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Q. No.

01

A successful project manager should have special traits. Critically examine these traits with
reference to a construction project.

A Project Manager is a professional in the field of project management. They have the
responsibility of the planning, execution, and closing of any project, typically relating to
construction industry, architecture, computer networking, telecommunications or software
development. Many other fields in the production, design and service industries also have project
managers.

A project manager is the person accountable for accomplishing the stated project objectives. Key
project management responsibilities include creating clear and attainable project objectives,
building the project requirements, and managing the triple constraint for projects, which is cost,
time, and scope.

Most of the project management issues that influence a project arise from risk, which in turn
arises from uncertainty. The successful project manager focuses on this as his/her main concern
and attempts to reduce risk significantly, often by adhering to a policy of open communication,
ensuring that project participants can voice their opinions and concerns.

When recruiting and building an effective team, the manager must consider not only the technical
skills of each person, but also the critical roles and chemistry between workers. A project team
has mainly three separate components:

• Project Manager
• Core Team
• Contracted Team

Construction Project Manager

In the past, Construction Project Managers were individuals who worked in construction or
supporting industries and were promoted to foreman. It was not until the late 20th century that
construction and construction project management became distinct fields.

Until recently, the industry lacked any level of standardization, with individual States
determining the eligibility requirements within their jurisdiction.

Construction Management refers either to the study and practice of the managerial and
technological aspects of the construction industry (including construction, construction science,
construction management, and construction technology), or to a business model where one party
to a construction contract serves as a construction consultant, providing both design and
construction advice.

Common responsibilities of a Construction Manager fall into the following seven categories:

• Project Management Planning,


• Cost Management,
• Time Management,
• Quality Management,
• Contract Administration,
• Safety Management,
• CM Professional Practice

which includes specific activities like defining the responsibilities and management structure of
the project management team, organizing and leading by implementing project controls, defining
roles and responsibilities and developing communication protocols, and identifying elements of
project design and construction likely to give rise to disputes and claims.

TRAITS OF A SUCCESSFUL MANAGER

Difficult to identify someone with the requisite skills & competencies

 There are two levels of skills/competencies

• Visible (Skills)
• Hidden (Competencies)

Common Sense

Toss away extraneous ideas and get to the core of what matters. Easier said than done of course
especially when team members get hung-up on unimportant issues.

Specialized Knowledge of Your Field

Experience in a particular area reduces risk which is particularly important with companies (often
the large ones) that desire security and continuity as part of the culture.

Self-Reliance

Tapping in to your own abilities and pressing on through a sheer force of will.

General Intelligence

This includes an extensive vocabulary as well as good oral and written skills. Communication is
often assumed to be easy, but being an effective communicator is not easy.

Ability to Get Things Done

Successful project managers have strong organizational abilities and work habits. This means
more than being able to plot tasks in Microsoft Project.

Leadership

Focus on motivation and not intimidation. Treat people as human beings and not "resources".
Four more traits in this area are described below.
Knowing Right from Wrong

Be sensitive to moral and ethical concerns. It can be surprising sometimes how often such issues
come up in the corporate world.

Creativity

Natural talent plus insight or intuition equals creativity. Or for a more familiar description, think
outside the box.

Self-Confidence

This comes from knowing you have done everything possible to prepare. Part of it comes from
experience.

Oral Expression

You get your message across, even in front of a large group.

Concern for Others

At the very least, you need to get along with others.

Luck

It's never enough, but it certainly always helps. Yes, this really isn't a trait, but it's important to
recognize that not all that is project management can be controlled.

Acquiring Adequate Resources

 Resources initially budgeted for a project are usually insufficient to a task


 This phenomenon is due to how much can be accomplished with relatively scarce
resources
 Many details of resource purchase & usage are deferred until the P.M.
specifically knows what resource will be required & when.

For example in a road construction project, if a huge amount of budget is not dedicated for
purchase earth-moving machinery at start of the project, the project resource planning may affect
the progress of project.

