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® DuPont registered trademark

®
®

DuPont Engineering Polymers

® DuPont registered trademark ® DuPont Engineering Polymers Engineering Polymers for electric motors

Engineering Polymers for electric motors

Front page:

– General purpose motor from FHP Elmotor AB

– Window lift motor from Meritor

Contents

 

Page

Introduction

- Worldwide motor manufacture and DuPont's global team

4

- The total DuPont offering

5

- Traditional versus new approach

6-7

- Vespel ®

8

- Automotive window lift motor

9

- Significant cost savings

10

Electrical insulation and approved insulating systems from DuPont

- UL 1446/IEC 85 Electrical Insulation Systems (EIS)

11

- Thermoplastic encapsulation

11

- Advantages of high temperature insulation systems

12

- DuPont family of insulating materials

12

Motor design

- Rotors and stators

14

- Overmoulding

14

- Commutators

16

- End frames

16

- Stiffness, strength and creep resistance

18-19

- Bearings and bearing housings

20-22

- Gears and gear housings

22

- Brush holders

22

- Motor cooling fans

23

- Function integration

24

- Assembly features

25

- Frame extensions and housings

26

- Interconnects

26

- Motor design innovations

27

- Noise, vibration and harshness

28

DuPont's Global Motors Team can assist you whenever and wherever you need it

Today's electric motor design teams are being confronted by more challenges than ever before. There is a particular need to develop more cost effective motors for an increasingly competitive marketplace. As a result, a new and broader range of engineering and insu- lation materials is changing the way in which motors are designed, manufac- tured and assembled.

Global Motors Team

To help you take full advantage of the latest materials and technology when you optimize an existing design or develop a new motor, DuPont has established a Worldwide Motors Team. By drawing on its global experience and resources, you are assured of proper material selection, part design and processing. The motors team can help you:

• design motor components

• with material selection

• with processing support

Global technical support

DuPont has R&D, manufacturing, technical service and distribution facili- ties throughout the world. When you purchase engineering materials for electric motors, technical support is part of the offering. You have opened the door to a world of knowledge that can provide you with valuable practical help at every stage of your project.

The DuPont technical centres, located in strategically selected regions around the world, can provide you with invaluable assistance. And DuPont will work with you from concept through to commercialization.

DuPont's global offering for electric motors

State-of-the-art insulation technology provides motor manufacturers greater design flexibility and the opportunity to reduce costs. DuPont offers you the largest range of electrical insulation systems, and each comes with a variety of approvals by testing agencies, includ- ing Underwriters' Laboratories, IEC and CSA. What's more, engineering polymers also provide many benefits in housing, motor bracket and bearing applications. These materials can reduce finished part costs through simplified assembly, parts integration, and lower material costs.

Although this brochure concentrates on engineering polymers used in electric motors, DuPont's total offering goes far beyond this. It includes an extremely

broad range of elastomers, films, fabricated components, fibres, chemicals, refrigerants, advanced structural composites, electronic materials, and finishes.

This brochure illustrates many of the advantages and options that result from incorporating DuPont's engineering materials in your motor design. You will find ideas ranging from plastic bearings to extensions of thermoplastic motor frames, rotor insulation, and protective devices used in motor control

equipment. Many of the examples used are just re-thinking of an old concept, but in each case new materials have met the needs of a designer, engineer or end-user.

For more information on DuPont's family of engineering materials, contact your nearest DuPont office (see back page for contact addresses).

family of engineering materials, contact your nearest DuPont office (see back page for contact addresses) .
Engineering polymers Crastin ® PBT thermoplastic polyester resin Delrin ® acetal resin Hytrel ®
Engineering polymers Crastin ® PBT thermoplastic polyester resin Delrin ® acetal resin Hytrel ®
Engineering polymers Crastin ® PBT thermoplastic polyester resin Delrin ® acetal resin Hytrel ®

Engineering polymers

Crastin ® PBT thermoplastic polyester resin Delrin ® acetal resin Hytrel ® thermoplastic polyester elastomer Minlon ® mineral reinforced nylon resin Rynite ® PET thermoplastic polyester resin Zenite ® LCP liquid crystal polymer Zytel ® nylon resin Zytel ® HTN high temperature nylon resin

Fluoropolymers

Teflon ®

fluorocarbon resins

Tefzel ®

fluorocarbon resins

Material for high performance bearings

Vespel ® polyimide parts and shapes

Sheet structures for electrical insulation

Nomex ® brand sheet structures

Lubrication

Krytox ® fluorinated oil and grease

Films for electrical insulation

Mylar ®

polyester film

Kapton ®

polyimide film

Wire & cable materials

Elvaloy ® Hytrel ® thermoplastic polyester resin Kapton ® polyimide film Teflon ® fluorocarbon resins Tefzel ® fluoropolymer

® DuPont's registered trademarks.

Traditional universal motor construction

The majority of motors produced today are still manufactured using large numbers of components in traditional materials such as paper or films for insulation, thermosets for brush holders, and die-cast metals for end frames. A significant proportion of the cost of the finished motor results from labour- intensive assembly.

moulding
moulding

Tacho-generator (or encoder) screwed to die-cast end frame

Brush holder mouldings

screwed to die-cast end frame Brush holder mouldings Fixing screws for connector Separate connector mounting

Fixing screws for connector

Separate connector

mounting plate

De-flashed and machined die-cast end frame

Paper/tape insulation for stator windings

Separate connector

Field coils secured to laminations by pins or clamps

Individual paper or film slot insulators

Paper or film end insulators

End frame in metal or thermoset

Design utilizing the features of engineering polymers

DuPont engineering polymers offer a better, more cost effective solution. High performance polymers, including Rynite ® glass reinforced PET polyester, as well as Zytel ® nylon, Zytel ® HTN high temperature nylon, Crastin ® PBT, Zenite ® LCP and Minlon ® mineral reinforced nylon, Hytrel ® thermoplastic polyester elastomer and Vespel ® poly- imide parts facilitate parts integration. In addition, they provide superior thermal properties, thin-walled stiffness, processibility and:

• Parts integration and reduced assembly costs

• Close part tolerances

• Stiffness and dimensional stability

• Reliable performance at high temperatures

• Efficient, reliable wire winding

• Free UL and IEC recognition for materials and insulation systems up to Class R

• No finishing or machining normally necessary

to Class R • No finishing or machining normally necessary Snap-fits for tacho-generator (or encoder) Integrated

Snap-fits for tacho-generator (or encoder)

Integrated push-fit brush holder

End frame moulded in Rynite ® PET, Crastin ® PBT, Zytel ® , Zytel ® HTN with integral brush holders and integral connector

Vespel ® thrust plug (see next page)

Overmoulding acting as both coil former and stator insulation

High performance lead wire insulation (e.g. Kapton ® or Tefzel ® )

Overmoulded rotor insulation. The insulation of slots, ends and shaft provides double insulation

Hytrel ® overmoulding to reduce noise and vibration

End frame moulded in Rynite ® PET, Crastin ® PBT, Zytel ® , Zytel ® HTN

7

Vespel ®

The search for comfort and safety in the automotive industry has led to increased numbers of electric motors.

These are now widely used to make driving more pleasant (window lift, sunroof, central locking, air condition- ing actuation, seat, mirrors & steering adjustment), and safer (windscreen wipers, idle and exhaust controls, differential locking).

Increasing regulations and specifica- tions for equipment such as starter- motors and fuel pumps place greater demands on mechanical wear and friction components.

