircraft to be accommodated. There are two types of instrument procedures:

¾ Non precision approaches (an airfield approach); and


¾ Precision approach (runway approach).

Non Precision Procedures


A non precision procedure is defined as an approach to an aerodrome made with reference to
instruments in which guidance is given in azimuth (laterally) only. Typically an NDB or VOR
procedure is non precision.

Precision Procedures
Precision procedures give the pilot guidance in azimuth (by defining a track to be flown) and
elevation (by defining a glide path with reference to electronic equipment). Typically, an ILS
approach is a precision procedure.

Precision Categories
ICAO and JARs specify categories of precision approach in terms of decision height/altitude and
required runway visual range. The ICAO categories are:

Table: Precision categories


Category System Decision Height RVR requirement
minima

60 m Not less than 550 m or


CAT I Not less than 200 ft ground visibility not less
(200 ft) than 800 m
30 m Less than 200 ft but not
CAT II Not less than 350 m
(100 ft) less than 100 ft
CAT III A Nil Less than 100 ft or no DH Not less than 200 m
CAT III B Nil Less than 50 ft or no DH Not less than 50 m *
CAT III C Nil No DH None
* JAR OPS specifies 75 m RVR minimum for CAT III B

Speed
Aircraft performance has a direct effect on the airspace and visibility needed to perform the
various manoeuvres associated with the conduct of instrument approach procedures. The most
significant performance factor is aircraft speed.

Accordingly, five categories of typical aircraft have been established. Each category is based on
the speed at which the pilot attempts to cross the threshold of the landing runway, Vat. (Defined as
1.3 times stalling speed in the landing configuration at maximum certificated landing mass).

This provides a standardised basis for relating aircraft manoeuvrability to specific instrument
approach procedures. The instrument approach chart will specify the individual categories of
aircraft for which the procedure is approved. Normally, procedures will be designed to provide
protected airspace and obstacle clearance for aircraft up to and including Category D. Where
airspace requirements are critical, procedures may be restricted to lower speed categories.
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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

Table: Aircraft categories for Instrument Approaches


Aircraft Range of Range of Max Max speed for
category Vat speeds for final speed missed approach
initial approach for
approach speeds visual Intermediate Final
circling
90/150
A <91 70/100 100 100 110
(110*)
120/180
B 91/120 85/130 135 130 150
(140*)
C 121/140 160/240 115/160 180 160 240

D 141/165 185/250 130/185 205 185 265

E 166/210 185/250 155/230 240 230 275


* Max speed for track reversal or racetrack procedures

Visual Approach
As the intention of the procedures is to place the aeroplane in a position from which the pilot can
see either the aerodrome or the landing runway, once established on final approach to land the
pilot has the option of continuing the approach visually providing the aerodrome or runway is, and
will remain, in sight. This is not converting an IFR approach into a VFR approach; neither is it
flying under VFR.

Visual Criteria
For all approaches except CATIIIC, the pilot must have visual references to the position of the
runway centre line and the location of the aiming point within the touch-down zone. (These will be
defined in the chapter devoted to Aerodromes). The exact requirements are the responsibility of
the operator to define in the Operations Manual.

Completing the Procedure


Unless a pilot is given instructions to the contrary, once an instrument approach procedure has
been started, it must be finished. It will end with either a successful landing or the execution of a
missed approach procedure.

Procedure Design
When flying a departure procedure, the aeroplane climbs to and above safety height, thus safety
increases with time and altitude. For an approach procedure the reverse is true. In order to
compensate for the reduction in safety inherent in flying close to the ground in poor or zero
visibility, track guidance and, where offered, elevation guidance, is required to be more accurate
the closer the aeroplane gets to the ground. CATII and CATIII precision procedures require the
use of an autopilot to achieve the accuracy of flying necessary for the low visibility operations
specifications, whereas CATI and non-precision procedures, being less accurate in vertical
positioning, specify high DH and minimum descent height (MDH). From the start of the
procedure, the designer also applies increasing accuracy requirements for track guidance. To
achieve this, all instrument procedures have 5 segments.

¾ The Arrival Route


¾ The Initial Segment
¾ The Intermediate Segment
¾ The Final Segment
¾ The Missed Approach Procedure
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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

Fixes
The approach segments begin and end at designated fixes. Under certain circumstances the
segments may begin at specified points where no fixes are available. For example: The final
approach segment of a precision approach may originate at the point of intersection of the
designated intermediate flight altitude with the nominal glide path.

Straight In Approaches
Wherever possible, a straight-in approach will be specified which is aligned with the runway
centre line. In the case of non-precision approaches, a straight-in approach is considered
acceptable if the angle between the final approach track and the runway centre line is 30º or less.

Circling Approach
In those cases where terrain or other constraints cause the final approach track alignment or
descent gradient to fall outside the criteria for a straight-in approach a circling approach will be
specified. The final approach track of a circling approach procedure is in most cases aligned to
pass over a portion of the usable landing surface of the aerodrome.

Minimum Sector Altitude (MSA)


Minimum sector altitudes are established for each aerodrome and provide at least 300 m (984 ft)
obstacle clearance within 46 km (25 nm) of the homing facility associated with the approach
procedure for that aerodrome.

Track Maintenance
The procedures are defined by tracks to be made good and pilots are expected to allow for the
wind. During Precision Approach Radar (PAR) and Surveillance Radar Approach (SRA)
procedures, the controller ‘talking the aircraft down’ will adjust the required heading to counter the
effects of drift. For ILS approaches pilots are required to maintain aircraft position to within half
scale disposition of the deviation displays.

OBSTACLE CLEARANCE
Obstacle clearance is a primary safety consideration in the development of instrument approach
procedures. The criteria used and the detailed method of calculation are covered in PANS-OPS,
Volume II. The obstacle clearance applied in the development of each instrument approach
procedure is considered to be the minimum required for an acceptable level of safety in
operations. The protected areas and obstacle clearance applicable to individual types of
approaches are specified later.

Obstacle Clearance Altitude/Height (OCA/H)


For each individual approach procedure an obstacle clearance altitude/height (OCA/H) is
calculated for a procedure and published on the instrument approach chart. In the case of
precision approach and circling approach procedures an OCA/H is specified for each category of
aircraft.

OCA/H for Precision Procedures


A precision procedure is a runway approach procedure therefore the reference for the
calculation of OCA/H must be the elevation of the threshold of the landing runway.

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

OCA/H for Non-Precision Procedures


A non-precision procedure is an aerodrome approach procedure in which the final
segment is up to 30° displaced from the landing runway direction. In this case, the
reference for OCA/H is the aerodrome elevation as determined by survey. If however, the
threshold of the landing runway is 2m (7 ft) or more below the aerodrome elevation, the
threshold elevation is used.

OCA/H for Visual Manoeuvre (Circling) (VM(C))


At the end of a non-precision approach a pilot may manoeuvre the aircraft to land in a
different direction from which the approach is made. In this case, the aerodrome
elevation is always used as the reference for OCA/H.

Factors Affecting Operational Minima


In general minima are developed by adding the effect of a number of operational factors to
OCA/H to produce, in the case of precision approaches a DA or DH, or in the case of a non-
precision approach, MDA or MDH. The general operational factors to be considered are aircraft
mass, elevation or the pressure altitude appropriate to the elevation of the aerodrome,
temperature, wind, runway gradient and condition. The relationship of OCA/H to operating minima
(landing) is shown in the following 3 diagrams.

Margin or Lower Limit


Operators are required to specify the margin or lower limit to be added to the OCA/H to determine
the DH/A or MDH/A. This is determined in accordance with the criteria stated and may be zero. If
you have your own aircraft you are not required to add a margin or lower limit.

System Minima
Regardless of the result of calculation of DH or MDH, for each approach system (procedure or
equipment), a minimum height above the datum is established as a ‘never below’ figure. The
following table shows the system minima which override a lower DH or MDH. For instance, if the
published OCH for a VOR/DME approach (non precision) was 130 ft and the margin or lower limit
was 20 ft, theoretically the MDH would be 150 ft. However, the system minimum for VOR/DME is
250 ft, therefore the MDH is 250 ft.

System Minimum (ft) System Minimum (ft)


Full ILS CATII 100 SRA (RTR* 0.5 nm) 250
Full ILS CATI 200 SRA (RTR* 1 nm) 300
ILS (no glide path) 250 VOR 300
ILS back beam (not approved) 250 NDB or Locator 300
PAR (no glide path) 250 VDF 300
VOR/DME 250 SRA (RTR* 2 nm) 350
Table: System Minima * RTR = Radar Termination Range

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NON-PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE


The lowest altitude (OCA) or alternatively the lowest height above the aerodrome elevation or the
elevation of the relevant runway threshold, if the threshold elevation is more than 2 m (7 ft) below
the aerodrome elevation (OCH), below which the aircraft cannot descend without infringing the
appropriate obstacle clearance criteria.

Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA)


Or Altitude
Minimum Descent Height (MDH)

Margin or Lower Limit


Based on operational consideration of:
ground/airborne equipment characteristics; crew qualifications;
aircraft performance; met conditions; aerodrome characteristics;
location of guidance aid relative to runway

Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OCA)


Or
Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH)
O M
C D
Minimum Obstacle Clearance (MOC) A A
for the Final Segment
Fixed margin for all aircraft
90 m (295 ft) without FAF
75 m (246 ft) with FAF
O M
C D
H H

Height of the highest obstacle in the final


approach

Aerodrome Elevation or Threshold


Elevation if more than 2 m (7 ft)
below Aerodrome Elevation

Mean Sea Level

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PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE


The lowest altitude (OCA) or alternatively the lowest height above the elevation of the relevant
runway threshold (OCH), at which a missed approach must be initiated to ensure compliance with
the appropriate obstacle clearance criteria.

Decision Altitude (DA)


Or Altitude
Decision Height (DH)

Margin or Lower Limit


Based on operational consideration of: category of operation,
ground/airborne equipment characteristics; crew qualifications;
aircraft performance; met conditions; aerodrome characteristics;
terrain profile (Rad Alt); pressure error (pressure altimeter)

Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OCA)


Or
Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH)
O M
C D
Margin A A
The margin is dependent upon aircraft approach
speed, height loss and altimetry and is
adjustable for steep glide paths and high level
aerodromes
O M
C D
H H

Height of the highest obstacle or the


highest missed approach obstacle,
whichever is the higher

Identification of obstacles is dependent upon:


Category of operation; ILS geometry (GP angle,
distance from Loc Ae to R/W threshold; Loc course
width); aircraft dimensions, missed approach turn
point, use of autopilot (CatII approaches only)

Threshold Elevation

Mean Sea Level

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

Visual Manoeuvre (Circling) (VM(C)) Procedure


The lowest altitude (OCA) or alternatively the lowest height above the aerodrome elevation
(OCH) below which an aircraft cannot descend without infringing the appropriate obstacle
clearance criteria

Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) for Circling


Or Altitude
Minimum Descent Height (MDH) for Circling

Margin or Lower Limit


Based on operational consideration of:
aircraft characteristics; crew qualifications;
aircraft performance; met conditions;
aerodrome characteristics

Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OCA)


Or
Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH)

The OCH shall not be less than:


Cat A 120 m (394 ft) O M
Cat B 150 m (492 ft) C D
Cat C 180 m (591 ft) A A
Cat D 210 m (689 ft)
Cat E 240 m (787 ft)

Minimum Obstacle Clearance (MOC) O


Category A and B 90 m (295 ft). M
C D
Category C and D 120 m (394 ft).
H H
Category E 150 m (492 ft).

Height of the highest obstacle in the


circling area

Aerodrome Elevation

Mean Sea Level

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

Approach Procedure Design


Where track guidance is provided in the design of an instrument approach procedure, each of the
five segments of the approach is comprised of a specified volume of airspace, the vertical cross
section of which is an area located symmetrically about the centre line of each segment. The
vertical cross section is broken down into primary and secondary areas as shown in the diagram
below.

Minimum Obstacle Clearance (MOC)


For non-precision approaches, the MOC is defined as a fixed margin to be added to the height of
the dominant obstacle in the final approach segment. For precision approaches, glide path
information is provided which, by definition, must be free of obstacles.

The angle of the glide path is set to provide the required clearance from obstacles. The MOC for
a non-precision approach is made up of two areas; the primary MOC area and the Secondary
MOC area.

At any point the width of the primary area is equal to ½ of the total width. The width of each
secondary area is equal to ¼ of the total width. Where no track guidance is provided during a turn
specified by the procedure, the total width of the area is considered as a primary area. MOC is
provided for the whole width of the primary area.

For the secondary area, MOC is provided at the inner edges gradually reducing to zero at the
outer edge. The degree of MOC in the primary area depends upon the availability of a Final
Approach Fix (FAF) (FAF - see below). With a defined FAF the MOC is 70 m (246 ft) and 90 m
(295 ft) without.

Assumed lowest path

MOC
MOC

Obstacle
Obstacle

Secondary Secondary
Area Primary Area Area

Total width

MOC for a Non-precision Approach

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

ACCURACY OF FIXES
Fixes and points used in designing approach procedures are normally based on standard
navigation systems. These include, but are not limited to:

¾ The initial approach fix (IAF);


¾ The intermediate approach fix (IF);
¾ The final approach fix (FAF) or final approach point (FAP);
¾ The holding fix, and
¾ When necessary the MAPt.

Fixes Formed by Intersection


Because all navigational facilities have accuracy limitations, the geographic point that is identified
is not precise, but may be anywhere within an area called the fix tolerance area which surrounds
its plotted point of intersection. The diagram below illustrates the intersection of two radials or
tracks from different navigation facilities.

Intersection Fix Tolerance Factors


The dimensions of the intersection fix are determined by the accuracy of the navigational system
that supplies the information to define the fix. The factors from which the accuracy of a system is
determined are:

¾ Ground station tolerance


¾ Airborne receiving system tolerance
¾ Flight technical tolerance
¾ Distance from the facility

Nominal Fix

Fix Tolerance Area

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

Accuracy of Facility Providing Track


Certain radio navigation aids provide track guidance information. When attempting to fly along the
defined track from an aid, the accuracy with which the pilot accomplishes this is allowed for in an
addition to the basic accuracy of the equipment. The pilot accuracy addition is known as flight
technical tolerance.

¾ VOR ± 5.2º (this value includes a flight technical tolerance of ± 2.5º)


¾ ILS Localiser ± 2.4º (this value includes a flight technical tolerance of ± 2º)
¾ NDB ± 6.9º (this value includes a flight technical tolerance of ± 3º)

Overall Tolerance of the Intersecting Facility


When intersecting fixes are based on radio nav aids, the overall tolerance of the fix is assumed to
be:

¾ VOR ± 4.5º when used in an approach procedure to establish a step down fix
where less than 300 m (984 ft) of obstacle clearance prevails; accuracy
is considered to be ± 7.8º
¾ ILS Localizer ± 1.4º
¾ NDB ± 6.2º when used in an approach procedure to establish a step down fix
where less than 300 m (984 ft) of obstacle clearance prevails; accuracy
is considered to be ± 10.3º

Other Fix Tolerance Factors


Where no radio nav aid is available or other factors constrain the use of such aids, positions and
turning points may be referenced by other means. For instance, when leaving an airway, an
aircraft may be given radar vectors to a point marking the beginning of the arrival route, or the
start of the final segment of a CATI ILS may be marked by a 75 Mhz marker beacon. The fix
tolerance factors of such aids are:

Surveillance Radar
Radar fix accuracy is based on consideration of: radar mapping accuracy, azimuth
resolution, flight technical tolerance, controller technical tolerances, and the speed of the
aircraft in the terminal area.

Terminal Area Radar (TAR) within 37km (20 nm)


Fix tolerance is ± 1.5 km (± 0.8 nm).

En-Route Surveillance Radar (ESR) within 74 km (40 nm)


Fix tolerance is ± 3.1 km (± 1.7 nm).

DME
Fix tolerance is ± 0.46 km (± 0.25 nm) + 1.25% of the distance to the antenna.

75 MHz Marker Beacons Fix tolerances for ILS and “Z” markers for use with instrument
approach procedures are calculated using the aerial polar diagram. Typically fix tolerance is +/-
0.8 km (0.45 nm) at 6000 ft and 0.35 km (0.2 nm) at 1000 ft.

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

Fix Tolerance Overhead a Facility


Most procedures require the aircraft to be flown over the facility providing track guidance at some
point in the procedure. The accuracy of the ‘on top’ is a factor of the width of the cone of
confusion over the beacon which is a function of the aerial design of the ground installation.

VOR
VOR provides excellent track guidance but fix tolerance overhead a VOR is based upon
a cone of confusion 50º from the vertical. At 3000 ft the accuracy of the ‘on top’ is given
by:
2 x tan 50° x 3000 = 2 x 1.19 x 3000 = 7140 ft or 1.17 nm

NDB
Fix tolerance overhead an NDB is based upon an inverted cone of ambiguity extending at
an angle of 40º either side of the facility. At 3000 ft the accuracy of the ‘on top’ is given
by:
2 x tan 40° x 3000 = 2 x 0.84 x 3000 = 5040 ft or 0.83 nm

Locator
To improve the accuracy of ‘on tops’ some procedures employ an NDB with a 75Mhz
marker co-located. This gives reasonable track guidance with an accurate ‘on top’. This
system is called a locator and is shown on the chart as NDB(L).

Approach Area Splays


The tolerances described above are used to narrow and widen instrument approach areas as the
aircraft flies to and from a facility respectively. The areas where the primary and secondary areas
are increasing/decreasing in width are known as ‘splays’.

Final Approach Splay


Reducing in width closer to the facility

Missed approach
Point (MAPt)

FAF

Primary area

Secondary area Splay width at facility


VOR = 2.0 nm

NDB = 2.5 nm

FAF Location
For the final approach segment (contained between FAF and MAPt), the optimum and maximum
distances for locating the FAF relative to the threshold are 9 km (5 nm) and 19 km (10 nm)
respectively.

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

DESCENT GRADIENT
In designing instrument approach procedures adequate space is allowed for descent from the
facility crossing altitude/height to the runway threshold for straight-in approach or to OCA/H for
circling approaches.

Establishing a maximum allowable descent gradient for each segment of the procedure provides
adequate space for descent.

The optimum descent gradient in the final approach should not exceed 5% (50 m/km,
approximately 300 ft/nm) which is equivalent to a 3º glidepath.

Where a steeper descent gradient is necessary, the maximum permissible is 6.5% (65 m/km,
approximately 400 ft/nm) which is equivalent to a 3.8º glidepath. In the case of a precision
approach the operationally preferred glidepath angle is 3º. An ILS glidepath in excess of 3º is
used only where alternate means of satisfying obstacle clearance requirements are impractical.

In certain cases the maximum descent gradient of 6.5% (65 m/km) results in descent rates that
exceed the recommended rates of descent for some aircraft. Pilots should consider carefully the
descent rate required for non-precision final approach segments before starting the approach.

APPROACH SEGMENTS
There are five segments to a standard instrument approach procedure.

Segments of an Instrument Approach Procedure

STANDARD ARRIVAL ROUTES (STARS)


When necessary, or where an operational advantage is obtained, arrival routes from the enroute
phase to a fix or facility used in the procedure are published.

When arrival routes are published, the width of the associated area decreases from the “enroute”
value to the “initial approach” value with a convergence angle of 30º each side of the axis.

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

This convergence begins at 46 km (25 nm) before the IAF if the length of the arrival route is
greater than or equal to 46 km (25 nm). It begins at the starting point of the arrival route if the
length is less than 46 km (25 nm).

The arrival route normally ends at the initial approach fix. Omni-directional or sector arrivals can
be provided taking into account MSA. When terminal radar is employed the aircraft is vectored to
a fix, or onto the intermediate or final approach track, at a point where the pilot may continue the
approach.

STARs are published in the AD section of the AIP under the appropriate aerodrome. An example
of a STAR is reproduced below. This particular STAR covers arrivals from the West and North
West and terminates at the Ockham VOR. This is the Initial Approach Fix (IAF) for procedures to
land on runway 09L at Heathrow.

STARS for Heathrow via the Ockham VOR

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

Initial Approach Segment


The initial approach segment commences at the IAF and ends at the intermediate fix (IF). In the
initial approach segment, the aircraft has departed the enroute structure and is manoeuvring to
enter the intermediate approach segment. Aircraft speed and configuration will depend on the
distance from the aerodrome and the descent required.

The initial approach segment provides at least 300 m (984 ft) of obstacle clearance in the primary
area. Track guidance is provided along the initial approach segment to the IF, with a maximum
angle of interception of 90º for a precision approach and 120º for a non-precision approach.
Where no suitable lAF or IF is available, a racetrack or holding pattern is required.

Intermediate Approach Segment


This is the segment during which the aircraft speed and configuration are adjusted to prepare the
aircraft for final approach. The descent gradient is kept as shallow as possible. During the
intermediate approach the obstacle clearance requirement reduces from 300 m (984 ft) to 150 m
(492 ft) in the primary area. Where a FAF is available, the intermediate approach segment begins
when the aircraft is on the inbound track of the procedure turn, base turn or final inbound leg of
the racetrack procedure.

Final Approach Segment


This is the segment in which alignment and descent for landing are made. Final approach may be
made to a runway for a straight in landing or to an aerodrome for a visual manoeuvre.

Final Approach — Non-Precision Approach with FAF


This segment begins at the FAF and ends at the MAPt. The FAF is sited on the final approach
track at a distance that permits selection of final approach configuration, and descent from
intermediate approach altitude/height to the MDA/H applicable either for a straight in approach or
for a visual circling. The optimum and maximum distances for locating the FAF relative to the
threshold are 9 km (5 nm) and 19 km (10 nm) respectively. The FAF is crossed at, or above, the
specified altitude/height and descent is then initiated. The descent gradient is published, and
where range information is available, descent profile information is provided.

Step Down Fix


A step-down fix may be incorporated in some non-precision approach procedures, in
which case two OCA/H values will be published, a higher value applicable to the primary
procedure, and a lower value applicable only if the step-down fix is positively identified
during the approach. Normally only one step-down fix is specified, but in the case of a
VOR/DME procedure several DME fixes may be depicted, each with its associated
minimum crossing attitude. Where a step-down procedure using a suitably located DME
is published, the pilot shall not commence descent until established on the specified
track. Once established on track, the pilot commences descent maintaining the aeroplane
on or above the published DME distance/height requirements.

Final Approach — Non-Precision Approach with No FAF


When an aerodrome is served by a single facility located on or near the aerodrome, and no other
facility is suitably situated to form a FAF, a procedure may be designed where the facility is both
the IAF and the MAPt. These procedures will indicate a minimum altitude/height for a reversal
procedure or racetrack, and an OCA/H for final approach. In the absence of a FAF, descent to
MDA/H is made once the aircraft is established inbound on the final approach track. In
procedures of this type, the final approach track cannot normally be aligned on the runway centre
line. Whether the OCA/H for straight in approach limits is published or not depends on the
angular difference between the track and the runway.

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

Final Approach Segment — Precision Approach – ILS


The final approach segment begins at the final approach point (FAP). This is a point in space on
the centre line of the localizer where the intermediate approach altitude/height intersects the
nominal glide path. Except in the case of stabilised approach, glide path interception normally
occurs at heights from 300 m (984 ft) to 900 m (2955 ft) above runway elevation.

On a 3º glide path interception occurs between 6 km (3 nm) and 19 km (10 nm) from the
threshold. The width of the ILS final approach area is much narrower than those of a non-
precision approach. Descent on the glide path must never be initiated until the aircraft is
established on the localizer.

The ILS obstacle clearance surfaces assume that the pilot does not normally deviate from the
centre line more than half a scale deflection after being established on track. Thereafter the
aircraft should adhere to the on-course, on-glide path position since more than half course sector
deflection or more than half course fly up deflection combined with other allowable system
tolerances could place the aircraft in the vicinity of the edge or bottom of the protected airspace
where loss of protection from obstacles can occur. The intermediate approach track or radar
vector has been designed to place the aircraft on the localizer at an altitude/height that is below
the nominal glide path.

Check Fix
The final approach area contains a fix at approximately 4DME that permits verification of
the glide path/altimeter relationship. The outer marker is normally used for this purpose.
Prior to crossing the fix, descent may be made on the glide path to the published fix
crossing altitude/height. Descent below the fix crossing altitude/height should not be
made prior to crossing the fix.

Loss of Precision
In the event of loss of glide path guidance during the approach, the procedure becomes a
non-precision approach. The OCA/H published for the glide path inoperative (ILS no GP)
case will apply.

Determination of DA or DH — ILS
As well as the physical characteristics of the ILS installation, the procedures specialist’s
consideration is given to obstacles in the approach areas for the calculation of the OCA/H for a
procedure. The calculated OCA/H is the height of the highest approach obstacle, or equivalent
missed approach obstacle, plus an aircraft category related allowance. In assessing these
obstacles, the operational variables of the aircraft category, approach coupling, category of
operation, and missed approach climb performance, are considered.

Standard Conditions
The OCA or OCH values are listed on the instrument approach chart for those categories of
aircraft for which the procedure is designed. The values are based on the following standard
conditions:

¾ Cat I flown with pressure altimeter


¾ Cat II flown with radio altimeter and flight director
¾ Aircraft wing span is not more than 60 m and the vertical distance between the flight
paths of the wheels and glide path antenna is no more than 6 m
¾ Missed approach climb gradient is 2.5%

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

MISSED APPROACH
If at any time during a procedure the pilot wishes to abandon the procedure, or at DH/A for a
precision approach and at the missed approach point (MAPt) for a non-precision approach, when
the visual criteria as defined by the operator is not obtained, the pilot is to fly a missed approach
procedure.

In commercial aviation this is commonly referred to as ‘the Go Around’ procedure, implying that
the pilot is going around the pattern again. During the missed approach phase, the pilot is faced
with the demanding task of changing the aircraft configuration, attitude, and altitude. For this
reason the design of the missed approach is kept as simple as possible. A missed approach
procedure consists of three phases: Initial Missed Approach; Intermediate Missed Approach, and
Final Missed approach.

Climb established Turns greater


than 15°
permitted

MAPt 50m MOC


2.5% can be
30m maintained
MOC
No turns greater
than 15°

MDA(H) Runway

Initial Missed Intermediate Missed Final Missed


Approach Segment Approach Segment Approach
Segment

Missed Approach Segments

Obstacle Clearance
A missed approach procedure is designed to provide protection from obstacles throughout the
missed approach manoeuvre. The procedure is applicable to the landing runway but may be
modified to cater for the instrument aid being used. The procedure specifies a point where the
missed approach begins and a point or an altitude/height where it ends.

The missed approach is to be initiated not lower than DA/H in the precision approach or at a
specified point (MAPt) in non-precision approach procedures where the aircraft is not lower than
the MDA/H.

The MAPt in a procedure may be the point of intersection of an electronic glide path with the
applicable DA/H, a navigational facility, a fix, or a specified distance from the FAF.

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

When a navigational facility or a fix defines the MAPt, the distance from the FAF to the MAPt is
normally published, and may be used for timing to the MAPt. In cases where timing is not
authorised, the procedure is annotated “timing not authorized for defining the MAPt.”

