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Corso di Laurea: INGEGNERIA INDUSTRIALE CURR. GESTIONALE (D.M.

270/04)
Insegnamento: CHIMICA GENERALE
Lezione n°: 2
Titolo: Struttura atomica
Attività n°: 1

è la scienza che studia la struttura, le proprietà e


CHIMICA: le trasformazioni della materia che ci circonda

In passato si credeva che tutta la materia fosse formata


dall’insieme di quattro elementi: ARIA, TERRA, FUOCO ed
ACQUA (Aristotele 350 a.c.)

La nascita della chimica moderna viene fatta risalire


alla seconda metà del XVII secolo, con la
pubblicazione da parte di Robert Boyle del libro
“The sceptical chymist” (Il chimico scettico, 1661), in
cui sosteneva che la materia fosse costituita da
particelle e le sostanze da atomi diversi.
1
Corso di Laurea: INGEGNERIA INDUSTRIALE CURR. GESTIONALE (D.M. 270/04)
Insegnamento: CHIMICA GENERALE
Lezione n°: 2
Titolo: Struttura atomica
Attività n°: 1

CHIMICA:
Già Democrito nel 400 a.c. sosteneva
che la materia fosse costituita da corpi
piccolissimi uniti in uno spazio vuoto

Nel V secolo d.c. si sviluppa l’ALCHIMIA; il cui


obiettivo principale era quello di trasformare i vili
metalli nel nobile oro.
Antoine Lavoisier nella seconda metà del 1700
enuncia il principio di conservazione della massa in
una trasformazione chimica: “in una reazione
chimica, la massa dei reagenti è esattamente uguale
alla massa dei prodotti in un sistema chiuso”.
È la fine dell’ALCHIMIA, da ora in poi si parlerà solo
di CHIMICA
2
Corso di Laurea: INGEGNERIA INDUSTRIALE CURR. GESTIONALE (D.M. 270/04)
Insegnamento: CHIMICA GENERALE
Lezione n°: 2
Titolo: Struttura atomica
Attività n°: 1

CHIMICA:
Corso di Laurea: INGEGNERIA INDUSTRIALE CURR. GESTIONALE (D.M. 270/04)
Insegnamento: CHIMICA GENERALE
Lezione n°: 2
Titolo: Struttura atomica
Attività n°: 1

CHIMICA:

4
Corso di Laurea: INGEGNERIA INDUSTRIALE CURR. GESTIONALE (D.M. 270/04)
Insegnamento: CHIMICA GENERALE
Lezione n°: 2
Titolo: Struttura atomica
Attività n°: 1

DA DOVE VENGONO GLI ELEMENTI CHIMICI ?

NUCLEOSINTESI
- Big Bang: H, He, (Li)
- Stelle: He Fe (Co, Ni)
- Supernove Fe in poi
- Decadimento radioattivo

Le supernove rilasciano nello spazio gli


elementi sintetizzati.
5
Corso di Laurea: INGEGNERIA INDUSTRIALE CURR. GESTIONALE (D.M. 270/04)
Insegnamento: CHIMICA GENERALE
Lezione n°: 2
Titolo: Struttura atomica
Attività n°: 1

ABBONDANZA DEGLI ELEMENTI CHIMICI NEL SISTEMA SOLARE

6
Corso di Laurea: INGEGNERIA INDUSTRIALE CURR. GESTIONALE (D.M. 270/04)
Insegnamento: CHIMICA GENERALE
Lezione n°: 2
Titolo: Struttura atomica
Attività n°: 1

ABBONDANZA DEGLI ELEMENTI CHIMICI NEL SISTEMA SOLARE


Corso di Laurea: INGEGNERIA INDUSTRIALE CURR. GESTIONALE (D.M. 270/04)
Insegnamento: CHIMICA GENERALE
Lezione n°: 2
Titolo: Struttura atomica
Attività n°: 1

COMPITO DELLA CHIMICA:


STUDIARE LA TRASFORMAZIONE DELLA MATERIA
A QUALE SCOPO?
1. SINTETIZZARE NUOVI MATERIALI (Utilizzando RISORSE NATURALI)
2. OTTIMIZZARE UN PROCESSO CHIMICO (aumentando rese e velocità)
3. MINIMIZZARE INQUINAMENTO
Corso di Laurea: INGEGNERIA INDUSTRIALE CURR. GESTIONALE (D.M. 270/04)
Insegnamento: CHIMICA GENERALE
Lezione n°: 2
Titolo: Struttura atomica
Attività n°: 1

DI COSA È FATTA LA MATERIA?


DALTON: STRUTTURA ATOMICA DELLA MATERIA
Dalton fu il primo chimico a formulare, nel 1803 una teoria atomica basata
sulle intuizioni di Democrito vissuto 2500 anni fa. Tale teoria si fonda sui
seguenti postulati:

1. La materia è costituita da particelle indivisibili: ATOMI


2. L’atomo è la più piccola parte di un ELEMENTO
3. Gli atomi di un elemento sono tutti uguali
4. Le reazioni chimiche avengono tra atomi interi
5. In una reazione chimica gli atomi degli elementi rimangono INALTERATI in NUMERO e
QUALITÀ
Il punto 4 è diretta conseguenza della legge di Lavoisier sulla CONSERVAZIONE DELLA MASSA
(cardine di tutta la chimica): in tutte le reazioni chimiche la massa si conserva, cioè la massa dei
reagenti è uguale alla massa dei prodotti.

L’ATOMO SECONDO DALTON (1803):


sferetta indivisibile di materia neutra
9
 
Corso di Laurea:
Insegnamento:
n° Lezione:
Titolo:

 
 
 

 
 
Lezione 2 
Sessione di studio 1 
Fattori di conversione 
(da Halliday, Resnick, Walker ‐  
Fundamentals of Physics, Wiley, 2010) 

Pag.