 Resource trade-offs that needs to be taken into consideration

For example in a construction project, if a PM is at beginning of his career, he may not be able to
plan purchase a relatively unsophisticated machinery, which can complete required task

 Sub-contract management should also be carefully made and sub-contractors will


have to be carefully instructed needs of the contractor, which is costly and may
cause delays

For example, in a road construction project, if PM is unable to identify subcontractor about


cutting of a mountain in a specific time period OR building of a over-head bridge, which bear
high costs, it may delay the project.
 Crises occur when special resources are not provided to P.M.
 An individual who has the responsibility for performing and completing a task
sometimes overestimates the time & cost required.
 The supervisor of worker may reduce his pessimism by reducing time & cost and
may underestimates the time & cost.
 Moving up the higher management hierarchy, each successive level lowers the
time & cost estimates again becoming more optimistic about Ability of those
working with them to do with less

For example in a road construction project, if a workers’ group provides time & cost estimate of
completion of road patch in hilly area at 100M cost and to be completed in 1 year. These
estimates may be reduced to 80M & completion time as 10 moths by supervisor. Which may be
further reduced to cost of 60M & completion time as 6 months.

 This optimistic approach may be unrealistic and project may be lead to cost &
time overrun.
 Another issue in resource acquisition is winning-lose proposition as P.M. &
Functional Managers perceive availability of resource strictly limited. Thus
P.M’s having solid political connection with higher mgt. in parent organization
may be more successful.

For example A P.M. of a road construction project with weak political connection with project
director as compared to political contacts of a Functional

Acquiring & Motivating Personnel

 Most of the people needed for a project are borrowed from Functional
Department.
 Then P.M. convince them to take on these challenging temporary project
assignments
 Pay & promotion motivators are subject of FM, while in order to ensure
creativity, professionals require minimal supervision, maximum freedom and
little control in a project.
 Motivation problems are often less serve for routine, repeated projects such as
those in construction & maintenance.

For example, if a PM gives minimal supervision,

Maximum freedom and little control in a construction project, the project may be time & cost
over-run. Only motivator for personnel of this project is the chance to work on a challenging,
“High Visibility” assignment to be needed.

For Example Construction of Shahrah-E-Raisham

Dealing with Obstacles

 “What I need is a list of specific unknown problems that we will encounter”


 PM will have to face & overcome series of crisis
 Crisis appear without warning
 Better the planning fewer the crisis
 At the inception stage, the “fires” tend to be associated with resources
 Budget & Schedule cuts must be translated into changes in technical plans
 The procedures may be shortened, suppliers’ lead time may be cut.
For example, if a project director of a construction project reduces the budget for a specific task
and time schedule of this task is increased then a PM must be able to revise the technical plan.

Making Project Goal Trade-offs

 The trade-offs between the projects goals of cost, time & performance.
 Trade-offs varies at different project life cycle.
 At the beginning of the life cycle, when the project is being planned,
performance is most important of the goals. Cost & schedule are sacrificed to
tech requirements of the project

Failure and the Risk and Fear of Failure

 Failure at one point in the project life cycle may look success at another
 Assume two types of projects.

Type 1: Projects are generally well-understood, routine construction projects.

Type 2: Not well-understood, considerable uncertainty about what must be done

 At initial stage, Type 1 projects appear simple, flow of events will introduce
problems. In later stages of project life cycle, problems appeared are more
difficult it is to keep the project on time & cost schedule Contingency
allowances for the time & cost to overcome such problems are built into the
budgets and schedules for type 1. In Type 2 projects, there are many difficulties
early in the life of a project, most of which are so-called planning problems
 These problems result from failure to define mission carefully, OR from a failure
to get the client acceptance on project’ mission

Breadth of Communication

 Most of the time of PM is spent in communication with interested groups


 Running a project requires constant selling, reselling and explaining the project
to outsiders, top mgt., functional department. Clients and a Pm must be available
for problem solving in lab, the crisis in field, for threatening of sub-contractors &
for reducing interpersonal conflicts between team members
 First, a PM must know why the project exists; the Pm must fully understand the
project’ intent
 Secondly, any PM with extensive experience has managed projects that failed,
competent managers are rarely ruined by a single failure, but repeated failure is a
sign of incompetence number of other such parties-at-interest to the project as
well as project team members
 PM is a project liaison with outside the world
 Third it is critical to have the support of top management. If support is weak, the
future of project is uncertain
 Fourth, the PM should build & maintain a solid information network. It is critical
to know, what is happening inside & outside the project
 Awareness about customer complaints, department. Head criticism, vendors
trend for price change, strike in supplier’ industry
 Inadequate information can blind PM from anticipated crisis & excessive info.
Can make hyper-sensitive to early warning of a trouble.
Negotiation