Parts such as bushings, washers and thrust plugs working in electrical motors have to withstand axial and radial loads coupled with speed.

The wear and friction characteristics of Vespel ® have helped electrical motor manufacturers to simplify their design while improving performance and life.

Bushings

Used in all kinds of electrical motors, Vespel ® bushings can run with or without lubrication, depending on the application. A “straight” bushing design is adapted to radial loading but a “flanged” design can additionally bear axial loads and therefore elimi- nate the need for a washer.

Parts can easily be press-fitted into the housing while maintaining very good control of the inside diameter. In addi- tion, the high PV capability enables the length of the bushing to be reduced.

In these types of application, a low and constant coefficient of friction is required, as well as wear and creep resistance.

The various Vespel ® graphite filled grades provide cost effective solutions.

Washers

Washers take the axial load in electri- cal motors, which means that while providing wear and friction resistance as bushings do, they also have to withstand impact.

Due to the small loading area of such components, both pressure and velocity conditions can be high, generating excessive frictional heat.

The creep resistance and the PV capa- bility of Vespel ® washers guarantee long and reliable life of the equipment.

Noise, often generated by metallic parts running against each other, is eliminated.

Thrust plugs

Specifically used in windscreen wipers, window lift, sunroof, seat adjusting, differential lock motors, etc., thrust plugs are parts that are directly fitted into the rotor shaft with a slight interference.

Like washers, these parts have to take axial loads, and resist creep and wear.

Depending on the application, a low or relatively high coefficient of fric- tion may be required, and unfilled SP 1 or SP 21 filled with graphite are the usual preferred choices.

During very severe use, Vespel ® thrust plugs will not melt, and therefore guarantee the function.

Thrust plugs made out of Vespel ® SP 1 are used in ITT’s powerful, reliable and economic automotive rear windscreen wiper motor.

out of Vespel ® SP 1 are used in ITT’s powerful, reliable and economic automotive rear

Automotive window lift motor using DuPont engineering polymers

DuPont engineering polymers and many other DuPont resins are ideally suited for automotive motor applica- tions, as they greatly contribute to overall cost reduction by providing functional integration and weight reduction for most of the motor com- ponents. The window lift motor is a good example as illustrated in this drawing, but similar application possi- bilities can also be extended to other motors such as wiper motors, seat motors, sunroof motors, and many of the some 80 different motors we find in modern cars.

Almost all window lift gear housings today are in nylon such as Zytel ® 70G30, for polyester PBT and PET resins like Crastin ® PBT SK605 and LW9030 and Rynite ® PET 940. Die-cast metals are still being used in some other motors, which are gradually being replaced by Zytel ® , Crastin ® PBT, and if higher mechanical strength at elevated tem- peratures is required, by Rynite ® PET or Zytel ® HTN.

Delrin ® 100 and Delrin ® 100P with its unique combination of toughness, stiffness and superb friction and wear properties, has long been the classic gear material for automotive motor gears.

Hytrel ® is an excellent candidate for seals and hard/soft combinations.

Vespel ® is the ideal material for thrust plugs due to its excellent low wear performance. Insulation spiders can be moulded in Zytel ® , Rynite ® PET or Zytel ® HTN. External parts such as connectors can be moulded in Zytel ® , Crastin ® PBT or Rynite ® PET and inte- grated into the main body.

Connector seal Insulation spiders - Zytel ® nylon - Zytel ® HTN - Crastin ®
Connector seal
Insulation spiders
- Zytel ® nylon
- Zytel ® HTN
- Crastin ® PBT
- Rynite ® PET
Connector seal
- Hytrel ®

Gear - Delrin ® Acetal

Gear housing

Zytel ® Crastin ® PBT

-

-

- Rynite ® PET

- Zytel ® HTN

Vespel ® thrust plug

Cushion

- Neoprene

Vespel ® thrust plug

Significant savings

Engineering polymers offer significant savings in electric motors. The higher raw material cost is normally more than offset by the production benefits, combined with a reduction in the num- ber of components and lower assembly costs.

Fig. 1, for example, shows some of the key areas where cost savings can be generated, using a motor end frame in

Rynite ® PET, Crastin ® PBT,

Zytel ® HTN, rather than thermoset or

die-cast metal.

Additionally, these products provide all the design and assembly advantages associated with engineering polymers, resulting in further cost savings and a better product.

For further assistance in making a detailed comparative cost estimate for your application, including materials, processing, finishing, assembly and production suitable for your operation, contact your local DuPont office (see back page).

Zytel ® or

Versus thermosets Rynite ® PET, Crastin ® PBT, Zytel ® , Zytel ® HTN offer:

Versus metals Rynite ® PET, Crastin ® PBT, Zytel ® , Zytel ® HTN offer:

• Superior mechanical properties allowing volume reduction of part

• Reduced part weight (also leads to lower transportation costs)

• Higher production rates

• No de-flashing

• Easier handling during processing and assembly due to superior toughness

• No machining

• Parts integration

• Advantage of using regrind to min- imize scrap

• 4 to 5 times the mould life for similar toolmaking costs

• No de-flashing

• Integrated colour, avoiding the need for painting

• Parts integration

• Minimal breakage problems with finished products during handling and shipping

• Ability to provide double insulation

• Attenuation of noise and vibration

• Environmental friendliness due to recyclability

Fig. 1

Electrical insulation and approved insulating systems from DuPont

The electrical insulation system of a motor consists of a number of major and minor components:

Major

• Ground insulation (e.g. slot and edge insulators)

• Magnet wire

• Dipping varnish

• Phase separators

Minor

• Insulating tapes

• Lead wire

• Wire end sleeving

• Tie cord

• Wedges and other related parts

UL 1446/IEC 85 Electrical Insulation Systems (EIS)

A fundamental requirement for many

motors is that they meet either UL 1446

or IEC 85 (EIS) requirements, or both

(see Fig. 3). To meet this need, we have gained both UL 1446/IEC 85 recognitions for our engineering poly- mer resins in temperature classes from 130ºC to 220ºC. The DuPont EIS available to customers contain a wide range of tapes, sleeving materials, magnet wires and varnishes and are listed in the UL “Yellow Cards” (see Fig. 4 and Fig. 6) under “Plastic Materials and Electrical Insulation Systems (OBEU2) for UL 1446 and under “Insulation System Components,

electrical, evaluated in accordance with IEC publications (OCTU2)” for IEC 85. We continue to expand our number of recognized EIS, and as additional systems receive recognitions, they will be listed. We have also published an extensive brochure on EIS which is

entitled: “Thermoplastics for UL/IEC Electrical Insulation Systems:

Transformers, Motors, Coils, Relays and

Encapsulation” available to customers

from DuPont as publication H-74531.

What are electrical insulation systems (EIS)?

When designing a motor, for example,

you have two basic ways of selecting

the materials going into your product:

you can pick the wires, tapes and the thermoplastics used either by the indi- vidual material thermal and perfor- mance recognitions, e.g. the UL rela- tive thermal indices of each material by itself, or by the collective system recognition, which is a measure of how the group of materials selected behave together in a common environment.

As an example, consider a simple coil form moulded in Zytel ® 132F nylon used in a shaded pole motor. Both the wire and thermoplastic may be sepa- rately qualified in the thermal class required for this application. However, UL 1446/IEC 85 recognition of a sys- tem containing all the materials tested together helps build confidence the EIS used will produce a quality product for the global marketplace.

Other motor components that may be subject to EIS requirements include moulded thermoplastic spiders (see Fig. 2) used in armatures, overmoulded stator insulation, and separate stator components.

