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photypes should not be excluded; nonetheless the smoothed. Taxonomic uniformitarianism has been
author is undoubtedly in a position to decide. usefully condensed and now reads much better.
As for the biostratigraphy, M. H. R. Hessel However, the part beginning on p. 59 has been
shows that Mytiloides rnytiloides and M. hercynicus greatly over-generalized. For example, ostracods
can be used to characterize the Middle and Upper do not display an invariable relationship between
Lower Turonian, respectively. Correlations are surface-sculpture and sedimentary properties
given with Mexico and Nigeria. Other stratigraph- (grain-size), despite the assertions made in the
ical relationships are also discussed, with a less reference cited, now 15 years old. It is not difficult
degree of accuracy. to find any number of examples in which highly
As a conclusion, attempt is made by M. H. E. ornamented carapaces, together with smooth
Hessel to reconstruct the history of the site. The forms, occupy the same palaeoenvironment,
rates of sedimentation proposed by the author marked by fine-grained sediment: e.g. associations
have however to be taken with great cautiousness. in the Paleocene and Recent of West Africa, Got-
Although problematic, Stromatactis from the landian, etc. Figure 3.4 is still not a useful diagram
Palaeozoic is more likely to be of diagenetic origin and should have been deleted. The line-fitting for
(direct crystallization of calcite) rather than to be Mytilus cannot be said to be other than dubious.
considered as an algae. I do not clearly understand Much space is devoted to the "engineering solu-
why the absence of ammonites suggests a greater tion" of the hypothesized swimming ability of
depth, etc. As a whole, the environmental recon- ammonites. However, a model based on the flume-
structions together with accurate explanations are measured water-resistance associated with particu-
extremely informative. lar shell-shapes can do no more than indicate a
This publication is a very interesting one. The possible advantage accruing to shape, but it cannot
results concerning the inoceramid taxonomy, their provide a basis for conclusions concerning swim-
possible phylogeny, their ecological adaptation, ming prowess. There are more holes in that argu-
and their spatial and vertical distribution are ment than in an Emmenthaler cheese. Muscular
important. A need for further studies would be a patterns preserved on ammonite shells do not
suitable conclusion to this stimulating paper. support the hypothesis of an active life style, as
Claude BABIN(Villeurbanne) has been pointed out by Harry Mutvei. On the
contrary, indications deriving from foraging mod-
els suggest life-styles of browsing and ambush
Paleoecology: Concepts and Applications by J. R. rather than pursuit. Data on living dibranchiates
Dodd and R. J. Stanton Jr. Second Edition. support the mathematical simulations. Consider,
Wiley, Chichester, USA. 1990. 2nd ed. 502 pp. for example, ammonites inhabiting the very shal-
ISBN 0-471-85711-4. Price: £59.00. low, trans-Saharan epicontinental environment of
the Cenomanian-Turonian. A wide range of shell-
This is the second edition of a book I reviewed types occurs in the same spatially restricted envi-
nine years ago and to which I was mostly favoura- ronment; moreover, many species display an excep-
bly inclined. It is, as is well known, no easy task tionally wide range of variation, from inflated to
to revise one's own text and it can be very difficult compressed, as has been well shown by the work
to see what needs to be improved and what should of W. J. Kennedy for several groups; these funda-
be cut out. One becomes enslaved by the written mental papers on ammonite palaeoecology are not
word, as it were. The present product is more of mentioned. The taphonomic history of cephalopod
a "face-lift" than a new body and I shall, therefore, shells remains untreated in the book and the whole
confine my comments to the newer aspects I have important area of nekroplanktonic dispersal of
identified and what has happened, if anything, in cephalopod shells (and other groups) is ignored.
respect of the treatment of subjects in the first Although two references to drilling gastropods
edition about which I was not very enthusiastic. are made in the text, this important area of popula-
Taphonomy has been upgraded and now has its tion dynamics is not given anything like adequate
own chapter. Generally speaking this section is a consideration. Numerous papers on the subject
genuine betterment and rough edges have been have appeared over the last ten years, including

articles in the journals that seem to be most Dinosaur Tracks by T. Thulborn. Chapman and
favoured by the authors. Why not refer to the Hall, London. 1990. 410 pp. Price £35,
results of Jennifer Kitchell and her coworkers? hardcover.
