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ALCORCON ENGINEERING REVIEW CENTER

Cebu Main: 4th floor Coast Pacific Downtown Center, Sanciangko St, Cebu City Tel #(032) 254-33-84
Manila: 3rd floor JPD Bldg 1955, C M Recto corner N. Reyes St, Sampaloc, Manila Tel # (02) 736-4438

POWER PLANT ENGINEERING – DAY 2

I. PROCESSES OF IDEAL GAS


1. Reversible Process: No friction loss

2. Adiabatic Process: No heat gain. No heat loss. The system is perfectly insulated

3. For Any Process: Is a process where there is no change in mass (m1 = m2)

A. P1V1 = P2 V2 B. Dh = m cp (T2 - T1) C. DU = m cv (T2 - T1)


T1 T2

Dh cp
D. =
DU c v

4. Constant Volume Process (V1 = V2):


Another term: Isometric, Isochoric, Isovolumic. For example: rigid tank, air tank, rigid vessel.
P T
A. Relation between P and T, 1 = 1 B. Q = m cv (T2 - T1) C. W = 0
P2 T2

T2
D. Dh = m cp (T2 - T1) E. DU = m cv (T2 - T1) F. Ds = mc ln
v T1

5. Constant Pressure Process (P1 = P2) Another term: Isobaric process


V1 T
A. Relation between V and T, = 1
V2 T2

B. Q = mcp(T2 - T1) C. W = P(V2 - V1) D. Dh = mcp(T2 - T1)

T2
E. DU = mcv(T2 - T1) F. Ds = mcp ln
T1

6. Constant temperature process (T2 =T1) Another term: Isothermal process, Hyperbolic process

A. Relation between P and V: P1V1 = P2V2

P1 V2 V P
B. W = P1V1 ln = P1V1 ln = mRT ln 2 = mRT ln 1
P2 V1 V1 P2

P1 V2 V P
C. Q = P1V1 ln = P1V1 ln = mRT ln 2 = mRT ln 1
P2 V1 V1 P2

V2 P1
D. Dh = 0 E. DU = 0 F. Ds = mR ln = mR ln
V1 P2

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7. Isentropic Process (PVk = c) - is a reversible adiabatic process

A. Relation among P,V and T,


k -1
T2 V1 T2 P2
P1V1k = P2 V2k = ( )k - 1 =( ) k k = ln (P1 / P2 )
T1 V2 T1 P1 ln (V2 / V1)

B. W = P2V2 - P1V1 = mR(T2 - T1)


1- k 1- k

C. Q = 0 D. Dh = mcp(T2 - T1) E. DU = mcv(T2 - T1) F. Ds = 0

8. Polytropic Process (PVn = c)


Is an internally reversible adiabatic process

If n = 1 - the process is constant temperature.


If n = 0 - the process is constant pressure.
If n ® ¥ - the process is constant volume.
If n = k – the process is isentropic

A. Relation among P,V and T


n -1
T2 V1 T2 P2
P1V1n = P2 V2n = ( )n - 1 =( ) n n = ln (P1 / P2 )
T1 V2 T1 P1 ln (V2 / V1)

B. W = P2V2 - P1V1 = mR(T2 - T1) C. Q = mcn (T2 - T1) where: cn = c ( k - n )


1- n 1- n v 1- n

T2
D. Dh = mcp(T2 - T1) E. DU = mcv(T2 - T1) F. Ds = mcn ln
T1

II. GAS CYCLES

1. Carnot Cycle
Is the most efficient thermodynamic cycle. P - V diagram T - s diagram

Formulas: 4 QA
QA
Temperature, T

A. QA = heat added = T1(s1 – s4)


Pressure, p

1
T= 4
T=c
c
B. QR = heat rejected = T2(s1 – s4) 1
S=

S=c S=c
c

C. W = QA - QR = (T1 – T2)(s1 – s4)


=

3 T=c
c

3 2
QR T=c 2
Q Q W QR
D. Ds = A = R =
T1 T2 T1 - T2 Volume, V Entropy, s

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W Q A - QR W T -T
E. Cycle Efficiency = = = = 1 2
QA QA W + QR T1
Process 1- 2: S = c
Process 2- 3: T = c
W
F. Mean Effective pressure, Pm Pm = Process 3- 4: S = c
VD
Process 4- 1: T = c
where: VD = V2 – V3

Note: 1. High temperature source is known as a temperature source.