Thermoplastic encapsulation

Motors are beginning to see the use of thermoplastic encapsulation, particularly in stator insulation. Being replaced are the tapes, films, etc. that are used in conventional motor insulation, as well as the epoxy potting used in some constructions. Complexity of encapsu- lation can vary from small stator coils to larger and more intricate motors such as the Pacific Scientific encapsulated stators (see photo H, page 15). Using the steel laminate covers as an insert, the stator is made in a one-step over- moulding operation. Encapsulation provides slot and end insulation, termi- nation holders, contour supports, and guide posts for windings – all in a single moulding step.

Additional information on thermoplastic encapsulation can be found in “Electrical/Electronic Thermoplastic Encapsulation” available from DuPont as publication H-58633.

available from DuPont as publication H-58633. Fig. 2 - Rotor end-insulators in Rynite ® PET FR530

Fig. 2 - Rotor end-insulators in Rynite ® PET FR530 used by Braun (Spain).

Advantages of high temperature insulation systems

By designing a motor to operate at high temperatures, one of two benefits can be gained: reduced size for a given power output, or increased power out- put for a given size.

With the ability of Rynite ® PET to per- form in insulation systems up to Class N, it is normally possible to use it to upgrade the rating of a motor at little or no additional cost.

The DuPont family of insulating materials

DuPont offers you an extremely wide range of insulating materials.

Crastin ® PBT

These thermoplastic polyester resins feature excellent processibility, tough- ness, and good electrical properties. They are used in connectors, coil forms, and other electrical components.

Rynite ® PET

Rynite ® PET thermoplastic polyester resins offer an excellent combination of thermal stability, electrical properties, dimensional stability, and stiffness for today’s small, more complex electrical and electronic components. Rynite ® PET is widely used in coil forms and encap- sulation.

Zytel ® , Zytel ® HTN

Over half of all coil forms used world- wide are in unreinforced and glass- reinforced nylon. Zytel ® HTN (High Temperature Nylon) resins are high temperature nylon copolymers with a 300°C melting point and a 125°C glass transition temperature (dry). Zytel ® HTN is used in applications requiring high strength and high tem- perature capabilities.

Zenite ® LCP Liquid Crystal Polymer

Zenite ® LCP resins are aromatic poly- ester resins with high (335-352°C) melting points. Features include excellent dimensional stability and creep resistance, even at very high temperatures. Their processibility makes moulding surface-mount coil forms with 0.25 mm thick flanges a commercial reality.

Maximum

UL 1446

IEC85

Maximum

temperature

temperature

temperature

temperature

at hottest

classes

classes

at hottest

spot

spot

-

-

Y

90°C

-

-

A

105°C

-

-

E

120°C

130°C

B

B

130°C

155°C

F

F

155°C

180°C

H

H

180°C

200°C

N

200

200°C

220°C

R

220

220°C

240°C

S

250

250°C

>240°C

>240°C

*

*

*Above 250, each class is a temperature of 25°C higher than the preceding one: i.e. 275, 300, etc.

Fig. 3

UL

Temperature

Moulded

Films

Class

rating

engineering

polymers

A

105°C

Rynite ® PET, Zytel ® nylon

Mylar ® , Nomex ® , Kapton ®

B

130°C

Rynite ® PET, Zytel ® nylon Crastin ® PBT

Mylar ® , Nomex ® , Kapton ®

F

155°C

Rynite ® PET Crastin ® PBT Zytel ® nylon Zytel ® HTN

Mylar ® , Nomex ® , Kapton

®

H

180°C

Rynite ® PET

Nomex ® , Kapton ® Nomex ® , Kapton ® Nomex ® , Kapton ®

N

200°C

Rynite ® PET

R

220°C

Zenite ® LCP

Fig. 4

Nomex ® brand sheet structures

These sheet structures offer high tem- perature resistance, superior dielectric properties and high tensile strength, combined with excellent flexibility and resilience. Available in strip and sheet form, Nomex ® provides superior layer and phase insulation between coil layers and around coil formers.

Kapton ®

An ultra-tough polyimide film capable of withstanding extreme temperatures (400°C) and pressure, it is impervious to most chemicals. As an insulator, Kapton ® has unmatched dielectric properties and remarkable tensile strength, which permit thinner wall construction for increased performance and cost efficiency.

Mylar ®

This exceptionally strong polyester film offers an unusual balance of chemical, electrical, physical and ther- mal properties. Well suited for many electric, electronic and industrial uses, Mylar ® provides superior interwinding barrier and phase insulation in wire and cable coils.

Fig. 5 - RTI versus HDT of DuPont Engineering Polymers (30-35% glass-reinforced)

250 °C Zenite ® LCP 200 °C 150 °C Rynite ® PET Crastin ® PBT
250
°C
Zenite ® LCP
200
°C
150
°C
Rynite ® PET
Crastin ® PBT
Zytel ® HTN
Zytel ® PA66
100
°C
Relative thermal index

200 °C

250 °C

Heat deflection temperature at 264 psi, °C

Fig. 6. - Examples of a pre-approved Class F (155°C) insulation systems based on Rynite ® PET and Zytel ® .

Fig. 6. - Examples of a pre-approved Class F (155°C) insulation systems based on Rynite ®

Motor design

Rotors and stators

Engineering polymers such as

Rynite ® PET, Crastin ® PBT, Zytel ® ,

Zytel ® HTN and Zenite ® LCP are well suited to motor insulation, as shown in the preceding section.

These moulded insulators make motor assembly easier, and reduce labour costs. Several examples of applications are shown here.

Overmoulding

There is a cost efficient technique for insulating rotors and stators which has not been discussed, and that is over- moulding – where the lamination stack (preferably pre-heated) is inserted into

a mould and selectively coated with plastic.

Overmoulding is normally used to avoid the need for separate insulator mouldings and/or pieces of insulating film.

Consequently, this technique can offer further cost savings and production advantages.

The thickness of thermoplastic required, particularly in the case of overmoulded slot insulation, is very small (typically <1 mm). As a result, one of the most important considerations when designing such insulation is the ability to fill the plastic part completely during the moulding operation. Complete filling is critical to eliminate any possibility of dielectric failure when the part is operational.

Therefore, material selection is very important. Grades of Rynite ® PET and Zenite ® LCP offer particularly low melt viscosities (high flow), and Rynite ® PET offers excellent insulation performance (up to Class N = 200°C) and Zenite ® LCP (Class R = 220°C).

It is sometimes useful to employ flow leaders to aid in material flow. These can be holes a few millimetres in diameter through the rotor or stator lamination stack. These leaders aid the flow of thermoplastic and promote complete filling of thin sections.

B

lamination stack. These leaders aid the flow of thermoplastic and promote complete filling of thin sections.

E

A A. Grundfos (Denmark) stator insulators moulded in Rynite ® . B. Multi-functional armature insulators,
A A. Grundfos (Denmark) stator insulators moulded in Rynite ® . B. Multi-functional armature insulators,

A

A A. Grundfos (Denmark) stator insulators moulded in Rynite ® . B. Multi-functional armature insulators, also

A. Grundfos (Denmark) stator insulators

moulded in Rynite ® .

B. Multi-functional armature insulators,

also known as spiders, in Zytel ® HTN, for windshield wiper motors from ITT.

C. Motor stator insulation in

Zytel ® 70G30 for Elco (Italy).

D. Mycalex (UK) shaded pole motors

with coil bobbins and terminal block moulded in Rynite ® PET FR530.