 
APPENDIX A • Tables

TABLE A.1 Conversion Factors


Length

m cm km in. ft mi

1 meter 1 10 2 10⫺3 39.37 3.281 6.214 ⫻ 10⫺4


1 centimeter 10 ⫺2 1 10 ⫺5 0.393 7 3.281 ⫻ 10⫺2 6.214 ⫻ 10⫺6
1 kilometer 10 3 10 5 1 3.937 ⫻ 104 3.281 ⫻ 103 0.621 4
1 inch 2.540 ⫻ 10⫺2 2.540 2.540 ⫻ 10⫺5 1 8.333 ⫻ 10⫺2 1.578 ⫻ 10⫺5
1 foot 0.304 8 30.48 3.048 ⫻ 10⫺4 12 1 1.894 ⫻ 10⫺4
1 mile 1 609 1.609 ⫻ 105 1.609 6.336 ⫻ 104 5 280 1

Mass

kg g slug u

1 kilogram 1 103 6.852 ⫻ 10⫺2 6.024 ⫻ 1026


1 gram 10⫺3 1 6.852 ⫻ 10⫺5 6.024 ⫻ 1023
1 slug 14.59 1.459 ⫻ 104 1 8.789 ⫻ 1027
1 atomic mass unit 1.660 ⫻ 10⫺27 1.660 ⫻ 10⫺24 1.137 ⫻ 10⫺28 1

Note: 1 metric ton ⫽ 1 000 kg.

Time

s min h day yr

1 second 1 1.667 ⫻ 10⫺2 2.778 ⫻ 10⫺4 1.157 ⫻ 10⫺5 3.169 ⫻ 10⫺8


1 minute 60 1 1.667 ⫻ 10⫺2 6.994 ⫻ 10⫺4 1.901 ⫻ 10⫺6
1 hour 3 600 60 1 4.167 ⫻ 10⫺2 1.141 ⫻ 10⫺4
1 day 8.640 ⫻ 104 1 440 24 1 2.738 ⫻ 10⫺5
1 year 3.156 ⫻ 107 5.259 ⫻ 105 8.766 ⫻ 103 365.2 1

Speed

m/s cm/s ft/s mi/h

1 meter per second 1 102 3.281 2.237


1 centimeter per second 10⫺2 1 3.281 ⫻ 10⫺2 2.237 ⫻ 10⫺2
1 foot per second 0.304 8 30.48 1 0.681 8
1 mile per hour 0.447 0 44.70 1.467 1

Note: 1 mi/min ⫽ 60 mi/h ⫽ 88 ft/s.


continued

A.1
A.2 APPENDIX A

TABLE A.1 Continued


Force

N lb

1 newton 1 0.224 8
1 pound 4.448 1

Work, Energy, Heat

J ft ⴢ lb eV

1 joule 1 0.737 6 6.242 ⫻ 1018


1 ft ⭈ lb 1.356 1 8.464 ⫻ 1018
1 eV 1.602 ⫻ 10⫺19 1.182 ⫻ 10⫺19 1
1 cal 4.186 3.087 2.613 ⫻ 1019
1 Btu 1.055 ⫻ 103 7.779 ⫻ 102 6.585 ⫻ 1021
1 kWh 3.600 ⫻ 106 2.655 ⫻ 106 2.247 ⫻ 1025

cal Btu kWh

1 joule 0.238 9 9.481 ⫻ 10⫺4 2.778 ⫻ 10⫺7


1 ft ⭈ lb 0.323 9 1.285 ⫻ 10⫺3 3.766 ⫻ 10⫺7
1 eV 3.827 ⫻ 10⫺20 1.519 ⫻ 10⫺22 4.450 ⫻ 10⫺26
1 cal 1 3.968 ⫻ 10⫺3 1.163 ⫻ 10⫺6
1 Btu 2.520 ⫻ 102 1 2.930 ⫻ 10⫺4
1 kWh 8.601 ⫻ 105 3.413 ⫻ 102 1

Pressure

Pa atm

1 pascal 1 9.869 ⫻ 10⫺6


1 atmosphere 1.013 ⫻ 105 1
1 centimeter mercury a 1.333 ⫻ 103 1.316 ⫻ 10⫺2
1 pound per inch2 6.895 ⫻ 103 6.805 ⫻ 10⫺2
1 pound per foot2 47.88 4.725 ⫻ 10⫺4

cm Hg lb/in.2 lb/ft 2

1 newton per meter 2 7.501 ⫻ 10⫺4 1.450 ⫻ 10⫺4 2.089 ⫻ 10⫺2


1 atmosphere 76 14.70 2.116 ⫻ 103
1 centimeter mercury a 1 0.194 3 27.85
1 pound per inch2 5.171 1 144
1 pound per foot2 3.591 ⫻ 10⫺2 6.944 ⫻ 10⫺3 1

a At 0°C and at a location where the acceleration due to gravity has its “standard” value,

9.806 65 m/s 2.
 
Corso di Laurea:
Insegnamento:
n° Lezione:
Titolo:

 
 
 

 
 
Lezione 2 
Sessione di studio 2 
Unità di misura 
(da Halliday, Resnick, Walker ‐  
Fundamentals of Physics, Wiley, 2010) 

Pag.