Initiating the Procedure


Pilots are expected to fly the missed approach procedure as published. In the event that a missed
approach is initiated prior to arriving at the MAPt, the pilot will normally proceed to the MAPt and
then follow the missed approach procedure in order to remain within the protected airspace.

Climb Gradient
Procedures are based on a nominal missed approach climb gradient of 2.5%. A gradient of 2%
may be used in the procedure construction if the necessary survey and safeguarding can be
provided with the approval of the appropriate authority. Gradients of 3, 4, or 5% may be used for
aircraft whose climb performance permits an operational advantage to be thus obtained.

If a gradient other than a 2.5% gradient is used, this is indicated on the instrument approach
chart. A missed approach procedure which is based on the nominal climb gradient of 2.5%
cannot be used by all aeroplanes when operating at or near maximum certificated gross mass
and engine out conditions. The operation of these aeroplanes needs special consideration at
aerodromes where there are critical obstacles on the missed approach area. These obstacles
may result in a special procedure being established with a possible increase in the DA/H or
MDA/H.

Initial Missed Approach


The initial phase begins at the MAPt and ends at the point where the aircraft is established in the
climb. In the initial segment, the pilot establishes the climb and changes aircraft configuration.
The procedure will call for the climb to be started on the final approach track therefore no turns
are specified in this phase.

Intermediate Phase
The intermediate phase is the phase within which the climb is continued, normally straight ahead.
It extends to the first point where 50 m (164 ft) obstacle clearance is obtained and can be
maintained. Turns of no more than 15º may be specified. During this phase, it is assumed that the
pilot will make track corrections.

Final Phase
The final phase begins at the point where 50 m (164 ft) obstacle clearance is first obtained and
can be maintained. It extends to the point where a new approach is started, the aircraft enters a
holding pattern, or the aircraft returns to the enroute structure. Turns may be prescribed during
this phase.

Turning Missed Approach


Turns in a missed approach procedure are only prescribed where terrain and other factors make
a turn necessary. If a turn from the final approach track is made, a specially constructed turning
missed approach area is specified. The turning point is specified in one of two ways:

¾ At a designated facility or fix


The turn is made upon arrival overhead the facility or fix, or
¾ At a designated altitude
The turn is made upon reaching the designated altitude unless an additional fix or
distance is specified to limit early turns

Air Law 10-29


Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

VISUAL MANOEUVRING (CIRCLING) (VM(C)A IN THE VICINITY


OF THE AERODROME
Visual manoeuvring (circling) is the term used to describe the visual phase of flight after
completing an instrument approach, to bring an aircraft into position for landing on a runway
which is not suitably located for a straight in approach. For instance, the ILS to runway 27 may be
totally unserviceable but the ILS to runway 09 perfectly good. A pilot could make an instrument
approach to 09 and with the landing runway (27) or the aiming point on 27 always in sight,
manoeuvre the aircraft to a point where a landing on 27 could be made. In this case, the ILS
approach does not result in a landing but a visual circling manoeuvre. As such the ILS portion of
the approach is not considered to be precision and therefore the lowest altitude the aircraft is
permitted to descend to is MDH/A for VM(C). This is a commonly used procedure. The advantage
is that the instrument part of the procedure will result in a lower MDH/A that may be below the
cloud base.

The Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) Area (VM(C)A)


The visual manoeuvring area for a circling approach is determined by drawing arcs centred on
each runway threshold and joining those arcs with tangent lines. The radius of the arcs is related
to:

¾ Aircraft category
¾ Speed for each category
¾ Wind speed, 46 km/h (25 kt) throughout the turn, and
¾ Bank angle, 20º average or 3º per second, whichever requires less bank

(VM(C)A) Not Considered for Obstacle Clearance


It is permissible to eliminate from consideration a particular sector where a prominent obstacle
exists in the visual manoeuvring (circling) area outside the final approach and missed approach
area. The dimensions of the instrument approach surfaces bound this sector, within the circling
area. When this option is exercised, the published procedure prohibits circling within the total
sector in which the obstacle exists.

Obstacle Clearance
When the (VM(C)A) has been established the OCA/H is determined for each category of aircraft.
The OCA/H for VM(C) is applicable to the aerodrome, not the runway used for the instrument
procedure. ICAO publishes the following table of minima for VM(C). It should be noted that the
criteria for minimum visibility are advisory whereas the criteria published in JAR OPS-1.430 are
mandatory (also required knowledge for Operational Procedures).

Aircraft Minimum Lowest OCH Minimum


Category Obstacle above aerodrome Visibility
Clearance elevation km (nm)
m (ft) m (ft)
A 90 (295) 120 (394) 1.9 (1.0)
B 90 (295) 150 (492) 2.8 (1.5)
C 120 (394) 180 (591) 3.7 (2.0)
D 120 (394) 210 (689) 4.6 (2.5)
E 150 (492) 240 (787) 6.5 (3.5)
OCA/H for Visual Manoeuvre (Circling) Approach

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

Minimum Descent Altitude/Height


An additional margin is added to the OCA/H for operational considerations, and a MDA/H is
specified. Descent below MDA/H should not be made until visual reference has been established
and can be maintained, the pilot has the landing threshold in sight, and the required obstacle
clearance can be maintained and the aircraft is in a position to carry out a landing.

Visual Flight Manoeuvre


A circling approach is a visual flight manoeuvre. Each circling situation is different because of
variables such as runway layout, final approach track, wind velocity, and meteorological
conditions. There is no single procedure that caters for conducting a circling approach in every
situation. After initial visual contact, the basic assumption is that the runway environment (the
runway threshold, approach lighting aids, or other markings identifiable with the runway), should
be kept in sight while at MDA/H for circling.

Missed Approach While Circling


If visual reference is lost while circling to land from an instrument approach, the missed approach
for the instrument procedure, must be followed. Other aircraft may be attempting the same
manoeuvre therefore the missed approach procedure must take the aircraft away from
subsequent instrument aircraft. It is expected that the pilot will make an initial climbing turn toward
the landing runway and overhead the aerodrome. Then, the pilot will establish the aircraft
climbing on the missed approach track. Because the circling manoeuvre may be accomplished in
more than one direction, different patterns will be required to establish the aircraft on the
prescribed missed approach course depending on its position at the time visual reference is lost.

PUBLISHED INFORMATION
The VM(C) OCA for the aerodrome is published on the chart for the instrument part of the
approach. The fixed margin is added to OCA for each category of aircraft.

Highest
obstacle in
area

Radius from
end of Runway
The radius is
based on aircraft
category/speed

Visual Manoeuvre (Circling) Area

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

Area Navigation (RNAV) Approach Procedures Based On VOR/DME


RNAV approach procedures based on VOR/DME are assumed to be based on one reference
facility composed of a VOR and co-located DME. Aircraft equipped with RNAV systems which
have been approved, may use these systems to carry out VOR/DME RNAV approaches
providing that before conducting any flight it is ensured that the RNAV equipment is serviceable,
the pilot has a current knowledge of how to operate the equipment so as to achieve the optimum
level of navigation accuracy and the published VOR/DME facility upon which the procedure is
based is serviceable. The main disadvantage of using RNAV is that it relies on a navigational
database to support the computer interpretation of the received information. If this database
contains errors computed positions will be in error.

Use of FMS/RNAV Equipment to Follow Conventional Non-Precision Approach Procedures


When FMS/RNAV equipment is available, it may be used when flying a conventional non-
precision approach procedure, provided the procedure is monitored using the basic display
normally associated with the procedure, and the tolerances for flight using raw data on the basic
display are complied with.

Track Reversal and Racetrack Procedures


At large aerodromes serving international commercial aviation, radar vectoring to the ILS or self
positioning to the ILS is the standard method of commencing an instrument approach. Even in
conditions of good visibility and high cloud ceiling, to ensure separation from departing aircraft,
IFR is made mandatory by the imposition of Class A airspace and ILS approaches are required.
At low intensity and remote aerodromes, with limited availability of ‘off aerodrome’ navigation
aids, a procedure known as the ‘single beacon reversing turn procedure’ is a standard type of
procedure. The chart below shows the ILS DME procedure for runway 08 at Luton.

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

Localiser Ident
and Frequency
MSA

Holding Pattern

FAP (there is no
defined FAF)
IAF
IF

Procedure Turn

Missed Approach
Procedure
Glidepath
interception

OCA (OCH)

VM(C) OCA
Glidepath
information

PROCEDURE
An arriving aircraft would usually enter the holding pattern above the LUT NDB(L), the IAF for the
procedure, at an altitude above the lowest holding altitude (LHA) and wait for clearance to begin
the procedure. When cleared to the LHA in the hold, the aircraft speed will be adjusted and
aircraft configuration adjusted. The ATC clearance would be “(callsign)… cleared ILS runway
08 advising turning inbound at 2000 ft” The aircraft leaves the hold on a track of 258°mag to a
point on the reciprocal of the ILS localiser at DME range 5 nm. The pilot would advise ATC
“(callsign) turning inbound at 2000 ft”. The controller will then clear the aircraft “(callsign)
report established ILS 08”. The aircraft is then flown through a procedure turn that places the
aircraft in a position to intercept the localiser beam inbound. Once established on the localiser
and reported so, the controller will instruct the pilot to report glidepath descending to the
aerodrome controller. The aircraft is flown along the localiser beam until the glidepath is
intercepted, and descent is commenced. If at DH the visual criteria is not obtained, the “go
around” (missed approach) procedure is flown as published on the chart.
Air Law 10-33
Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

Track Reversals
There are several different track reversal methods. The diagram below shows:

¾ Procedure turns;
¾ Base turn; and
¾ Racetrack.

Note: In all the procedures, tracks are flown. Therefore pilots must make allowance for the wind.

Track Reversal Procedures

45°/180° Procedure Turn


This is the most common track reversal procedure. At a defined point the aircraft is turned
through 45° and then flown straight and level. From the start of the turn, after for 1 min for Cat A
and B aircraft or 1 min 15 sec for C, D and E, the aircraft is turned in the opposite direction
through 180°. All turns are made at rate 1 (3°/sec) or 25° bank angle whichever is less. This
places the aircraft in a position to intercept the required inbound track at 45° (the optimum
converging angle). In still air the turn takes in excess of 2 minutes to reverse the track.

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

80°/260° Procedure Turn


This procedure is used where airspace is limited. The aircraft is turned through 80° and the bank
angle is immediately reversed to turn through 260° in the opposite direction. The turns are made
at rate 1 or 25° bank angle whichever is less. In still air, at the completion of the turn the aircraft
will be tracking inbound on the reciprocal of the outbound track. In still air, this procedure takes
exactly 2 minutes and is often called a 2 minute procedure.

Note: For either procedure, the tracks flown are reciprocal.

Note: The outbound leg is usually flown with reference to the ILS localiser (if the
procedure is part of an ILS approach). Flying the reciprocal of the localiser course is not
flying the back beam, which is not approved in Europe. The pilot must remember that
indications are reversed when flying the localiser in the wrong direction!

Base Turn
Where accurate track guidance is available other than the ILS localiser, for instance VOR
information, a base turn can be flown. From on top of the facility the aircraft is established on a
defined track which diverges from the reciprocal of the desired inbound track. At a point defined
by time, DME distance or interception of information from another aid, the aircraft is established in
a turn at rate 1 or 25° bank angle until the inbound track is intercepted.

Racetrack
It is not always convenient for the holding pattern associated with a single beacon procedure to
be oriented so that the inbound holding track can be extended directly into the outbound
procedure track as in the case of Luton. The picture below shows part of the procedure for
Edinburgh including a racetrack shown by the dotted line.

Normal
procedure
without holding

Racetrack

Racetrack Reversing Turn

Procedure
From the above picture it is clear that there is no way that the pilot can track outbound on 065°
directly from the holding pattern. In this case, when cleared to commence the approach the
aircraft is flown outbound in the holding pattern and the outbound track is maintained to a defined
point (in this case DME range 9 nm) at which a rate 1 turn through 180° is initiated to bring the
aircraft on to the desired inbound track. On the approach chart this would be specified as an
‘alternative procedure’.
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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

Note: The student must not confuse a racetrack with a holding pattern. The racetrack is
only used for track reversal; similarly, a holding pattern is only used for holding.

Dead Reckoning Segment


Where an operational advantage can be obtained, an ILS procedure may include a dead
reckoning segment from a fix (usually the IAF) to the localiser. The DR track will intercept the
localiser at 45° and will not be more than 19 km (10 nm) in length. The point of intersection of the
localiser is the beginning of the intermediate segment and will allow time for establishing on the
localiser before descent is required.

Centre line
45°
ILS Localiser
OM DR segment

10 nm max

DR Fix

VOR/DME
DME range

Dead Reckoning Segment

HOLDING PROCEDURES
Inevitably aircraft will not be able to make a straight in approach and will need to temporarily
‘park’ whilst awaiting clearance to commence the approach procedure. The process of ‘parking’ is
known as holding. We have already seen that the single beacon reversing turn procedure usually
starts at a holding point and it is usual for the missed approach procedure to end at a holding
point. Holding is achieved by the pilot flying the aircraft around a holding pattern. The process of
flying around the pattern is called ‘shuttling’. As part of the IRT the student will be required to fly
holding patterns to a precise degree, and this will be achieved after a lot of practice. In the
Chapters concerned with Approach Control, the student will be introduced to the process known
as ‘stacking’, but first the holding pattern needs to be described and the procedures for joining
and flying the pattern discussed.

Deviation Warning
Deviations from the procedures for holding may incur the risk of excursions beyond the perimeter
of the holding area into airspace used for other purposes. As such pilots must adhere to the
published procedures modified where necessary by ATC instructions or local instructions
published on STAR and instrument approach charts, and enroute charts.

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

Standard Pattern
A holding pattern normally involves a right turn at the holding point. Left hand patterns may be
specified where airspace considerations warrant. A left hand pattern and the associated joining
procedures are a mirror image of a right hand pattern.

Holding Pattern and Terminology

Procedure
The pattern is flown making all turns at rate 1 (3°/sec) or a maximum bank angle of 25°. The
pattern is defined by tracks to be made good and pilots are to allow for the wind. The pattern is
timed along the outbound leg, normally 1 minute starting at the abeam point, but timing may be
started at the holding point adding 1 minute for the turn. If the abeam point cannot be determined,
timing may start at the completion of the outbound turn. The outbound leg may be limited by DME
range. Holding patterns are flown at specified speeds although the FMC system in modern
aircraft calculates the most cost effective holding speed and sets the speed when an auto-
coupled holding pattern is flown.

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

Holding Speeds (Note: Speeds and heights in bold are required knowledge)

Holding Speeds
1
Levels Normal Conditions Turbulence Conditions
2 3
Up to 4250 m (14 000 ft) inclusive 425 km/h (230 kts) 520 km/h (280 kts)
4 4
315 km/h (170 kt) 315 km/h (170 kt)
5
Above 4250 m (14 000 ft) to 6100m 445 km/h (240 kt) 520 km/h (280 kt)
(20 000 ft) inclusive or 0.8 M whichever is less
3

5
Above 6100 m (20 000 ft) to 490 km/h (265 kt) 520 km/h (280 kt)
3
10 350 m (34 000 ft) inclusive or 0.8 M whichever is less

Above 10 350 m (34 000 ft) 0.83 M 0.83 M


1. The levels tabulated represent altitudes or corresponding flight levels depending upon the altimeter setting in use.
2. When the holding procedure is followed by the initial segment of an instrument approach procedure promulgated
at a speed higher than 425 km/h, (230 kt), the holding should also be promulgated at this higher speed wherever
possible.
3. The speed of 520 km/h, (280 kt) (0.8 M) reserved for turbulence conditions shall be used for holding only after prior
clearance with ATC, unless the relevant publications indicate that the holding area can accommodate aircraft flight at
these high holding speeds.
4. For holdings limited to CAT A and B aircraft only.
5. Wherever possible, 520 km/h (280 kt) should be used for holding procedures associated with airway route
structures.

Joining the Pattern


The pattern is defined by a holding direction (inbound magnetic track to the holding point). When
joining a holding pattern, the pilot flies the aircraft to the holding point (holding fix) and dependent
upon the magnetic heading at the fix, joins the pattern by one of three possible entry manoeuvres
based on the sector from which the approach to the fix is made. The sector is defined by aircraft
headings and when an approach to the fix is made within 5° of the sector boundary, the pilot has
the choice of the joining manoeuvre for the correct sector or for the adjacent sector if it is more
operationally expeditious. The following joining procedures assume a right hand pattern.

Sector 1 (Parallel Entry)


Having reached the fix, the
aircraft is turned left onto an
outbound heading, reciprocal
to the inbound holding track
for the appropriate period of
time. The aircraft is then
turned left onto the holding
side to intercept the inbound
track or to return to the fix.
On second arrival over the
holding fix, the aircraft is
turned right to follow the
holding pattern.

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

Sector 2 (Offset Entry)


Having reached the fix, the
aircraft is turned onto a
heading to make good a
track making an angle of 30°
from the reciprocal of the
inbound track on the holding
side. The aircraft flies
outbound for the appropriate
period of time, where timing
is specified, or until the
appropriate limiting DME
distance is attained, where
distance is specified. The
aircraft is turned right to
intercept the inbound holding
track, then on second arrival
over the holding fix, the
aircraft is turned right to
follow the holding pattern.

Sector 3 Procedures (Direct


Entry) Having reached the fix,
the aircraft turns right to follow
the holding pattern.

Time and Distance Outbound


The still air flying time for the outbound and entry tracks is not to exceed one minute if at or below
14 000 ft, or one and a half minutes if above 14 000 ft. Where DME is available, the outbound
legs may be limited by a DME range.

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

Establishing in the Hold


When holding for an IFR instrument procedure, the Approach Controller will clear the aircraft to
the holding pattern at a specific FL or altitude. For instance: “Atlantic 123 hold on the DAV
beacon at FL 90”. For sector 1 and 2 joins, after the second time over the holding point the
aircraft should be established in the holding pattern. For sector 3 the aircraft may be established
in the holding pattern after the first time over the fix. Once established the pilot will report
“Atlantic 123 DAV holding FL90”. This level should then be maintained until re-cleared for a
lower level or to continue enroute by ATC.

Descent in the Hold


When ATC wants the aircraft to move to a lower level, the pilot will be instructed: “Atlantic 123
shuttle in the hold to FL80”. The pilot will acknowledge the instruction and immediately
commence descent: “Atlantic 123 descending to FL 80”. The descent can be started at any
point in the holding pattern. When level at FL80 the pilot will report “Atlantic 123 DAV holding
FL80”.

Departing the Pattern


When cleared to leave the holding pattern, the pilot should maintain the pattern until reaching the
fix and then take up the required heading. If instructed to leave the holding pattern at a specific
time, the pilot should cut short the holding pattern to depart from the holding fix at the specified
time. If the Approach Radar controller issues radar vectoring instructions the commencement
point will be stated. “Atlantic 123 radar vectoring for ILS Coventry runway 23. From your
present position turn right heading 350”.

Obstacle Clearance
The holding area is not defined in terms of lateral dimensions. The designer will ensure that there
is sufficient airspace above the MOC to encompass the holding pattern and the associated joining
procedures. Surrounding the holding area, a buffer area is established extending laterally 5 nm
from the holding area. Full MOC is maintained within the holding area and 1 nm into the buffer
area. The MOC is reduced in steps for each nm into the buffer area until the MOC is reduced to
zero at the extremity of the buffer area.

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

Holding Area and Buffer Area

Reducing Minimum Obstacle Clearance (MOC)

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

SIMULTANEOUS OPERATIONS ON PARALLEL OR NEAR


PARALLEL INSTRUMENT RUNWAYS
Simultaneous operations on parallel or near parallel instrument runways in IMC are essential in
order to increase capacity at busy aerodromes. An aerodrome already having dual parallel
precision approach (ILS) runways can increase capacity if these runways are safely operated
simultaneously and independently when IMC exists. There are a variety of modes of operation
associated with the use of parallel or near parallel instrument runways. These are:

¾ Simultaneous parallel instrument approaches (modes 1 and 2);


¾ Simultaneous parallel instrument departures (mode 3);
¾ Segregated parallel operations (mode 4), and
¾ Semi-mixed parallel operations.

Mode 1, Independent Parallel Approaches


Approaches made to parallel runways where radar separation between aircraft using adjacent ILS
is not applied.

Mode 2, Dependent Parallel Approaches


Approaches made to parallel runways where radar separation between aircraft using adjacent ILS
is applied.

Mode 3, Simultaneous Instrument Departures


This is defined as simultaneous departures for aircraft departing in the same direction from
parallel runways. It is implicit that the tracks of the aircraft will diverge after take off and that radar
separation will be applied.

Note: When the minimum distance between two parallel runway centre lines is lower
than the specified value dictated by wake turbulence considerations, the parallel runways
are considered as a single runway in regard to separation between departing aircraft. A
simultaneous dependent parallel departure mode of operation is therefore not used.

Mode 4, Segregated Parallel Approaches/Departures


In this mode one runway is used for departures and the other used for arrivals, or vice versa. This
is the normal mode of operation at London Heathrow and permits up to 90 movements (take-offs
and landings) per hour.

Semi-Mixed and Mixed Operations


In the case of parallel approaches and departures there may be mixed or semi-mixed operations
based on the four operating modes described above.

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

Semi-mixed operations Mode


One runway is used exclusively for approaches while:
Approaches are being made to the other runway, or 1 or 2
Departures are in progress on the other runway 4

One runway is used exclusively for departures while:


Approaches are being made to the other runway, or 4
Departures are in progress on the other runway 3

Mixed operations
All modes of operation are possible 1,2,3 or 4

Normal Operating Zone (NOZ)


Where Mode 1 and Mode 2, simultaneous approaches are in operation, a NOZ is established for
each runway. This is airspace of defined dimensions extending to either side of the ILS localizer
course. Only the inner half of the NOZ is taken into account for Mode 1.

No-Transgression Zone (NTZ)


In the context of independent parallel approaches (Mode 1), the NTZ is a corridor of airspace of
defined dimensions, located centrally between the two extended runway centre lines where
penetration by an aircraft requires controller intervention to manoeuvre any threatened aircraft on
the adjacent approach into safe airspace.

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

Runway Lateral Spacing


The spacing between the centre lines of the adjacent (parallel) runways is defined as minima
dependent upon the operation. All aerodromes are categorised by an aerodrome reference code.
In the diagrammatic description below, reference to code relates to the aerodrome reference
code. This is explained fully in the chapter dealing with aerodromes.

Required runway Spacing for Parallel Operations


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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

Vectoring to the ILS Localizer Course


When simultaneous independent parallel approaches are in progress, the following apply:

Radar Monitoring
All approaches regardless of weather conditions are radar monitored. Control instructions
and information necessary to ensure separation between aircraft, and to ensure aircraft
do not enter the NTZ, are issued. The ATC procedure will be to vector arriving aircraft to
one or the other of the parallel ILS localizer courses. When cleared for an ILS approach,
only a straight in approach is permitted (no track reversals). When vectoring to intercept
the ILS localizer course, the final vector is such as to enable the aircraft to intercept the
ILS localizer course at an angle not greater than 30º and to provide at least 2 km (1 nm)
straight and level flight prior to ILS localizer course intercept. This vector enables the
aircraft to be established on the ILS localizer course in level flight for at least 3.7 km
(2.0 nm) prior to intercepting the ILS glide path.

Separation
Each pair of parallel approaches will have a “high side” and a “low side” for vectoring, to
provide vertical separation until aircraft are established inbound on their respective
parallel ILS localizer course. The low side altitude will normally be such that the aircraft
will be established on the ILS localizer course well before ILS glidepath interception. The
high side altitude will be 300 m (1000 ft) above the low side. The main objective is that
both aircraft be established on the ILS localizer course before the 300 m (1000 ft) vertical
separation is reduced.

Corrective Action
If an aircraft is observed to overshoot the ILS localizer course during turn to final, the
aircraft will be instructed to return immediately to the correct track. Pilots are not required
to acknowledge these transmissions or subsequent instructions while on final approach
unless requested to do so. Once the 300 m (1000 ft) vertical separation is reduced, the
radar controller monitoring the approach will issue control instructions if the aircraft
deviates substantially from the ILS localizer course. If the aircraft fails to take corrective
action and penetrates the NTZ, the aircraft on the adjacent ILS localizer course will be
issued appropriate control instructions.

Missed Approach/Track Divergence


Simultaneous parallel operations require diverging tracks for missed approach
procedures and departures. When turns are prescribed to establish divergence, pilots
shall commence the turns as soon as practicable. Pilots should always be aware that
during parallel runway operations an aircraft that makes a missed approach is actually
flying a simultaneous parallel runway departure procedure.

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

Fig: Mode 1 Independent Parallel Approaches

Fig: Mode 1 Relationship between NTZ and NOZ

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Instrument Procedures Chapter 10

Fig: Mode 2 Dependent Parallel Approaches

Fig: Mode 3 Simultaneous Parallel Departures

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Chapter 10 Instrument Procedures

Fig: Mode 4 Segregated Operations

10-48 Air Law


INTRODUCTION
Annex 15 to the Chicago Convention covers the provision of an Aeronautical Information Service
(AIS). The object of AIS is to ensure the flow of information necessary for the safety, regularity
and efficiency of international air navigation. Corrupt or erroneous aeronautical information can
potentially affect the safety of air navigation. The role and importance of aeronautical
information/data changed significantly with the implementation of:

¾ Area navigation (RNAV);


¾ Required navigation performance (RNP), and
¾ Airborne computer-based navigation systems.

To satisfy the uniformity and consistency in the provision of aeronautical information that is
required for operational use, states shall, as far as possible, avoid standards and procedures
other than those established for international use.

RESPONSIBILITIES AND FUNCTION


Each contracting state shall provide an aeronautical information service, or provide a joint service
with one or more Contracting State, and shall remain responsible for any information published.
Aeronautical information shall clearly indicate that it is published under the authority of that state.
Where a 24-hour service is not provided, the service has to be available during the whole period
an aircraft is in flight in the area of responsibility plus a period of at least two hours before and
after such a period.

The aeronautical information service shall obtain information for it to provide a pre-flight
information service to meet the need for in-flight information, and to ensure that information is in a
form suitable for the requirements of flight operations personnel including flight crews, flight
planning and flight simulator, and the ATS unit responsible for a FIS.

THE INTEGRATED AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PACKAGE


(IAIP)
The IAIP is a package that consists of the following elements:

¾ Aeronautical Information Publication (AlP), including an amendment service;


¾ Supplements to the AlP;
¾ NOTAM and pre-flight information bulletins (PIB);
¾ Aeronautical Information Circulars (AICs);
¾ Checklists and Summaries.

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Chapter 11 Aeronautical Information Service

Note: AlPs are intended primarily to satisfy international requirements for the exchange
of aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation. When
practicable, the form of presentation is designed to facilitate their use in flight.