E. Sanyo (Japan), overmoulded stator

bobbins in Rynite ® PET FR530 and

FR515 for permanent magnet stepping

motors.

F. Miele (Germany) stator insulation

made of Zytel ® 101L.

G. Stator encapsulation of 25-W shaded

C

pole AC induction motor for Electric Motors and Specialties, Inc. (USA).

H. Encapsulation of motor winding

insulation, end frame and connector housing in Rynite ® PET for Pacific Scientific (USA).

I. Asynchronous motor shaft over- moulding for SEL (Germany), Rynite ® PET (Class H).

Scientific (USA). I. Asynchronous motor shaft over- moulding for SEL (Germany), Rynite ® PET (Class H).

D

F
F
Scientific (USA). I. Asynchronous motor shaft over- moulding for SEL (Germany), Rynite ® PET (Class H).
Scientific (USA). I. Asynchronous motor shaft over- moulding for SEL (Germany), Rynite ® PET (Class H).

H

G

Commutators

Commutators require insulation

between the bars as well as at the ends.

A traditional way of providing this

insulation is with mica sheet, as shown

in Fig. 7.

However, as with rotors and stators, the insulation can often be provided more cost effectively by engineering polymers. A material with good flow

characteristics – to completely fill thin part sections in the mould – and good high temperature insulation performance

is normally required. Rynite ® PET meets

both of these requirements.

For larger commutator applications where the requirements for high flow, dimensional stability and high temper- ature resistance are even more demanding, Zenite ® LCP provide an excellent balance of properties.

End frames

It is well recognized that most motor

end frames are demanding engineer- ing applications. The air gap between rotor and stator is usually less than 1 mm, so rotor alignment is critical.

Traditionally, materials such as stamped steel, die-cast aluminium or zinc alloys, and thermosets have been used for motor frames. However, these materials have limitations in terms of weight, function integration, environ- mental friendliness, assembly, noise and vibration.

Engineering thermoplastics not only offer the required mechanical proper- ties, but also permit weight savings, functional integration and eliminate the shortcomings of metals and thermosets. This capability results in a reduction of the number of components, and consequently in lower finished part cost.

B

Naturally, when an end cap, a motor bracket, or even a complete housing is being designed, the same question is often raised: “Does a thermoplastic have sufficient stiffness and dimen- sional stability for this application?”

The answer is normally yes, provided that the right engineering polymer is selected for the task, and that correct design and ribbing techniques are employed.

the right engineering polymer is selected for the task, and that correct design and ribbing techniques

A

Tightening nut Iron ring Mica V ring Front V ring Commutator bars Mica Iron shell

Tightening nut Iron ring Mica V ring

Front V ring Commutator bars Mica Iron shell

Commutator

bars

Mica

insulation

between

bars

Back V ring with mica inner and outer rings for insulation

Fig. 7

A. Vacuum cleaner motor end frame

in Rynite ® PET and Crastin ® PBT from

Electrolux (U.K.).

B. Commutator plates moulded in

Zytel ® nylon for Maxon motor (Switzerland).

C. Fiat rear screen wiper motor

frame in Rynite ® PET FR530.

D. Zanussi dish washer pump motor

frame in Rynite ® PET FR 530 from

Sole (Italy).

E. Thrige-Titan (Denmark) forklift

truck motor end frame in Rynite ® PET 530.

F. Rexon (Taiwan) mitre saw motor frame/housing in flame-retardant, glass-reinforced Zytel ® .

C

PET 530. F. Rexon (Taiwan) mitre saw motor frame/housing in flame-retardant, glass-reinforced Zytel ® . C

D

PET 530. F. Rexon (Taiwan) mitre saw motor frame/housing in flame-retardant, glass-reinforced Zytel ® . C
E F
E
F
Examples of finite element analysis for a motor frame: Top photo shows deflection in a
Examples of finite element analysis for a motor frame: Top photo shows deflection in a

Examples of finite element analysis for a motor frame:

Top photo shows deflection in a Y direction in mm. Bottom photo shows stress in N/mm 2 .

The stiffness and stability of thermo- plastics have now been confirmed by experience in commercial applica- tions. However, when a new motor frame is being developed, a finite element analysis (FEA) is often valuable in optimizing the design.

As shown in Fig. 8 and Fig. 9, glass- reinforced engineering polymers are particularly well suited to motor frame applications. Rynite ® PET absorbs only extremely small quantities of water following moulding, giving it excellent dimensional stability. It also has a high heat deflection tem- perature. In addition, these resins can be modified with mineral additives to further increase dimensional accuracy for very demanding applications.

500 Die-cast materials 400 Zn 300 Al Mg Reinforced thermoplastics Zytel ® HTN 51G35 200
500
Die-cast materials
400
Zn
300
Al
Mg
Reinforced
thermoplastics
Zytel ® HTN 51G35
200
Rynite ® PET 555
Unreinforced
thermoplastics
Rynite ®
Zenite
®
LCP
PET 530 Crastin ® PBT SK 605
Zytel ® 70G30 HSL
100
30% GR PC
PA66
Delrin ® (POM)
PBT
Thermosets
PA612
PC
moulding
PA11
ABS
compounds
PP
1
5
10
50
100
Tensile strength MPa

Flexural modulus GPa

Fig. 8 - Stiffness/strength combination of materials.

Zenite ® LCP 6130 Rynite ® PET 545 Crastin ® PBT SK605 Zytel ® HTN
Zenite ® LCP 6130
Rynite ® PET 545
Crastin ® PBT SK605
Zytel ® HTN 51G35
Zytel ® 70G30
Zinc-Al
Mg
Delrin ®
Zytel ® 101
1
1.5
2
2.5
Flexural modulus MPa

h 1

Thickness (mm)

3h 2 h 2 8h 1 8h 2 Metal Plastic
3h 2
h 2
8h 1
8h 2
Metal
Plastic

Fig. 9 - Beams of equivalent stiffness.

Creep resistance

Deformation under load with time is called creep. The amount of creep depends on material composition (polymer type, reinforcement, etc.), time, temperature and the applied stress level.

The data shown in Fig. 10 indicate that glass-reinforced engineering polymers have particularly good resistance to creep, even at high temperatures and stress levels.

Components of automotive motors such as the windowlift motor shown on this page or windshield wiper motors and seat motors can be subject- ed to considerable stresses which over time will cause creep. For example, the gear housings of these motors have to withstand external and rotor shaft forces over thousands of cycles. Coupled with relatively high tempera- tures even in the interior of a car, these forces can lead to creep of the material. Glass reinforced grades of Zytel ® , Crastin ® PBT, Rynite ® PET and Zytel ® HTN have good creep resistance to withstand this.

2.2 For comparison Zytel ® 101F 2.0 23°C/20 MPa stress 1.8 125°C 1.6 1.4 125°C
2.2
For comparison Zytel ® 101F
2.0
23°C/20 MPa stress
1.8
125°C
1.6
1.4
125°C
1.2
60
°C
1.0
0.8
125°C
23
°C
0.6
23
°C
23
°C
0.4
0.2
0
1
10
100
1000
10000
Strain (%)

Times (hours)

Rynite ® PET 530

* Zytel ® 70 G30 HSLR

Rynite ® PET 530

Rynite ® PET 555

* Zytel ® 70 G30 HSLR

Rynite ® PET 530

Rynite ® PET FR 530

* It is critical to note that for Zytel ® 70 G30 HSLR: 23°C = 50% RH, 125°C = DAM

Fig.10 - Long-term creep data (at 27.6 MPa stress)

Bearings and bearing housings

In micromotors, the end cap itself, frequently made of thermoplastic, often also acts as the bearing. Thermoplastic bearings can offer a number of advantages over bearings in metal, including:

• Ability to operate with minimal or no lubrication

• Longer wear life

• No corrosion by chemicals and lubricants

• Noise dampening and reduced vibration

Plastics commonly used in these types of bearings are Zytel ® and Minlon ® nylon resins, and Delrin ® acetal resins.