 
Appendix A A.3

TABLE A.2 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units of Physical Quantities


Common Unit in Terms of
Quantity Symbol Unita Dimensionsb Base SI Units

Acceleration a m/s2 L/T 2 m/s2


Amount of substance n mole mol
Angle ␪, ␾ radian (rad) 1
Angular acceleration ␣ rad/s 2 T ⫺2 s⫺2
Angular frequency ␻ rad/s T ⫺1 s⫺1
Angular momentum L kg ⭈ m2/s ML2/T kg ⭈ m2/s
Angular velocity ␻ rad/s T ⫺1 s⫺1
Area A m2 L2 m2
Atomic number Z
Capacitance C farad (F) Q2 T 2/ML2 A2 ⭈ s4/kg ⭈ m2
Charge q, Q , e coulomb (C) Q A⭈s
Charge density
Line ␭ C/m Q /L A ⭈ s/m
Surface ␴ C/m2 Q /L2 A ⭈ s/m2
Volume ␳ C/m3 Q /L3 A ⭈ s/m3
Conductivity ␴ 1/⍀ ⭈ m Q 2 T/ML3 A2 ⭈ s3/kg ⭈ m3
Current I AMPERE Q /T A
Current density J A/m2 Q /T 2 A/m2
Density ␳ kg/m3 M/L3 kg/m3
Dielectric constant ␬
Displacement r, s METER L m
Distance d, h
Length ᐉ, L
Electric dipole moment p C⭈m QL A⭈s⭈m
Electric field E V/m ML/QT 2 kg ⭈ m/A ⭈ s3
Electric flux ⌽E V⭈m ML3/QT 2 kg ⭈ m3/A ⭈ s3
Electromotive force ␧ volt (V) ML2/QT 2 kg ⭈ m2/A ⭈ s3
Energy E, U, K joule (J) ML2/T 2 kg ⭈ m2/s2
Entropy S J/K ML2/T 2 ⭈ K kg ⭈ m2/s2 ⭈ K
Force F newton (N) ML/T 2 kg ⭈ m/s2
Frequency f hertz (Hz) T ⫺1 s⫺1
Heat Q joule ( J) ML2/T 2 kg ⭈ m2/s2
Inductance L henry (H) ML2/Q 2 kg ⭈ m2/A2 ⭈ s2
Magnetic dipole moment ␮ N ⭈ m/T QL2/T A ⭈ m2
Magnetic field B tesla (T)(⫽ Wb/m2) M/QT kg/A ⭈ s2
Magnetic flux ⌽B weber (Wb) ML2/QT kg ⭈ m2/A ⭈ s2
Mass m, M KILOGRAM M kg
Molar specific heat C J/mol ⭈ K kg ⭈ m2/s2 ⭈ mol ⭈ K
Moment of inertia I kg ⭈ m2 ML2 kg ⭈ m2
Momentum p kg ⭈ m/s ML/T kg ⭈ m/s
Period T s T s
Permeability of space ␮0 N/A2(⫽ H/m) ML/Q2 T kg ⭈ m/A2 ⭈ s2
Permittivity of space ⑀0 C2/N ⭈ m2(⫽ F/m) Q2 T 2 /ML3 A2 ⭈ s4/kg ⭈ m3
Potential V volt (V)(⫽ J/C) ML2 /QT 2 kg ⭈ m2/A ⭈ s3
Power ᏼ watt (W)(⫽ J/s) ML2 /T 3 kg ⭈ m2/s3
continued
A.4 APPENDIX A

TABLE A.2 Continued


Common Unit in Terms of
Quantity Symbol Unita Dimensionsb Base SI Units

Pressure P pascal (Pa) ⫽ (N/m2) M/LT 2 kg/m ⭈ s2


Resistance R ohm (⍀)(⫽ V/A) ML2/Q2 T kg ⭈ m2/A2 ⭈ s3
Specific heat c J/kg ⭈ K L2/T 2 ⭈ K m2/s2 ⭈ K
Speed v m/s L/T m/s
Temperature T KELVIN K K
Time t SECOND T s
Torque ␶ N⭈m ML2/T 2 kg ⭈ m2/s2
Volume V m3 L3 m3
Wavelength ␭ m L m
Work W joule ( J)(⫽ N ⭈ m) ML2 /T 2 kg ⭈ m2/s2

a The base SI units are given in uppercase letters.


b The symbols M, L, T, and Q denote mass, length, time, and charge, respectively.

TABLE A.3 Table of Atomic Massesa


Mass
Number Half-Life
Atomic Chemical (* Indicates (If
Number Atomic Radioactive) Atomic Percent Radioactive)
Z Element Symbol Mass (u) A Mass (u) Abundance T1/2

0 (Neutron) n 1* 1.008 665 10.4 min


1 Hydrogen H 1.007 9 1 1.007 825 99.985
Deuterium D 2 2.014 102 0.015
Tritium T 3* 3.016 049 12.33 yr
2 Helium He 4.002 60 3 3.016 029 0.000 14
4 4.002 602 99.999 86
6* 6.018 886 0.81 s
3 Lithium Li 6.941 6 6.015 121 7.5
7 7.016 003 92.5
8* 8.022 486 0.84 s
4 Beryllium Be 9.012 2 7* 7.016 928 53.3 days
9 9.012 174 100
10* 10.013 534 1.5 ⫻ 106 yr
5 Boron B 10.81 10 10.012 936 19.9
11 11.009 305 80.1
12* 12.014 352 0.020 2 s
6 Carbon C 12.011 10* 10.016 854 19.3 s
11* 11.011 433 20.4 min
12 12.000 000 98.90
13 13.003 355 1.10
14* 14.003 242 5 730 yr
15* 15.010 599 2.45 s
7 Nitrogen N 14.006 7 12* 12.018 613 0.011 0 s
13* 13.005 738 9.96 min
14 14.003 074 99.63
15 15.000 108 0.37
16* 16.006 100 7.13 s
17* 17.008 450 4.17 s
 
Corso di Laurea:
Insegnamento:
n° Lezione:
Titolo:

 
 
 

 
 
Lezione 2 
Sessione di studio 3 
Richiami di matematica 
(da Halliday, Resnick, Walker ‐  
Fundamentals of Physics, Wiley, 2010) 

Pag.

 
APPENDIX B • Mathematics Review

These appendices in mathematics are intended as a brief review of operations and


methods. Early in this course, you should be totally familiar with basic algebraic
techniques, analytic geometry, and trigonometry. The appendices on differential
and integral calculus are more detailed and are intended for those students who
have difficulty applying calculus concepts to physical situations.