WGS 84
As of 1 January 1984, published geographical co-ordinates indicating latitude and longitude shall
be expressed in terms of the World Geodetic System - 1984 (WGS 84).

PROHIBITED, RESTRICTED, AND DANGER AREAS


Prohibited, restricted or danger areas established by a state shall, upon initial establishment, be
given an identification designation and full details shall be promulgated.

The identification assigned is used to identify the area in all subsequent notifications pertaining to
that area. The identification is composed of a group comprising; nationality letters for location
indicators assigned to the state or territory, which has established the airspace (EG is used for
the UK); a letter: P - Prohibited area; R - Restricted area; D - Danger area; and a unique number
within the state or territory concerned. Hence EGD001 is danger area number 001 in the United
Kingdom.

To avoid confusion, identification numbers are not re-used for a period of at least one year after
cancellation of any area to which they refer. This will allow all aeronautical publications and charts
to be reprinted at least once after the designation is cancelled.

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Aeronautical Information Service Chapter 11

NOTAM (NOTICE TO AIRMEN)


The AFTN shall, whenever practicable, be employed for NOTAM distribution usually in telex
format. A NOTAM is originated and issued whenever the information to be distributed: is of a
temporary nature and of short duration; contains operationally significant permanent changes;
contains temporary changes of long duration made at short notice, except for extensive text
and/or graphics.

Note: Information of short duration containing extensive text and/or graphics is published
as an AIP Supplement.

Distribution
A NOTAM is distributed to addressees to whom the information is of direct operational
significance, and who would not otherwise have at least seven days prior notification.

NOTAM Checklist
A checklist of NOTAMs in force is issued over the AFTN at intervals of not more than one month;
it refers to the latest AIP Amendments, AIP Supplements and at least the internationally
distributed AICs. The checklist must have the same distribution as the actual message series to
which they refer.

NOTAM Summary
This is a monthly printed plain language summary which is prepared and forwarded to the
recipients of the integrated AIP containing details of the NOTAMs in force, the latest AIP
Amendments, a checklist of AIP Supplements, and AIC issued.

SNOWTAM
Information concerning snow, ice, and standing water on aerodrome pavements is reported by
SNOWTAM. The maximum validity of a SNOWTAM is 24 hours. However, a new SNOWTAM
must be issued when there is a significant change in conditions.

SNOCLO
This is a term used in a VOLMET broadcast to indicate that an aerodrome is closed due to snow
or snow clearance in progress.

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Chapter 11 Aeronautical Information Service

SNOWTAM Form

The SNOWTAM Form is broken into 17 sections as shown in the form below.

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Aeronautical Information Service Chapter 11

Wheel Braking on Wet Runways


The retardation effect of an aircraft’s braking system relies on friction with the surface of the
runway. If the surface is not dry then the ‘amount of friction’ will be reduced. The reduction in
friction can be given a factor known as the co-efficient of braking and is defined by the value of
friction of the runway at an instant in time, determined by measurement, divided by the value of
friction for the same runway when dry. If the runway is dry, the coefficient of braking is 1; if not dry
the co-efficient is less than 1. All paved runways of 1200 m or longer are required to be calibrated
for co-efficient of braking to ensure that when wet, good braking action will exist. The presence of
water on a runway will be reported by RTF as follows:

Dry The surface is dry


Damp The surface shows a change of colour due to moisture
Wet The surface is soaked, but no significant patches of standing water are
visible
Water Patches Significant patches of standing water are visible
Flooded Extensive standing water is visible

Interpretation
When a runway is reported as DRY, DAMP, or WET, pilots may assume an acceptable level of
braking friction is present. WATER PATCHES or FLOODED means that braking may be affected
by hydroplaning and appropriate adjustments should be considered. Water patches will be
reported if at least 25% of the runway is affected. When a runway is notified as ‘slippery when
wet’ take-offs and landings in wet conditions should only be considered if the distances equal or
exceed the distances required for icy runways as defined in the aircraft manual.

Snow, Slush, or Ice on a Runway


Whenever a runway is affected by snow, slush, or ice and it has not been possible to clear the
precipitant fully, the condition of the runway should be assessed, and the friction coefficient
measured. The table below, with associated descriptive terms, was developed from friction data
collected in compacted snow and ice and should not be taken as absolute values applicable in all
conditions. If the surface is affected by snow or ice and the braking action is reported as “good”,
pilots should not expect to find conditions as good as on a clean dry runway (where the available
friction may well be greater than that needed). The value “good” is a comparative value and is
intended to mean that aeroplanes should not experience directional control or braking difficulties
especially when landing.

Table: Braking Action


Measured Coefficient Estimated Braking Action Code
0.40 and above Good 5
0.39 to 0.36 Medium to good 4
0.35 to 0.30 Medium 3
0.29 to 0.26 Medium to poor 2
0.25 and below Poor 1

ASHTAM
Information concerning an operationally significant change in volcanic activity, a volcanic eruption
and/or volcanic ash cloud is reported by means of an ASHTAM. An ASHTAM provides
information on the status of activity of a volcano, when a change in its activity is expected, or is,
of operational significance. Information is passed using a volcano level of alert colour code given
in the table.

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Chapter 11 Aeronautical Information Service

Table: Volcanic Activity Reporting


Level of Alert Status of Activity of Volcano
Colour Code
Red Alert Volcanic eruption in progress. Ash plume/cloud reported above
FL250
or
Volcano dangerous, eruption likely, with ash plume/cloud expected
to rise above FL250
Orange Alert Volcanic eruption in progress but ash plume/cloud not reaching nor
expected to reach FL250
or
Volcano dangerous, eruption likely, with ash plume/cloud not
expected to rise above FL250
Yellow Alert Volcano known to be active from time to time and volcanic activity
has recently increased significantly, volcano not currently considered
dangerous but caution should be exercised
or
(After an eruption eg a change in alert to yellow from red or orange)
Volcanic activity has decreased significantly, volcano not currently
considered dangerous but caution should be exercised
Green Alert Volcanic activity considered to have ceased and volcano reverted to
its normal state

AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION REGULATION AND CONTROL


(AIRAC)
AIRAC System
AIRAC is a regulated system for the distribution of amendments to aeronautical data, specifically
the AIP. AIRAC amendments are issued in two parts. Both parts are usually distributed together
to subscribing organisations. The system is based on the establishment of a series of common
effective dates at intervals of 28 days. The AIS unit distributes AIRAC information at least 42 days
in advance of the effective date with the objective of reaching recipients at least 28 days in
advance of the effective date. The information notified is not changed for at least another 28 days
after the effective date, unless the change is of a temporary nature and would not persist for the
full period. Whenever major changes are planned and where additional notice is desirable and
practicable, a publication date of at least 56 days in advance of the effective date should be used.

AIRAC notification by NOTAM


When an AIP Amendment or an AlP Supplement is published in accordance with AIRAC
procedures a NOTAM shall be originated giving a brief description of the contents, the effective
date and the reference number to the amendment or supplement. This NOTAM shall come into
force on the same effective date as the amendment or supplement.

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Aeronautical Information Service Chapter 11

AIRAC Part 1 Contents


Part 1 contains information relating to the establishment, withdrawal of, and premeditated
significant changes to:

¾ Limits (horizontal and vertical), regulations and procedures applicable to:


• FIR;
• CTA;
• CTR;
• Advisory areas;
• ATS routes;
• Permanent danger, prohibited and restricted areas; and
• Permanent areas, routes or portions of routes where the possibility of interception
exists.

¾ Positions, frequencies, call signs, known irregularities and maintenance periods, of


radio navigation aids and communication facilities;
¾ Holding and approach procedures, arrival and departure procedures, noise
abatement procedures and any other permanent ATS procedures;
¾ Meteorological facilities, including broadcasts, and procedures;
¾ Runways and stopways.

AIRAC Part 2 Contents


Part 2 of an AIRAC issue contains information relating to the establishment, withdrawal of and
premeditated significant changes to:

¾ Position, height and lighting of navigational obstacles;


¾ Taxiways and aprons;
¾ Hours of service of aerodrome; and facilities and services;
¾ Temporary danger, prohibited and restricted areas and navigational hazards, military
exercises and mass movements of aircraft; and
¾ Temporary areas or routes or portions thereof where the possibility of interception
exists.

AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION CIRCULARS (AIC)


Need
An AIC is originated whenever it is necessary to promulgate aeronautical information that does
not qualify under the specifications for inclusion in the AlP, or under the specifications for the
origination of a NOTAM.

Specification
AICs are issued in printed form containing both text and diagrams if required. A state may
distribute AICs internationally as well as domestically. AICs have a consecutive serial number
based on the calendar year. If more than one series is published, each series is given an
identification letter. AICs are differentiated by subject matter by way of colour coding the paper
they are printed on. A checklist of AICs currently in force is to be issued at least once a year.

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Chapter 11 Aeronautical Information Service

Example of AIC system: The following is the UK system for coding AICs:
Pink Matters relating to safety
Yellow Operational matters including ATS facilities and requirements
White Administrative matters e.g. exam dates and fees
Mauve Airspace reservations
Green Maps and charts

Note: Mauve is purple.

Uses
An AIC shall be originated whenever it is desirable to promulgate a long term forecast of any
major change in legislation, regulations, procedures, or facilities; information of a purely
explanatory or advisory nature liable to affect flight safety; information, or notification of an
explanatory or advisory nature concerning technical, legislative, or purely administrative matters.

PRE-FLIGHT AND POST FLIGHT INFORMATION


Pre-Flight Information
At an aerodrome used for international air operations, aeronautical information shall be made
available to flight operations personnel responsible for pre-flight information, essential for the
safety, regularity and efficiency of air navigation, and relative to the route stages originating at the
aerodrome.

Planning
Aeronautical information provided for pre-flight planning purposes shall include relevant
elements of the Integrated Aeronautical Information Package, maps and charts, and
additional current information relating to the aerodrome of departure.

PIBs
All NOTAM information is to be available to pilots in the form of pre-flight information bulletins
(PIB).

Post Flight Information


States shall ensure that arrangements are made for all aerodromes to receive information
concerning the state and operation of the navigation facilities to be used by flight crew. All such
information is made available to the AIS for dissemination.

AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PUBLICATION (AIP)


An AIP consists of three parts relating to the following subjects:

Part 1 — General (GEN)


A list of significant differences between the national regulations and practices of the State
and the related ICAO SARPs and procedures. These are given in a form that would
enable a user to differentiate readily between the requirements of the State and the
related ICAO provisions are found in this section.

Part 2 — Enroute (ENR)


This part of the AIP provides information relating to routes, facilities, and procedures.

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Aeronautical Information Service Chapter 11

Part 3 — Aerodrome Directory (AD)


This part of the AIP gives physical details of aerodromes, facilities, and services
available.

AlP Amendments
Permanent changes to the AlP are published as AlP amendments.

AlP Supplements
Temporary changes of long duration (three months) and information of short duration which
contains extensive text and/or graphics are published as AIP supplements. AIP supplement
pages are coloured in order to be conspicuous, preferably in yellow (as in the UK).

CONTENTS OF AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PUBLICATION


(AIP)
PART 1 — GENERAL (GEN)

GEN 1 — National Regulations and Requirements


Information relating to:
¾ Designated authorities;
¾ Entry, transit and departure of aircraft;
¾ Entry, transit and departure of cargo;
¾ Aircraft instruments, equipment and flight documents;
¾ Summary of national regulations and international agreements/conventions; and
¾ Differences from ICAO SARPs.

GEN 2 — Tables and Codes


Data relating to:
¾ Measuring system, aircraft markings, holidays;
¾ Abbreviations used in AIS publications;
¾ Chart symbols;
¾ Location indicators;
¾ List of radio navigation aids;
¾ Conversion tables;
¾ Sunrise/sunset tables.

GEN 3 — Services
Information applicable to the provision of:
¾ Aeronautical information services;
¾ Aeronautical charts;
¾ Air traffic services;
¾ Meteorological services;
¾ SAR.

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Chapter 11 Aeronautical Information Service

PART 2 — ENROUTE (ENR)

ENR 1 — General Rules and Procedures


Specific information regarding:
¾ General rules;
¾ VFR;
¾ IFR;
¾ ATS airspace classification;
¾ Holding, approach, and departure procedures;
¾ Radar services and procedures;
¾ Altimeter setting procedures;
¾ Regional supplementary procedures;
¾ Air traffic flow management;
¾ Flight planning;
¾ Addressing of flight plan messages;
¾ Interception of civil aircraft;
¾ Unlawful interference;
¾ Air traffic incidents.

ENR 2 — Air Traffic Services Airspace


Definitions and delineation of:
¾ FIR, UIR, TMA; and
¾ Other regulated airspace.

ENR 3 — ATS Routes


Specifications for and routing of:
¾ Lower ATS routes;
¾ Upper ATS routes;
¾ Area navigation routes;
¾ Helicopter routes;
¾ Other routes; and
¾ Enroute holding.

ENR 4 — Radio Navigation Aids/Systems


Details, location and specifications of:
¾ Radio navigation aids – enroute;
¾ Special navigation systems;
¾ Name code designators for specific points; and
¾ Aeronautical ground lights – enroute.

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ENR 5 — Navigation Warnings


Details of:
¾ Prohibited, restricted and danger areas;
¾ Military exercise and training areas;
¾ Other activities of a dangerous nature;
¾ Air navigation obstacles – enroute;
¾ Aerial sporting and recreational activities; and
¾ Bird migration and areas with sensitive fauna.

ENR 6 — Enroute Charts


Specific charts relating to the routes defined in ENR 3

PART 3 — AERODROMES (AD)

AD 1 — Aerodromes/Heliports Introduction
Specific information relating to:
¾ Aerodrome/heliport availability;
¾ Rescue and fire fighting services and snow plan;
¾ Index to aerodromes and heliports;
¾ Groupings of aerodromes/heliports.

AD 2 — Aerodromes
Specifications of and data relating to:
¾ Aerodrome location indicator and name;
¾ Aerodrome geographical and administrative data;
¾ Operational hours;
¾ Handling services and facilities;
¾ Passenger facilities;
¾ Rescue and fire fighting services;
¾ Seasonal availability – clearing;
¾ Aprons, taxiways and check locations/positions data;
¾ Surface movement guidance and markings;
¾ Aerodrome obstacles;
¾ Meteorological information provided;
¾ Runway physical characteristics;
¾ Declared distances;
¾ Helicopter landing area;
¾ Approach and runway lighting;
¾ Other lighting, secondary power supply;
¾ ATS airspace;
¾ ATS communication facilities;
¾ Radio navigation and landing aids;
¾ Local traffic regulations;
¾ Noise abatement procedures;
¾ Flight procedures;
¾ Any additional information.

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AD 3 — Heliports
Relating specifically to heliports.

Charts Related to an Aerodrome


The requirement is for charts related to an aerodrome to be included in the following order:
¾ Aerodrome/heliport chart;
¾ Aircraft parking/docking chart;
¾ Aerodrome ground movement chart;
¾ Aerodrome obstacle chart – for each runway;
¾ Precision approach terrain chart;
¾ Area chart – departure and transit routes;
¾ Standard departure chart;
¾ Area chart – arrival and transit routes;
¾ Standard arrival chart;
¾ Instrument approach chart;
¾ Visual approach chart;
¾ Bird concentrations in the vicinity of aerodrome.

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Reference: Annex 11 - Air Traffic Services
Document 4444 PANS – ATM

INTRODUCTION
Since the introduction of modern Air Traffic Control service following WWII, procedures and
technology have advanced and kept pace with the growth of air traffic and the advances in
aircraft design. The modern ATC system is as different today to a 1950s ATCO as would be the
flight deck of a Boeing 777 to a Comet pilot.

Whilst there is still reliance on the individual skill of the controller, modern digital data systems,
digital radar displays, and hi-speed communications all help make the controller’s job less
stressful and more professional, thus enhancing safety. The success of an ATC system depends
on the adherence to procedures and the application of standards.

The training of Air Traffic Control Officers (ATCOs) is no less demanding than that of pilots.
ATCOs are required to hold a class 1 medical certificate and are subject to regular skill tests and
proficiency checks as are aircrew. As aircrew, you will see only a little of what goes on in the
ATCC or the control tower, and your only contact with ATCOs will usually be by RTF. However,
the LOs for 010 Air Law require the ATPL student to understand the types of ATC offered to
pilots, knowledge of the types of airspace, and the standards for separation applied in them.

OBJECTIVE OF THE AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES (ATS)


The defined objectives of the ATS are to:

¾ Prevent collisions between aircraft;


¾ Prevent collisions between aircraft and obstructions on the manoeuvring area;
¾ Expedite and maintain an orderly flow of air traffic;
¾ Provide advice and information necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of flights;
and
¾ Notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of SAR aid, and assist
such organizations as required.

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Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace

DIVISIONS OF THE AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES


The ATS comprises three services identified as follows:

¾ The Air Traffic Control Service


To provide ATC to aircraft.

¾ Flight Information Service


To provide advice and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flight. ICAO
permits the use of radar in the provision of this service.

¾ Alerting Service
To notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of SAR aid, and assist such
organizations as required.

The Air Traffic Control Service is further sub-divided into three parts:

¾ Area Control Service


The provision of ATC service for controlled flights, except those parts of such flights as
described below.

¾ Approach Control Service


The provision of ATC service for those parts of controlled flights associated with arrival
and departure.

¾ Aerodrome Control Service


The provision of ATC service for aerodrome traffic, except for those parts of flights
described above.

DETERMINATION OF THE NEED FOR AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES


The need for the provision of ATS is determined by considering the following:

¾ The types of traffic involved


¾ The density of air traffic
¾ The meteorological conditions
¾ Such other factors as may be relevant

CLASSES OF AIRSPACE
When it has been determined that ATS will be provided in a particular portion of airspace or at a
particular aerodrome, the airspace is designated according to the services to be provided. The
designation (classes) of airspace is as follows:

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Traffic Info
ATC Speed Radio
Class Rules Service Separation and SVFR Use
Clearance Limit Watch
avoidance
Airway; CTA;
A IFR ATC Required IFR-IFR No Yes Yes
CTR; ATZ
IFR-IFR
IFR ATC
IFR-VFR
B Required
VFR-IFR No Yes Yes
Airway; CTA;
VFR ATC CTR; ATZ
VFR-VFR
ATC IFR – IFR No
IFR
ATC IFR – VFR
C Required
Yes Yes
Airway; CTA;
ATC VFR – IFR CTR; ATZ
VFR Yes
FIS VFR-VFR
ATC IFR-IFR
IFR (1)
ATC IFR-VFR
D (1)
Required
Yes Yes Yes
Airway; CTA;
ATC VFR-IFR CTR; ATZ
VFR None
FIS VFR-VFR
ATC IFR-IFR
IFR Required Yes
FIS IFR-VFR
E Yes No Airway; CTA
FIS VFR-IFR
VFR None None No
FIS VFR-VFR
IFR-IFR
ADV
IFR None (as far as Yes Advisory
F ATC Yes No
practical) Routes
VFR FIS None None No
IFR Yes
FIS Routes
G FIS None None Yes No
VFR No Open FIR

Note 1: In Class D, traffic information and avoidance is provided by a service called Radar Information
Service (not to be confused with the UK RIS). This is not ATC and it is not Advisory ATC as in Class F. For
this purpose it is classified as ATC.

Speed Limit
Where imposed, the speed limit is 250 kts IAS. ATC may impose lower speed restrictions to
facilitate separation. Other speed restrictions may be applied to aircraft flying a STAR and the
start point of such limits will be published on the STAR chart.

Flight Information Regions (FIRs)


Those portions of the airspace where it is determined that FIS and alerting service will be
provided are designated as FIRs. All the airspace within the territorial limits of a state is contained
with FIRs.

Controlled Airspace (CAS)


All airspace defined as requiring ATC or Advisory ATC providision is classified as Controlled
Airspace (CAS). Outside of CAS only FIS and the Alerting Service services are provided.

Control Areas and Control Zones


Those airspace parts determined to receive ATC service for IFR flights and controlled VFR flights,
are designated Control Areas (CTAs) or Control Zones (CTRs). The difference between a CTA
and a CTR is discussed later. Where designated within a FIR, CTAs and CTRs shall form part of
that FIR. ICAO states that Class E airspace cannot be used for CTRs.

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Controlled Aerodromes
Those aerodromes where it is determined that ATC service will be provided to aerodrome traffic,
are designated as controlled aerodromes.

Oceanic Control Areas


Airspace outside the territorial limits of states and therefore not subject to domestic ATC
arrangements, is organised into Oceanic Control Areas (OCA). The ATC procedures applied in
OCAs are defined in Doc 7030 SUPPS. The student will study the organisation of the NAT region
in 070 Operational Procedures. The NAT area incorporates of the following OCAs:

¾ Shanwick OCA (the UK and EIRE)


¾ Gander OCA (Canada)
¾ New York OCA (USA)
¾ Miami OCA (USA)
¾ Santa Maria OCA (Portugal)
¾ Bodø OCA (Norway)
¾ Sønderstrom OCA (Greenland)
¾ Iceland Oceanic FIR

Within the ICAO classification of airspace, airspace is utilised as follows:

Class A
Where the interaction of IFR and VFR traffic is not desirable mainly due to traffic density
and the use of VFR flight levels, VFR is prohibited. In Europe Class A is used extensively
for airways; CTAs and CTRs. In Class A CTRs SVFR is permitted. In N America
(especially the USA) Class A is infrequently used.

Class B
Where it is considered acceptable to mix IFR and VFR traffic all of which is subject to
ATC and the density of traffic is not excessive, Class B is applied. In the UK the UIR is all
Class B. In N America most CTAs and CTRs are Class B. SVFR is permitted in Class B
CTRs. Where an airway passes through Class B airspace, the airway adopts that
classification.

Class C
Where there is a need for IFR and VFR traffic to be mixed but it is considered sufficient
for VFR traffic to maintain its own separation from other VFR traffic, and whilst VFR traffic
is separated from IFR traffic by the use of VFR FLs, Class C is applied. In Europe, most
CTAs and many CTRs (especially in Eire) are Class C. There is no Class C airspace in
the UK because the UK does not recognise VFR FLs. SVFR is permitted in Class C
CTRs. Where an airway passes through Class C airspace, the airway adopts that
classification.

Class D
At less busy regional aerodromes and military aerodromes used by civilian traffic CTRs
are predominantly Class D. Class D allows the separation of IFR traffic and offers the
ability to provide a radar information service to transiting and terminal VFR traffic in
addition to the underpinning FIS. Most CTRs in the UK are Class D. SVFR is permitted in
Class D CTRs. Where an airway passes through Class D airspace, the airway adopts
that classification.

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Class E
Where traffic is light or the activity of the traffic mainly transiting, CTAs are established with
Class E airspace. Class E permits IFR and VFR but neither imposes nor offers any control
over VFR traffic. Indeed, VFR traffic may operate as non-radio traffic in Class E airspace.
ICAO proscribes the use of Class E for CTRs therefore SVFR is not permitted in Class E
airspace. Where an airway passes through Class E airspace, the airway adopts that
classification.

Class F
Advisory ATC service is provided in Class F airspace to participating IFR flights only. Other
IFR and VFR flights are permitted but they only receive FIS. Advisory ATC is limited to the
provision of the service for aircraft enroute therefore Class F is restricted to advisory routes,
similar in characteristics to an airway. There is no Class F airspace in the USA.

Class G
Both IFR and VFR are permitted but no service other than FIS is provided. FIS routes may be
defined along which FIS is guaranteed to be available. Class G is known as the Open FIR
and comprises all the airspace of an FIR outside of controlled airspace (CAS).

REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE (RNP)


A containment value expressed as a distance in nautical miles from the intended position within
which flights would be for at least 95% of the total flying time, or, within which 95% of flights will
be contained.

e.g. RNP 1 implies that an aircraft would be within a distance of 1 nm from the intended
position for at least 95% of the total flying time, or 95% of aircraft flying that route will be
within 1 nm of their intended position.

RNP Standards
The RNP standards are 1, 4, 10, 12.6, and 20. There is an interim standard of RNP 5
intended to be applied during the introduction of RNP4. Only one state, Japan, achieved
RNP4 and subsequently abandoned it on the grounds of maintenance cost. To date RNP5 is
the accepted standard. RNP12.6 is the standard for the North Atlantic and is derived from
historic RNAV data based on triple INS navigation. RNP is to be superceded with the
introduction of PRNAV through GPS. It is envisaged that BaroVRNAV and GPS approach
procedures will produce an equivalent of RNP0.3.

UNITS PROVIDING AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES


ATS is provided by units established and designated as follows:

¾ Flight Information Centre (FIC)


A Flight Information Centre is established to provide FIS and an alerting service within
FIRs, unless the responsibility of providing such services within a FIR is assigned to an
ATCU having adequate facilities for the discharge of such responsibility. An example of
an FIC is London Information.

¾ Air Traffic Control Unit (ATCU)


ATCUs are established to provide ATC service, FIS and alerting service within CTAs,
CTRs and at controlled aerodromes. An example of an ATCU is Birmingham Approach
and Aerodrome Control.

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Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace

¾ Area Control Centre (ACC)


An ACC provides Area Control within an FIR or within a CTA serving many busy
aerodromes. An example of an ACC is the London ACC at Swanwick.

FLIGHT INFORMATION REGIONS (FIRS)


FIRs are designated to cover the whole of the air route structure within geographical limits. An
FIR includes all airspace within its lateral limits, except any upper airspace designated as an
Upper Information Region (UIR). Within the UK the London and Scottish FIRs provide coverage
at and below FL245. The London and Scottish UIRs cover FL250 up to FL660. Where the upper
boundary of an FIR is limited by an UIR, the lower limit specified for the UIR is also the upper
vertical limit of the FIR. Most other states have a similar arrangement for the upper airspace
where the activity of the traffic is mainly transiting.

SCOTTISH FIR

LONDON FIR

CONTROL AREAS
CTAs (including airways, Terminal Manoeuvring Areas (TMAs), and Terminal Control Areas
(TCAs)), are designated so as to encompass enough airspace to contain the flight paths of IFR
flights for which it is desired to provide protection, taking into account the capabilities of the
navigation aids within the area and the activity of the traffic in the area. CTAs are established at
the confluence of airways in the vicinity of major aerodromes.

Within a CTA, vertical delineation may be established to permit varying activities to take place. At
the top of a CTA the traffic will be transiting and will not affect the activity below. Below the
cruising levels of transiting traffic, arriving and departing traffic for aerodromes served by the CTA
will be manoeuvring to enter and leave the airway structure. Where this is specifically organised
the area within vertical limits is called a TCA. At lower levels, traffic may be separated for arrival
and departure at specific aerodromes as in the case of Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted and Luton.
Where this organised, the area is called a TMA.