As plastics do not conduct heat read- ily from the frictional source, heat dissipation is a major consideration in the design of thermoplastic bear- ings. For an initial evaluation of whether a plastic bearing will perform in a specific application, the PV concept (Pressure x Velocity) rating can be used.

The PV value is defined in the follow- ing way (see Fig. 11):

Specific bearing load:

F

p = d x l

Peripheral speed:

d x x n

v

PV value:

PV = pv (MPa – m/s)

(MPa)

=

1000

(m/s)

For bearings which require very low coefficients of friction and higher PV values, standard engineering polymers can be modified with, or replaced by, Teflon ® and Tefzel ® .

Full details of these PV calculations, together with advice on designing bearings in Zytel ® and Delrin ® , are available within separate design brochures. If you need assistance, please contact your nearest DuPont office (see last page).

The benefits of thermoplastic bearings can sometimes be brought to larger motors, but traditionally these motors employ metal bearings press-fitted into a metal frame (see Fig. 12). This arrangement gives a good interference fit over the full range of operating temperatures, as the bearing and bearing seat have similar coefficients of thermal expansion.

d

l

V

F

n

P V l d
P
V
l
d

= Shaft diameter mm

= Length of bearing mm

= Peripheral speed m/s

= Overall load N

= Revolutions per s

Fig. 11

Maxon motor with bearings/end-caps in Minlon ®

When a thermoplastic motor frame is used with a metal bearing, attention

must be paid to the bearing seat design,

as the thermal expansion of most poly-

mers is considerably greater than that

of metals.

However, for most motors, attention to dimensions and proper interference fit

for the plastic will provide good bear- ing alignment over the required range

of operating temperatures. Thermo-

plastics also allow easier parts assem- bly, including the use of snap-fits.

A number of new designs for thermo-

plastic bearing seats have also been developed for use with conventional bearings (see Fig.13).

Metal frame

Engineering polymers (glass-reinforced frame)

• High E-modulus

• Lower E-modulus

• Small increase in interference gives large increase in specific pressure on external ball bearing cage

• Large increase in interference gives small increase in specific pressure on ball bearing cage

• Dynamic interference required

• Interference for equivalent specific pressure = approx. 1% = 0.26 mm

= 0.08%

= 0.02 mm;

resulting specific pressure = 18.8 MPa

• Even with 1% interference, there is a safety margin since elongation to break of glass-reinforced engineer- ing polymers is around 2.5-3%

• Low permitted interference means tight tolerances required

• Machining of bearing tolerance seat needed

• Precision moulding total tolerance achievable for 26 mm = 0.1 mm

• Required bearing seat tolerances can be achieved by moulding

• Machining of bearing seat avoided

• Lower temperature of the bearing, due to low heat conductivity of the polymer frame, gives longer life- time

Fig. 12 Spring ring Finger spring washer Spring washer (slotted or not) Olive bearing Ball
Fig. 12
Spring ring
Finger spring washer
Spring washer
(slotted or not)
Olive bearing
Ball bearing
Elastomer part
(self alignment vibration and
noise reduction)

Housing

Housing

Housing (snap-fit)

Fig. 13

For the most demanding applications, additional techniques have been developed. One of these, patented by SKF, involves the overmoulding of a metal coil. As the coil has a rate of thermal expansion similar to that of the bearing itself, it keeps the play between bearing and housing to a mini- mum. This is achieved by preventing free expansion of the bearing housing with temperature variations.

Experience has shown that this over- moulded insert is particularly useful for those applications where the range of operating temperatures is very wide.

DuPont also offers materials such as Vespel ® SP polyimide for very high performance bearings.

Gears and gear housings

Automotive motors, such as window lift motors and wiper motors, use gears and gear housings (see A and B).

Engineering polymers are increas- ingly being established as the most suitable material for these applica- tions. For example, Delrin ® 100 is widely used in gear applications. Depending on the dimensional sta- bility and thermal requirements, gear housings can be moulded in Zytel ® , Crastin ® PBT, Rynite ® PET or Zytel ® HTN (see Fig. 14).

A
A

22

Brush holders

With a metal motor frame, it is normally necessary to have separate plastic mouldings to insulate the brushes and brush holders from the frame. A typical example is shown in photo E.

Engineering plastics have the required electrical and thermal properties to perform well in such applications. Tracking resistance (CTI) is particularly important.

However, another advantage of thermo- plastic motor frames is that they avoid the need for these separate mouldings. The brush holder supports can be moulded as integral parts of the end frame, allowing the brush holders to be directly push-fitted into the frame (see page 7). This clearly reduces component and assembly costs.

During motor operation, the brushes become hot, but plastics are good thermal as well as electrical insu- lators. In some small motors, the temperature rise is not significant, and the brushes can be located directly in the moulded motor frame, as shown in photo H.

However, many motors require metal brush holders. These are often made of brass and can be similarly push-fitted directly into the plastic frame.

In some larger motors, the brushes can rise significantly in temperature during operation. Here, it is impor- tant to design the area of the plastic bracket acting as the brush holder support for maximum ventilation. This can be done easily.

In some applications, it is necessary to insulate the exposed end of the brush holder. A simple plastic cover can be designed to snap onto the motor frame to provide this insulation. This snap fit may be designed as permanent, or recoverable – to permit maintenance or replacement of the brushes.

Once again, a design which permits maximum ventilation of the brushes is recommended.

B

C

of the brushes. Once again, a design which permits maximum ventilation of the brushes is recommended.

I

of the brushes. Once again, a design which permits maximum ventilation of the brushes is recommended.

I

Motor cooling fans

C.

Cut-away view of plastic motor

Many motors incorporate their own cooling fans, to increase air flow and reduce operating temperatures. Traditionally these fans have been made of metal, but they can also be cost effectively moulded from engi- neering polymers.

frame using the overmoulded SKF

insert.

D. Thrige-Titan forklift truck motor

frame in Rynite ® PET 530 using the overmoulded SKF insert.

Normally, materials used for these applications are often the same as those used to mould
Normally, materials used for these
applications are often the same as
those used to mould the motor's
insulation, or end frame.
Zytel ® HTN 51G45
100
°C
Rynite ® PET 545
23
°C
Crastin ® PBT SK609
Zytel ® 70G50
Zytel ® 73G50
0 0,05
0,1
0,15
0,2

Zytel ® data at 23°C at 50%RH

Def. (mm)

E. Brushes fitted directly into motor

frame of Zytel ® .

F. Paris-Rhône (France) automotive

alternator, using fan, brush holder and diode support plate moulded in Rynite ® PET 545.

G. Snap-fit bearing design used by

Stebel (Italy) for their horn compres- sor motor in glass-reinforced Zytel ® .

H. Snap-fit bearing design used with

a motor frame in Rynite ® PET for a Zanussi dish washer pump from Sole (Italy).

Fig. 14 - Deformation comparison of engineering polymers

Wiper motor gear housing – concept study (45%-50% GR)

I. Flame retardant Rynite ® PET was

selected for this cooling fan from Japan Servo because of its good dimensional stability and heat resis- tance. Temperatures in photocopy machines can often reach 150°C.