B.1 SCIENTIFIC NOTATION


Many quantities that scientists deal with often have very large or very small
values. For example, the speed of light is about 300 000 000 m/s, and the
ink required to make the dot over an i in this textbook has a mass of about
0.000 000 001 kg. Obviously, it is very cumbersome to read, write, and keep track
of numbers such as these. We avoid this problem by using a method dealing with
powers of the number 10:

10 0  1
10 1  10
10 2  10  10  100
10 3  10  10  10  1000
10 4  10  10  10  10  10 000
10 5  10  10  10  10  10  100 000
and so on. The number of zeros corresponds to the power to which 10 is raised,
called the exponent of 10. For example, the speed of light, 300 000 000 m/s, can
be expressed as 3  108 m/s.
In this method, some representative numbers smaller than unity are

1
101   0.1
10
1
102   0.01
10  10
1
103   0.001
10  10  10
1
104   0.000 1
10  10  10  10
1
105   0.000 01
10  10  10  10  10
A.15
A.16 APPENDIX B

In these cases, the number of places the decimal point is to the left of the digit 1
equals the value of the (negative) exponent. Numbers expressed as some power of
10 multiplied by another number between 1 and 10 are said to be in scientific no-
tation. For example, the scientific notation for 5 943 000 000 is 5.943  109 and
that for 0.000 083 2 is 8.32  105.
When numbers expressed in scientific notation are being multiplied, the fol-
lowing general rule is very useful:

10 n  10 m  10 nm (B.1)

where n and m can be any numbers (not necessarily integers). For example,
10 2  10 5  10 7. The rule also applies if one of the exponents is negative:
10 3  10 8  10 5.
When dividing numbers expressed in scientific notation, note that

10 n
 10 n  10 m  10 nm (B.2)
10 m

EXERCISES
With help from the above rules, verify the answers to the following:
1. 86 400  8.64  104
2. 9 816 762.5  9.816 762 5  106
3. 0.000 000 039 8  3.98  108
4. (4  108)(9  109)  3.6  1018
5. (3  107)(6  1012)  1.8  104
75  10 11
6.  1.5  10 7
5  10 3
(3  10 6 )(8  10 2 )
7.  2  10 18
(2  10 17 )(6  10 5 )

B.2 ALGEBRA
Some Basic Rules
When algebraic operations are performed, the laws of arithmetic apply. Symbols
such as x, y, and z are usually used to represent quantities that are not specified,
what are called the unknowns.
First, consider the equation
8x  32
If we wish to solve for x, we can divide (or multiply) each side of the equation by
the same factor without destroying the equality. In this case, if we divide both sides
by 8, we have
8x 32

8 8
x4
B.2 Algebra A.17

Next consider the equation


x28
In this type of expression, we can add or subtract the same quantity from each
side. If we subtract 2 from each side, we get
x2282
x6
In general, if x  a  b, then x  b  a.
Now consider the equation
x
9
5
If we multiply each side by 5, we are left with x on the left by itself and 45 on the
right:

冢 5x 冣 (5)  9  5
x  45
In all cases, whatever operation is performed on the left side of the equality must also be per-
formed on the right side.
The following rules for multiplying, dividing, adding, and subtracting frac-
tions should be recalled, where a, b, and c are three numbers:
Rule Example

Multiplying 冢 ab 冣 冢 dc 冣  bdac 冢 23 冣 冢 45 冣  158


(a/b) ad 2/3 (2)(5) 10
Dividing   
(c/d) bc 4/5 (4)(3) 12
a c ad  bc 2 4 (2)(5)  (4)(3) 2
Adding     
b d bd 3 5 (3)(5) 15

EXERCISES
In the following exercises, solve for x :
Answers
1 1a
1. a  x
1x a
2. 3x  5  13 x6
7
3. ax  5  bx  2 x
ab
5 3 11
4.  x
2x  6 4x  8 7

Powers
When powers of a given quantity x are multiplied, the following rule applies:
x nx m  x nm (B.3)
A.18 APPENDIX B

For example, x 2x 4  x 24  x 6.


When dividing the powers of a given quantity, the rule is

xn
 x nm (B.4)
xm

For example, x 8/x 2  x 82  x 6.


A power that is a fraction, such as 13 , corresponds to a root as follows:
n
TABLE B.1 x 1/n  ! x (B.5)
Rules of Exponents
For example, 41/3  ! 4  1.5874. (A scientific calculator is useful for such calcula-
3

x0 1 tions.)
x1  x Finally, any quantity x n raised to the mth power is
x nx m  x nm
x n/x m  x nm
n
x 1/n  ! x
(x n)m  x nm (B.6)
(x )  x nm
n m
Table B.1 summarizes the rules of exponents.

EXERCISES
Verify the following:
1. 32  33  243
2. x 5x 8  x 3
3. x 10/x 5  x 15
4. 51/3  1.709 975 (Use your calculator.)
5. 60 1/4  2.783 158 (Use your calculator.)
6. (x 4 )3  x 12

Factoring
Some useful formulas for factoring an equation are
ax  ay  az  a(x  y  x) common factor
a 2  2ab  b 2  (a  b)2 perfect square
a2  b2  (a  b)(a  b) differences of squares

Quadratic Equations
The general form of a quadratic equation is

ax 2  bx  c  0 (B.7)

where x is the unknown quantity and a, b, and c are numerical factors referred to
as coefficients of the equation. This equation has two roots, given by

b  !b 2  4ac
x (B.8)
2a

If b 2  4ac, the roots are real.


B.2 Algebra A.19

EXAMPLE 1
The equation x 2  5x  4  0 has the following roots corresponding to the two signs of
the square-root term:
5  !52  (4)(1)(4) 5  !9 5  3
x  
2(1) 2 2
5  3 5  3
x   1 x   4
2 2
where x refers to the root corresponding to the positive sign and x refers to the root
corresponding to the negative sign.