Figure 7.24 is still there and it still tells us
nothing of note. The diagram showing the orienta- In 1974 Hartmut Haubold, a German who may
tions of 141 bones from the Harper quarry is be considered the world's leading specialist on
worthless and in no way conveys anything of use. fossil footprints, published a work entitled Die
This is, of course, not the fault of the authors of fossile Saurierfdhrten (Ziemsen, Wittenberg-
the book, but some other example, and there are Lutherstadt; 168 pp.). This was an excellently writ-
many to choose from, should have been selected ten and excellently illustrated little work, bringing
to illustrate the point in question. This leads me together a great deal of useful information and
to the way in which statistical procedures are data that had hitherto been obtainable only
presented~ particularly multivariate analysis. The through prolonged searchings into a diffuse litera-
notes on Q-mode and R-mode methods are ture. In consequence, after gaining Dr. Haubold's
strangely garbled and sadly dated; if it is thought permission, I sought to publish an English transla-
necessary to refer to such methods, why not give tion of his book, since I was sure it would be
the reader a modern account of what can be done. valuable to palaeontologists. Consequently, I
There is no dearth of good published material. approached a series of publishers in Great Britain
The treatment of morphological variation is out and the United States, setting forth the idea. All
of context and out of tune. There is, for example, of them rebuffed me. In essence, they said: "It
a vast body of literature on the analysis of ecophe- won't sell. No-one is interested in fossil foot-
notypic variation now available. At least the work prints".
of Russell Lande should have been noted. As Perhaps, at that time, they were right. That was
regards diversity, excellent sources are not referred the period when, upon my submitting a paper on
to. This is a subject that requires expert guiding, vertebrate footprints to the Canadian Journal of
such as can be found in the seven-volume work Earth Sciences, it was turned down on the strength
on Statistical Ecology, edited by Gopal Patel. This of the report of one of the vertebrate palaeontolo-
treatise tells one all one needs to know about gists who served as referee. He wrote simply: "I
indices of diversity including their use and misuse. have not read this paper, but I urge you to reject
Recent Dutch work has greatly expanded the scope it since I disapprove of all publication on fossil
of "community analysis", for example, the funda- footprints"!
mental contributions being made by C. J. ter Braak Over the ensuing quarter-century' such attitudes
and his colleagues. have come to be modified. Ten years later, when
It is comforting to see that some non- a revised and enlarged second edition of Haubold's
anglophone references occur. Unfortunately, the work was published (Saurierf~ihrten. Ziemsen,
very important contributions of the various French Wittenberg-Lutherstadt; 231 pp.), the climate of
schools have been completely missed: There are opinion was already changing. It was being recog-
no references to the inescapably significant results nized belatedly that footprints are the only direct
of the Bordeaux school (Carbonel, Peypouquet, evidence that we have concerning dinosaurs and
Ducasse) nor are Anne-Marie Bodergat's (Lyon) other extinct creatures as living, functioning ani-
studies on salinity tolerance referred to and what mals; that footprints - - and only footprints - - can
has happened to the exciting work being done in tell us, not merely about their pedal soft morphol-
Japan, for example Katsumi Abe's palaeoecologi- ogy, but also about their speed of movement, their
cal studies? social behaviour and their distribution (both
Summing up, I still find the book to be useful, through the positive evidence of the presence of
but I fear that the second edition has not gone far their footprints in, and the negative evidence of
enough towards updating the subject-matter. The their absence from, particular sedimentary envi-
reservations I held nine years ago about the scope ronments).
of the first edition have not been dissipated. This philosophical transformation was exempli-
Richard REYMENT (Uppsala) fied when an international symposium on "Dino-