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Air Traffic Services and Airspace Chapter 12

AIRWAY TERMINAL AIRWAY


CONTROL AREA

CONTROL ZONE

CTA Vertical Limit


The lower limit of a CTA is not less than 200 m (700 ft) above msl or the ground (whichever is
higher. Think aerodromes below sea level!). In practice, the lower limit of a CTA should be high
enough to allow freedom of movement for VFR flights below the CTA. When the vertical limit of a
CTA is above 900 m (3000 ft) msl it should coincide with a VFR cruising level. A CTA upper limit
is established when either:

¾ An ATC service will not be provided above that upper limit, or


¾ The CTA is situated below an upper CTA with contiguous airspace.

Airways
Airways are control areas in the form of a corridor linking other CTAs. The base of an airway is
defined to include the lowest cruising level above the highest terrain within a defined distance of
the airway centreline. In normal terrain the base would be 1000 ft above the highest terrain or in
mountainous areas, 2000 ft above. The base of an airway, when defined as a FL, will be a VFR
FL. Airways are normally classified as either class A or class B, but where an airway passes
through a CTA or CTR of lesser classification, the classification of the airway is reduced
accordingly.

FLIGHT INFORMATION REGIONS OR CONTROL AREAS IN THE


UPPER AIRSPACE
Where a CTA extends into the upper airspace, the airspace within the CTA remains part of the
FIR.

CONTROL ZONES
CTRs are defined to include all the airspace, outside of CTAs, used for IFR flights arriving at and
departing from aerodromes. The lateral limit of a CTR should extend at least 9.3 km (5 nm) from
the centre of the aerodrome, or aerodromes (in the case of the CTR covering more than one
aerodrome), in the direction(s) from which approaches may be made. If a CTR is located within
the lateral limits of a CTA, it will extend upwards from the surface to at least the lower limit of the
CTA. The upper limit of a CTR may be higher than the lower limit of an overlying CTA. Where
there is no overlying CTA, the upper limit of the CTR is defined. When this limit is above 900 m
(3000 ft) msl it should coincide with a VFR cruising level.

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Note: Even in states that do not recognise VFR FLs, the lower and upper limits of
controlled airspace (Airways, CTAs and CTRs) are defined in terms of the vertical
displacement which would coincide with a VFR FL. For instance, the UK does not
recognise VFR FLs but the base of airways in the UK is always a FL + 500 ft i.e. FL75. It
is generally accepted that the practical maximum upper limit of any defined CAS is
FL660. If you refer to the table of FLs you will find this is a VFR FL.

Note: It is common practice to define the upper limit of CTRs as altitudes where the
upper limit coincides with or is less than the transition altitude for the aerodrome(s)
served by the CTR, even if this is above 900 m (3000 ft). In N America, for any CTR or
CTA with an upper limit below 18 000 ft, the upper limit is defined as an altitude.

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Controlled Airspace in the United Kingdom

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Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace

SERVICE TO AIRCRAFT IN THE EVENT OF EMERGENCY


An aircraft known or believed to be in a state of emergency, including being subjected to unlawful
interference, shall be given maximum assistance and priority over other aircraft as may be
necessitated by the circumstances. When an occurrence of unlawful interference with an aircraft
takes place or is suspected, ATS units shall attend promptly to requests by the aircraft.
Information pertinent to the safe conduct of the flight shall continue to be transmitted and
necessary action shall be taken to expedite the conduct of all phases of the flight, especially the
safe landing of the aircraft. To indicate that it is in a state of emergency, an aircraft equipped with
an SSR transponder is to operate the equipment as follows:

¾ Select mode A, Code 7700; or


¾ Select mode A, Code 7600 to indicate radio failure; or
¾ Select mode A, Code 7500, to indicate unlawful interference.

TIME IN AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES


ATS units use Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and express the time in hours and minutes of
the 24 hour day beginning at midnight. ATS unit clocks and other time recording devices are
checked as necessary to ensure the correct time to within ± 30 seconds of UTC at all times.
Aerodrome control towers shall, prior to an aircraft taxiing for take-off, provide the pilot with the
correct time, unless arrangements have been made for the pilot to obtain it from other sources.
ATS units provide aircraft with the correct time on request; these time checks are given to the
nearest ½ minute.

ATS ROUTE DESIGNATORS

Purpose of Designators
Designators are the ‘code names’ given to routes established for aircraft to fly along. For
instance, the airway that joins London to Singapore is given the designator A1. The purpose of a
system of route designators is to allow both pilot and ATS:

¾ To make unambiguous reference to any ATS route without the need to resort to the use
of geographical co-ordinates or other means in order to describe it;
¾ To relate an ATS route to a specific vertical structure of the airspace, as applicable;
¾ To indicate a required level of navigation performance accuracy, when operating along
an ATS route or within a specified area; and
¾ To indicate that a route is used primarily or exclusively by certain types of aircraft.

ATS routes comprise:


¾ Airways;
¾ Upper air routes;
¾ Advisory routes;
¾ SIDs and STARs;
¾ FIS routes; and
¾ Helicopter routes.

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Composition of Designators
Designators for controlled, advisory and uncontrolled ATS routes, with the exception of standard
arrival and departure routes, have the following format:
¾ A letter followed by a number; with;
¾ One prefix; and
¾ One suffix.

Number of Characters
The number of characters required to compose the designator:
¾ Shall not exceed 6 characters, but
¾ Should be kept to a maximum of 5 characters.

Route Designator Letter


Selection of the letter shall be made from:
¾ A, B, G, R for routes which form part of the regional networks of ATS routes and are not
area navigation routes;
¾ L, M, N, P for area navigation routes which form part of the regional networks of ATS
routes;
¾ H, J, V, W for routes which do not form part of the regional networks of ATS routes and
are not area navigation routes; and
¾ Q, I, Y, Z for area navigation routes which do not form part of the regional networks of
ATS route.

Note: RNAV routes are defined by waypoints (VOR radial and DME range etc.); non-
RNAV routes are defined by overflying beacons (VOR; NDB etc.)

Note: ‘Regional’ refers to the ICAO regions and implies that routes are not restricted to
the domestic airspace of a state. ‘Non regional’ implies that the route does not extend
beyond the domestic airspace of a state.

Route Designator Number


The basic designator number following the letter is any number between 1 and 999.

Prefix
Where applicable, one supplementary letter is added as a prefix to the basic designator to
designate the following:
¾ K to indicate a low level route established for use primarily by helicopters;
¾ U to indicate that a route or portion of that route is established in the upper airspace;
and
¾ S to indicate a route established exclusively for use by supersonic aircraft during
acceleration, deceleration and while in supersonic flight.

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Suffix
A supplementary letter may be added after the basic designator of the ATS route to indicate the
type of service provided or the turn performance required on the route. The following are the
applicable suffixes:
¾ F indicates that the route is an advisory route (class F airspace).
¾ G indicates that the route is an FIS route in class G airspace.
¾ Y indicates that for RNP 1 routes at and above FL200, all turns on the route between 30°
and 90° shall be made within the allowable RNP tolerance of a tangential arc between
the straight leg segments defined with a radius of 22.5 nm.
¾ Z indicates that for RNP 1 routes at or below FL 190, all turns on the route between 30°
and 90° shall be made within the allowable RNP tolerance of a tangential arc between
the straight leg segments defined with a radius of 15 nm.

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Belfast CTA/TMA/CTR

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Chapter 12 Air Traffic Services and Airspace

AIR TRAFFIC INCIDENT REPORT (ATIR)


Any deviation from the standards of safety in the procedures used by pilots, ATCOs, and
equipment used for the safe navigation of aircraft is a serious matter. The reliance on adherence
to procedures underpins the philosophy of applying separation standards and both pilots and
ATCOs must have faith in the standard applicability of the procedures. If any deviation becomes
apparent, whether intentional or accidental, the incident must be investigated and a report raised.
What might appear a trivial matter may if repeated too many times, become catastrophic in effect.
ICAO has devised a system for reporting and investigating such occurrences. The system is
known an Air Traffic Incident Report (ATIR). There are three types of ATIR:

¾ Proximity of Aircraft;
¾ Procedural inadequacy;
¾ Equipment malfunction.

AIRPROX
The ATIR dealing with proximity of aircraft (one aircraft getting too close to another) is called an
AIRPROX report. After the report is ‘filed’ a process of investigation starts which amongst other
things, will determine the degree of risk involved. This will be classified as:

¾ Risk of collision;
¾ Safety not assured;
¾ No risk of collision;
¾ Risk not determined.

Filing an ATIR
If the ATCO becomes aware of a breach of separation standard then an AIRPROX (Controller) is
to be raised. If a pilot observes or becomes aware of an aircraft too close or cleared to or through
the same level/altitude or to commence a manoeuvre that would cause proximity concern, then
he/she is to raise an AIRPROX (Pilot).

ICAO has published a standard reporting form for AIRPROX (Pilot). When a pilot makes an
AIRPROX report, an initial report is to be made by RTF to the ATCU providing control at that
time. The form has shaded boxes for the information needed to be transmitted for the initial
report. When the aircraft has landed, the pilot is to complete the form and file it either directly with
the ATCU at the aerodrome of landing or through the Operator or the Operator’s agent.

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COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEMS


(ACAS – AIRBORNE; TCAS – TRAFFIC)
ACAS
Flight in RVSM airspace requires either ACAS or TCAS. The operation of both systems with
regard to the provision of an ATCS is the same. The information provided by ACAS is intended to
assist pilots in the safe operation of aircraft. Nothing prevents pilots from exercising their best
judgement and full authority in the choice of the best course of action to resolve a traffic conflict.
The procedures to be applied for the provision of ATS to aircraft equipped with ACAS are
identical to those applicable to non-ACAS equipped aircraft. In particular:

¾ The prevention of collisions;


¾ The establishment of appropriate separation and the information which might be
provided in relation to conflicting traffic, and
¾ That possible avoiding action shall conform to the normal ATC procedures and shall
exclude consideration of aircraft capabilities dependent on ACAS equipment.

USE OF ACAS/TCAS INDICATIONS


ACAS/TCAS indications are intended to assist the pilots in the active search for, and visual
acquisition of conflicting traffic, for the avoidance of potential collisions. Pilots should use the
indications generated by ACAS/TCAS remembering that the safety implications of subsequent
actions must be recognised. Pilots shall not manoeuvre their aircraft in response to Traffic
Advisories only.

Action
When an ACAS or TCAS resolution advisory results in the aircraft deviation from the cleared
track or altitude, the pilot is to take the necessary avoiding action or allow the TCAS system to
operate automatically without pre-approval or re-clearance from ATC. On completion of
manoeuvre the pilot is to report the action taken to ATC. When a pilot reports a manoeuvre
because of an ACAS resolution advisory, the controller will not attempt to modify the aircraft flight
path until the pilot reports that the aircraft is returning to the current ATC instruction or clearance.
Traffic information is provided during the manoeuvre.

Note: The difference between ACAS and TCAS is that ACAS is totally autonomous
whereas TCAS has the ability to coordinate the advisory information offered with the
other aircraft involved providing, of course, the other aircraft is TCAS fitted. TCAS can
coordinate up to three aircraft at any time.

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INTRODUCTION
Annex 11 to the Chicago Convention is concerned with the SARPs to be used in the delivery of
ATC. The SARPs are complex and the underpinning organisation and system for the formulation
of procedures and service provided, is too detailed to be included in the Annex. ICAO Document
4444, entitled PANS Air Traffic Management (ATM), has been specially written to provide the
definitive reference for the establishment of an ATC system within a state. Clearly, the content of
Doc 4444 is of primary interest to ATCOs and system designers, however, the introduction to
PANS ATM states that the content of Doc 4444 will be of interest to pilots. Indeed, the attention of
pilots is drawn to a statement that the objectives of an ATC service do not include the prevention
of collision with terrain. It continues: “The procedures described in the document (Doc 4444), with
the exception of Radar Vectoring, do not relieve the pilot of his/her responsibility for ensuring that
any clearance issued by ATCUs are safe in this respect.”

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE


Application
An Air Traffic Control service is provided to:

¾ All IFR flights in Class A, B, C, D and E airspace


¾ All VFR flights in Class B, C and D airspace
¾ To all special VFR flights
¾ To all aerodrome traffic at controlled aerodromes

Note: The ATC service provided to VFR traffic in class D airspace is a Radar Information
service.

Provision of Air Traffic Control Service


Air traffic control service is provided by the various ATC units (ATCUs) detailed below. The RTF
callsigns of ATCUs consist of the geographic location of the unit, or the name of the airspace
(if one has been allocated) in which the service is to be provided, plus a suffix indicating the
service offered.

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Chapter 13 Air Traffic Control Services

Area Control Service


An area control service is provided to aircraft in CAS within CTAs, flying along airways or
transiting the upper airspace. It is primarily procedural control but generally uses radar. An area
control centre (ACC) has an RTF callsign containing the suffix ‘control’ or ‘centre’ (i.e. London
Control or Miami Centre). The service is provided by:

¾ An area control centre (ACC); or


¾ The unit providing approach control service in a CTR/CTA of limited extent which is
designated for the provision of approach control service and where no ACC is
established.

Approach Control Service


Approach control is provided to all IFR flights and controlled VFR flights departing from and
arriving at controlled aerodromes within CTRs. The service is procedural but generally uses
radar. A radar approach controller may be utilised to provide radar vectoring within a defined
radar vectoring area to separate arriving and departing traffic and to provide guidance for arriving
traffic during the initial stages of an instrument approach. The RTF callsign of the unit providing
approach control is given the suffix ‘approach’ or in the case of radar approach ‘radar’ or ‘director’
(i.e. ‘Birmingham Approach’; ‘Bristol Radar’ or ‘Gatwick Director’). The service is provided by:

¾ An aerodrome control tower or area control centre when it is necessary or desirable to


combine under the responsibility of one unit the functions of the approach control service
with those of the aerodrome control service or the area control service; or
¾ An approach control when it is necessary or desirable to establish a separate unit.

Note: The provision of approach control at aerodromes outside of CTRs is advisory only. At
some busy aerodromes, the aerodrome authority has established approach control, the use
of which is not mandatory. Example aerodromes are Oxford and Cambridge. It may not be
sensible to ignore the service offered.

Aerodrome Control Service


The aerodrome control service provides ATS to aircraft on the ground and flying in the vicinity of
the aerodrome. The level of service provided depends upon the class of airspace that contains
the aerodrome. At all controlled aerodromes, an aerodrome traffic zone (ATZ) is established. The
class of airspace of the ATZ is that of the surrounding airspace. If the aerodrome is within a class
D CTR, then the ATZ is class D. If there is no CTR then the ATZ is class G. The RTF callsign of
the aerodrome controller is the aerodrome name, or the name suffixed with ‘tower’. The service is
provided by an aerodrome control tower.

Note: The task of providing specified services on the apron may be assigned to an
aerodrome control tower or to a separate unit known as the Apron Management Service.

Procedural Control
Modern ATC systems use radar in almost all ATC situations. With radar including SSR, the ATCO
probably knows where the aircraft is better than the pilot does when flying in IMC. However, the
basic ATC system uses procedural control where the pilot tells the ATCO where the aircraft is
and what altitude it is at. Based on this information and the ATCO’s knowledge of the positions
and altitude of other aircraft, the ATCO issues a clearance to the aircraft. Procedural control is
based on time for horizontal separation. The specific standards will be detailed under Area
Control. Throughout the chapters dealing with Approach Control and Area Control, the underlying
provision of service is through procedural control. For this reason, the procedures may seem
cumbersome and outmoded in today’s radar environment. Radar control, where separation is
based on distance, is discussed in the chapter dealing with Radar.

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Air Traffic Control Services Chapter 13

OPERATION OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE


In order to provide an ATC service, an ATCU shall:

¾ Be provided with information on the intended movement of each aircraft and with current
information on the actual progress of each aircraft;
¾ Determine from the information received, the relative positions of known aircraft to each
other;
¾ Issue clearances and information for the purpose of preventing collisions between aircraft
under its control and of expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of traffic;
¾ Co-ordinate clearances as necessary with other units:

¾ Whenever an aircraft might otherwise conflict with traffic operated under the control
of such other units;
¾ Before transferring control of an aircraft to such other units.

Separation
Separation is the act of physically ensuring that collisions between aircraft do not take place.
Clearances issued by ATCUs provide separation:

¾ For all flights in Class A and B airspace;


¾ Between IFR flights in Class C, D, and E airspace;
¾ Between IFR flights and VFR flights in Class C airspace;
¾ Between IFR flights and special VFR flights; and
¾ Between special VFR flights when required by the authority.

Separation Methods
Separation can be obtained by at least one of the following:

¾ Vertical separation
Obtained by assigning different altitudes or FLs to geographically adjacent aircraft.
¾ Horizontal separation
Obtained by providing:
¾ Longitudinal separation
By maintaining an interval between aircraft operating along the same, converging or
reciprocal tracks, expressed in time or distance; or
¾ Lateral separation
By maintaining aircraft on different routes or in different geographical areas.
¾ Composite separation
Consisting of a combination of vertical and one of the other forms of separation. The
minima for use with each of these is possibly less than, but never less than ½ of, those
for use with each of the combined elements when applied individually. Composite
separation is applied only on the basis of regional air navigation agreements.

Note: Communications failure procedure in the NAT area uses composite separation.

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Chapter 13 Air Traffic Control Services

Transfer of Control Between ATS Units


At controlled aerodromes transfer of control between the aerodrome controller and the approach
controller will occur as follows:

¾ Arriving Aircraft
The responsibility for the control of an aircraft approaching to land is transferred from the
unit providing approach control service to the unit providing aerodrome control service, as
soon as the aircraft is in the vicinity of the aerodrome and:

¾ It is considered that it will be able to complete its approach and landing with visual
reference to the ground; or
¾ It has reached uninterrupted VMC; or
¾ Has landed.

¾ Departing Aircraft
The responsibility for control of a departing aircraft is transferred from the unit providing
aerodrome control service to the unit providing Approach Control service at the earliest
opportunity:

¾ In VMC:

¾ Before the aircraft leaves the vicinity of the aerodrome; or


¾ Before the aircraft enters IMC.

¾ In IMC:

¾ Immediately before the aircraft enters the runway for take-off; or


¾ Immediately after the aircraft is airborne.

Air Traffic Control Clearances


Before a flight under IFR or a controlled VFR flight enters controlled airspace (CAS) and prior to
being provided with any ATC service, an ‘ATC clearance’ is to be given to the aircraft. An ATC
clearance comprises information and instructions to the pilot of the aircraft and includes the word
‘clear’. In delivering an ATC clearance, the controller is giving permission for the flight to
commence (or continue) within CAS under his/her control with the proviso that the pilot complies
with the instructions given.

Content of an ATC Clearance


An ATC clearance will contain:

¾ Aircraft identification as shown in the flight plan


¾ Clearance limit
¾ Route of flight
¾ Level(s) of flight for the entire route or part route and changes of level if required
¾ Any necessary instructions or information on other matters such as approach or
departure manoeuvres, communications and the time of expiry of the clearance

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Air Traffic Control Services Chapter 13

Co-Ordination of Clearances
An ATC clearance is to be co-ordinated between ATC units to cover the entire route of an aircraft,
or a specified portion of a route as follows. An aircraft is normally cleared for the entire route to
the aerodrome of first intended landing:

¾ When it has been possible, prior to departure, to co-ordinate the clearance between all
the units under whose control the aircraft will come, or
¾ When there is reasonable assurance that prior co-ordination will be effected between
those units under whose control the aircraft will subsequently come.

Limited Clearance
When co-ordination has not been achieved or is not anticipated, the aircraft will only be cleared to
a point where co-ordination is reasonably certain. Prior to reaching such a point, or at that point,
the aircraft must receive a further clearance, with holding instructions being issued as
appropriate.

A clearance limit is specified by using the name of the appropriate reporting point, or aerodrome,
or CAS boundary. When prior co-ordination has been effected with units under whose control the
aircraft will subsequently come under or if there is reasonable time prior to the assumption of
control, the clearance limit is the destination aerodrome or, if not practicable, an appropriate
intermediate point, and co-ordination shall be expedited so that a clearance to the destination
may be issued as soon as possible.

Note: If the clearance for the levels covers only part of the route, it is important for the
ATCU to specify a point to which the part of the clearance regarding levels applies.

ATC Clearance Expiry


One of the following phrases may be included in the initial clearance when the Air Traffic situation
necessitates:

¾ “Clearance expires (time)”


This indicates that if the aircraft is not airborne by the time stated a fresh clearance is
required.
¾ “Take-off not before (time)”
This is given so that a pilot can calculate the time to start the aircraft’s engines.
¾ “Unable to clear (level planned)”
Where ATC is unable to clear the flight at the planned level, an alternative is usually
offered at this stage. Level(s) of flight for the entire route or part thereof and changes of
levels if required.

Expiry Time
The time of expiry of a clearance indicates the time after which the clearance will be automatically
cancelled if the flight has not been started; in which case, a new clearance will have to be
requested by the pilot.

Entering a CTA
When an aircraft intends to depart from an aerodrome within a CTA, to enter another CTA within
a period of 30 minutes, co-ordination with the subsequent area control centre is obtained prior to
the issue of the departure clearance.

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Chapter 13 Air Traffic Control Services

Route of Flight
The route of flight is detailed in each clearance when deemed necessary. The phrases used and
meanings are:

¾ Cleared via flight plan route


Is used to describe any route or portion of a route, provided the route or portion of route
is identical to that filed in the flight plan and sufficient routing details are given to definitely
establish the aircraft on its route.
¾ Cleared via (designation) departure or Cleared via (designation) arrival
May be used when standard departure or arrival routes have been established by the
appropriate ATS authority and published in Aeronautical Information Publication.

Clearances to Fly Maintaining own Separation in VMC


When requested by an aircraft, and provided it is authorized by the appropriate ATS authority, an
ACC may clear a controlled flight to operate in VMC during the hours of daylight. The aircraft may
fly the route subject to maintaining its own separation and remaining in VMC, in which case:

¾ The clearance shall be for a specified portion of the flight during climb or descent and
subject to further restrictions as and when prescribed on the basis of regional air
navigation agreements.
¾ If there is a possibility that flight under VMC may become impracticable an IFR flight shall
be provided with alternative instructions to be complied with in the event that flight in
VMC cannot be maintained for the term of the clearance.
¾ The pilot of an IFR flight, on observing that conditions are deteriorating and considering
that operation in VMC will become impossible, shall inform ATC before entering IMC and
shall proceed in accordance with the alternative instructions given.

Note: The provision of vertical or horizontal separation by an ATCU is not applicable in


respect of any specified portion of a flight cleared subject to maintaining own separation
and remaining in VMC. It is for the flight so cleared to ensure that, for the duration of the
clearance, it is not operated in such proximity to other flights as to create a collision
hazard.

Note: As a VFR flight must remain in VMC at all times, the issuance of a clearance to a
VFR flight to fly subject to maintaining own separation and remaining in VMC has no
other meaning other than to signify that, for the duration of the clearance, the provision of
separation by ATC is not applicable.

Essential Traffic Information


Essential traffic is defined as controlled traffic to which separation by ATC is applicable, but which
in relation to a particular controlled flight has not been applied. Essential traffic information
includes:

¾ Direction of flight of aircraft involved;


¾ Type of aircraft concerned;
¾ Cruising level of aircraft concerned and estimated time over the reporting point nearest to
where the level will be crossed.

Note: This information will inevitably relate to controlled flights cleared subject to maintaining
own separation and remaining in VMC.

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Air Traffic Control Services Chapter 13

Control of Air Traffic Flow


When it becomes apparent to an ATCU that traffic additional to that already accepted cannot be
accommodated within a given period of time at a particular location or in a particular area, or can
only be accommodated at a given rate, that unit will advise other ATCUs and operators known or
believed to be concerned and PICs of aircraft destined to that location or area that additional
flights are likely to be subjected to excessive delay, or if applicable, that specified restrictions are
to be applied to any additional traffic for a specified period of time for the purpose of avoiding
excessive delay to aircraft in flight.

Control of Persons and Vehicles at Aerodromes


The movement of persons or vehicles, including towed aircraft, on the manoeuvring area of an
aerodrome shall be controlled by the aerodrome control tower to avoid hazard to them or to
aircraft landing, taxiing or taking-off. In conditions where low visibility procedures are in operation,
persons and vehicles operating on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall be restricted to
the essential minimum, particularly to protect the ILS/MLS sensitive areas during Category II or III
precision instrument operations.

Emergency Vehicles
P
proceeding to the assistance of an aircraft in distress are afforded priority over all other surface
movement traffic.

Ground Movement Rules


Vehicles on the manoeuvring area are required to comply with the following rules:

¾ Vehicles and vehicles towing aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are landing, taking-
off or taxiing (1); and
¾ Vehicles shall give way to other vehicles towing aircraft; and
¾ Vehicles shall give way to other vehicles in accordance with local instructions; and
¾ Notwithstanding the above, vehicles and vehicles towing aircraft shall comply with
instructions issued by the aerodrome control tower.

Note 1: In the UK aircraft taxiing are required to give way to aircraft being towed.

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Chapter 13 Air Traffic Control Services

EMERGENCY AND COMMUNICATION FAILURE


Priority
An aircraft known or believed to be in a state of emergency, including being subjected to unlawful
interference, is given priority over other aircraft.

Emergency Descent
Upon receipt of advice that an aircraft is making an emergency descent through other traffic, ATC
will take all possible action to immediately safeguard all aircraft concerned including broadcasts
by RTF.

Action by the Pilot in Command


The pilot of an aircraft making an emergency descent is to make broadcasts indicating
the level passing in the descent. It is expected that aircraft receiving a broadcast by ATC
will clear the specified areas and stand by on the appropriate radio frequency for further
clearances from the ATCU.

Air-Ground Communication Failure


In the event of ATC losing the ability to communicate because of ground equipment failure, pilots
should attempt to communicate using the alternate published RTF frequencies for the ATCU
concerned. If this is unsuccessful pilots should monitor the VHF emergency frequency
121.500Mhz.

Position Reporting
The procedures for position reporting have already been covered in Chapter 7 Rules of the Air;
however, additional requirements have been added.

Automation Dependent Surveillance (ADS)


This is a surveillance technique where aircraft automatically provide, via data link, data
derived from on board navigation and position-fixing systems. The data consists of
aircraft identification, four dimensional position information, and any additional data as
necessary.

Air Reports and Special Air Reports (Airep and Airep Special)
When operational information and/or routine meteorological information is to be reported
by aircraft enroute, the position report is to be given in the form of a routine air-report
(airep). Special observations (non routine) are reported as special aireps. Aireps may be
sent by ADS if available. An example of an Airep form is shown below. The operational
form has columns adjacent to the parameter column for the pilot (or usually the co-pilot)
to record the necessary data. The form also serves as a log of the ATC communications
throughout the enroute portion of a flight.

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Air Traffic Control Services Chapter 13

ICAO Standard Airep Form

Position Report
Section 1 (outlined in red) is a standard position report.

Operational Information
Section 2 (outlined in blue) includes the ETA and the fuel based endurance remaining.

Meteorological Information
Section 3 (outlined in green) lists the met data which (if available) should be transmitted when the
flight is required to ‘report met’. Note item 15 contains the met phenomena which if encountered,
would require the transmission of an airep special.