EXERCISES
Solve the following quadratic equations:
Answers
1. x 2  2x  3  0 x  1 x   3
2. 2x 2  5x  2  0 x  2 x   12
3. 2x 2  4x  9  0 x   1  !22/2 x   1  !22/2

Linear Equations
A linear equation has the general form

y  mx  b (B.9) y (x2, y2)

(x1, y1) ∆y
where m and b are constants. This equation is referred to as being linear because θ
the graph of y versus x is a straight line, as shown in Figure B.1. The constant b, (0, b) ∆x
called the y-intercept, represents the value of y at which the straight line intersects
θ
the y axis. The constant m is equal to the slope of the straight line and is also (0, 0) x
equal to the tangent of the angle that the line makes with the x axis. If any two
points on the straight line are specified by the coordinates (x 1 , y 1 ) and (x 2 , y 2 ), as
in Figure B.1, then the slope of the straight line can be expressed as Figure B.1

y2  y1 y
Slope    tan
(B.10) y
x2  x1 x (1) m > 0
b<0
Note that m and b can have either positive or negative values. If m  0, the
straight line has a positive slope, as in Figure B1. If m  0, the straight line has a (2) m < 0
negative slope. In Figure B.1, both m and b are positive. Three other possible situa- b>0
x
tions are shown in Figure B.2.

(3) m < 0
b<0
EXERCISES
1. Draw graphs of the following straight lines: Figure B.2
(a) y  5x  3 (b) y  2x  4 (c) y  3x  6
2. Find the slopes of the straight lines described in Exercise 1.
Answers (a) 5 (b)  2 (c)  3
A.20 APPENDIX B

3. Find the slopes of the straight lines that pass through the following sets of
points:
(a) (0,  4) and (4, 2), (b) (0, 0) and (2,  5), and (c) ( 5, 2) and (4,  2)
Answers (a) 3/2 (b)  5/2 (c)  4/9

Solving Simultaneous Linear Equations


Consider the equation 3x  5y  15, which has two unknowns, x and y. Such an
equation does not have a unique solution. For example, note that (x  0, y  3),
(x  5, y  0), and (x  2, y  9/5) are all solutions to this equation.
If a problem has two unknowns, a unique solution is possible only if we have
two equations. In general, if a problem has n unknowns, its solution requires n
equations. In order to solve two simultaneous equations involving two unknowns,
x and y, we solve one of the equations for x in terms of y and substitute this expres-
sion into the other equation.

EXAMPLE 2
Solve the following two simultaneous equations: Alternate Solution Multiply each term in (1) by the
(1) 5x  y  8 factor 2 and add the result to (2):

(2) 2x  2y  4 10x  2y  16


2x  2y  4
Solution From (2), x  y  2. Substitution of this into (1)
gives 12x  12

5(y  2)  y  8 x  1

6y  18
y  x  2  3
y  3

x  y  2  1

y Two linear equations containing two unknowns can also be solved by a graphi-
5 cal method. If the straight lines corresponding to the two equations are plotted in
4 a conventional coordinate system, the intersection of the two lines represents the
x – 2y = –1 solution. For example, consider the two equations
3 (5, 3)
2
xy2
1
x  2y  1
1 2 3 4 5 6 x
These are plotted in Figure B.3. The intersection of the two lines has the coordi-
x–y=2 nates x  5, y  3. This represents the solution to the equations. You should check
this solution by the analytical technique discussed above.
Figure B.3
EXERCISES
Solve the following pairs of simultaneous equations involving two unknowns:
Answers
1. x  y  8 x  5, y  3
xy2
B.3 Geometry A.21

2. 98  T  10a T  65, a  3.27


T  49  5a
3. 6x  2y  6 x  2, y  3
8x  4y  28

Logarithms
Suppose that a quantity x is expressed as a power of some quantity a:

x  ay (B.11)

The number a is called the base number. The logarithm of x with respect to the
base a is equal to the exponent to which the base must be raised in order to satisfy
the expression x  a y :

y  log a x (B.12)

Conversely, the antilogarithm of y is the number x :

x  antilog a y (B.13)

In practice, the two bases most often used are base 10, called the common loga-
rithm base, and base e  2.718 . . . , called Euler’s constant or the natural loga-
rithm base. When common logarithms are used,
y  log 10 x (or x  10 y ) (B.14)
When natural logarithms are used,
y  ln e x (or x  e y ) (B.15)
For example, log10 52  1.716, so that antilog10 1.716  101.716  52. Likewise,
lne 52  3.951, so antilne 3.951  e 3.951  52.
In general, note that you can convert between base 10 and base e with the
equality
ln e x  (2.302 585) log 10 x (B.16)

Finally, some useful properties of logarithms are

log(ab)  log a  log b


log(a/b)  log a  log b
log(a n)  n log a
ln e  1
ln e a  a

ln冢 冣1
a
 ln a

B.3 GEOMETRY
The distance d between two points having coordinates (x 1 , y 1 ) and (x 2 , y 2 ) is

d  !(x 2  x 1)2  (y 2  y 1)2 (B.17)


A.22 APPENDIX B

Radian measure: The arc length s of a circular arc (Fig. B.4) is proportional
to the radius r for a fixed value of
(in radians):
s

θ s  r

r
(B.18)
s


r

Table B.2 gives the areas and volumes for several geometric shapes used through-
out this text:
Figure B.4

TABLE B.2 Useful Information for Geometry


Shape Area or Volume Shape Area or Volume

w
r π 2
Surface area = 4πr
Area = ᐉw π 3
ᐉ Volume = 4πr
3

Sphere
Rectangle

ᐉ Lateral surface
area = 2πr
π ᐉ
r Area = π
πr 2 Volume = ππr 2ᐉ
π
(Circumference = 2πr) r