 In order to meet the demands of the job of Project Manager.


 i.e. Acquiring adequate resources, acquiring & motivating personnel, dealing
with the obstacles, making project goal trade-offs, handling failure & fear of
failure, and maintaining the appropriate patterns of communication.
 The PM must be a highly skilled negotiator.

CONCLUSION

The overall message is that successful project managers should have a winning attitude and a
passion for their work. They have both a desire for and an expectation of success. Dealing
effectively with people is of critical importance to project managers. Some P.M’s are lucky
enough to do so intuitively while others need to develop the necessary skills. Here are 4
additional traits centered around the people aspect of project management

Empathy

Team members often confide their work frustrations, career disappointments, and even personal
problems to a PM. In such cases you need to show understanding, not pity.

Humor

Being able to laugh at yourself tells others you'll take responsibility for your mistakes. Pointing
fingers is a good way to build resentment. If you find any of these project management jokes
funny, you should be all set with humor angle.

Courtesy

Show that you're approachable and willing to engage in a relationship.

Trust

To gain the trust of others, you must demonstrate you won't breach their confidence and that
you'll keep their interests in mind.

Q. No. 2

Why time management, communication and motivation are given more importance in the
project management environment in contrast to traditional management environment?
Describe your answers with reference to the practical project management situation.

TIME MANAGEMENT

 Monitoring the progress of work activities in relation to deadlines.

 It is inevitable to encounter problem that will cause to deadlines to slip &


change the schedule.

 Contingency time plan should be included in project plan. 10-20 % hours to


be included for contingency tasks.

 Resource trade-offs from one task to another based on relative


importance to lesson the effect on timeline
Often projects depend on functional resources, which are required to perform regular tasks as
well as project tasks, therefore action should be taken during planning phase of the project.
Sponsors must be aware of the time required for these resources before the project begins so that
adequate plans can be made.

Some realistic thoughts of time

• Time cannot be saved


• Time cannot be exchanged
• Time cannot be bought
• Time cannot be sold

“Time can only be used”

SOME HINTS IN CONTROLLING OUR TIME MORE EFFECTIVELY

To manage our time and our lives more effectively we should:

 Act, rather than react,

 Avoid foundering in every direction or doing nothing,

 Plan our activities,

 Vary our activities through our time table

 Find a balance between work and pleasure,

 Find a balance between professional, family and personal activities,

 Plan space in our daily time schedules for reading, dreaming, playing, laughing,
thinking, being sociable, being alone, being happy,.
 Manage your time and don’t let time manage you

 And remember: the golden rule of managing time is:

“Effort not made is opportunity lost”

IMPORANCE OF TIME MANAGEMENT

Managing projects within time, cost and performance is easier said than done. The project
management environment is extremely turbulent and is composed of numerous meetings, report
writing, conflict resolution, continuous planning and re planning, communication with customers
and crises management. In real world, project mangers often find themselves compromising their
time between managing and going, mainly because of the uncertain nature of the project
environment.

In such situation it is extremely critical that the project manger effectively mange his own time. It
is often said that if the manager cannot control his own time, then he will control nothing else on
the project Disciplined time management is one of the keys to effective project management
principles must be employed to make it a resource.
For many people setting priorities is a complex task which they try to avoid at all costs.
Unfortunately, instead of trying to identify that which needs to be done and doing it, they
compound the problem by refusing to come to terms with what can be a straight forward task if
approached in a systematic way. When setting priorities we have to take account the complexity
of balancing: that which is urgent with that which is important the interrelationship between all
the things that are waiting to be done the amount of time needed to carry out and finish the task.