D

good dimensional stability and heat resis- tance. Temperatures in photocopy machines can often reach 150°C. D

E

good dimensional stability and heat resis- tance. Temperatures in photocopy machines can often reach 150°C. D
good dimensional stability and heat resis- tance. Temperatures in photocopy machines can often reach 150°C. D

F

H
H

G

good dimensional stability and heat resis- tance. Temperatures in photocopy machines can often reach 150°C. D
good dimensional stability and heat resis- tance. Temperatures in photocopy machines can often reach 150°C. D

Function integration

Function integration and minimizing assembly costs are becoming increasingly important in today's competitive market. However, motor frames have traditionally been multi- component assemblies.

A major advantage of redesigning motor frames in thermoplastic is the ease with which one component can be designed to perform the functions of many.

The integration of some functions, such as brush holders, has already been discussed. This section concen- trates on other features which can also be incorporated into motor frames.

A. Traditional motor assembly.

B. Motor design based on engineering

polymers, showing function integration.

C. Multi-functional motor frame in

Zytel ® FR51 from Braun (Spain).

D. Easy-assembly motor bracket in

Minlon ® 11C140 from Maxon (Switzerland).

E. Braun selected Zytel ® for the

motor end-frames of a recent hand- mixer because of its long term temperature resistance, excellent dimension stability and overall mechanical performance.

A

because of its long term temperature resistance, excellent dimension stability and overall mechanical performance. A C
C
C
because of its long term temperature resistance, excellent dimension stability and overall mechanical performance. A C

Assembly features

Motor frames are normally assembled to each other, or to the stator lami- nations, using bolts or metal clips, but this is a relatively expensive method of assembly.

Thermoplastic end frames lend them- selves to more efficient assembly techniques, such as snap-fits, inter- ference-fits or ultrasonic welding. Some examples of these assembly techniques are illustrated in Fig. 15 and Fig. 16. They are particularly suited to smaller motors which have small applied loads, where they can offer valuable cost advantages.

loads, where they can offer valuable cost advantages. B Fig.15 - Plastic motor frame assembly using

B

loads, where they can offer valuable cost advantages. B Fig.15 - Plastic motor frame assembly using

Fig.15 - Plastic motor frame assembly using ultrasonic welding.

- Plastic motor frame assembly using ultrasonic welding. Fig. 16 - Plastic motor frame assembly using

Fig. 16 - Plastic motor frame assembly using snap-fit.

- Plastic motor frame assembly using ultrasonic welding. Fig. 16 - Plastic motor frame assembly using

D

- Plastic motor frame assembly using ultrasonic welding. Fig. 16 - Plastic motor frame assembly using

E

Frame extensions and housings

Motor frames can often be readily extended to fulfil additional func- tions. The availability of a wide range of DuPont engineering polymers with suitable properties for multi- functional parts means that motor systems can be designed to make products much more competitive in the marketplace.

Minlon ® can give high-speed fans used in vacuum cleaners the flatness required to generate a constant air- flow, and the impact resistance need- ed to prevent breakage by incoming objects. Its warp-free mouldability and excellent dimensional stability also allow it to be used for multi- functional parts in the same appli- ances, reducing costs in components and labour.

The heat buildup of fully enclosed motors requires the use of high tem-

perature class polymers. Rynite ® PET,

Crastin ® PBT, Zytel ® HTN

these demands reliably, acting as both motor insulation and housing.

Glass-reinforced Zytel ® gives design- ers high strength, stiffness, very high deflection temperatures, rigidity, ten- sile strength, dimensional stability and impact strength. Just what they need to combine a motor frame and housing into a single unit.

Here are some examples of commer- cial applications.

can meet

Interconnects

Materials such as those recommended for motor frames, e.g. Rynite ® PET, Crastin ® PBT and Zytel ® polyamide, are widely used for connector applications.

By moulding the electrical connector as an integral part of the motor frame, a number of separate connectors are usually eliminated. These may include a metal mounting plate, the separate connector moulding, and two or more assembly screws.

A

A. Myson (U.K.) uses Rynite ® as both

housing and insulation for this pump

motor.

B. Milwaukee (U.S.) power tool has

motor frame and housing incorporated into a single moulding of glass- reinforced Zytel ® .

A
A

B

power tool has motor frame and housing incorporated into a single moulding of glass- reinforced Zytel

Motor design innovations

Fisher & Paykel Co, of Auckland, New Zealand, the country’s leading

appliance manufacturer, has developed

a radically new type of power drive

for washing machines. This new “Smart Drive” incorporates multi- functional components made of DuPont Rynite ® PET thermoplastic polyester resin, and is used in the company’s top-loading automatic washers.

The Fisher & Paykel design replaces the conventional U.S. washing machine’s combination of a fixed- speed a.c. motor and a 40- or 50-piece gear case with a system using an elec- tronically controlled brushless d.c. motor that drives the agitator and spin bowl directly through a patented clutch.

The washing machine’s motor design

is most unusual. Windings are located

on the stator rather than on the rotor, and the rotor turns around the outside of a centrally mounted stator rather than inside it. This approach allows a

direct mechanical link between the rotor and a common shaft to drive both spin and agitator movements.

The stator’s entire support structure, its ground insulation and coil supports are produced of Rynite ® PET in a single injection-moulding step. A ring-shaped stack of specially profiled stamped steel laminations is placed in a mould and then injection overmoulded with the polyester resin.

The wheel-shaped part that comes out of the mould needs only windings and terminations to become a fully finished stator. It measures 25 cm across, and has 42 integrally moulded winding poles spaced around its circumference, as well as moulded-in wire ways, ter- minal holders and holes for mounting bolts and drainage. A three-phase winding is applied in a separate, fully automated step.

The rotor is a dish-shaped component 27 cm in diameter. Integrally moulded teeth at its hub serve for spline mount- ing on the end of the shaft that spins the washer tub and moves the agitator. Spaced around the rotor’s circumfer- ence are 56 rare-earth permanent mag- nets, which are bonded to a ring- shaped stack of steel laminates.

The rotor is made by placing the laminate stack and attached non- magnetized rare-earth strips in the mould, and then overmoulding with Rynite ® PET, leaving the magnet strips exposed. These are subsequently activated by placing the rotor over a high-energy magnetising head.

Assembly of the rotor and stator is simplicity itself. The stator is first bolt- ed onto the washer’s outer bowl, which is accurately located over a bearing supporting the spin basket and agitator shaft. The rotor is then placed over the spline near the end of the drive shaft, and pulled down into position with a securing nut. At this stage, the motor is ready for electrical connection to the washing machine’s electronic controls.

The Rynite ® PET resins selected by Fisher & Paykel meet a rigorous com- bination of structural, dielectric and manufacturing requirements. The dimensional stability of Rynite ® PET allows both the rotor and the stator to be moulded without the need for fur- ther machine processes.

The rotor withstands dynamic torsional and radial loading as it oscillates at variable speeds within a 200-degree arc during agitation cycles, and it whirls at speeds up to 1 100 rpm dur- ing spin cycles. These requirements are met with Rynite ® PET 545 and FR543 for the rotor and stator, respectively. Rynite ® PET FR543 is recognized by Underwriters Laboratories as UL 94 V-0 at 0,8 mm and 5-V at 1,6 mm.

C

Laboratories as UL 94 V-0 at 0,8 mm and 5-V at 1,6 mm. C C. An

C. An innovative brushless d.c. washing machine motor relies on Rynite ® poly- ester for both insulation and structure in the wheel-shaped stator and the dish-shaped rotor.