Cylinder
Circle

y Area =
m = slope = tan θ h Area = 12 bh 2(ᐉh + ᐉw + hw)
w
h Volume = ᐉwh
b ᐉ
θ Triangle Rectangular box

x The equation of a straight line (Fig. B.5) is


0

y  mx  b (B.19)
Figure B.5
where b is the y-intercept and m is the slope of the line.
The equation of a circle of radius R centered at the origin is
y
x 2  y2  R 2 (B.20)

b
The equation of an ellipse having the origin at its center (Fig. B.6) is
x
0 a x2 y2
 1 (B.21)
a2 b2

where a is the length of the semi-major axis (the longer one) and b is the length of
Figure B.6 the semi-minor axis (the shorter one).
B.4 Trigonometry A.23

The equation of a parabola the vertex of which is at y  b (Fig. B.7) is y

y  ax 2  b (B.22)

The equation of a rectangular hyperbola (Fig. B.8) is

xy  constant (B.23)
b

x
B.4 TRIGONOMETRY 0

That portion of mathematics based on the special properties of the right triangle is Figure B.7
called trigonometry. By definition, a right triangle is one containing a 90° angle. Con-
sider the right triangle shown in Figure B.9, where side a is opposite the angle
, side b
is adjacent to the angle
, and side c is the hypotenuse of the triangle. The three basic
trigonometric functions defined by such a triangle are the sine (sin), cosine (cos), and
tangent (tan) functions. In terms of the angle
, these functions are defined by
y
side opposite
a
sin
⬅  (B.24)
hypotenuse c
side adjacent to
b
cos
⬅  (B.25)
hypotenuse c
side opposite
a x
tan
⬅  (B.26) 0
side adjacent to
b

The Pythagorean theorem provides the following relationship between the


sides of a right triangle:
c 2  a2  b2 (B.27)
Figure B.8
From the above definitions and the Pythagorean theorem, it follows that
sin2
 cos2
 1
sin

tan

cos

The cosecant, secant, and cotangent functions are defined by


1 1 1
csc
⬅ sec
⬅ cot

sin
cos
tan
a = opposite side
b = adjacent side
The relationships below follow directly from the right triangle shown in Figure B.9: c = hypotenuse
sin
 cos(90 
)
θ
90°–θ
cos
 sin(90 
) c
a
cot
 tan(90 
) θ
90°

Some properties of trigonometric functions are b

sin (
)  sin
Figure B.9
cos (
)  cos

tan (
)  tan

The following relationships apply to any triangle, as shown in Figure B.10:


   180
A.24 APPENDIX B

a 2  b 2  c 2  2bc cos
γ Law of cosines b 2  a 2  c 2  2ac cos
c 2  a 2  b 2  2ab cos
a a b c
b
Law of sines  
sin sin sin
Table B.3 lists a number of useful trigonometric identities.
β α

c TABLE B.3 Some Trigonometric Identities


Figure B.10 sin2
 cos2
 1 csc 2
 1  cot 2

sec 2
 1  tan2
sin2  12(1  cos
)
2

sin 2
 2 sin
cos
cos2  12(1  cos
)
2

cos 2
 cos2
 sin2
1  cos
 2 sin2
2

!
2 tan

1  cos

tan 2
 tan 
1  tan2
2 1  cos

sin(A  B)  sin A cos B  cos A sin B


cos(A  B)  cos A cos B  sin A sin B

EXAMPLE 3
Consider the right triangle in Figure B.11, in which a  2, where tan1 (0.400) is the notation for “angle whose tangent
b  5, and c is unknown. From the Pythagorean theorem, we is 0.400,” sometimes written as arctan (0.400).
have
c 2  a 2  b 2  2 2  52  4  25  29

c  !29  5.39 c
a=2
To find the angle
, note that θ
a 2 b=5
tan
   0.400
b 5 Figure B.11
From a table of functions or from a calculator, we have


 tan1 (0.400)  21.8

EXERCISES
φ 1. In Figure B.12, identify (a) the side opposite
and (b) the side adjacent to 
5 and then find (c) cos
, (d) sin , and (e) tan .
3 4 4 4
Answers (a) 3, (b) 3, (c) 5, (d) 5, and (e) 3

θ 2. In a certain right triangle, the two sides that are perpendicular to each other
4 are 5 m and 7 m long. What is the length of the third side?
Figure B.12 Answer 8.60 m
B.6 Differential Calculus A.25

3. A right triangle has a hypotenuse of length 3 m, and one of its angles is 30°.
What is the length of (a) the side opposite the 30° angle and (b) the side adja-
cent to the 30° angle?
Answers (a) 1.5 m, (b) 2.60 m

B.5 SERIES EXPANSIONS


n n1 n(n  1) n2 2
(a  b)n  a n  a b a b  
1! 2!
n(n  1) 2
(1  x)n  1  nx  x  
2!
x2 x3
ex  1  x    
2! 3!
ln(1  x)  x  12x 2  13x 3  
x3 x5
sin x  x    
3! 5!
x2 x4 x in radians
cos x  1    
2! 4!
x3 2x 5
tan x  x     兩 x 兩  /2
3 15
For x V 1, the following approximations can be used1:
(1  x)n ⬇ 1  nx sin x ⬇ x
ex ⬇ 1  x cos x ⬇ 1
ln(1  x) ⬇ x tan x ⬇ x

B.6 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS


In various branches of science, it is sometimes necessary to use the basic tools of
calculus, invented by Newton, to describe physical phenomena. The use of calcu-
lus is fundamental in the treatment of various problems in Newtonian mechanics,
electricity, and magnetism. In this section, we simply state some basic properties
and “rules of thumb” that should be a useful review to the student.
First, a function must be specified that relates one variable to another (such
as a coordinate as a function of time). Suppose one of the variables is called y (the
dependent variable), the other x (the independent variable). We might have a
function relationship such as
y(x)  ax 3  bx 2  cx  d
If a, b, c, and d are specified constants, then y can be calculated for any value of x.
We usually deal with continuous functions, that is, those for which y varies
“smoothly” with x.

