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STUDENT ASSIGNMENT NO.

GOVERNMENT POSTGRADUATE COLLEGE SAMUNDRI


DISTRICT FAISALABAD.

Submitted By

Student Name: Muhammad Hamza Ahmad


Subject with code: Analytical Chemistry ll (CHM-508)
University Roll No: 139627
Morning/Evening: Morning
Semester No.: 6th
Department: BS Chemistry
Session: 2017 - 2021
Teacher Name: Ali Shair

STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS FOR PUBLIC AFFILIATED COLLEGES


GOVERNMENT COLLEGE UNIVERSITY
FAISALABAD
Application of IR in Quality Control

Introduction:
Infrared spectroscopy is widely used in industry as well as in research. It is a simple and reliable
technique for measurement, quality control and dynamic measurement. It is also employed in
forensic analysis in civil and criminal analysis.

Application of IR in Quality control


 Identification of Substances.

 Studying the chemical process.

 Detection Of Impurities

Role of IR in Quality Control

 Quality control analysis of Pharmaceutical by IR.

 Food Science

 Agriculture Application

 Paper & pulp Industry

Identification of Substances.

The amount and frequencies of the light absorbed is related to the functional groups and structure
of the compound. IR-frequency light is passed through a compound. The amount and frequencies
of the light absorbed is related to the functional groups and structure of the compound. This
helps us to identify the compound. In organic chemistry is most often used to identify chemical
structures from the characteristic adsorption of IR light by different organic functional groups.
Thus, the existence of hydroxyl groups, double bonds, and other active parts of a molecule can
be deduced.

Studying the progress of the reaction


Progress of chemical reaction can be determined by examining the small portion of the reaction
mixture withdrawn from time to time. The rate of disappearance of a characteristic absorption
band of the reactant group and/or the rate of appearance of the characteristic absorption band of
the product group due to formation of product is observed.
Detection of impurities

IR spectrum of the test sample to be determined is compared with the standard compound. If any
additional peaks are observed in the IR spectrum, then it is due to impurities present in the
compound.

Role of IR in Quality Control

IR spectrometry has evolved from the research tool of the middle 1970s into a simple push
button technique for the routine testing laboratory in the late 1980s. There are at least three
changes in the technology that have contributed the development of the rugged, compact
spectrometers, the production of table top computer systems and the design of high efficiency
optical sampling accessories. These development opened the door for a potentially much larger
opportunity custom-designed instrumentation for product quality control and chemical process
analysis.

Quality Control Analysis of Pharmaceutical by IR:

IR Spectroscopy has been extensively used in both qualitative and quantitative pharmaceutical
analysis. This technique is important for the evaluation of raw material used in production. The
active ingredient and the excipients. Although nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and
mass spectrometry are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for the identification of drug
substances, infrared Spectroscopy can provide valuable additional structural information such as
a presence of certain functional groups.

Structure of acetylsalicylic Acid Structure Of salicylic acid

Salicylic acid is a compound used to synthesize aspirin. A comparison of the molecular structure
of salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid inform us that the difference between these two
molecules is the presence of O-H group in the salicylic acid and acetyl O-COCH3 group in the
acetylsalicylic acid the crucial difference in the spectra will manifest themselves in the O-H
stretching and C=O stretching regions of each spectrum.
Food Science:

Both mid-infrared and near-infrared techniques may be used to obtain qualitative and
quantitative information about food samples. Foods are complex mixture with the main
components being water, protein fats, and carbohydrates. Infrared Spectroscopy has long been
employed to study fats and oil.

Near infrared Spectroscopy is widely used in the food industry as a fast routine analytical
method for the quantitative measurement of water, proteins fat and carbohydrate. Although
the near infrared band are less useful for qualitative analysis of foods because of their broad
overlapped appearance these bands are suitable for qualitative analysis of the major food
components in the near infrared spectroscopy. Wine analysis is also feasible with an NIR
spectroscopy. This approach provides a relatively straight forward method for analysis ethanol
in wine.

Near Infrared Spectrum of Dehydrated tomato soup


Near Infrared Spectrum of Wine samples Containing:

 1 % Methanol

 1 % Ethanol
Agriculture Application:

Commercial grains are commonly analysed by using NIR. The major constituent of grains are
water, protein, oil, fibre, minerals and carbohydrates and it is commercially important to
quantitate the compositio. The NIR spectra of each material are does dominated by overtones
and combination bands of C-H, C=O, N-H and O-H.

Paper & Pulp Industry:

Infrared Spectroscopy plays an important role in quality control in pulp and paper Industry.
Paper is composed of cellulose fibers in organic fillers and binders. In the mid infrared region
additives such as polymers and calcium carbonate may be identified in paper. The majority of
bands in a paper spectrum are due to cellulose. The letter shows an O-H scratching bands in the
3330cm-1 C-H stretching bands in the 3000 to 2900cm-1 region, C-H bending stands in the range
1500-1300cm-1 and C-O either stretching band at 1030 cm-1. FTIR microscopy is an effective
approaches to the analysis of paper during quality control, particularly, because of the ability to
use this technique for remote analysis.
Reference:

 https://www.pharmatutor.org/

 https://socratic.org/

 https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/

 Infrared spectroscopy fundamentals and application by Barbara stuart,Chspter 8