C

Rynite ® poly- ester for both insulation and structure in the wheel-shaped stator and the dish-shaped
Rynite ® poly- ester for both insulation and structure in the wheel-shaped stator and the dish-shaped

C

Noise, vibration and harshness

Two increasingly important factors in the design and marketing of motors are vibration and noise, particularly for such applications as office equipment and household appliances.

Although product design has a major influence on the noise of a motor, there are a number of areas where materials selection can also play an important role.

For example, the use of thermoplastic bearings wherever possible can reduce vibration and help to dampen noise.

28

The right material choice for the motor frame is also important. An application where Rynite ® PET replaced a die-cast motor frame, allowing both cost savings and quieter performance, is shown in photo B.

Further noise reduction is possible by isolating the motor frame from its normal mounting points, thus pre- venting the transmission of vibra- tion. This can be achieved by using mounts moulded from a thermoplastic elastomer, such as Hytrel ® . Several design concepts suitable for such applications as office equipment fans are shown in Fig. 17 and Fig. 18.

Transmission of vibration can also be reduced by modifying gears. In the French food processor shown in photo A, a small gear moulded in Hytrel ® has reduced the operating noise level of the appliance by 15 dB. The part in Hytrel ® replaces a gear in acetal.

When dealing with noise problems of plastic components, it is important to understand the source of the noise, i.e. what is causing the part to vibrate, as well as to understand how the part itself is resonating before a solution is possible.

The DuPont NVH laboratory was set up to deal with the noise problems of plastic components. It has portable NVH test equipment, making it possi- ble to analyze a component in situ. For a more detailed analysis, samples are taken back to the NVH laboratory and excited using a relevant test rig. The components response to the excitation can then be measured by using tech- niques such as acoustic or laser holog- raphy. This testing helps to identify how the part needs to be modified so as to reduce the noise problem. Sample components can then be modified in- house and supplied to customers for testing. The facility can test vibration and noise properties of electrical motors using various materials for the housing. A whole system can also be analyzed, such as the door mechanism on which a window-lift motor has been mounted.

B

A whole system can also be analyzed, such as the door mechanism on which a window-lift
A whole system can also be analyzed, such as the door mechanism on which a window-lift

A

A. Gear of flexible Hytrel ® reduces

noise by 15 dB in this appliance from SEB (France).

B. Torin (UK) fan housing and

bearing (overmoulded PCB) in Rynite ® PET FR530.

C. Hytrel ® is used for blower mountings

to provide quieter computer storage sub-systems. It offers excellent sound deadening properties, can absorb and isolate impact shocks, as well as being easy to overmould onto steel.

shocks, as well as being easy to overmould onto steel. Ventilator mounting for vibration isolation Ventilator

Ventilator mounting for vibration isolation

onto steel. Ventilator mounting for vibration isolation Ventilator housing Sheet-iron Steel sheet Ventilator Fig.
onto steel. Ventilator mounting for vibration isolation Ventilator housing Sheet-iron Steel sheet Ventilator Fig.

Ventilator

housing Sheet-iron
housing
Sheet-iron
Ventilator mounting for vibration isolation Ventilator housing Sheet-iron Steel sheet Ventilator Fig. 17 Fig. 18 C
Ventilator mounting for vibration isolation Ventilator housing Sheet-iron Steel sheet Ventilator Fig. 17 Fig. 18 C

Steel sheet

Ventilator

Fig. 17

Fig. 18

C

®
®

DuPont Engineering Polymers

Product guide and properties for electric motors

® DuPont registered trademark

Test performance ratings of DuPont Engineering Polymers

Tracking Resistance, IEC 112 / UL 746 A

V (volt) thickness of specimens: >3 mm

 

CTI

UL 746 A PLC level

CTI-M

IEC

IEC

Crastin ® PBT

S600F10, S600F20, S620F20

>600

2

350

ST820

>600

>600

SK601

300

2

200

SK602

350

2

200

SK603

400

2

200

SK605

450

1

200

SK608

475

200

SK609

500

1

200

LW9130

400

2

200

LW9020, LW9030

550

1

175

T805

500

1

200

SO653

300

2

200

SO655

250

2

200

HTI619

>600

0

200

S650 FR S680 FR T850 FR SK641 FR SK642 FR, SK 645 FR SK643 FR

225

2

175

250

175

>600

275

225

2

175

250

2

175

250

3

175

CE7931

250

2

150

SK673 GW LW9020 FR LW9020 FR GY LW9030 FR LW9320 FR LW9330 FR LW9330 FR GYB T841 FR T843 FR T845 FR HTI681 FR HTI668 FR HTI688 FR

250

175

350

2

175

325

2

375

2

175

350

2

375

1

350

1

250

3

175

275

325

>600

0

450

>600

0

200

475

1

250

Delrin ® acetal

100, 107

>600

0

>600

100

P

>600

0

500, 507

>600

0

500

P, 900 P

600

0

100

ST, 100 T, 500 T, 570

600

0

600

500

CL, 500 AF

>600

0

Rynite ® PET

520

250

3

530

250

2

200

545

250

2

250

555

200

3

935

325 1)

2

FR515

275

3

FR530 L

250

2

125

FR543

250

2

125

FR943

225

2

100

 

CTI

UL 746 A PLC level

CTI-M

IEC

IEC

Zytel ® PA66 unreinforced

E101 L

 

>600

0

375 (325)

101 F

>600

0

575 (475)

 

E103 HSL

 

525 (425)

0

400 (350)

E103

HSL BK-80

525

400

105

F BK-10

 

0

114

L BK-97

 

575 (525)

0

135

F

600

0

475

E42 A

 

0

450

600 (590)

0

525 (475)

490

>600

0

475

ST801 NC-010, NC-010 A

>600

0

600

Zytel ® PA66 glass reinforced, flame retardant Zytel ® PA66 glass reinforced

FR70G28 V1

 

300

2

FR70G25 V0

325

2

150

79G13

L

475

1

70G20 HSL, 70G25 HSL 70G30 HSL 74G33E HSL BK-354

400 (325)

 

400 (325)

1

350

450

Zytel ® PA66 mineral reinforced, flame retardant Minlon ® PA66 mineral reinforced

FR70M30 V0

 

325

2

2501)

10B140

 

575

250 (200)

11C140

550 (475)

1

300 (250)

Zytel ® PA66/6 unreinforced, flame retardant

FR7200 V0F

 

575

0

Zytel ® PA66/6 glass reinforced, flame retardant

FR72G25 V0 FR72G25 V0 BK

325

3

150

275

150

Zytel ® PA66/6 glass reinforced

72G30 L

 

1

Zytel ® PA6 glass-mineral reinforced, flame retardant

FR73GM60 V0F

>600

0

FR73GM60E V0F

>600

0

 

FR73GM50 GWF

>600

Zytel ® HTN high temperature nylon

HTN 51G35 HSL NC-010

>600

0

300 (250)

HTN

51G45

HSL NC-010

>600

0

250

HTN

FR51G35 L NC-010

500

1

225

Hytrel ® thermoplastic polyester elastomer

5556

 

>600

0

7246

>600

0

575

Zenite ® LCP liquid crystal polymer

6130 WT-010

 

150

4

100

7130 WT-010

150

4

100

 

6330 NC-010

150

4

100

Vespel ®

SP-1, SP-21

 

3

polyimide resins

1) KC, KB values.

Caution: Colours often significantly affect tracking values in one or the other way. Further information on this is available on request.

* Only available in black.