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Chapter 13 Air Traffic Control Services

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APPLICATION
FIS is provided to all aircraft which are likely to be affected by the information and which are
provided with air traffic control service, or otherwise known to the relevant ATS units.

Precedence
Where ATS units provide both FIS and air traffic control service, the provision of air traffic control
service has precedence over the provision of FIS whenever the provision of air traffic control
service so requires.

Use of Radar
ICAO SARPs allow the use of radar in the provision of a FIS. Where this is provided it is known
as a radar information service. Do not confuse this with the UK radar service offered to traffic
inside and outside of controlled airspace under the LARS service which is called Radar
Information Service (RIS).

WHAT IS PROVIDED BY A FIS


FIS includes the provision of the following:

¾ SIGMET and AIRMET information;


¾ Information concerning pre-eruption volcanic activity, volcanic eruptions, and
volcanic ash cloud;
¾ Information concerning the release into the atmosphere of radioactive materials or
toxic chemicals;
¾ Information on change in the serviceability of navigation aids;
¾ Information on changes in condition of aerodromes and associated facilities,
including information on the state of the aerodrome movement areas when they are
affected by snow, ice, or significant depth of water;
¾ Information on unmanned free balloons; and
¾ Any other information likely to affect safety.

Additional Information
FIS provided to flights includes, in addition to the information already outlined, the provision of
information concerning weather conditions reported or forecast at departure, destination and
alternate aerodromes, and collision hazards to aircraft flying in airspace Classes C, D, E, F and
G. For flight over water areas, in so far as practicable and when requested by a pilot, any
available information such as radio call sign, position, true track, speed, etc., of vessels in the
area.

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Chapter 14 Flight Information Services (FIS)

FIS to VFR Traffic


FIS provided to VFR flights includes all the information above plus the provision of available
information concerning traffic and weather conditions along the route that are likely to make
operation under VFR impracticable.

OPERATIONAL FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE BROADCASTS


(OFIS)
The meteorological information and operational information concerning navigation aids and
aerodromes included in the FIS is provided in an operationally integrated form. It is passed to
aircraft by the following means:

Information Broadcasts
When a Regional Air Navigation Agreement determines that a requirement for a broadcast exists
then the following formats are followed:

¾ HF OFIS broadcast
¾ VHF OFIS broadcast
¾ Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)

ATIS
ATIS broadcasts are provided at aerodromes where there is a requirement to reduce the
communication load on the ATS VHF air-ground communication channels. ATIS is established as
Voice ATIS (V-ATIS) which can be supplemented with Data ATIS (D-ATIS).

V-ATIS
A discrete VHF frequency is used for ATIS broadcasts. If a discrete frequency is not available, the
transmission may be made on the voice channel of the most appropriate terminal navigation aid,
preferably a VOR, provided the range and readability are adequate and the identification of the
navigation aid is sequenced with the broadcast so that the latter is not obliterated. ATIS
broadcasts are not to be transmitted on the voice channel of ILS. When provided V-ATIS
comprises:

¾ One broadcast serving arriving aircraft, or


¾ One broadcast serving departing aircraft, or
¾ One broadcast serving both arriving and departing aircraft, or
¾ Two broadcasts serving arriving and departing aircraft respectively at those
aerodromes where the length of a broadcast serving both arriving and departing
aircraft would be excessively long

D-ATIS
D-ATIS is transmitted continuously on the data link system from an ACC. Because it is
transmitted continuously and consists of data rather than voice information, it can be updated
virtually instantaneously. In any one data transmission information concerning multiple
aerodromes can be included together with appropriate administrative information. D-ATIS is
displayed on the flight deck through the EFIS system.

VOLMET
Meteorological information (TAFS and Metars) is broadcast on both HF and VHF where there is a
need. The term VOLMET is taken from ‘meteorologie de vol’. A VOLMET broadcast is transmitted
by the FIS of a FIR (VHF) or an OCA (HF). It typically covers many aerodromes either within the
FIR or adjacent FIRs.

14-2 Air Law


Reference: Procedures for Air Navigation Services, Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services, Doc
4444 - RAC/501

INTRODUCTION
There is no regulatory requirement for an aerodrome that is outside CAS and used only for VFR
flying to have an aerodrome controller. However, where an aerodrome is used for commercial
operations under IFR the aerodrome must be licensed and under the licensing requirements the
provision of an aerodrome controller will be required.

The aerodrome controller must be a licensed ATCO. Such an aerodrome is defined by ICAO as a
controlled aerodrome. The aerodrome controller usually uses the aerodrome name plus the word
‘tower’ as an RTF callsign e.g. Coventry Tower. Alternatively, the word ‘local’ refers to the
aerodrome controller also. The aerodrome controller may be assisted by a ground movements
controller whose function would be to advise pilots of collision risks and to pass other
aeronautical information. If the ground controller is required to provide ATC to aircraft on the
ground, he/she must be a licenced ATCO.

An alternative to a licensed ATCO is to use a Flight Information Service Officer (FISO) who is
licensed to provide FIS. Where a FISO is appointed his/her RTF callsign will have the suffix
“Information”, for example: Redhill Information. At busy aerodromes e.g. Heathrow, there is an
arrivals controller and a departures controller, both of whom share the responsibility of the
aerodrome controller.

AERODROME TRAFFIC ZONE (ATZ)


Every aerodrome regardless of ATC status has an ATZ. The ATZ extends from ground level up to
2000 ft AGL. It is circular, with the radius, as defined by ICAO, “of sufficient distance to provide
protection for circuit traffic.” In the UK the radius of the ATZ is dependent upon the length of the
longest runway and is either 2 nm or 2.5 nm, centred on the longest runway. At a controlled
aerodrome, the ATZ is controlled airspace with ATC provided by the aerodrome controller.

The ATZ reduces to uncontrolled airspace outside of the notified hours of watch of the aerodrome
controller (as per the AD entry in the AIP for the state). Clearances for traffic taking off and
remaining in the visual circuit, or landing from the visual circuit are given by the aerodrome
controller. Outside of the hours of ATC watch, pilots may use the aerodrome if required (with
permission of the land owner to avoid trespass) but may only do so in VMC, during which the
rules of the air apply.

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Chapter 15 Aerodrome Control Service

FUNCTIONS OF AERODROME CONTROL TOWERS


Aerodrome control towers issue information and clearances to aircraft under their control in order
to achieve a safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic on and in the vicinity of an aerodrome
with the object of preventing collisions between:

¾ Aircraft flying in the aerodrome traffic circuits around an aerodrome;


¾ Aircraft operating on the manoeuvring area;
¾ Aircraft landing and taking off;
¾ Aircraft and vehicles operating on the manoeuvring area;
¾ Aircraft on the manoeuvring area and obstructions on that area.

ALERTING SERVICE PROVIDED BY AERODROME CONTROL TOWERS


Aerodrome control towers are also responsible for alerting the safety services and will
immediately report any failure or irregularity of operation in any apparatus, light or other device
established at an aerodrome for the guidance of aerodrome traffic. Aircraft will be reported to the
ACC or FIC which fail to report after having been handed over to an aerodrome control tower, or
having once reported, cease radio contact, and, in either case, fail to land 5 minutes after the
expected landing time.

SUSPENSION OF VFR OPERATIONS BY AERODROME CONTROL TOWERS


Any or all VFR operations on and in the vicinity of an aerodrome may be suspended by
notification to the aerodrome control tower by the area control centre within whose CTA the
aerodrome is located, the aerodrome controller on duty, or the appropriate ATS authority.

Procedures
The following procedures are observed by the aerodrome control tower whenever VFR
operations are suspended:

¾ The holding of all departures other than those which file an IFR flight plan and obtain
approval from the area control centre;
¾ The recall of all local flights operating under VFR or special VFR;
¾ The notification of the area control centre of the action taken; and
¾ The notification of all operators, or their designated representatives, of the reason for
taking such action if necessary or requested.

TRAFFIC AND TAXI CIRCUITS


SELECTION OF RUNWAY IN USE
The term ‘runway in use’ means the runway that the aerodrome control service deems to be the
most suitable for use by the types of aircraft expected to land or take-off at the aerodrome. If the
runway in use is not considered suitable, the PIC may request permission to use another runway.
Normally, an aircraft will land and take-off into wind unless safety, the runway configuration, or air
traffic conditions make another runway preferable. In selecting the runway, the aerodrome control
service takes into consideration surface wind speed and direction and other relevant factors, such
as the aerodrome traffic circuits, the length of runways, and the approach and landing aids
available.

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Aerodrome Control Service Chapter 15

CRITICAL POSITIONS OF AIRCRAFT IN THE AERODROME TRAFFIC AND TAXI


CIRCUITS
Aerodrome controllers maintain a continuous watch on all visible flight operations on and in the
vicinity of an aerodrome, including aircraft, vehicles and personnel on the manoeuvring area, and
control this traffic in accordance with the procedures and traffic rules. If there are other
aerodromes within a CTR, traffic at all aerodromes within such a zone are co-ordinated so that
traffic circuits do not conflict.

Final

Ba
se
Le
g

Downwind Leg

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Chapter 15 Aerodrome Control Service

Circuit Positions
The following positions of aircraft in the traffic and taxi circuits are the positions where the aircraft
normally receive aerodrome control tower clearances, whether these are given by light signals or
radio. Aircraft should be watched closely as they approach these positions so that proper
clearances may be issued without delay. Where practicable, all clearances are issued without
waiting for the aircraft to initiate the call.

3 5

1 6

¾ Position 1
Aircraft initiates call to taxi for departing flight, runway in use information and taxi
clearances given.

¾ Position 2
If there is conflicting traffic, the departing aircraft is held at this point. Engines of the
aircraft would normally be run-up here.

¾ Position 3
Take-off clearance is issued here if not practicable at position 2.

¾ Position 4
Clearance to land is issued here.

¾ Position 5
Clearance to taxi to hangar line or parking area is issued here.

¾ Position 6
Parking information issued here if necessary.

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Aerodrome Control Service Chapter 15

INFORMATION TO AIRCRAFT BY AERODROME CONTROL


TOWERS
PRIOR TO TAXIING FOR TAKE-OFF
Aircraft are advised of the following information, in the order listed, with the exception of those
elements that the aircraft is known to have already received:

¾ The runway to be used;


¾ The current surface wind direction and speed, including significant variations;
¾ The QNH and, either on a regular basis in accordance with local arrangements or if so
requested by the aircraft, the QFE;
¾ The air temperature for the runway to be used, in the case of turbine engine aircraft;
¾ The current visibility representative of the direction of take-off and initial climb, if less than
10 km, or, when provided, the current RVR value(s) for the runway to be used;
¾ The correct time.

PRIOR TO TAKE-OFF
Aircraft are advised of any significant changes in the surface wind direction and speed, the air
temperature, and the visibility or RVR value(s) given, and significant meteorological conditions in
the take-off and climb out area, except when it is known that the information has already been
received by the aircraft.

PRIOR TO JOINING THE CIRCUIT


An aircraft is provided with the following elements of information, in the order listed, with the
exception of those elements that it is known the aircraft has already received: the runway to be
used, the mean surface wind direction and speed and significant variations, and the QNH and,
either on a regular basis in accordance with local arrangements or, if so requested by aircraft, the
QFE.

COLLISION AVOIDANCE
When operating under VMC, it is the responsibility of the PIC of an aircraft to avoid collision with
other aircraft. However, due to the restricted space on and around manoeuvring areas, it is often
essential that traffic information be issued to aid the PIC of an aircraft to avoid collision. Essential
local traffic is considered to consist of any aircraft, vehicle, or personnel on or near the
manoeuvring area, or traffic operating in the vicinity of the aerodrome, which may constitute a
hazard to the aircraft concerned. Information on essential local traffic is issued either directly or
through the unit providing approach control service when, in the judgement of the aerodrome
controller the information is necessary in the interests of safety, or when requested by aircraft.

WAKE TURBULENCE WARNING


Aerodrome controllers shall, whenever practicable, advise aircraft of the expected occurrence of
hazards caused by wake turbulence.

OTHER HAZARDS
In issuing clearances or instructions, air traffic controllers should take into account the hazards
caused by jet blast and propeller slipstream to taxiing aircraft, to aircraft taking-off or landing,
particularly when intersecting runways are being used, and to vehicles and personnel operating
on the aerodrome.

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Chapter 15 Aerodrome Control Service

INFORMATION ON AERODROME CONDITIONS


Essential information on aerodrome conditions is information necessary to the safety of the
operation of aircraft that pertains to the movement area or any facilities associated with the
movement area. The essential information on aerodrome conditions includes information relating
to the following:

¾ Construction or maintenance work on, or immediately adjacent to the movement area;


¾ Rough or broken surfaces on a runway, a taxiway or an apron, whether marked or not;
¾ Snow, slush or ice on a runway, a taxiway or an apron;
¾ Water on a runway, a taxiway or an apron;
¾ Snow banks or drifts adjacent to a runway, a taxiway or an apron;
¾ Other temporary hazards, including parked aircraft and birds on the ground and in the air;
¾ Failure or irregular operation of part or all of the aerodrome lighting system;
¾ Any other pertinent information.

Note: The movement area of an aerodrome consists of the apron and the manoeuvring area.

CONTROL OF AERODROME TRAFFIC


ORDER OF PRIORITY FOR ARRIVING AND DEPARTING AIRCRAFT
An aircraft landing or in the final stages of an approach to land normally has priority over an
aircraft intending to depart. Departures are normally cleared in the order in which they are ready
for take-off, except that deviations may be made from this order of priority to facilitate the
maximum number of departures with the least average delay.

CONTROL OF TAXIING AIRCRAFT


When taxiing, a pilot’s vision is limited. It is important therefore for aerodrome control units to
issue concise instructions and adequate information to the pilot to assist him in determining the
correct taxi routes and to avoid collision with other aircraft or objects.

TAXIING ON THE RUNWAY


For the purpose of expediting air traffic, aircraft may be permitted to taxi on the runway in use,
provided no delay or risk to other aircraft will result. Aircraft will not be held closer than at a taxi
holding position for the runway in use. Aircraft are not permitted to hold on the approach end of
the runway in use whenever another aircraft is landing or, until the landing aircraft has passed the
point of intended holding.

UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE
An aircraft known or believed to be the subject of unlawful interference or which for other reasons
needs isolation from normal aerodrome activities shall be cleared to the designated isolated
parking position. Where such an isolated parking position has not been designated, or if the
designated position is not available, the aircraft shall be cleared to a position within the area or
areas selected by prior agreement with the aerodrome authority. The taxi clearance shall specify
the taxi route to be followed to the parking position. This route shall be selected with a view to
minimizing any security risks to the public, other aircraft and installations at the aerodrome.

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Aerodrome Control Service Chapter 15

CONTROL OF OTHER THAN AIRCRAFT TRAFFIC ON THE MANOEUVRING


AREA
PEDESTRIANS AND VEHICLES
The movement of pedestrians or vehicles on the manoeuvring area are subject to authorization
by the aerodrome control tower. Persons, including drivers of all vehicles, are required to obtain
authorisation from the aerodrome control tower before entry to the manoeuvring area. Entry to a
runway or runway strip or change in the operation authorised is subject to a further specific
authorisation by the aerodrome control tower.

TWO-WAY RADIO
At controlled aerodromes all vehicles employed on the manoeuvring area must be capable of
maintaining two-way radio communication with the aerodrome control tower. Vehicles without
radios are to be accompanied by vehicles with radios.

CONTROL OF TRAFFIC IN THE TRAFFIC CIRCUIT


CIRCUIT SEPARATION
Aircraft in the circuit are controlled to provide the separation minima required. Sufficient
separation is to be applied between aircraft in the traffic circuit to allow the spacing of arriving and
departing aircraft.

JOINING THE CIRCUIT


A clearance to join the circuit will be given to an aircraft approaching to land when a straight in
approach is not possible. With the clearance, the landing direction or runway in use is passed.

UNAUTHORISED INCURSION
If an aircraft enters an aerodrome traffic circuit without proper authorisation, it shall be permitted
to land if its actions indicate that that is the pilot’s intention. If necessary, aircraft in the circuit will
be asked to give way so as to negate any hazard created. Other than in accordance with normal
procedure, landing clearance will not be withheld.

SPECIAL AUTHORIZATION
Special authorisation for use of the manoeuvring area may be given to an aircraft which
anticipates being compelled to land because of factors affecting the safe operation of the aircraft,
as well as hospital aircraft or aircraft carrying any sick or seriously injured persons requiring
urgent medical attention.

CONTROL OF DEPARTING AIRCRAFT


Unless the ATS authority has agreed alternative acceptable procedures, a departing aircraft will
not normally be permitted to commence take-off until:

¾ The preceding departing aircraft has crossed the end of the runway in use; or
¾ The preceding departing aircraft has started a turn away from the runway centreline;
or
¾ All preceding landing aircraft are clear of the runway in use.

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Chapter 15 Aerodrome Control Service

Where the ATS authority has agreed alternative procedures, they will not be permitted:

¾ Between a departing aircraft and a preceding landing aircraft;


¾ Between sunset and sunrise, or such other period between sunset and sunrise as
may be prescribed;
¾ When braking action may be adversely affected by runway contaminants;
¾ In weather conditions preventing the pilot from making an early assessment of traffic
conditions on the runway.

TAKE-OFF CLEARANCE
Take-off clearance may be issued to an aircraft when there is reasonable assurance that the
separation prescribed will exist when the aircraft starts its take-off run. In the interest of expediting
traffic, a clearance for immediate take-off may be issued to an aircraft before it enters the runway.
On receipt of such a clearance the aircraft shall taxi onto the runway and start the take-off run in
one continuous movement.

CONTROL OF ARRIVING AIRCRAFT


Unless other procedures have been approved and are in force, landing aircraft will not normally
be permitted to cross the beginning of the runway on its final approach until:

¾ A preceding departing aircraft has crossed the upwind end of the runway, or
¾ A preceding departing aircraft has turned away from the runway centreline, or
¾ A preceding landing aircraft has moved off the runway.

AERODROMES WITHIN A CTR


If the aerodrome is within a CTR, the approach controller will pass a conditional take-off
clearance to the aerodrome controller for IFR and controlled VFR traffic departing the ATZ. When
the ATZ is “IMC”, all departing traffic will receive a take-off clearance from the approach controller
via the aerodrome controller before entering the runway. In instrument conditions landing
clearance will be requested by the approach controller (or approach radar controller) from the
aerodrome controller when the aircraft is at 8 nm from touchdown. In any event, a landing
clearance must be given by the aerodrome controller before the arriving aircraft passes 2 nm
from touchdown unless an alternative clearance has been given.

LAND AFTER PROCEDURE


To facilitate the expeditious arrival of aircraft, an aircraft may be cleared to land with another
aircraft on the runway providing there is reasonable assurance that the required separation will
exist when the landing aircraft crosses the runway threshold. In this case, the phrase “Clear to
land after the …… ahead” is used. For this procedure to be used:

¾ The landing aircraft must be able to keep the preceding aircraft in sight;
¾ It must be during day time;
¾ The braking action must not be adversely affected by runway contaminants;
¾ The pilot of the landing aircraft must agree to the procedure being used;
¾ The operators of the aircraft concerned agree to the procedure being used.

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Aerodrome Control Service Chapter 15

WAKE TURBULENCE CATEGORIZATION OF AIRCRAFT AND


INCREASED LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION MINIMA
WAKE TURBULENCE CATEGORIZATION OF AIRCRAFT
Wake turbulence separation minima is based on the grouping of aircraft types into three
categories according to the maximum certificated take-off mass (MTOM) as follows:

¾ HEAVY (H)
MTOM equal to or greater than 136 000 kg
¾ MEDIUM (M)
MTOM less than 136 000 kg but greater than 7000 kg
¾ LIGHT (L)
MTOM equal to or less than 7000 kg

PROCEDURAL WAKE TURBULENCE SEPARATION MINIMA


The procedural wake turbulence separation minima (non-radar separation minima) applied are:

For Arriving Aircraft


For timed approaches, the following minima are applied to aircraft landing:

¾ 2 minutes longitudinal separation between a MEDIUM landing behind a HEAVY


¾ 3 minutes longitudinal separation between a LIGHT landing behind a MEDIUM or HEAVY

For Departing Aircraft


The minimum is 2 minutes for any lighter category aircraft taking off behind a heavier category.
However, the minimum is increased to 3 minutes when the lighter aircraft takes-off from:

¾ An intermediate part of the same runway, or


¾ An intermediate part of a parallel runway separated by less than 760 m

Displaced Landing Threshold


Separation minimum of 2 minutes is applied between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft and a HEAVY
aircraft, or between a LIGHT aircraft and MEDIUM aircraft, when operating on a runway with a
displaced landing threshold:

¾ When a departing LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft follows a HEAVY aircraft arrival; or


¾ When a departing LIGHT aircraft follows a MEDIUM aircraft arrival, or
¾ When an arriving LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft follows a HEAVY departure; or
¾ When an arriving LIGHT aircraft follows a MEDIUM aircraft departure and the
projected flight paths are expected to cross.

Opposite Direction
Separation of 2 minutes shall be applied between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft and a HEAVY
aircraft and between a LIGHT aircraft and a MEDIUM aircraft when the heavier aircraft is making
a low missed approach, and the lighter aircraft is:

¾ Utilizing an opposite direction runway for take-off; or


¾ Landing on the same runway in the opposite direction; or
¾ On a parallel opposite direction runway separated by less than 760 m.
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Chapter 15 Aerodrome Control Service

15-10 Air Law


Reference: Procedures for Air Navigation Services, Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services, Doc
4444 -RAC/501

INTRODUCTION
Approach Control is the interface between the Aerodrome Controller and the Area Controller.
Normally Approach control is provided out to a range of 25 nm from a controlled aerodrome
situated within a CTR. It is normal to use radar to supplement the procedural service. Approach
control is mandatory for all IFR traffic and all controlled VFR flights within a CTR.

DEPARTURES
Departing Aircraft
Approach Control is provided to all IFR departing flights and departing VFR controlled flights. IFR
flights normally follow a Standard Instrument Departure (SID) profile to a convenient point at
which control is transferred to an area controller for insertion into the adjacent airways system.

General Procedures for Departing Aircraft


The approach controller will, in consultation with the relevant airspace controller of an adjacent
CTA, give ATC clearances for departing controlled flights. Such clearances are to specify:

¾ Direction of take-off, and turn after take-off;


¾ Track to be made good before proceeding on desired heading;
¾ Level to maintain before continuing climb to assigned cruising level;
¾ Time, point and/or rate at which level change shall be made; and
¾ Any other necessary manoeuvre consistent with safe operation of the aircraft.

Note: To minimise RTF transmission and to standardise procedures, the above information is
delivered by instructing the pilot to comply with a published SID. Also to ensure an orderly
flow of air traffic, ATCUs should attempt to permit aircraft departing on long distance flights to
proceed on heading with as few turns or other manoeuvres as possible, and to climb to
cruising level without restrictions.

Expeditious Flow
Departing aircraft may be expedited by suggesting a take-off direction that is not into wind. It is
the responsibility of the PIC of an aircraft to decide between making such a take-off, and waiting
for normal take-off in a preferred direction.

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Chapter 16 Approach Control Service

Delays
It is normal ATFM practice to delay take off rather than incur excessive holding at destination. If
departures are delayed, delayed flights shall normally be cleared in an order based on their ETD,
however, deviations from this may be made to facilitate the maximum number of departures with
the least average delay. ATCUs should advise aircraft operators or their designated
representatives when anticipated delays due to traffic conditions are likely to be substantial and in
any event, when they are expected to exceed 30 minutes.

Minimum Separation Between Departing Aircraft


The following minimum procedural separations are used:

¾ One minute if the departing tracks diverge by at least 45° immediately after take-off. This
may be reduced for parallel runway or diverging runway operations. The latter need
specific ATS approval.
¾ Two minutes where the first aircraft has filed a cruising speed that is 40 knots faster than
the second, and both aircraft intend to follow the same track.
¾ Five minutes while vertical separation does not exist.

Clearances for Departing Aircraft to Climb Maintaining Own Separation in VMC


When requested by the aircraft and if permitted by the appropriate ATS authority, a departing
aircraft may be cleared to climb, subject to maintaining own separation and remaining in VMC
until a specified time or to a specified location.

Information for Departing Aircraft


Information regarding significant changes in the meteorological conditions in the take-off or climb
out area, information regarding changes in the operational status of visual and non-visual aids
essential for take-off and climb, and information regarding essential local traffic known to the
controller are transmitted to departing aircraft without delay.

ARRIVALS
Arriving Aircraft
Arriving flights are normally ‘handed over’ from the area controller or the CTA controller, to the
approach controller at a convenient point usually located in the vicinity of a radio navigation
facility. Flights under approach control will normally be handed over to the aerodrome controller
when the pilot has reported ‘field in sight’ or has passed a specific point on an instrument
approach.

General Procedures for Arriving Aircraft


When it becomes evident that delays in holding will be encountered by arriving aircraft, the
operator or a designated representative is notified and kept informed of any changes in the
expected delays, in order that diversionary action can be planned as far in advance as possible.
Arriving aircraft may be required to report when leaving or passing a reporting point, when
starting a procedure turn or base turn, or to provide other information required by the controller to
expedite departing aircraft.

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Approach Control Service Chapter 16

Descent Below MSA


An arriving IFR flight is not to be cleared for an initial approach below the appropriate minimum
sector altitude as specified by the State, nor to descend below that altitude unless:

¾ The pilot has reported passing an appropriate point defined by a radio aid; or
¾ The pilot reports that the aerodrome is and can be maintained in sight; or
¾ The aircraft is conducting a visual approach; or
¾ The aircraft’s position has been positively determined by the use of radar.

Clearance to Descend Subject to Maintaining Own Separation in VMC


When requested by the aircraft and if permitted by the ATS authority, an arriving aircraft may be
cleared to descend, subject to maintaining its own separation and remaining in VMC.

Visual Approach
An approach flown with visual reference by an aircraft flying under IFR is not a VFR approach. An
IFR flight may be cleared to execute a visual approach provided that the pilot can maintain visual
reference to the terrain and the reported ceiling is at or above the approved initial approach level
for the aircraft so cleared, or the pilot reports at the initial approach level or at any time during the
approach that the meteorological conditions are such that a visual approach and landing can be
completed.

Separation
Separation is to be provided between an aircraft cleared to execute a visual approach and other
arriving and departing aircraft.

Maintenance of Separation
For successive visual approaches, radar or non-radar separation is to be maintained until the pilot
of a following aircraft reports having the preceding aircraft in sight. The aircraft is to be instructed
to follow and maintain separation from the preceding aircraft. Transfers of communications are
made at a point or time so that a clearance to land or alternative instructions can be issued to the
aircraft in a timely manner.

Instrument Approach
If it is clearly apparent to the ATC unit, or the pilot reports that he/she is not familiar with an
instrument approach procedure, then approach control will pass the following details:

¾ The initial approach level


¾ The point (in minutes from the appropriate reporting point) at which a procedure turn shall
be carried out, and
¾ The final approach track

Straight-in Approach
If the aircraft is to be cleared for a straight-in approach then only the last item of the above list
need be specified.