1 The approximations for the functions sin x, cos x, and tan x are for x  0.1 rad.
A.26 APPENDIX B

y The derivative of y with respect to x is defined as the limit, as x approaches


zero, of the slopes of chords drawn between two points on the y versus x curve.
y2 Mathematically, we write this definition as
∆y dy y y(x  x)  y(x)
 lim  lim (B.28)
y1 dx x:0 x x:0 x
∆x
where y and x are defined as x  x 2  x 1 and y  y 2  y 1 (Fig. B.13). It is
important to note that dy/dx does not mean dy divided by dx, but is simply a nota-
x
x1 x2 tion of the limiting process of the derivative as defined by Equation B.28.
A useful expression to remember when y(x)  ax n, where a is a constant and n
Figure B.13 is any positive or negative number (integer or fraction), is
dy
 nax n1 (B.29)
dx
If y(x) is a polynomial or algebraic function of x, we apply Equation B.29 to
each term in the polynomial and take d[constant]/dx  0. In Examples 4 through
7, we evaluate the derivatives of several functions.

EXAMPLE 4
Suppose y(x) (that is, y as a function of x) is given by so
y(x)  ax 3  bx  c y  y(x  x)  y(x)  a(3x 2 x  3x x 2  x 3 )
where a and b are constants. Then it follows that  b x

y(x  x)  a(x  x)3 Substituting this into Equation B.28 gives


 b(x  x)  c dy y
 lim  lim [3ax 2  3x x  x 2]  b
dx x:0 x x:0
y(x  x)  a(x 3  3x 2 x  3x x 2  x 3 )
 b(x  x)  c dy
 3ax 2  b
dx

EXAMPLE 5
y(x)  8x 5  4x 3  2x  7 dy
 40x 4  12x 2  2
dx
Solution Applying Equation B.29 to each term indepen-
dently, and remembering that d/dx (constant)  0, we have
dy
 8(5)x 4  4(3)x 2  2(1)x 0  0
dx

Special Properties of the Derivative


A. Derivative of the product of two functions If a function f(x) is given by the
product of two functions, say, g(x) and h(x), then the derivative of f(x) is defined
as
d d dh dg
f(x)  [g(x)h(x)]  g h (B.30)
dx dx dx dx
B.7 Intergral Calculus A.27

B. Derivative of the sum of two functions If a function f(x) is equal to the sum
of two functions, then the derivative of the sum is equal to the sum of the deriv-
atives:
d d dg dh
f(x)  [g(x)  h(x)]   (B.31)
dx dx dx dx
C. Chain rule of differential calculus If y  f (x) and x  g(z), then dy/dz can
be written as the product of two derivatives:
dy dy dx
 (B.32)
dz dx dz
D. The second derivative The second derivative of y with respect to x is defined
as the derivative of the function dy/dx (the derivative of the derivative). It is
usually written
d 2y
dx 2

d
dx dx
dy
冢 冣 (B.33)

EXAMPLE 6
Find the derivative of y(x)  x 3/(x  1)2 with respect to x.  (x  1)23x 2  x 3(2)(x  1)3
Solution We can rewrite this function as y(x)  dy 3x 2 2x 3
 
x 3(x  1)2 and apply Equation B.30: dx (x  1) 2 (x  1)3
dy d d
 (x  1)2 (x 3)  x 3 (x  1)2
dx dx dx

EXAMPLE 7

冢 hg 冣  dxd (gh
A useful formula that follows from Equation B.30 is the deriv- d d d
1) g (h 1 )  h 1 (g)
ative of the quotient of two functions. Show that dx dx dx
dg dh dh dg
h g  gh 2  h 1
d
dx 冤 g(x)
h(x) 冥 dx
h 2
dx
dg
dx
dh
dx

h g
dx dx
Solution We can write the quotient as gh1 and then apply 
h2
Equations B.29 and B.30:

Some of the more commonly used derivatives of functions are listed in Table
B.4.

B.7 INTEGRAL CALCULUS


We think of integration as the inverse of differentiation. As an example, consider
the expression
dy
f(x)   3ax 2  b (B.34)
dx
which was the result of differentiating the function
y(x)  ax 3  bx  c
A.28 APPENDIX B

in Example 4. We can write Equation B.34 as dy  f(x) dx  (3ax 2  b) dx and ob-


TABLE B.4
tain y(x) by “summing” over all values of x. Mathematically, we write this inverse
Derivatives for Several
operation
Functions

d
dx
(a)  0
y(x)  冕 f(x) dx

d For the function f(x) given by Equation B.34, we have


(ax n)  nax n1
dx
d
dx
(e ax)  ae ax
y(x)  冕 (3ax 2  b) dx  ax 3  bx  c

d where c is a constant of the integration. This type of integral is called an indefinite


(sin ax)  a cos ax
dx integral because its value depends on the choice of c.
d A general indefinite integral I(x) is defined as
(cos ax)  a sin ax


dx
d I(x)  f(x) dx (B.35)
(tan ax)  a sec 2 ax
dx
d
(cot ax)  a csc 2 ax dI(x)
dx where f(x) is called the integrand and f(x)  .
d dx
(sec x)  tan x sec x For a general continuous function f(x), the integral can be described as the area
dx
d under the curve bounded by f(x) and the x axis, between two specified values of x,
(csc x)  cot x csc x say, x 1 and x 2 , as in Figure B.14.
dx
d 1 The area of the blue element is approximately f(x i ) x i . If we sum all these
(ln ax)  area elements from x 1 and x 2 and take the limit of this sum as x i : 0, we obtain
dx x
the true area under the curve bounded by f(x) and x, between the limits x 1 and x 2 :
Note: The letters a and n are con-
stants. Area  lim 兺 f(x i ) x i 
x :0 i
i
冕x1
x2
f(x) dx (B.36)

Integrals of the type defined by Equation B.36 are called definite integrals.

f(x )

f(xi )

x1 x2
∆xi

Figure B.14

One common integral that arises in practical situations has the form

冕 x n dx 
x n1
n1
c (n  1) (B.37)