All the above information is subject to the disclaimer on the back page of this brochure.

Flammability classification, UL 94

UL rating at minimum thickness (mm)

 

HB

V-2

V-1

V-0

5VA

Crastin ® PBT

S600 F10, S600 F20, S620 F20

1,5

ST820**

1,5

SK601, SK602, SK603 SK605, SK608**, SK609

0,8

0,8

LW9130

0,8

LW9020, LW9030

1,5

T805

0,8

SO653, SO655

1,5

HTI619

1,5

S650 FR, S680 FR T850 FR SK641 FR, SK642 FR SK643 FR, SK645 FR

 

0,8

1,5

1,5

0,8

CE7931

1,5

SK673 GW** LW9020 FR. LW9030 FR T841 FR, T843 FR, T845 FR HTI681 FR HTI668 FR, HTI688 FR

 

1,5

 
 

1,5

1,5

0,8

1,5

Delrin ® acetal

100,

107

0,8

500, 507

0,8

500

CL, 500T

0,8

570

0,8

Rynite ® PET

520, 415 HP, 935 530, 545, 555, 408

0,8

0,8

FR515

0,86

1,5

FR530 L, FR943

 

0,35

1,5

FR543

0,81

1,5

9082 F**, 9085 F**

 

0,8 2)

 

Zytel ® PA66 unreinforced

E101 L, 101 F, E103 HSL

 

0,8

4)

105

F BK-10

0,8

4)

114

L BK-97

0,8

135

F

0,8

4)

408, 450, 490

0,8

ST801

0,8

Zytel ® PA66 glass reinforced, flame retardant

FR70G28 V1

 

1,47

FR70G25 V0

 

0,5

Zytel ® PA66 glass reinforced

79G13 L, 70G20 HSL, 70G25 HSL 70G30 HSL, 70G30 PSR 70G35 HSL

0,8

0,8

0,8

Zytel ® PA66 glass-bead reinforced

70GB40 HSL

0,75

Zytel ® PA66 mineral reinforced, flame retardant

FR70M30 V0

 

1,5

1,5

UL rating at minimum thickness (mm)

 

HB

V-2

V-1

V-0

5VA

Minlon ® PA66 mineral reinforced

10B140**

0,8

3)

11C140

0,8

1)

Zytel ® PA66/6 unreinforced, flame retardant

FR7200 V0F

 

0,5

Zytel ® PA66/6 glass reinforced, flame retardant

FR72G25 V1

 

0,75

1,50

FR72G25 V0

 

0,5

Zytel ® PA66/6 glass reinforced

72G15 L, 72G30 L 72G40 HSL BK*

0,8

 

0,8

Zytel ® PA6 unreinforced

7335 F

1,5

 

Zytel ® PA6 glass reinforced

73G15, 73G20, 73G30, 73G50

1,5

 

Zytel ® PA6 mineral and glass reinforced, flame retardant, halogen and phosphorus free

FR73GM60 V0F, FR73GM60E V0F

 

1,5

FR73GM50 GWF**

 

1,5

Minlon ® PA 6 mineral reinforced

73M30

0,85

 

Zytel ® HTN high temperature nylon

HTN 51G35 HSL NC-010 HTN 51G45 HSL NC-010 HTN FR51G35 L NC-010

0,8

 

0,8

 

0,8

Zenite ® LCP liquid crystal polymer

6130 WT-010

 

0,41

7130

WT-010

0,8

6330

NC-010

1,5

Hytrel ® thermoplastic polyester elastomer

4056

1,47

 

5556

1,47

 

7246

1,47

Vespel ® polyimide resins

SP-1

0,8

1,7

SP-21

0,8

1,6

1) UL yellow cards are available. 2) DuPont test results using ISO 9290. 3) NC, BK. 4) All colours. 5) NC, BK, GY.

** Only available in black. ** Only available in natural colour.

Table for information only. For actual classification, please consult the most recent UL Yellow Cards. For products or grades that do not appear on this table, please contact your DuPont representative for more information.

All the above information is subject to the disclaimer on the back page of this brochure.

Glow Wire Flammability Index: “GWFI”°C

 

1 mm

2 mm

3 mm

6,4 mm

Crastin ® PBT

S600, S620

 

750

ST820

700

700

SK602, SK603, SK605 SK608, SK609

 

750

750

LW9130

750

LW9020, LW9030

650

T805

750

SO653, SO655, HTI619 S650 FR, S680 FR T850 FR SK641 FR, SK642 FR SK643 FR, SK645 FR CE7931, SK673 GW LW9020 FR, LW9030 FR T841 FR, T843 FR, T845 FR HTI681 FR, HTI668 FR, HTI688 FR

 

750

960

960

960

960

960

960

960

960

960

960

960

960

Delrin ® acetal

100, 107, 100 P 500, 507

550

550

550

550

550

550

500

P, 900 P

550

550

550

100ST, 100T, 500T

550

550

550

500

CL

550

500

AF, 570

600

Rynite ® PET

520

650

650

750

530

960

 

650

750

750

 

545

960

 

750

750

850

 

FR530 L

960

960

960

960

(0,8 mm)

(2,2 mm)

(3,2 mm)

(1,2 mm)

 

FR 543 NC-010, FR 943 NC-010 RE 5211 S

960

750

 

(3,2 mm)

 

RE 5213 S

750

 

(0,8 mm)

 

9082 F

 

850

960

960

960

 

(0,8 mm)

Zytel ® PA66 unreinforced

E101 L

 

850

960

960

 

(1,6 mm)

 

101

F

750

960

960

E103 HSL

850

960

960

105

F BK-10

960*

960*

960*

114

L BK-97

650

650

650

135

F

850

850

960

408

650*

650*

650*

450

675*

650*

650*

490

700*

700*

700*

XA480

 

750

ST801

 

650

650

Zytel ® PA66 glass reinforced, flame retardant

FR70G25

V0

850

960

(1,6 mm)

FR70G28 V1

960

 

1 mm

2 mm

3 mm

6,4 mm

Zytel ® PA66 glass reinforced

79G13 L

650

 

(2,5 mm)

 

70G20 HSL

650*

650*

750

70G25 HSL

650

650

750

70G30 HSL

650*

650*

750*

70G60

HSL BK**

700

700

850

Zytel ® PA66 glass-bead reinforced

70GB40 HSL

 

Zytel ® PA66 mineral reinforced, flame retardant

FR70M30 V0

960

 

(at 1,2, 1,5 and 2,5 mm)

 
 

960

(at 1,2 mm)

Minlon ® PA66 mineral reinforced

10B140

750

 

(3,2 mm)

 

11C140

650

 

(3,1 mm)

Zytel ® PA66/6 unreinforced, flame retardant

FR7200 V0F

960

 

(at 0,8, 1,6 and 3,2 mm)

 

Zytel ® PA66/6 glass reinforced, flame retardant

FR72G25

V1

960

(1,5 mm)

 

FR72G25 V0

 

960

 

(1,6 and 3,2 mm)

Zytel ® PA6 unreinforced

7300, 7335 F

 

800

850

 

(1,6 mm)

Zytel ® PA6 glass reinforced

73G15

 

73G30 HSL BK 73G40, 73G50

700

700

700

Zytel ® PA6 mineral and glass reinforced, flame retardant, halogen and phosphorus free

FR73GM60

V0F, FR73GM60E V0F

960

FR73GM50 GWF

960

Zytel ® HTN high temperature nylon

HTN 51G35 HSL NC-010

750

HTN

51G45

HSL NC-010

750