Missed Approach Procedure


The missed approach procedure will be specified when deemed necessary.

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Chapter 16 Approach Control Service

Full Procedure
If visual reference to terrain is established before completion of the approach procedure, the
entire procedure must be flown unless the pilot requests, and is cleared for, a visual approach.

Specific Procedure
A particular approach procedure may be specified to expedite traffic. The omission of a specified
approach procedure will indicate that any authorised approach may be used at the discretion of
the pilot.

Speed Control
In the clearance to commence the instrument procedure, the pilot will be instructed to fly at a
defined speed to facilitate separation. Where radar is used to apply separation, speed adjustment
instructions will be given to the pilot to maintain separation.

Holding
Holding and holding pattern entry has to be accomplished in accordance with procedures
established by the appropriate ATS authority and published in Aeronautical Information
Publications (AIP).

If entry and holding procedures have not been published or if the procedures are not known to the
PIC of an aircraft, the appropriate ATCU will describe the procedures to be followed. Aircraft must
be held at a designated holding point. The required minimum vertical, lateral or longitudinal
separation from other aircraft, according to the system in use at that holding point, will be
provided.

When aircraft are being held in flight, the appropriate vertical separation minima shall continue to
be provided between holding aircraft and enroute aircraft while such aircraft are within 5 minutes
flying time of the holding area, unless the correct lateral separation exists. Levels at holding
points are assigned in a manner that facilitates the clearance of each aircraft to approach in its
proper priority. Normally, the first aircraft to arrive over a holding point should be at the lowest
level, with following aircraft at successively higher levels. Aircraft particularly sensitive to high fuel
consumption at low levels, such as supersonic aircraft, are permitted to hold at higher levels than
their order in the approach sequence indicates, without losing their order in the sequence. This is
allowed whenever the availability of discrete descent paths and/or radar makes it possible to clear
the aircraft for descent through the levels occupied by other aircraft. If a PIC of an aircraft advises
of an inability to comply with the approach control holding or communication procedures, the
alternative procedure(s) requested by the PIC should be approved if known traffic conditions
permit.

APPROACH SEQUENCE (STACKING)


General Approach Procedures
Inevitably, there will be delays as the economic factors of commercial operations favour certain
times of the day for arrival. Typically the arrival peaks at Heathrow are between 7 am and 10 am,
and again between 4 pm and 7 pm. In order to accommodate all the arriving aircraft during a
peak flow period, dedicated holding areas are established on radio navigation beacons in the
vicinity of the terminal aerodrome. These are known as stacks. The following procedures are
applied whenever sequenced approaches are in progress.

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Approach Control Service Chapter 16

Priority
The stack is established in a manner that will permit arrival of the maximum number of aircraft
with the least average delay. A special priority may be given to an aircraft which anticipates being
compelled to land because of factors affecting the safe operation of the aircraft; or hospital
aircraft or aircraft carrying any sick or seriously injured person requiring urgent medical attention.

Flow
Succeeding aircraft are cleared for approach when the preceding aircraft:

¾ Has reported that it is able to complete its approach without encountering IMC; or
¾ Is in communication with and sighted by the aerodrome control tower and reasonable
assurance exists that a normal landing can be accomplished; or
¾ Radar separation has been applied between the aircraft and the preceding aircraft.

Remaining Holding
If the pilot of an aircraft in a stack has indicated an intention to hold for weather improvement, or
for other reasons, such action shall be approved. When other holding aircraft indicate their
intention to continue the approach to land, and alternative procedures are not available, the pilot
desiring to hold will be cleared to an adjacent fix for holding. Alternatively, the aircraft should be
given a clearance to place it at the top of the stack so that other holding aircraft may be permitted
to land. The aircraft operator, or a designated representative, shall be advised of the action taken
immediately after the clearance is issued, if practicable.

Credit Time
An aircraft which has been deliberately delayed by ATC enroute to minimise terminal holding, and
is still required to enter the stack, will be given credit for the time lost due to delay and placed in
the stack at an appropriate position.

Timed Approach Procedures


When approved by the appropriate ATS authority, the following procedure can be used to
expedite the approaches of a number of arriving aircraft:

¾ A suitable point on the approach path, which shall be capable of being accurately
determined by the pilot, is specified to serve as a check point in timing successive
approaches;
¾ Aircraft shall be given a time at which to pass the specified point inbound. This time will
allow the desired interval between successive landings on the runway to be achieved
while respecting the applicable separation minima at all times, including the periods of
runway occupancy.

Parallel Runway Operations


Parallel runways may be used for simultaneous instrument approaches involving:

¾ Independent parallel approaches (Mode 1)


¾ Dependent parallel approaches (Mode 2)
¾ Segregated parallel operations

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Chapter 16 Approach Control Service

Missed Approach Requirements for Parallel Runway Operations


For Mode 1 and 2 operations, the missed approach track for one runway must diverge by at least
30° from the missed approach track of the adjacent runway. With segregated operations the
nominal departure track must diverge immediately after take-off by at least 30° from the missed
approach track of the adjacent runway.

Expected Approach Time (EAT)


An EAT is to be transmitted to an aircraft by the most expeditious means whenever it is
anticipated that the aircraft will be required to hold for 30 minutes or more. The EAT is to be
transmitted to the aircraft as soon as practicable and preferably not later than at the
commencement of its initial descent from cruising level. In the case of aircraft particularly
sensitive to high fuel consumption at low levels, an EAT should, whenever possible, be
transmitted to the aircraft early enough before its intended descent time to enable the pilot to
choose the method of absorbing the delay and to request a change in the flight plan if the choice
is to reduce speed enroute. A revised EAT is transmitted to the aircraft without delay whenever it
differs from that previously transmitted by 5 minutes or more. If a delay of more than 30 minutes
is expected and it is not possible to determine the EAT, the pilot is to be informed “delay not
determined”.

INFORMATION FOR ARRIVING AIRCRAFT


As early as practicable after an aircraft has established communication with the unit providing
approach control service, the following elements of information, in the order listed, should be
transmitted to the aircraft, unless it is known that the aircraft has already received the information.

¾ Runway in use
¾ Current meteorological information
¾ Current runway surface conditions, in case of precipitants or other temporary hazards
¾ Changes in the operational status of visual and non-visual aids essential for approach
and landing

At the Commencement of Final Approach


The following information is transmitted to aircraft:

¾ Significant changes in the mean surface wind direction and speed;

Note: If the controller possesses wind information in the form of components, the
significant changes are:

Mean head wind component 19 km/h (10 kt)


Mean tail wind component 4 km/h (2 kt)
Mean crosswind component 9 km/h (5 kt)

¾ The latest information, if any, on wind shear and/or turbulence in the final approach area
including the current visibility representative of the direction of approach and landing or,
when provided, the current RVR value(s) and the trend, if practicable, supplemented by
slant visual range value(s) if provided.

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Approach Control Service Chapter 16

During Final Approach


The following information is transmitted without delay:

¾ The sudden occurrence of hazards;


¾ Significant variations in the current surface wind, expressed in terms of minimum and
maximum values;
¾ Significant changes in runway surface conditions;
¾ Changes in the operational status of required visual or non-visual aids;
¾ Changes in observed RVR value(s), in accordance with the reported scale in use, or
changes in the visibility representative of the direction of approach and landing.

Separation of Departing from Arriving Aircraft


During IFR operations, take off clearance will be granted by the approach controller when
separation from arriving aircraft exists. Two situations are considered:

Complete Procedure
Where an arriving aircraft is making a complete instrument approach, a departing aircraft may
take off in any direction until the arriving aircraft has started the procedure turn or base turn
leading to final approach, or take off in a direction at least 45° from the reciprocal of the approach
direction providing there will be at least 3 minutes until the arriving aircraft is estimated to be over
the threshold of the landing runway.

Straight in Approach
When an arriving aircraft is making a straight in approach, a departing aircraft may take off in any
direction until 5 minutes before the arriving aircraft is estimated to be over the threshold of the
landing runway. A take off may also be cleared in a direction at least 45° from the reciprocal of
the approach direction providing there will be at least 3 minutes until the arriving aircraft is
estimated to be over the threshold of the landing runway, or before the arriving aircraft crosses a
designated fix on the approach track.

Take-offs permitted in this area up to 3 minutes


before estimated time aircraft A or B is over the
threshold of the landing runway, or in the case of
aircraft A, until it crosses a designated fix on the
approach track

A Straight in B Start of
Approach Procedure Turn 45°

45°

No take-offs in this area after procedure


turn is started or within the last 5
minutes of a straight in approach

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Chapter 16 Approach Control Service

16-8 Air Law


Reference: Annex 11 – Air Traffic Control; Document 4444 PANS ATC

INTRODUCTION
The provision of an ATC service to aircraft flying along airways or transiting through control areas
is called area control. Area control is only provided in CAS and only provided to IFR traffic or
controlled VFR traffic where the class of airspace permits such traffic. Whilst the complexity of the
operation may appear less than that of approach control, the numbers of aircraft involved,
especially over continental Europe and North America, make area control a specifically
demanding aspect of the ATC service. Generally area control is applied above the levels used for
terminal manoeuvring and outside of CTAs, at the normal cruising levels for the activity of the
traffic concerned. The unit providing an area control service is an Area Control Centre (ACC).

Procedural Control
The system underpinning area control is procedural ATC. In order for this to function, pilots are
required to make position reports at mandatory reporting points enroute. On enroute charts such
points are noted by a black triangle (S). Unless ordered to cease position reporting, pilots are to
make the necessary reports. In any event, a pilot is to make a report when at the FIR boundary.

Adjacent FIRs
In order to allow international commercial operations to operate, the area controller in one FIR
must co-ordinate the movement of aircraft into adjacent FIRs. To do this, pilots may be asked to
adjust the route to be flown or to accept lower levels than flight planned. Instructions such as
“route via (position)” or “maintain FL190 until (position)” or “request level change enroute” are
used for revisions or interim clearances. At the point of transfer of control to a succeeding FIR,
the controllers concerned will ‘co-ordinate’ a handover such that there is a positive handover of
control. Where radar is used, this will involve radar identification by the assuming controller based
on information from the relieving controller and SSR information.

Flight Levels
As flights progress aircraft are able to cruise at higher flight levels (or altitudes). Area controllers
will attempt to accommodate all requests for higher levels within operational constraints.
Instructions such as “request higher after (position)” or “advise when able higher” are used when
level adjustment is not practical at that time.

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Chapter 17 Area Control Service

Airways
When flying along ATS corridor routes (airways), pilots are responsible for their own navigation.
Area controllers expect aircraft to navigate along the centre line of airways and route via the
defining radio navigation aids. When cleared to climb and descend, such action should be
commenced immediately and completed as expeditiously as possible. Instructions such as “from
(position) route via (position)” or “from present position proceed directly to (position)” will be used
to expedite the flow of traffic along routes or through areas by missing intermediate points on the
flight planned route.

SEPARATION
General Provisions for Separation
The LO’s for 010 Air Law require the student to have knowledge of the separation standards as
applied in area control. These are complex but follow a definite pattern. It is not unusual for
several questions to appear in a paper concerning the separation standards. In general, the
provision of vertical separation will take precedent over horizontal separation. The philosophy is
that ‘two aircraft at different altitudes cannot hit each other!’

Application of Separation
In area control, vertical or horizontal separation is provided between:

¾ All flights in Class A and B airspace


¾ IFR flights in Class C, D and E airspace
¾ IFR flights and VFR flights in Class C airspace

Clearance to Climb or Descend Maintaining own Separation in VMC


During the hours of daylight, flights can be cleared to climb or descend subject to maintaining
their own separation and remaining in VMC. No clearance is given that would reduce the spacing
between two aircraft to less than the separation minimum applicable in the circumstances.

Implication of Wake Turbulence


Greater separations than the specified minima are applied whenever wake turbulence or other
exceptional circumstances such as unlawful interference call for extra provisions.

VERTICAL SEPARATION
Vertical Separation Application
Vertical separation is obtained by requiring aircraft to use prescribed altimeter setting procedures
to operate at different levels expressed in terms of flight levels or altitudes.

Vertical Separation Minimum


The vertical separation minimum shall be:

¾ Within designated airspace, subject to regional air navigation agreement, a nominal


300 m (1000 ft) below FL410 or a higher level where so prescribed for use under special
conditions, and a nominal 600 m (2000 ft) at or above this level, and
¾ Within other airspace, a nominal 300 m (1000 ft) below FL 290 and a nominal 600 m
(2000 ft) at or above this level.

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Area Control Service Chapter 17

Minimum Cruising Level


Except where authorized by the appropriate authority, cruising levels below a minimum flight
altitude established by a State shall not be assigned. Area control centres shall determine the
lowest usable flight level or levels for the whole or parts of the CTA for which they are
responsible.

Assignment of Cruising Levels


Except where cruise climb is permitted, an area control centre normally authorises only one
cruising level for an aircraft beyond its CTA. Normally this would be the cruising level at which the
aircraft will enter the next CTA. Aircraft are advised to request changes enroute to any
subsequent cruising level desired once control has been transferred. Whilst under area control,
where necessary, an aircraft may be cleared to change cruising level at a specified time, place or
rate. Changes of allocated level will normally take effect at a radio navigation aid.

Approach Sequence
Cruising levels of aircraft flying to the same destination are assigned so that they are correct for
the approach sequence at the destination. This may require level adjustment at a considerable
distance from destination.

Priority in Allocation of Cruising Level


An aircraft at a cruising level normally has priority over other aircraft that request that cruising
level. When two or more aircraft are at the same cruising level, the lead aircraft shall normally
have priority.

Allocation of a Previously Occupied Level


An aircraft may be assigned a level previously occupied by another aircraft once the latter has
reported that it is vacating. However, if severe turbulence is known to exist the clearance is
delayed until the aircraft vacating the level has reported at another level separated by the
required minimum.

Example: Aircraft A is cleared to descend from FL140 to FL100. Aircraft B would be cleared to
descend to FL140 when aircraft A reports that it has left FL140 and is descending to FL100. In
severe turbulence conditions the area controller would instruct aircraft A to report passing FL130
in the descent before issuing a clearance to aircraft B to descend to the level previously occupied.

Vertical Separation During Ascent or Descent


Pilots in direct communication with each other may be cleared to maintain a specified vertical
separation between their aircraft during ascent or descent.

HORIZONTAL SEPARATION
Horizontal Separation Definition
There are two types of horizontal separation: lateral and longitudinal. Broadly, lateral separation
requires aircraft to fly on different tracks separated by the required minima in terms of distance,
whereas longitudinal separation involves arranging flights along the same track to be separated
by time (or in certain circumstances, by distance).

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LATERAL SEPARATION
Application
Lateral separation is applied so that the distance between aircraft that are to be laterally
separated is never less than an established distance (the minima) taking into account
navigational inaccuracies plus a specified buffer. This buffer is determined by the appropriate
authority and is included in the lateral separation minima.

Buffer — A contrivance to lessen the shock of concussion. In this context, the word
buffer means distance or time which is added into a situation that allows more space to
ensure that the risk of two aircraft colliding is minimised.

Means of Achieving Lateral Separation


Lateral separation of aircraft at the same level is obtained by:

¾ Requiring operation on different routes, or


¾ In different geographical locations as determined by visual observation, or
¾ By use of navigation aids or by use of area navigation equipment.

Lateral Separation Criteria and Minima


The means by which lateral separation may be achieved include the following:

Geographical Separation
The aircraft reports over a different geographical location determined visually or by
reference to a navigation aid.

Track Separation Between Aircraft Using the Same Navigation Aid or Method
Aircraft fly on specified tracks which are separated by a minimum amount appropriate to
the navigation aid or method employed. By doing so, separation would be deemed to
exist when one or both aircraft are:

VOR: Flying tracks separated by least 15°, and one or both aircraft have reported
at a distance of 28 km (15 nm) or more from the facility.

28 km (15NM)
VOR
15°
28 k
m (1
5NM
)

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NDB: Flying tracks separated by least 30°, and one or both aircraft have reported
at a distance of 28 km (15 nm) or more from the facility

28 km (15NM)
NDB
30°

28
km
(1
5N
M)

Dead Reckoning (DR)


Flying tracks diverging by at least 45° and one or both aircraft have reported at a distance
of 28 km (15 nm) or more from the point of intersection of the tracks, this point being
determined either visually or by reference to a navigation aid.

28 km (15NM)
FIX
45°
28
km
(1
5N
M
)

Reduced Distance
When aircraft are operating on tracks which are separated by considerably more than
these minima, States may reduce the distance at which the lateral separation is
achieved.

Oceanic Entry Track


Separation between aircraft entering oceanic airspace is to be achieved before the
aircraft enter the OCA by flying tracks separated by the minima applied in the OCA.
Alternatively, until separation is achieved, the aircraft are to fly tracks which continue to
diverge by at least 15° until the appropriate lateral separation minimum is established and
it is possible to ensure, by means approved by the appropriate ATS authority, that the
aircraft have the navigation capability necessary to ensure accurate track guidance.

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Track Separation Between Aircraft Using Different Navigation Aids or Methods


Track separation between aircraft using different navigation aids and RNAV equipment
may be achieved by requiring the aircraft to fly on specified tracks which are determined
by taking into account the navigational accuracy of the navigation aid and RNAV
equipment used by each aircraft with the proviso that the protection areas established for
each track do not overlap.

LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION
Application
Longitudinal separation is applied so that the spacing between the estimated positions of the
aircraft being separated is never less than the prescribed minimum. The specified spacing
reflects the accuracy of the navigation aids being used or the accuracy with which the pilot can
determine his/her position. Beacon ‘hopping’ is a fairly simple case but the use of RNAV over
remote areas such as oceans or deserts will require much greater distances to be applied.

Longitudinal separation between aircraft following the same or diverging tracks may be
maintained by the application of the Mach Number technique in which aircraft are required to fly
maintaining a specified mach number in relation to another aircraft also flying at specified mach
number. It is the underlying principle that the local speed of sound for two aircraft in relatively
close proximity will be the same. Longitudinal separation is established by requiring aircraft:

¾ To depart at a specified time;


¾ To lose time;
¾ To arrive over a geographical location at a specified time; or
¾ To hold over a geographic location until a specified time.

Longitudinal Separation Minima Based on Time


In defining the separation standards for longitudinal separation it is assumed that the aircraft are
at or will cross through the same level.

Aircraft Flying on the Same Track


Where aircraft are flying along the same track, the following minima are applied:

15 minutes:

15 MIN

10 minutes: if navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed.

Navigational Navigational
Aid Aid

10 MIN

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5 minutes: in the following cases, providing that in each case the lead aircraft is
maintaining a TAS of 37 km/h (20 kt) or more, faster than the aircraft following:

¾ Between aircraft that have departed from the same aerodrome;


¾ Between enroute aircraft that have reported over the same reporting point;
¾ Between departing aircraft and enroute aircraft after the enroute aircraft has
reported over a fix that is so located in relation to the departure point as to
ensure that 5 minute separation can be established at the point the departing
aircraft will join the air route.
¾
Aerodrome
or 37 KMH (20 KT)
Reporting Point or Faster

5 MIN

3 minutes: in the cases listed below provided that in each case the lead aircraft is
maintaining a TAS of 74 km/h (40 kt) or more faster than the aircraft following.

Aerodrome
or 74 KMH (40 KT)
Reporting Point or Faster

3 MIN

Aircraft Flying on Crossing Tracks

15 minutes:

15 MIN

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10 minutes: if navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed.

Navigational
Aid

Navigational
Aid

10 MIN
Navigational
Aids

Aircraft Climbing or Descending

Traffic on the Same Track


When an aircraft will pass through the level of another aircraft on the same track, the
following minimum longitudinal separation shall be provided:

15 minutes: at the time the level is crossed;

1 5 M IN
FL 260

FL 250
1 5 M IN

FL 240
1 5 M IN

or when descending,

1 5 M IN
FL 260

FL 250
1 5 M IN

FL 240
1 5 M IN

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10 minutes: at the time the level is crossed, where navigation aids permit frequent
determination of position and speed;

10 MIN
FL 260

FL 250
10 MIN

FL 240
10 MIN

NAVIGATION AID

10 M IN
FL 260

FL 250
10 M IN

FL 240
10 M IN

NAV IG AT ION AID

5 minutes: at the time the level is crossed, provided that the level change is commenced
within 10 minutes of the time the second aircraft has reported over an exact reporting
point (climbing and descending cases applicable).
5 M IN
FL 260

FL 250
5 M IN

1 0 M IN
F L 2 40
5 M IN

N A V IG A T IO N A ID

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Traffic on Crossing Tracks

15 minutes: at the time the levels are crossed (climbing and descending cases
applicable);

15 M IN
FL 260

FL 250
15 M IN

FL 240
15 M IN

10 minutes: if navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed


(climbing and descending cases applicable).

10 MIN
FL 260

FL 250
10 MIN

FL 240
10 MIN

NAVIGATION AID

Traffic on Reciprocal Tracks


Where lateral separation is not provided, vertical separation is provided for at least 10
minutes prior to and after the time the aircraft are estimated to pass, unless it can be
determined that the aircraft have passed.

Estimated Time
of Passing

10 MIN

10 MIN

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Longitudinal Separation Minima Based on Distance Using DME


Separation shall be established by maintaining not less than the specified distance(s) between
aircraft positions as reported by reference to DME in conjunction with other appropriate
navigation aids. Direct controller-pilot communications shall be maintained while such separation
is used.

Aircraft on the Same Track

37 km (20 nm) provided each aircraft utilizes "on-track" DME stations, and a separation
is checked by obtaining simultaneous DME readings from the aircraft at frequent intervals
to ensure that the minimum will not be infringed.
DME

37 KM (20 NM)

19 km (10 nm) provided the lead aircraft maintains a TAS of 37 km/h (20 kt) or more
faster than the aircraft following; each aircraft utilizes "on-track" DME stations, and
separation is checked by obtaining simultaneous DME readings from the aircraft at
intervals as necessary to ensure that the minimum established and will not be infringed.

37 KM (20 KT)
or Faster DME

19 KM
(10 NM)

Aircraft on Crossing Tracks


The separation for aircraft on the same track applies provided that each aircraft reports
distance from the station located at the crossing point of the tracks;

37 KM (20 KT)
or Faster
DME
NM M
)
(1 9 K
1
0

or,

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DME

NM M
)
(2 7 K
3
0
Aircraft Climbing or Descending on the Same Track

19 km (10 nm) at the time the level is crossed provided each aircraft utilizes "on-track"
DME stations. One aircraft maintains a level while vertical separation does not exist, and
separation is established by obtaining simultaneous DME readings from the aircraft;

19 K M
10 NM
FL 260

FL 250
19 KM
10 NM

FL 240
19 KM
10 NM

or when descending,
19 KM
10 NM
FL 260

19 KM 19 KM
10 NM 10 NM
FL 250

FL 240

DME

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Aircraft on Reciprocal Tracks


Aircraft utilizing on-track DME may be cleared to climb or descend to or through the levels
occupied by other aircraft utilizing on-track DME provided that it is positively established that the
aircraft have passed each other and are at least 10 nm apart or any other value as prescribed by
the appropriate ATS authority.

Longitudinal Separation Minima Based on Distance Using RNAV


Separation is established by maintaining not less than the specified distance between aircraft
positions as reported by reference to RNAV equipment. Direct controller-pilot communication
should be maintained, while such separation is used.

To assist pilots providing the required RNAV distance information, position reports should be
referenced to a common way-point ahead of both aircraft. RNAV distance based separation may
be applied between RNAV equipped aircraft when operating on designated RNAV routes or on
ATS routes defined by VOR. RNAV distance based separation minima shall not be applied after
ATC has received pilot advice indicating navigation equipment deterioration or failure.

Aircraft on the Same Track

WAY-POINT

150 KM
80 NM

A 150 km (80 nm) RNAV distance based separation minimum may be used provided
each aircraft reports its distance to or from the same "on-track" way point, and separation
is checked by obtaining simultaneous RNAV distance readings from the aircraft at
frequent intervals to ensure that the minimum will not be infringed.

Aircraft Climbing or Descending on the Same Track

A 150 km (80 nm) RNAV distance based separation minimum may be used at the time
the level is crossed, provided each aircraft reports its distance to or from the same "on-
track" way point. One aircraft maintains a level while vertical separation does not exist,
and separation is established by obtaining simultaneous RNAV distance readings from
the aircraft.

150 KM WAY-POINT
80 NM
FL 260

FL 250
150 KM
80 NM

FL 240
150 KM
80 NM

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or when descending,

150 K M
W A Y -P O INT
8 0 NM
F L 2 60

FL 25 0
1 50 KM
8 0 NM

F L 24 0
150 K M
8 0 NM

Aircraft on Reciprocal Tracks


Aircraft utilizing RNAV may be cleared to climb or descend to or through the levels occupied by
other aircraft utilizing RNAV provided that it has been positively established by simultaneous
RNAV distance readings to or from the same "on-track" way-point that the aircraft have passed
each other by at least 150 km (80 nm).

150 km
WAY -POINT W AY -POINT
80 NM

Longitudinal Separation based on RNAV where RNP is Specified


For aircraft cruising, climbing, or descending on the same track in an RNP RNAV environment,
the separation standard may be reduced from 80 nm to 50 nm in RNP 10 airspace providing
direct pilot/controller communications exist (not through a radio operator); procedural position
reports are received that permit distance verification between aircraft every 30 minutes.

REDUCED SEPARATION MINIMA


Reduction in Separation Minima
The separation minima detailed in this chapter may be reduced as determined by the appropriate
ATS authority and after prior consultation with the aircraft operators, as appropriate. The reduced
minima may be applied when special electronic or other aids (i.e. GPS) enable the pilot of an
aircraft to determine accurately the aircraft's position. Minima may also be reduced when, in
association with rapid and reliable communication facilities, radar derived information of an
aircraft's position is available to the appropriate ATCU.

Special Electronic Equipment


When special electronic or other aids enable the air traffic controller to predict rapidly and
accurately the flight paths of aircraft and adequate facilities exist to frequently verify the actual
aircraft positions with the predicted positions, separation may be reduced.

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RNAV Operations
When RNAV equipped aircraft operate within the coverage of electronic aids that provide the
necessary updates to maintain navigation accuracy, separation may also be reduced.