This result is obvious, being that differentiation of the right-hand side with respect
to x gives f(x)  x n directly. If the limits of the integration are known, this integral
becomes a definite integral and is written


x2

x1
x n dx 
x 2n1  x 1n1
n1
(n  1) (B.38)
B.7 Intergral Calculus A.29

EXAMPLES
1.
0

a x3 a
x 2 dx 
3 0 冥

a3
3

2.
0
b
冕x 3/2 dx 
x 5/2

5/2 0
b
 冥 2 5/2
5
b

3.
3
5
冕x dx 
x2 5
2 3 冥

52  32
2
8

Partial Integration
Sometimes it is useful to apply the method of partial integration (also called “inte-
grating by parts”) to evaluate certain integrals. The method uses the property that

冕 u dv  uv  冕 v du (B.39)

where u and v are carefully chosen so as to reduce a complex integral to a simpler


one. In many cases, several reductions have to be made. Consider the function

I(x)  冕 x 2e x dx

This can be evaluated by integrating by parts twice. First, if we choose u  x 2,


v  e x, we get

冕 x 2e x dx  冕 x 2 d(e x )  x 2e x  2 冕 e xx dx  c 1

Now, in the second term, choose u  x, v  e x, which gives

冕 x 2e x dx  x 2e x  2xe x  2 冕 e x dx  c 1
or

冕 x 2e x dx  x 2e x  2xe x  2e x  c 2

The Perfect Differential


Another useful method to remember is the use of the perfect differential, in which
we look for a change of variable such that the differential of the function is the dif-
ferential of the independent variable appearing in the integrand. For example,
consider the integral

I(x)  冕 cos2 x sin x dx

This becomes easy to evaluate if we rewrite the differential as d(cos x)  sin x dx.
The integral then becomes

冕 cos2 x sin x dx   冕 cos2 x d(cos x)

If we now change variables, letting y  cos x, we obtain

冕 cos2 x sin x dx   冕 y 2dy  


y3
3
c
cos3 x
3
c
A.30 APPENDIX B

Table B.5 lists some useful indefinite integrals. Table B.6 gives Gauss’s proba-
bility integral and other definite integrals. A more complete list can be found in
various handbooks, such as The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press.

TABLE B.5 Some Indefinite Integrals (An arbitrary constant should be added to each of these integrals.)

冕 x n dx 
x n1
n1
(provided n  1) 冕 ln ax dx  (x ln ax)  x

冕 冕
dx
x
 x 1 dx  ln x 冕 xe ax dx 
e ax
a2
(ax  1)

冕 dx
a  bx

1
b
ln(a  bx) 冕 dx
a  be cx

x
a

1
ac
ln(a  be cx)

冕 x dx
a  bx

x
b
a
 2 ln(a  bx)
b
冕 sin ax dx  
1
a
cos ax

冕 dx
x(x  a)
1
  ln
a
xa
x
冕 cos ax dx 
1
a
sin ax

冕 dx
(a  bx)2

1
b(a  bx)
冕 tan ax dx 
1
a
ln(cos ax) 
1
a
ln(sec ax)

冕 dx
a2  x 2

1
a
tan1
x
a
冕 cot ax dx 
1
a
ln(sin ax)

冕 a2
dx
x 2 
1
2a
ln
ax
ax
(a 2  x 2  0) 冕 sec ax dx 
1
a
ln(sec ax  tan ax) 
1
a 冤 冢
ln tan
ax
2


4 冣冥
冕 dx
x2  a 2

1
2a
ln
xa
xa
(x 2  a 2  0) 冕 csc ax dx 
1
a
ln(csc ax  cot ax) 
a 冢
1
ln tan
2 冣
ax

冕 x dx
a2  x 2
  12 ln(a 2  x 2) 冕 sin2 ax dx 
x
2

sin 2 ax
4a

冕! a2
dx
 x2
 sin1
x
a
 cos1
x
a
(a 2  x 2  0) 冕 cos2 ax dx 
x
2

sin 2 ax
4a

冕! x2
dx
 a2
 ln(x  !x 2  a 2) 冕 dx
sin2 ax
1
  cot ax
a

冕! x dx
a2  x 2
  !a 2  x 2 冕 dx
cos2 ax

1
a
tan ax

冕! x dx
x2  a2
 !x 2  a 2 冕 tan2 ax dx 
1
a
(tan ax)  x

冕! 冢
a 2  x 2 dx  12 x !a 2  x 2  a 2 sin1
x
a 冣 冕 cot 2 ax dx  
1
a
(cot ax)  x

冕!x a 2  x 2 dx   13 (a 2  x 2)3/2 冕 sin1 ax dx  x(sin1 ax) 


!1  a 2x 2
a

冕! x 2  a 2 dx  12 [x !x 2  a 2  a 2 ln(x  !x 2  a 2)] 冕 cos1 ax dx  x(cos1 ax) 


!1  a 2x 2
a

冕 !
x( x 2  a 2) dx  13 (x 2  a 2)3/2 冕 dx
(x 2  a 2)3/2

x
a 2!x 2  a 2

冕 e ax dx 
1 ax
a
e 冕 x dx
(x 2  a 2)3/2

1
!x 2  a 2
B.7 Intergral Calculus A.31

TABLE B.6 Gauss’s Probability Integral and Other


Definite Integrals

冕

0
x n e ax dx 
n!
a n1

I0  冕


0
e ax dx 
2 1
2 !

a
(Gauss’s probability integral)

I1  冕


0
xe ax dx 
2 1
2a

I2  冕


0
x 2e ax dx  
2 dI 0
da

1
4 !

a3

I3  冕


0
x 3e ax dx  
2 dI 1
da

1
2a 2

I4  冕


0
x 4e ax dx 
2 d 2I 0
da 2

3
8 !

a5

I5  冕


0
x 5e ax dx 
2 d 2I 1
da 2
1
 3
a



dn
I 2n  (1)n I
da n 0
dn
I 2n1  (1)n I
da n 1