2. Low temperature source is known as a temperature sink.
3. Heat is added during constant temperature process.
4. Heat is rejected during constant temperature process.
5. The process is two constant temperature and two isentropic process.
6. The efficiency of the cycle is a function of temperature.
7. If the temperature difference increases, its cycle efficiency will increase.

2. Otto Cycle
Is a spark-ignition type of engine.

Formulas:
k -1 TDC BDC
k -1
T2 æ V1 ö T2 æ P2 ö k
P1V1k = P2V2k =ç ÷ =ç ÷
T1 çè V2 ÷ø T1 çè P1 ÷ø

In terms of compression ratio pressure ratio: QA Ise


nt
ro
Pressure, P

P2
P1
( )
= rk k
T2
T1
( )
= r k k -1 rp = (rk )k
V=C pi
c

Isen
tro V=C QR
rk = compression ratio = V1 / V2 = V4 / V3 pic

rp = compression pressure ratio = P2 / P1


Volume, V
A. QA = heat added = m cv (T3 - T2)

B. QR = heat rejected = m cv (T4 - T1)

C. W = work = QA - QR

D. e = cycle efficiency

W Q A - QR W 1 1
e = = = = 1- = 1 - k -1
QA QA W + QR k -1
rk
r p k

V1
E. rk = compression ratio = = 1+ c where: c = clearance volume
V2 c

W W
F. Pm = mean effective pressure = = where: V1 = mRT1 / P1
VD V1 - V2

G. T3 = maximum temperature, P3 = maximum pressure

Note: 1. Maximum temperature occur after combustion or before expansion.


2. Heat is added during constant volume process.
3. Heat is rejected during constant volume process.
4. The process is two constant volume and two isentropic process.

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5. If compression ratio increases, its cycle efficiency will increase.
6. The cycle efficiency depends on compression ratio and its specific heat ration.

PROBLEMS:

PROCESSES OF IDEAL GAS

1. Air is compressed adiabatically from 30oC to 100oC. If mass of air being compressed is 5 kg. Find the change of
entropy.
A. 1.039 KJ/oK B. 0.746 KJ/oK C. 0 D. 1.245 KJ/kg

2. Two kilogram of air in a rigid tank changes its temperature from 32oC to 150oC. Find the work done during the
process.
A. 236 B. 170 C. 195 D. 0

3. A perfect gas has a value of R = 58.8 ft-lb/lb-°R and k = 1.26. If 20 Btu are added to 10 lbs of this gas at
constant volume when initial temperature is 90°F, find the final temperature.
A. 97°F B. 104°F C. 154°F D. 185°F

4. Helium gas is compressed in an adiabatic compressor from an initial state of 14 psia and 50oF to a final
temperature of 320oF in a reversible manner. Determine the exit pressure of Helium.
A. 38.5 psia B. 40.5 psia C. 42.5 psia D. 44.5 psia

5. Find the enthalpy of Helium if its internal energy is 200 kJ/kg.


A. 144 kJ/kg B. 223.42 kJ/kg C. 333.42 kJ/kg D. 168 kJ/kg

CARNOT CYCLE

1. A Carnot cycle operates between the temperature limits of 300oK and 1500oK, and produces 600 KW of net
power. The rate of entropy change of the working fluid during the heat addition process is:
A. 0 B. 0.4 KW/K C. 0.5 KW/K D. 2.0 KW/K

2. A Carnot cycle has a maximum temperature of 550 oF and minimum temperature of 100 oF. If the heat added is
4200 Btu/min, find the horsepower output of the engine.
A. 34.53 B. 40.56 C. 44.13 D. 65.40

OTTO CYCLE

1. A spark-ignition engine operates on an Otto cycle with a compression ratio of 9 and a temperature limits of 30oC
and 1000oC. If the power input is 500 KW, calculate the mass flow rate of air.
A. 1.99 kg/s B. 2.19 kg/s C. 2.39 kg/s D. 2.59 kg/s

2. An ideal gasoline engine operates with an initial cycle temperature of 48oC and exhaust temperature of 150oC.
The change in temperature during combustion is 150oK. Calculate the ideal thermal efficiency.
A. 32% B. 33% C. 34% D. 35%

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