Separation When Using the Mach Number Technique


The Mach number technique requires turbo jet aircraft to fly at the Mach number approved by
ATC. A request is to be made to ATC before any changes to Mach number are made. If it is
essential to make immediate changes to Mach number for safety reasons (i.e. turbulence) ATC is
to be informed as soon as possible. If it is not possible to maintain assigned Mach number during
en route climbs or descents, ATC is to be informed at the time of clearance issue. Separation
based on Mach number is deemed to exist when the required time interval between aircraft
exists. The minimum longitudinal separation standard when using the Mach number technique is
10 minutes providing the preceding aircraft maintains a Mach speed equal to or greater than that
of the following aircraft. This may be reduced if the preceding aircraft has Mach speed greater
than the following aircraft:

Mach Number difference between Reduced Longitudinal Separation


preceding and following aircraft: Standard
Mach 0.02 faster 9 minutes
Mach 0.03 faster 8 minutes
Mach 0.04 faster 7 minutes
Mach 0.05 faster 6 minutes
Mach 0.06 faster 5 minutes

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17-16 Air Law


Reference: Procedures For Air Navigation Services, Rules of the Air, and Air Traffic Services,
Document 4444-RAC/501

INTRODUCTION
The establishment of the formal route structure for airways in the FIR cannot always meet the
requirements of remote aerodromes or areas of a state. For instance, until the boom in the oil
exploration and recovery business in the North Sea, the Shetland and Orkney Isles of the UK
were remote areas where boats were the main means of transportation to the mainland. There
were aerodromes there but no long distance scheduled air services served the islands. Small
regional operators used small aeroplanes to provide a limited service. The ATC support for this
was very limited confined to no more than aerodrome control and enroute FIS. This effectively
limited the services to VFR only.

As the level of traffic increased, and in order to offer a more formalised service and a greater
degree of safety, the UK CAA established a system of advisory routes for IFR traffic to use, along
which all IFR traffic using the route and asking for the service would be provided with ATC. It was
envisaged that this service would be, and to a certain extent has remained, purely procedural.
With the introduction of the ICAO airspace classification system in the early 1980s, the airspace
in which this service was offered was titled Class F airspace, and a sub-division of ATC created
called the Air Traffic Advisory Service. Today, ICAO permits the use of radar in the provision of
an advisory service, however, this should not be confused with the UK radar service provided
under the LARS, RAS (Radar Advisory Service).

OBJECTIVE AND BASIC PRINCIPLES


The objective of the air traffic advisory service is to make information on collision hazards more
effective than it would be in the mere provision of FIS. It may be provided to aircraft conducting
IFR flights in advisory airspace or on advisory routes (Class F airspace). Such areas or routes will
be specified by the State concerned. Air traffic advisory service should only be implemented
where the air traffic services are inadequate for the provision of air traffic control and the limited
advice on collision hazards otherwise provided by FIS will not meet the requirement. Where air
traffic advisory service is implemented, this should be considered normally as a temporary
measure only until such time as it can be replaced by air traffic control service.

OPERATION
Air traffic advisory service does not afford the same degree of safety and cannot assume the
same responsibilities as air traffic control service in respect of the avoidance of collisions, since
information regarding the disposition of traffic in the area concerned available to the unit providing
air traffic advisory service may be incomplete. To make this quite clear, air traffic advisory service
does not deliver clearances but only advisory information, and it uses the words “advise” or
“suggest” when a course of action is proposed to an aircraft.

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The Commanders of aircraft flying to destinations served by class F routes or airspace, must
request the service. This is done by filing a FPL and annotating the remarks to make it clear that
the Advisory Service is requested. The ATCU responsible for the operation of the service will
acknowledge receipt of the FPL, but no clearance will be issued. When RTF contact is
established between the aircraft and the ATCU, the pilot will be advised which altitude or FL
should be used and advised of any other known traffic (IFR or VFR) flying along or in the vicinity
of the route. If conflictions arise, the pilots of aircraft in receipt of the service will be offered
suggestions or advice as to the approved method of de-confliction. Under no circumstances will
the ATCO apply ATC procedures nor will he/she assume any responsibility for separation.

IFR/VFR
The service is only available to pilots who have stated their intention to fly under IFR by filing an
IFR FPL. The use of the routes or airspace is not restricted to IFR only, but no service is offered
or available to VFR pilots other than the usual FIS. Likewise no service is offered to pilots of
aircraft flying under IFR who have not requested the service despite having filed a FPL.

Note: Pilots flying under IFR because they are flying in IMC must file a FPL before entering class
F airspace. If the service is required it must be requested.

AIRCRAFT USING THE AIR TRAFFIC ADVISORY SERVICE


IFR flights electing to use the air traffic advisory service when operating within Class F airspace
are expected to comply with the same procedures as those applying to controlled flights except
that the flight plan and any changes are not subjected to a clearance, since the unit furnishing air
traffic advisory service will only provide advice on the presence of essential traffic or suggestions
as to a possible course of action. It is for the pilot to decide whether or not to comply with the
advice or suggestion received and to inform the unit providing the advisory service without delay,
of such a decision.

AIRCRAFT NOT USING THE AIR TRAFFIC ADVISORY SERVICE


Aircraft wishing to conduct IFR flights within advisory airspace, but not electing to use the air
traffic advisory service, shall submit a flight plan, and notify changes to the unit providing the
service. IFR flights planning to cross an advisory route should do so as nearly as possible at an
angle of 90° to the direction of the route and at a level, appropriate to its track, selected from the
tables of cruising levels for use by IFR flights outside controlled airspace.

AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES UNITS


An ATS unit providing air traffic advisory service shall:

Advise the aircraft to depart at the time specified and to cruise at the levels indicated in
the flight plan if it does not foresee any conflict with other known traffic.

Suggest to aircraft a course of action by which a potential hazard may be avoided, giving
priority to an aircraft already in advisory airspace over other aircraft desiring to enter such
advisory airspace.

Pass to aircraft traffic information comprising the same information as that prescribed for
area control service.

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Air Traffic Advisory Service Chapter 18

Advisory Philosophy
The criteria used above should be at least those laid down for aircraft operating in CAS and
should take into account the limitations inherent in the provision of air traffic control advisory
service, navigation facilities, and air-ground communications prevailing in the region.

Designation of Airspace
Class F airspace consists of advisory routes and advisory airspace. As the service is limited in
scope, there is no facility for co-ordination of traffic flying along advisory routes with FIRs of
adjacent states. Class F routes are therefore limited to domestic FIRs only and do not cross the
international FIR boundary between states. Class F routes are given the suffix F by ICAO. A
typical advisory route designator may be: W911F.

Note: In the UK, advisory routes are given the suffix D therefore the 'ICAO' route W911F would in
the UK be designated W911D. You find this route on E(Lo)1. It runs from Newcastle via the IoM
and stops at the London/Shannon FIR boundary.

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Reference: Procedures For Air Navigation Services, Rules of the Air, and Air Traffic Services,
Document 4444-RAC/501

INTRODUCTION
Radar is now used widely in ATC, and the advances including digital systems and data handling
systems have revolutionised ATC. Radar allows the ATCO to supervise the airspace from the
ground without reliance on pilot reports and thus enhance safety. Whilst procedural control is
retained because if all else fails it is still there, almost 90% of air traffic services use radar in one
form or another. Radar is used extensively in area control where airways and upper air routes are
virtually exclusively radar controlled, in approach radar for zone and terminal activity, and for
monitoring SIDs and STARs. Radar is also used in aerodrome control both for traffic control in the
visual circuit and for surface movement guidance. The early GCA systems were replaced by
PAR, and now with the demise of MLS, computerised PAR is again being installed primarily at
busy military aerodromes.

RADAR COVERAGE
The use of radar in ATS is by necessity, limited to specified areas of radar cover and shall be
subject to limitations as specified by the appropriate ATS authority. Information on the operating
methods used is published in AlPs.

Types of Radar
Primary surveillance radar (PSR) and secondary surveillance radar (SSR) can be used either
alone or in combination, provided reliable coverage exists in the area, and the probability of
detection, the accuracy, and the integrity of the radar system are satisfactory. PSR systems
should be used in circumstances where SSR alone would not meet the ATS needs. SSR
systems, especially those with monopulse technique or Mode S capability, may be used alone,
including in the provision of separation between aircraft, provided the carriage of SSR
transponders is mandatory within the area, and aircraft identification is established and
maintained by use of assigned discrete SSR codes.

Note: Monopulse technique uses azimuth information derived from aircraft responses
using comparison of signals received by two or more antenna beams. This gives greatly
improved azimuth resolution and less ‘garbling’ (see Radio Navigation notes) than
conventional SSR sensors.

Presentation of Radar Information


The minimum radar derived information available for display to the controller is to include, radar
position indications, radar map information, and when available, information from SSR Mode A,
Mode C and Mode S.

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Theoretical ATC Radar Coverage of the United Kingdom

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IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT
Before providing a radar service to an aircraft, radar identification must be established and the
pilot informed. Thereafter, radar identification must be maintained until termination of the radar
service. If radar identification is subsequently lost, the pilot must be informed accordingly, and
when applicable, appropriate instructions issued. Radar identification is to be established by at
least one of the following methods:

SSR IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURES


Where SSR is used, aircraft may be identified by one or more of the following procedures:

¾ Recognition of the aircraft identification in a radar label;


¾ Recognition of an assigned discrete code, the setting of which has been verified, in a
radar label;
¾ Direct recognition of the aircraft identification of a Mode S equipped aircraft in a radar
label;
¾ By transfer of radar identification;
¾ Observance of compliance with an instruction to set a specific code;
¾ Observation of compliance with an instruction to squawk IDENT.

Note: Radar Label is the term used for the display of information on a radar display unit
(radar screen) relating to a particular aircraft the details of which are known to the ATCU
providing the radar service.

PSR IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURES


Where SSR is not used or not available, radar identification must be established by at least one
of the following methods:

¾ By correlating a particular radar contact with an aircraft reporting its position over, or as
bearing and distance from a point displayed on the radar map, and by confirming that the
track of the particular radar position is consistent with the aircraft path or reported
heading;
¾ By correlating an observed radar contact with an aircraft which is known to have just
departed, provided that the identification is established within 2 km (1 nm) from the DER
of the runway used;
¾ By transfer of radar identification;
¾ By ascertaining aircraft heading, if circumstances require, and following a period of track
observation;
¾ Instructing the pilot to execute changes of heading of 30° or more and correlating the
movements of one particular radar contact with the aircraft’s acknowledged execution of
the instructions given; or
¾ Correlating the movements of a particular radar contact with manoeuvres currently
executed by an aircraft having so reported.

Use of VDF
Use may be made of direction finding bearings to assist in radar identification of an aircraft. This
method shall not be used as the sole means of establishing radar identification, unless so
prescribed by the ATS authority for particular cases under specified conditions.

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POSITION INFORMATION
An aircraft to be provided with radar service should be informed of its position:

¾ On initial identification;
¾ On transfer of radar identification from another radar unit;
¾ When the pilot requests this information;
¾ When a pilot’s estimate differs significantly from the radar controller’s contact position;
¾ When the pilot is instructed to resume own navigation after radar vectoring;
¾ Immediately before termination of radar service.

Defining Position
Position information is passed to aircraft in one of the following forms:

¾ As a geographical position;
¾ As magnetic track and distance to a significant point, an enroute navigation aid, or an
approach aid;
¾ As direction and distance from a known position;
¾ As distance to touchdown, if the aircraft is on final approach; or
¾ As distance and direction from the centre line of an ATS route.

Omit Position Reports


The pilot may omit position reports at compulsory reporting points when specified by the ATS
radar unit concerned, this includes points at which air-reports are required for meteorological
purposes. Pilots are to resume position reporting when instructed, or when advised that radar
service is terminated, or that radar identification has been lost.

RADAR VECTORING
Radar vectoring is a procedure that allows a radar controller to position an aircraft by issuing
specific headings for the aircraft to fly to maintain the desired track. This allows an aircraft to be
positioned at a point where visual criteria is obtained; or that allows an instrument procedure to
be commenced; or traffic to be avoided; or terrain and restricted airspace to be avoided.

Procedure
Radar vectoring is only carried out in a defined Radar Vectoring Area (RVA) within CAS. Details
of all RVA are published in the AIP for a state and the RVA for Manchester is reproduced below.
When vectoring an aircraft, a radar controller should tell the pilot what the purpose of the
vectoring is, and where practicable, vector the aircraft along routes or tracks on which the pilot
can monitor the aircraft position with reference to navigation aids. When terminating radar
vectoring, the radar controller will instruct the pilot to resume own navigation, giving the pilot the
aircraft’s position and appropriate instructions as necessary. During radar vectoring, the pilot
should fly the heading given and not correct for the wind. The radar controller will amend the
vectoring instructions to take account of observed drift.

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Limit of Vectoring
Except when transfer of radar control has been effected prior to transfer of communication,
aircraft are not to be vectored closer than 4.6 km (2.5 nm), or a distance equivalent to ½ of the
radar separation minimum (where radar separation greater than 9.3 km (5 nm) is prescribed),
from the edge of the RVA, unless local arrangements have been made to ensure that separation
will exist with radar controlled aircraft operating in adjoining areas. Controlled flights will only be
vectored into uncontrolled airspace:

¾ In the case of emergency; or


¾ In order to circumnavigate severe weather (in which case the pilot should be so
informed); or
¾ At the specific request of the pilot.

Obstacle Clearance
Whilst providing radar vectoring the ATCO will take responsibility for terrain avoidance (although
the pilot should monitor the situation closely). When vectoring an IFR flight, the radar controller
shall issue altitude instructions such that the required obstacle clearance will exist until the aircraft
reaches the point where the pilot will resume own navigation. Whenever possible, minimum
vectoring altitudes should be sufficiently high to minimize activation of GPWS. Operators are to
report incidents involving the activation of aircraft GPWS so that locations can be identified, and
altitude, routing, and/or aircraft operating procedures can be altered to prevent recurrences.

Compass Failure
When an aircraft has reported unreliable directional instruments, the radar controller will advise
the pilot to make all turns at an agreed rate (normally rate 1; 3° per sec) and to start the turn
immediately upon receipt. The controller will time the turn and advise the pilot to stop the turn
after the appropriate arc has been turned through.

Information Regarding Adverse Weather


Information that an aircraft appears likely to penetrate an area of adverse weather should be
issued in sufficient time to permit the pilot to decide on an appropriate course of action, including
that of requesting advice on how best to circumnavigate the adverse weather, if so desired. In
vectoring an aircraft for circumnavigating any area of adverse weather, the radar controller should
ascertain that the aircraft can be returned to its intended or assigned flight path within the
available radar coverage, and, if this does not appear possible, inform the pilot of the
circumstances.

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Radar Vectoring Area chart for Manchester

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USE OF RADAR IN THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE


Functions
The information presented on a radar display may be used to perform the following functions in
the provision of air traffic control service:

¾ To provide radar services to improve airspace utilization, reduce delays, provide for direct
routings and more optimum flight profiles, as well as to enhance safety;
¾ To provide radar vectoring to departing aircraft;
¾ To provide radar vectoring to resolve potential conflicts;
¾ To provide radar vectoring to arriving aircraft;
¾ To provide radar vectoring to assist pilots in their navigation;
¾ To provide separation and maintain normal traffic flow when an aircraft experiences
communication failure within the area of radar coverage;
¾ To maintain the monitoring of air traffic;
¾ When applicable, maintain a watch on the progress of air traffic, in order to provide a
non-radar controller with:
¾ Improved position information regarding aircraft under control;
¾ Supplementary information regarding other traffic; and
¾ Information regarding any significant deviations, by aircraft from the terms of their
respective ATC clearances, including their cleared routes as well as levels when
appropriate.

RADAR SEPARATION MINIMA


The Radar Separation Standard
The minimum distance that an identified radar contact may approach to another identified contact
or an unidentified contact is 9.3 km (5 nm). States may apply lower minima where safety is not
compromised. The standard is defined because the position accuracy resolution of radar contacts
is dependent upon the data rate of the radar system (primarily the aerial rotation period – see
Radio Navigation notes), the beam width of the radar, and the range discrimination of the radar.
Further errors are introduced by slant range and anomalous propagation.

Reduced Radar Separation


The radar separation minimum may be reduced when approved by the authority.

Not Below 5.6 km (3 nm) when radar capabilities at a given location permit, the
separation minima maybe reduced to 3 nm. This is usually applied out to a maximum
range of 40 nm from the radar head (the radar transmitter site) when the radar is used for
terminal approach control.

Not Below 4.6 km (2.5 nm) The minimum may be further reduced between succeeding
aircraft which are established on the same final approach track within 18.5 km (10 nm) of
the runway end. This reduced minimum may only be applied when:

¾ The average runway occupancy time of landing aircraft does not exceed 50 seconds;
¾ Braking action is good and runway occupancy times are not adversely affected by
runway contaminants such as slush, snow, or ice;
¾ A radar system with appropriate azimuth and range resolution and an update rate of
5 seconds or less is used in combination with suitable radar displays; and

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Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control

¾ The aerodrome controller is able to observe the runway in use and associated exit
and entry taxiways (visually, by surface movement radar (SMR), or a surface
movement guidance and control system (SMCGS));
¾ The wake turbulence radar separation minima does not apply;
¾ Aircraft approach speeds are closely monitored by the controller, and when
necessary, adjusted so as to ensure that separation is not reduced below the
minimum;
¾ Aircraft operators and pilots have been made fully aware that during reduced
minimum operations of the requirement for runway occupancy time not exceeding 50
secs; and
¾ The procedures used are published in AIP.

Radar Wake Turbulence Minima


The following wake turbulence separation minima applied by radar are applicable to the approach
and departure phases of flight. Note that the separation minima are defined as distance not time
(as in the case of procedural wake turbulence separation).

Aircraft category Wake turbulence radar


Preceding aircraft Succeeding aircraft separation minima

HEAVY HEAVY 7.4 km (4 nm)


MEDIUM 9.3 km (5 nm)
LIGHT 11.1 km (6 nm)
MEDIUM LIGHT 9.3 km (5 nm)

Conditions
The minima set out above apply when:

¾ An aircraft is operating directly behind another aircraft at the same altitude or less
than 300 m (1000 ft) below the preceding aircraft, or
¾ Both aircraft are using the same runway, or parallel runways separated by less than
760 m, or
¾ An aircraft is crossing behind another aircraft, at the same altitude or less than 300 m
(1000 ft) below.

Speed Control
Radar controllers may request aircraft to adjust their speed in order to facilitate radar control.
Aircraft may be requested to maintain maximum speed, minimum speed, minimum clean speed,
minimum approach speed, or specific speed. Where a specific speed is given it is expressed in
multiples of 20 km/h (10 knots) IAS, or multiples of 0.01 Mach. Only minor speed adjustments of
not more than 40 km/h (20 knots) should be requested of aircraft established on an intermediate
or final approach. No speed control should be applied after 8 km (4 nm) from the threshold on the
final approach. Aircraft should be advised once speed control is no longer required.

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Radar in Air Traffic Control Chapter 19

EMERGENCIES, HAZARDS, AND EQUIPMENT FAILURES


Assistance
In the event of an aircraft in, or appearing to be in, any form of emergency, every assistance shall
be provided by the radar controller. The progress of an identified aircraft in emergency shall be
monitored and plotted on the radar display until the aircraft passes out of radar coverage. Position
information shall be provided to all ATS units which may be able to give assistance to the aircraft.
Radar transfer to adjacent radar sectors shall also be effected when appropriate.

SSR Code
If the pilot of an aircraft encountering a state of emergency has previously been directed by ATC
to operate the transponder on a specific code, that code will normally be maintained unless, in
special circumstances, the pilot has decided or has been advised otherwise. Where ATC has not
requested a code to be set, the pilot will set the transponder to mode A code 7700.

USE OF RADAR IN THE APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE


Radar is used in approach control to perform the following functions:

¾ Radar vectoring of arriving traffic to a point at which a pilot interpreted instrument


approach can be commenced; a PAR procedure starts, or a visual approach can be
made;
¾ Radar monitoring of parallel runway operations;
¾ To provide surveillance radar approaches (SRA);
¾ To provide PAR procedures;
¾ To provide separation between arriving and departing aircraft;
¾ To provide radar vectoring of departing aircraft where necessary.

Approach Radar Procedure


Procedures are to be established to ensure that the aerodrome controller is kept informed of the
arrival sequence as well as instructions given to aircraft to maintain separation after transfer of
control to the aerodrome controller. Before commencing radar vectoring the pilot is to be advised
of the type of approach in operation and the runway in use (i.e. “Atlantic 123 radar vectors for
ILS runway 27 left”). Before commencing the final approach, the radar controller advises the
pilot of the aircraft position at least once during radar vectoring (i.e. “Atlantic 123, 10 miles from
touchdown turn left heading 315 report localiser established”).

Vectoring to Final Approach


An aircraft vectored for final approach should be given a heading or series of headings,
calculated to close to the final approach track. The final vector will enable the aircraft to be
established in level flight on the final approach track (localiser established) prior to intercepting
the glide path on a precision approach. The intercept angle should be 45° or less. For
independent parallel approaches the intercept angle should not be greater than 30°. The final
vector should also provide at least 1 nm straight and level flight prior to localiser intercept. The
vector must also ensure that at least 2 nm straight and level flight occurs before glide path
intercept.

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Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control

Closing intercept angle 45° or less


(or with parallel runway ops 30° or less)

Final Approach Track

Descent Point

Final Vector
Vectoring to Intercept the Final Approach Track

Separation
A minimum of 3 nm separation is given to aircraft on the same localiser course.

Vectoring to the Visual


Vectoring for a visual approach may be initiated provided the reported ceiling is above the
minimum altitude applicable to radar vectoring and meteorological conditions are such that, with
reasonable assurance, a visual approach and landing can be carried out. Clearance for a visual
approach will only be issued after the pilot has reported the aerodrome, or the preceding aircraft,
is in sight. At that time radar vectoring would be terminated, and the pilot instructed to contact
tower.

Transfer of Control to the Aerodrome Controller


Transfer of communication and control to the aerodrome controller should be carried out at such
a point or time to permit clearance to land or alternative instructions to be issued. It is normal ATC
practice to transfer control once the pilot has reported established on the localiser (or final
approach track for non ILS approaches).

Landing Clearance
Clearance to land should be passed to an aircraft before it reaches 2 nm from touchdown. If no
clearance to land has been received at that range and no other instructions issued, then the
published missed approach procedure must be carried out.

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Radar in Air Traffic Control Chapter 19

RADAR APPROACHES
Before Commencement
Before a radar approach is started, the pilot is to be informed of:

¾ The runway in use;


¾ The applicable OCA/H;
¾ The angle of the glide path (or the virtual glide path) and/or the approximate rate of
descent to be maintained;
¾ The ‘Loss of RTF’ procedure (unless the procedure is published in the AIP and on the
approach plates).

RTF
During a radar approach, the pilot will maintain communication with the radar approach controller.
The radar controller will liaise with the aerodrome controller by intercom and relay any essential
traffic information to the pilot. On completion of the radar approach, communication may be
transferred directly to the ground movement controller when the pilot reports to the radar
controller that the aircraft is clear of the active runway.

Discontinuation
If for any reason the radar approach has to be discontinued, the pilot will be informed
immediately. If possible, the approach is to be continued utilising another aid or visually if the pilot
reports accordingly. If continuation is not possible, the pilot will be given alternative instructions.

Undercarriage
At a point on final approach, the pilot of an aircraft making a radar approach is to be asked to
confirm that the landing gear is down and locked.

Landing Clearance
The aerodrome controller is to be advised when an aircraft making a radar approach is 8 nm from
touchdown. At this point the aerodrome controller may either issue a landing clearance or state
that the clearance will be issued subsequently. If landing clearance has not been issued at 8 nm,
the radar controller will advise the aerodrome controller again when the aircraft is at 4 nm from
touchdown and request landing clearance on behalf of the pilot. In busy circuit situations, the
aerodrome controller may delay the landing clearance providing it is issued before the aircraft
reaches 2 nm from touchdown. If the clearance has not been issued by 2 nm, the radar controller
will instruct the pilot to carry out the missed approach procedure without further delay.

Missed Approach
An aircraft making a radar approach should be instructed to execute the missed approach
procedure when the aircraft appears to be dangerously positioned on final approach, for reasons
of conflicting traffic, if no landing clearance has been received by 2 nm, or on instructions from
the aerodrome controller. If at any time during the radar approach radar contact is lost for any
significant interval of time, the pilot will be instructed to make a missed approach. Unless required
by exceptional circumstances, instructions issued by the radar controller concerning missed
approach are to be in accordance with the published procedure.

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Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control

PAR
During a precision approach radar procedure, the pilot is ‘talked’ down the glide path and along
the centre line. This is achieved by radar vectoring using very accurate radar information relating
to the aircraft position in azimuth and elevation with reference to the centre line and the defined
glide path. At the start of the procedure the pilot will be instructed not to acknowledge any further
instructions unless requested. Range information is passed and the pilot will be instructed to
commence descent at the appropriate point. The radar controller then transmits continuously
passing range, heading and adjustments to heading, and adjustments to the rate of descent to
maintain the centre line and the glide path. At 4 nm from touchdown, whilst keeping up the
‘talkdown’, the radar controller will ask the aerodrome controller for clearance to land. If given,
this is relayed to the pilot together with a request for landing gear confirmation and instruction to
acknowledge. The talkdown will continue until the aircraft reaches the decision height or is seen
on radar to be making a missed approach.

Surveillance Radar Approach (SRA)


If PAR is available then a final approach using SRA should not be carried out unless
meteorological conditions are such that there is a reasonable certainty that the SRA can be
completed successfully. When conducting an SRA the radar controller must comply with the
following:

¾ At or before the commencement of the final approach the aircraft shall be informed of
the point at where the SRA will be terminated (1 nm or 2 nm from touchdown);
¾ The aircraft shall be informed when the aircraft is approaching the point at where the
descent should begin;
¾ Before reaching the computed descent point, the aircraft shall be informed of the
OCA/H and instructed to descend and check the appropriate minima;
¾ At the descent point the aircraft will be instructed to begin descent as for a 300 ft per
mile glide path;
¾ Distance to touchdown is normally passed at every 2 km (1 nm) with the pre-
computed level the aircraft should be passing;
¾ The approach shall be terminated at the earliest of:

¾ A distance of 4 km (2nm) from touchdown where range determination allows


ranges to be passed every mile, or at 1 nm if ranges are passed every 0.5 nm, or
¾ Before the aircraft enters an area of continuous radar clutter, or
¾ When the pilot reports that a visual approach can be completed.

USE OF RADAR IN AERODROME CONTROL


Surveillance Radar
Surveillance radar can be used by the aerodrome controller to monitor the aircraft on final
approach, monitor the movements of other aircraft in the vicinity of the aerodrome, establishing
separation between succeeding departing aircraft, and providing navigation assistance to VFR
flights. SVFR flights are not to be vectored unless special circumstances (emergencies) dictate
otherwise. When offering navigation assistance to VFR flights the aerodrome controller should be
aware of the proximity of IMC. It is of overriding importance that the use of radar by the
aerodrome controller does not detract from the visual observation of aerodrome traffic.

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Radar in Air Traffic Control Chapter 19

Surface Movement Radar (SMR)


The use of SMR enhances the service to aerodrome traffic in low visibility operations, and may be
used to augment visual observation of the aerodrome. It may also be used to provide surveillance
of areas of the manoeuvring area which cannot be observed visually. Specific uses are:

¾ monitoring aircraft and vehicles on the manoeuvring area for compliance with
clearances;
¾ determining that the runway is clear before aircraft land or take off;
¾ providing essential local traffic information on or near the manoeuvring area;
¾ determining the location of aircraft and vehicles on the manoeuvring area;
¾ providing directional assistance to aircraft taxiing when requested by the pilot;
¾ providing assistance and advice to emergency response vehicles.

Radar in the Flight Information Service


The use of radar in the provision of FIS does not relieve the pilot of any responsibility for collision
avoidance, or the final decision regarding alteration of the flight plan. The information displayed
on the radar display may be used to provide identified aircraft with information concerning
conflicting aircraft and advice regarding avoiding action; information about the position of
significant weather and advice on how best to circumnavigate the weather, and information to
assist the navigation of the aircraft. In the UK this service is known as RIS and is provided by
radar units as part of the LARS.

Radar in the Air Traffic Advisory Service


When radar is used in the provision of the air traffic advisory service, the general procedures for
the use of radar in ATC are to be applied subject to the limitations of the advisory service and the
airspace in which it is conducted.

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Chapter 19 Radar in Air Traffic Control

19-14 Air Law


Reference: Procedures for Air Navigation Services, Aircraft Operations (Document 8168-
OPS/611, Volume 1), Volume I - Flight Procedures

INTRODUCTION
The use of Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) has radically affected the provision of ATC
especially in the enroute (Area) and terminal (Approach) phases of flight. Modern ATC systems
use SSR not just to identify aircraft but to give information regarding aircraft callsign, altitude or
level, and destination. The system can also be used to identify a particular airframe and is a
fundamental part of the ACAS/TCAS systems. SSR has its origins in WWII with the invention of a
system known as Identification Friend or Foe (IFF). The equipment fitted to aircraft that performed
the task was given the code name ‘parrot’ and this is evident in some of the phraseology we still
use.

System
The technology and the equipment used are discussed in detail in Radio Navigation, but
simplistically, a ground station transmits a signal that is received by the aircraft equipment and re-
transmitted back to the ground station. The aircraft equipment is called a ‘transponder’: a
transmitter that responds. The signal from the aircraft is coded with the identification code
allocated to the aircraft by the controller, which when received, permits access to the details of
the aircraft’s flight plan held in the ATC data system. The transmitted signal operates in different
modes, with mode A used for ident codes and mode C used for automatic altitude reporting.

Special Codes
Under certain circumstances, pilots are required to set special codes on the SSR system to
indicate aircraft situation to the controller. These are:

Mode A code 7700 - Emergency


Mode A code 7600 - Radio failure
Mode A code 7500 - Unlawful interference
Mode A code 2000 - Entering an area where radar services are available
and will be requesting such a service
Mode A code 7000 - Operating in an area where radar service is available
but not in receipt of a radar service
Mode A code 0000 - Unserviceable transponder

Mode S
Pilots of aircraft equipped with Mode S having an aircraft identification feature shall set the aircraft
identification in the transponder. This setting shall correspond to the aircraft identification
specified in item 7 of the ICAO flight plan, or, if no flight plan has been filed, the aircraft
registration.

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Chapter 20 Secondary Surveillance Radar

OPERATION OF TRANSPONDERS
In commercial aviation an aircraft is not permitted to commence a flight with an unserviceable
transponder. Unless advised by the ATC authority, the transponder is to be operated at all times
during flight, regardless of whether the aircraft is inside or outside airspace where SSR is used for
ATS purposes. If a transponder fails in flight and cannot be repaired at an intermediate stop
enroute, approval may be given for the flight to continue to planned destination with the
unserviceable transponder. In such circumstance, item 10 of the FPL (information concerning the
carriage of SSR) is to be annotated “N” for nil. In the absence of any ATC directions (code
instructions) or regional air navigation agreements (specific code requirements), the transponder
should be set to mode A code 2000.

Setting a Code
The approved procedure for setting a code is designed to prevent inadvertent squawking of a
special code. Before changing a code character, set the transponder control to standby. Change
the code and then reselect ON. Alternatively, where the aircraft system includes twin SSR
controllers, select the new code on the control unit not being used and then operate the
changeover switch to activate the controller that has the desired code set.

Confirm Squawk
When requested by ATC to “Confirm Squawk” the pilot shall:

¾ Verify the Mode A code setting on the transponder


¾ Reselect the assigned code if necessary, and
¾ Confirm to ATC the setting displayed on the controls of the transponder

Ident Feature
The system includes a facility which graphically draws the attention of the radar controller to the
symbol relating to the aircraft on the radar display. It is usual for the symbol to ‘flash’ when the
pilot operates the “ident feature”. Pilots are not to squawk IDENT unless requested by ATC.

Use of Mode C
Whenever Mode C is in use, level (or altitude) is to be reported to the nearest full 30 m or 100 ft
as indicated on the pilot’s altimeter, in communication with ATC. The tolerance value used by
ATC to determine that Mode C derived level information displayed to the controller is accurate, is
the reported altitude/level ± 300 ft (JAR OPS requires a tolerance of ± 200 ft).

Level Occupancy
An aircraft is considered to be maintaining its assigned level as long as the Mode C
indicates that it is within 300 ft of the assigned level.

Climbing or Descending
An aircraft is deemed to have crossed a level when the Mode C indicates it has passed
this level by more than 300 ft in the required direction.

Passing a Level
An aircraft is deemed to be passing through a level when the Mode C indicates it is within
300 ft of the stated level ascending or descending in the required direction.

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Secondary Surveillance Radar Chapter 20

Departing a Level
An aircraft is considered to have left its previously assigned level when the Mode C
indicates that it is more than 300 ft from the previously assigned level.

Reaching a Level
An aircraft is considered to have reached its newly assigned level when the Mode C
indicates that it is within 300 ft of the assigned level

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
If the pilot thinks necessary, when in an emergency the mode A code 7700 should be squawked.
This will activate alarm signs and sounds in the radar control room and alert all concerned to the
identity of the aircraft suffering the emergency. If the pilot is already in communication with the
radar controller and the emergency is declared on the radar controller’s frequency after the
aircraft has been radar identified, the 7700 squawk may be superfluous.

Note: Military automatic emergency squawk is mode A code 7777.

COMMUNICATION FAILURE PROCEDURES


The pilot of an aircraft losing two-way communications should set the transponder to mode A
code 7600.

Note: A controller observing a response on the communications failure code will


ascertain the extent of the failure by instructing the pilot to “Squawk IDENT” to change
code. Where it is determined that the aircraft receiver is functioning, further control of the
aircraft will be continued using code changes or IDENT transmissions to acknowledge
receipt of clearances issued. Different procedures may be applied to Mode S equipped
aircraft in areas of Mode S coverage.

UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE WITH AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT


Should an aircraft in flight be subjected to unlawful interference, the PIC shall endeavour to set
the transponder to mode A code 7500 unless circumstances warrant the use of mode A code
7700. A pilot having selected mode A code 7500 and subsequently requested to confirm this
code by ATC shall, according to circumstances, either confirm this or not reply at all.

Note: Specific indoctrination concerning the handling of acts of unlawful interference will
be conducted by individual operators.

PHRASEOLOGY
When acknowledging mode/code setting instructions, pilots shall read back the mode and code to
be set.

ATC System
In accordance with the Regional Air Navigation agreement (RAN), ATCUs utilising SSR are
allocated a block of codes for the unit to use. There are 4096 individual codes encompassing all
the possible combinations of the digits 0 – 7 in 4 digit sets. So a code containing the digits 8 or 9
is invalid. A particular ATCU is usually identified by the first two digits of a code. The third digit
indicates the control console and the last digit the allocated track number for that console. For
example the code 4321 would indicate a radar approach unit at a specific location, console
number 2, track 1.

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Chapter 20 Secondary Surveillance Radar

Gate-to-Gate Operations
Within the ‘gate to gate’ concept of European ATC being pioneered by Eurocontrol, each flight will
be allocated a specific SSR code during the pre-tactical phase of the ATFM procedure, and that
code will remain with the aircraft until the aircraft lands at the final destination.

20-4 Air Law


References: Annex 11 - Air Traffic Services

ALERTING SERVICE
It is essential that an aircraft experiencing an emergency or any other form of difficulty is able to
communicate the fact and get assistance. Underpinning the ATS is a system of communication,
liaison, co-operation and information interchange that is utilised to assist aircraft. This system is
called the Alerting Service and is the third part of the ATS system.

Application
The Alerting Service is provided for all aircraft provided with air traffic control service; in so far as
is practicable, all aircraft having filed a flight plan or otherwise known to the ATS, and any aircraft
known or believed to be the subject of unlawful interference.

Collection and Dissemination of Information


Flight information centres or area control centres shall serve as the central point for collecting all
information relevant to a state of emergency of an aircraft operating within the FIR or CTA
concerned and for forwarding such information to the appropriate Rescue Co-ordination Centre
(RCC).

Notification
In the event of a state of emergency arising to an aircraft while it is under the control of an
aerodrome control tower or approach control office, such unit shall notify immediately the flight
information centre or area control centre responsible which shall in turn notify the RCC.
Notification of the area control centre, flight information centre or RCC shall not be required when
the nature of the emergency is one that can be dealt with by the service concerned.

Local Response
Whenever the urgency of the situation so requires, the aerodrome control tower or approach
control office responsible shall first alert and take other necessary steps to set in motion all
appropriate local rescue and emergency organizations which can give the immediate assistance
required.

Notification of Rescue Co-Ordination Centres


Without prejudice to any other circumstances that may render such notification advisable, ATS
units shall notify RCCs immediately an aircraft is considered to be in a state of emergency in
accordance with the following phases:

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Chapter 21 The Alerting Service

PHASES OF THE ALERTING PROCEDURE


There are three states of alert, escalating in level of concern as to the safety of an aircraft. These
are:

Uncertainty Phase (INCERFA)


Except when no doubt exists as to the safety of the aircraft and its occupants, the
uncertainty phase would be declared to exist when:

¾ No communication has been received from an aircraft within a period of thirty minutes
after the time a communication should have been received, or from the time an
unsuccessful attempt to establish communication with the aircraft was first made,
whichever is earlier, or when
¾ An aircraft fails to arrive within thirty minutes of the ETA last notified to, or estimated
by, ATS units.

Alert Phase (ALERFA)


Except when evidence exists that would allay apprehension as to the safety of the aircraft
and its occupants, the alert phase would be declared:

¾ Following the uncertainty phase, subsequent attempts to establish communication


with the aircraft or inquiries to other relevant sources have failed to reveal any news
of the aircraft, or when
¾ An aircraft has been cleared to land and fails to land within 5 minutes of the
established time of landing and communication has not been re-established with the
aircraft, or when
¾ Information has been received which indicates that the operating efficiency of the
aircraft has been impaired but not to the extent that a forced landing is likely, or when
¾ An aircraft is known or believed to be the subject of unlawful interference.

Distress Phase (DETRESFA)


Except when there is reasonable certainty that the aircraft and its occupants are not
threatened by grave and imminent danger and do not require immediate assistance the
distress phase would be declared:

¾ Following the alert phase, further unsuccessful attempts to establish communication


with the aircraft and more widespread unsuccessful inquiries point to the probability
that the aircraft is in distress, or when
¾ The fuel on board is considered to be exhausted, or to be insufficient to enable the
aircraft to reach safety, or when
¾ Information is received which indicates that the operating efficiency of the aircraft has
been impaired to the extent that a forced landing is likely, or when
¾ Information is received or it is reasonably certain that the aircraft is about to make or
has made a forced landing.

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The Alerting Service Chapter 21

FORMAT OF NOTIFICATION OF DECLARATION


The notification shall contain such of the following information as is available in the order listed:

¾ INCERFA, ALERFA or DETRESFA as appropriate to the phase of emergency;


¾ Agency and person calling;
¾ Nature of the emergency;
¾ Significant information from the flight plan;
¾ Unit which made last contact, time and frequency used;
¾ Last position report and how determined;
¾ Colour and distinctive marks of aircraft;
¾ Any action taken by reporting office; or
¾ Other pertinent remarks.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FOR THE RCC


In addition to the above the RCC is given the following information:

¾ Any useful additional information, especially on the development of the state of


emergency through subsequent phases, or
¾ Information that the emergency situation no longer exists.

INFORMATION TO AIRCRAFT OPERATING IN THE VICINITY OF


AN AIRCRAFT IN A STATE OF EMERGENCY
When it has been established by an ATS unit that an aircraft is in a state of emergency, other
aircraft known to be in the vicinity of the aircraft involved shall be informed of the nature of the
emergency as soon as practicable.

UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE
When an ATS unit knows or believes that an aircraft is being subjected to unlawful interference,
no reference shall be made in ATS air-ground communications to the nature of the emergency
unless it has been referred to in communications from the aircraft involved and it is certain that
such reference will not aggravate the situation.

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Chapter 21 The Alerting Service

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INTRODUCTION
Article 25 of the Chicago Convention obliges all contracting states to provide search and rescue
(SAR) assistance to aircraft in a state of emergency in the territory of a state and adjacent areas
of responsibility. Annex 12 contains the SARPs for SAR and ICAO also publishes Doc 7333
which provides guidance to setting up a SAR service. The level of service provided depends
much upon the ability of the state (financial and expertise) but it is an obligation that is taken very
seriously and states will co-operate even where there is animosity between the co-operating
states. Some smaller states with limited GNP have entered into arrangements with larger
neighbours or treaty states where the SAR service is provided by the other state. Typically, the
RAF provides the SAR service for Cyprus whereas the USN provides SAR cover for the
surrounding sea areas of Iceland. The United Kingdom and Eire share the responsibility for the
provision of SAR in the 3 FIRs and also for the Shanwick OCA. In other ocean areas, or areas of
undetermined sovereignty, where SAR services have to be established, such services are
organised on the basis of regional air navigation agreements. A Contracting State having
accepted the responsibility to provide a SAR service in such areas is to arrange for the service to
be established and provided in accordance with Annex 12.

Note: The phrase “regional air navigation agreements” refers to the agreements
approved by the Council of ICAO normally on the advice of Regional Air Navigation
Meetings.

ORGANISATION
Establishment and Provision of Search and Rescue Service
SAR services are to be available on a 24 hour basis. In providing assistance to aircraft in distress
and to survivors of aircraft accidents, contracting states are required to do so regardless of the
nationality of such aircraft or survivors.

Establishment of Search and Rescue Regions


Contracting states shall publish the SAR areas (regions) within which they will provide SAR
services. Such regions shall not overlap. Boundaries of SAR regions should, in so far as
practicable, be coincident with the boundaries of corresponding FIR.

Establishment and Designation of Search and Rescue Service Units


Contracting States shall establish a rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) in each SAR region.
Contracting States should establish rescue sub-centres whenever this would improve the
efficiency of SAR services. In areas where public telecommunications would not permit persons
observing an aircraft in emergency to notify the RCC concerned directly and promptly, states
should designate suitable units of public or private services as alerting posts.

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Chapter 22 Search and Rescue

Communications for Search and Rescue Services Units


Each RCC is required to have a sophisticated communications system with ATSUs, other RCCs,
other services on whose skills and assistance the RCC can call, and associated service providers
(i.e the meteorological service, police, military units, etc.).

Equipment of Rescue Units


Rescue units shall be provided with facilities and equipment for locating promptly, and for
providing adequate assistance at, the scene of an accident including, where possible SARSAT
and COSPAS.

Co-Operation Between States


Contracting states shall co-ordinate their SAR organizations with those of neighbouring
contracting states, and in so far as is practicable, develop common SAR procedures to facilitate
co-ordination of SAR operations. Subject to conditions, a state should permit immediate entry into
its territory of rescue units of other states for the purpose of searching for the site of aircraft
accidents and rescuing survivors of such accidents. The authorities of a state which wishes its
rescue units to enter the territory of another state for SAR purposes shall transmit a request to the
RCC of the state concerned or to such other authority as has been designated by that state. Each
state should authorise its RCC to provide, when requested assistance to other RCCs, including
assistance in the form of aircraft, vessels, personnel or equipment.

Co-Operation with Other Services


States will arrange for all aircraft, vessels and local services and facilities which do not form part
of the SAR organisation to co-operate fully with the latter in SAR and to extend any possible
assistance to the survivors of aircraft accidents.

OPERATING PROCEDURES
Information Concerning Emergencies
Any authority or any element of the SAR organization having reason to believe that an aircraft is
in an emergency shall give all available information to the RCC concerned immediately. RCCs
shall, immediately upon receipt of information concerning aircraft in emergency, evaluate such
information and determine the extent of operation required. When information concerning aircraft
in emergency is received from other sources than ATS units, the RCC shall determine to which
emergency phase the situation corresponds and shall apply the procedures applicable to that
phase.

Uncertainty Phase
During the uncertainty phase, the RCC shall co-operate to the utmost with ATS units and
other appropriate agencies and services in order that incoming reports may be speedily
evaluated.

Alert Phase
Upon the occurrence of an alert phase the RCC shall immediately alert appropriate SAR
services units and rescue units and initiate any necessary action.

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Search and Rescue Chapter 22

Distress Phase
When an aircraft is believed to be in distress, or when a distress phase exists, the RCC
shall:

¾ Initiate action by appropriate SAR services units and rescue units in accordance with
the detailed plan of operation;
¾ Ascertain the position of the aircraft, estimate the degree of uncertainty of this
position, and, on the basis of this information and the circumstances, determine the
extent of the area to be searched;
¾ Notify the operator, where possible, and keep him informed of developments;
¾ Notify adjacent RCCs, the help of which seems likely to be required, or which may be
concerned in the operation;
¾ Notify the associated ATS unit, when the information on the emergency has been
received from another source;
¾ Request at an early stage such aircraft, vessels, coastal stations, or other services
not specifically included in SAR services or rescue units as are in a position to do so
to:

¾ Maintain a listening watch for transmission from the aircraft in distress or from an
emergency locator transmitter;

Note: The frequencies used by emergency locator beacons are 121.500 MHz
and 406 MHz.

¾ Assist the aircraft in distress as far as practicable;


¾ Inform the RCC of any developments;

¾ From the information available, draw up a plan for the conduct of the search
and/or rescue operation required and communicate such plan for the
guidance of the authorities immediately directing the conduct of such an
operation;
¾ Amend as necessary, in the light of circumstances, the guidance already
given above;
¾ Notify the State of Registry of the aircraft;
¾ Notify the appropriate accident investigation authorities.

Procedures for Pilots-in-Command at the Scene of an Accident


When a PIC observes that an aircraft or a surface vessel is in distress, he/she shall, unless
unable or it is unreasonable or unnecessary, keep the craft in distress in sight until such time as
such presence is no longer necessary. If position is not known with certainty, the pilot should take
such action as will facilitate the determination of it. The pilot should also report to the RCC or ATS
unit as much of the following information as possible:

¾ Type of craft in distress, its identification and condition;


¾ Its position expressed in Geographical co-ordinates; or a distance and true bearing
from a distinctive landmark; or from a radio navigation aid;
¾ Time of observation expressed in hours and minutes UTC;
¾ Number of persons observed and whether persons have been seen to abandon the
craft in distress;
¾ Number of persons observed to be afloat;
¾ Apparent physical condition of survivors.
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Chapter 22 Search and Rescue

First Aircraft on the Scene


If the first aircraft to reach the scene of an accident is not a SAR aircraft, the pilot of that aircraft
shall take charge of on-scene activities of all other aircraft subsequently arriving until the first
dedicated SAR aircraft reaches the scene. The pilot of any aircraft involved in SAR should
calculate the endurance of the aircraft considering diversion to a nearby aerodrome to extend
endurance if necessary. If, in the meantime, such aircraft is unable to establish communication
with the appropriate RCC or ATS unit, it shall, by mutual agreement, hand over to an aircraft
capable of establishing and maintaining such communications until the arrival of the first SAR
aircraft. If it is necessary for an aircraft to direct a surface craft to the scene of distress, the
aircraft shall do so by transmitting its precise instructions by any means at its disposal. If no radio
communications can be established the aircraft shall use the appropriate signal from those
defined at the end of this section. When it is necessary for an aircraft to convey information to
survivors or surface rescue units, and two-way communication is not available, it shall, if
practicable, drop communication equipment that would enable direct contact to be established, or
convey the information by dropping a message. When a ground signal has been displayed, the
aircraft shall indicate whether the signal has been understood or not by use of the appropriate
signal given at the end of this section.

Procedures for Pilots-In-Command Intercepting a Distress Transmission


Whenever a distress signal and/or message or equivalent transmission is intercepted on
radiotelegraphy or radiotelephony by a PIC of an aircraft, he shall record the position of the craft
in distress if given. If possible, he should take a bearing on the transmission and inform the
appropriate RCC or ATS unit of the distress transmission, giving all available information. At his
discretion, while awaiting instructions, proceed to the position given in the transmission.

SEARCH AND RESCUE SIGNALS


The signals shown below shall, when used, have the meaning indicated. They shall be used only
for the purpose indicated and no other signals likely to be confused with them shall be used.
Upon observing any of the signals given below, aircraft shall take such action as may be required
by the interpretation of the signal given.

Signals with Surface Craft


The following manoeuvres performed in sequence by an aircraft mean that the aircraft wishes to
direct a surface craft towards an aircraft or a surface craft in distress:

¾ Circling the surface craft at least once;


¾ Crossing the projected course of the surface craft close ahead at low altitude and
rocking the wings, or opening and closing the throttle, or changing the propeller pitch;
¾ Heading in the direction in which the surface craft is to be directed. Repetition of the
above manoeuvres has the same meaning.

Cancelling Request for Assistance


When the assistance of a surface craft is no longer required the pilot should manoeuvre the
aircraft so as to cross the wake of the surface craft close astern at a low altitude and rock the
wings, or open and close the throttle, or change the propeller pitch.

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Search and Rescue Chapter 22

Marking of Droppable Equipment


The following supplies can be dropped from aircraft which have the capability to air-drop. Where
such equipment is dropped, a streamer (flag/pennant) is to be attached, the colour of which will
indicate to the survivors what is in the package. Where supplies are mixed a combination of the
colour codes should be used.

Table: Colour of streamers attached to supplies


Streamer Colour Supply
Red Medical supplies and first aid equipment
Blue Food and water
Yellow Blankets and protective clothing
Black Miscellaneous equipment such as stoves, axes,
compasses etc

Ground-Air Visual Signal Code


In order to communicate basic messages and instructions from ground parties to aircraft, an
internationally agreed system of signals has been established. There are two sets of signals:

Ground/Air Signals from Survivors The following signals may be set out in some form
(marked in snow; oil on sand; burned grass in open areas etc.) Symbols shall be at least
2.5 metres long and shall be made as conspicuous as possible.

Table: Ground/Air Signals from Survivors


No. Message Symbol

1 Require assistance V
2 Require medical assistance X
3 No or negative N
4 Yes or affirm Y
5 Proceed in this direction Í

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Chapter 22 Search and Rescue

GROUND/AIR SIGNALS USED BY RESCUE UNITS


Where search parties do not have two-way radio contact with the RCC or where they are co-
operating with aircraft without two-way RTF, the following signals can be used.

Table: Ground/Air Signals used by Rescue Units


No. Message Symbol

1 Operation completed LLL


2 Have found all survivors LL
3 Have only found some survivors ­­
4 Not able to continue, returning to base XX
5 Have divided into 2 groups proceeding as indicated

6 Information received that survivors/aircraft is in this direction ÎÎ


7 Nothing found, will continue to search NN
AIR-TO-GROUND SIGNALS
To indicate that the ground signals have been understood, an aircraft will, during the hours of
daylight rock the aircraft’s wings, or during the hours of darkness, flash on and off twice the
aircraft’s landing lights or, if not so equipped, switch on and off twice its navigation lights. Lack of
the above signals indicates that the ground signal is not understood.

SAR Communications
Perhaps the most important role a civilian aircraft can perform in the SAR scenario is to act as a
communications link. By remaining at high altitude the aircraft can relay messages from SAR
units on the surface or at low level to ATCUs or directly to the RCC using VHF or HF. The aircraft
at high level can also relay messages between SAR units on the surface which are not in direct
line of sight communication with each other. The following radio frequencies are used for SAR:

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Search and Rescue Chapter 22

Frequency Application Modulation Silence Note


Period
Aircraft can receive using
500 KHz MF International distress safety and calling CW (Morse) H+15; H+45
ADF
Silence periods last 5
2182 KHz HF International distress safety and calling AM (voice) H+00; H+30
minutes
4125 KHz Air to Ship SAR AM (voice) None
3023 KHz
SAR scene of search HF AM (voice) None Used for comms with RCC
5680 KHz
8364 KHz Lifeboat HF AM (voice) None Use as directed
121.500 MHz International Aeronautical Distress VHF AM (voice) None Military ships can monitor
156.8 MHz VHF Maritime Distress (Channel 16) FM (voice) None Ship/shore VHF
123.100 MHz Aeronautical SAR scene of search VHF AM (voice) None Military ships can monitor
Military ships and aircraft
243.000 MHz International Aeronautical Distress UHF AM (voice) None
guard
AM
Sweeping tone Simultaneous
406.000 MHz Emergency Locator Beacon repeated – None transmissions on 121.500
may have MHz
voice
Table: SAR Frequencies

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Chapter 22 Search and Rescue

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Reference: Annex 14 - Aerodromes

ANNEX 14
This is the Annex to the Chicago Convention that specifies the SARPs for the construction of and
services required for aerodromes. Annex 14 is only concerned with aerodromes that are open to
the public, in other words, aerodromes which conduct commercial operations. This does not limit
the application of the SARPs to state owned or authority operated aerodromes, but implies that
an aerodrome licensed for commercial operations must comply with the SARPs in order for the
licence to be granted. This Annex contains SARPs that detail the physical characteristics and
obstacle limitation surfaces to be provided for at aerodromes, and certain facilities and technical
services normally provided at an aerodrome. It is not intended that these specifications limit or
regulate the operation of an aircraft. At certain types of aerodrome used occasionally for
commercial air transport, differences under article 38 can be notified (i.e. military aerodromes).

TYPES OF AERODROME
ICAO does not categorise aerodromes as does, for instance, the CAA of the UK. ICAO does
however, specify different SARPs to aerodromes used only for VFR operations compared to
those for aerodromes used for instrument procedures.

PARTS OF AN AERODROME
All licensed aerodromes have an apron, a manoeuvring area, and a movement area (see
definitions Chapter 1). Where necessary, or commercial interests prevail, an aerodrome may
have a technical area. Where established, a technical area, except for the entrance to and exit
from, are not under ATC control. On some very busy international aerodromes the control of
surface traffic and operations on the apron is delegated to an apron management service
operated by the aerodrome operator.

AERODROME REFERENCE CODE (ARC)


For the benefit of aerodrome designers and constructors, ICAO specifies an Aerodrome
Reference Code. Operators are required to ascertain that any aerodromes they intend to use for
commercial operations are fit for that purpose. Where an operator has established schedules
using aerodromes and the necessary aerodrome operating minima, it is not necessary for the
pilot to confirm that the aerodrome is suitable for operations. Knowledge of the ARC is only