Time management is going to mean the development of a process and tools that help you be more
productive and efficient. You may find that everyone has different levels of time management
and ways of making things happen for them. There are people and businesses that use their time
management skills to help them be more successful and give them what they are looking for in
life.

It is going to take some time but once you have the time management skills that you need it will
all fall into place. You will be more productive and better able to make your goals in life work for
you. When you think about time management, it is about making sure that you get things
accomplished in a time limit. You want to have just about everything that you can do so that you
can move on to something else. This can be applied at work or at home.

Time management is thought of as a set of skills for better using your time. You must also
incorporate organization and attitude into this equation. You need to make this all come together
so that you can be a happier and efficient person all together. Personal time management skills
are going to have the following:

 Goal setting, what you want from life

 Planning out your goals in life

 Prioritizing with what comes first

 Making decisions about important choices

 Scheduling what is going to be worked on and what order

Many will find that the time management tools like a laptop will help them to manage their time
more effectively. Having the ability to make things, work for you is something that you should
work hard on. You need to be as productive as you can so that you filling up all of your time and
getting many benefits for it. The rewards of being more time managed are high. You will find that
once you get on a good schedule and know what has to be done you will produce more activity
and this will make many people around you happy.

Generally, time management refers to the development of processes and tools that increase
efficiency and productivity.

In business, time management has morphed into everything from methodologies such as
Enterprise Resource Planning through consultant services such as Professional Organizers.

When we think of time management, however, we tend to think of personal time management,
loosely defined as managing our time to waste less time on doing the things we have to do so we
have more time to do the things we want to do.

Therefore, time management is often thought of or presented as a set of time management skills;
the theory is that once we master the time management skills, we'll be more organized, efficient,
and happier.
Whether you use technological time management tools or plain old pen and paper, however, the
first step in effective time management is analyzing how you currently spend your time and
deciding how you want to change how you spend your time.

It is interesting to see there are some people who would still ask – Why is time management
important?

WHY TIME MANAGEMENT IS IMPORTANT

Helps You Prioritize


Well, time management is important because it helps you prioritize your work. Once you have a
list of things you need to tackle, you need to see what you should do first. What are those that are
important and time sensitive. That way, you set out to do those first.

Get More Done In Less Time

The other reason why time management is important is that you will get more done in less time.
When you plan your time, you will see the amount of work that needs to be tackled. That puts
into context how much time you need. Inevitably, you will know not to laze your time away.

More Quality Work

When you plan your time you are making wise investment of a very limited resource time.
Knowing what to work on, when and how much time you have to finish the work makes you
more focused. That focus on the work ensures that you get more quality work out.

Keeps Things in Context

Sometimes you may hear people complaining that there is no balance in their lives. Ever
wondered maybe the reason is that they do not know how to manage their time? A possibility
may be. One reason why is time management important is that it can put things into context for
you. If you see the list of work you have and the things you need to do, then you will be forced to
make tough decisions. Especially on what to spend your time on and how to spend your time.

Forces You to Do Things You Do Not Like

Simple, when you write down what you need to do – it is there staring at you. You are forced to
tackle it. To me it is a target i have given myself and so i must live up to the challenge regardless
of how much I hate doing it.

Keeps You on Track

Whether it is a daily work list or a long-term career plan – time management keeps you on track.
With your goals stated and time allocated, the likelihood of you staying within the boundaries
you have given yourself is higher. Of course, do not be your own jury and judge. That means do
not give yourself excuses when you start to procrastinate.

Making Sure You Deliver what’s Promised

How would you deliver what you promised on time if you do not manage your time? Have you
always disappointed your colleagues on the delivery of your part of the project? Perhaps you
aren’t doing well with time management. Making sure you deliver what’s promised should be
reason enough why is time management important.

Time is Limited

There is a Chinese proverb that loosely translates this saying ‘no amount of gold can buy you
time.’ Time ticks away regardless you like it or not. Why is time management important?
Because time is limited. Once lost, you cannot gain it back.

COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT
Communication management is a new approach to analysis communication competence of
business and situations develop new interactive forms of communication, manage all information
flow within and outside of organization. This new direction of applied communication can create
innovative forms for identification and resolving communication problems in the modern
institution, and also prevent from various information conflicts and complicated crisis situations

You are the project manager responsible for relocating a manufacturing operation to another
city. Your project plan has been carefully developed. Two days prior to the start of major
equipment shipping, you notify purchasing to ensure the movers will be on-site, ready to load
and transport. “It’s not going to happen!” you are told by purchasing. “This vendor requires
two months lead time to schedule a move of this magnitude.”

You think: “I did the hard part – I put together a good project plan. Why didn’t I
communicate it to the key support people?”

Time and time again in post-project assessments, project teams list communication as one of the
most needed areas for improvement. Many times on troubled projects, project team members feel
that if the communication had been better, the project would have run smoother.

Communication not only keeps everyone up-to-date on the project progress, but also facilitates
buy-in and ownership of major project decisions and milestones. To ensure the success of a
project much information, including expectations, goals, needs, resources, status reports, budgets
and purchase requests, needs to be communicated on a regular basis to all the major
stakeholders.

Project communication can often be more difficult due to challenges unique to project
management. Many projects are short-term, and therefore project communication is temporary.
This means that communications systems need to be established quickly in shorter periods of
time. It is just as important to develop a communication plan for the project as it is to develop
task planning.

Another challenge is that projects often include cross-functional or inter-organizational teams.


Project teams are not normally natural teams and sometimes do not even reside in the same
geographic location. Unique delivery methods and communication devices need to be utilized to
overcome this challenge. But, it is possible to quickly implement effective communications that
reach all affected parties, no matter how complicated or diverse your project team may be.

It is understood that better communication facilitates the success of a project, but how do you
overcome obstacles and get better at communication? We have found one very successful tool to
improve communication:

Cornelius & Associates’ Project Communications Table


The concept of our Project Communications Table is simple and it is fairly easy to construct, with
a little planning. Mostly, the Table is a handy tool to help project team members not only
understand their communications obligations, but also to provide team members with a plan to
help actually carry out the necessary communications.

Before you think about creating a Project Communications Table, sit down and analyze who will
be affected by this project- we call this the Stakeholder Analysis. Make a list of all project teams
and team members, their supervisors, senior management, customer and end-users, and anyone
else who may be affected by the project, such as external vendors or maybe the general public.
Try to think long-term, over the life of the project, to ensure you have not secluded any one
person or group of people who might not be affected in the project start-up. After you have
completed the Stakeholder Analysis, you are ready to create the Project Communications Table.

There are six major categories of our Project Communications Table:

Communication device, vehicle, accountability, objectives, recipients (stakeholders), and


frequency. We will take a look at each category individually, although, we recommend when
planning a Project Communications Table for your project that you look at items line-by-line,
instead of one category at a time.

Communication Item/Delivery

This category describes exactly which piece of information needs to be communicated and what
vehicles, channels or methods project team members will use to carry out the necessary
communications. Some examples of necessary information might include software updates,
output from meetings (agendas, action items, handouts), a project calendar, expectations of
external vendors, resource requests, and the list goes on. This list will vary widely depending on
the scope of the project.

When it comes to delivery, there are many items to consider. Especially if you have a team that
spreads across organizational or geographical boundaries, think “outside the box” for vehicles to
deliver the communication. With the Internet and email, many creative solutions can be found,
such as listservs, or a project intranet with postings, updates, and a message board. Seriously
weigh the obstacles that confront all the stakeholders of your project before considering which
vehicle to use for each communication item.

Communication Accountability

This category lists the name of the team member responsible for ensuring the communication
occurs. Whether it is actually initiating the communication or ensuring someone else does, this
category establishes ownership of the communication and indicates specific people to hold
responsible if the project suffers a delay due to a communication failure.

Communication Objective

This category describes what specific objective you will accomplish by delivering the
communications device. For example, if you were held accountable for delivering a status report
to project supervisors, your objective may be to communicate progress and the status of the
project. Another possible objective for this scenario might be to review the recent project
successes and short-term future targets. Analyze your project carefully: each piece of
communication should have a specific objective. Otherwise, you will want to evaluate whether
or not there is a true need for that communication.

Communication Recipients (Stakeholders)


This category describes which person or groups will be receiving the intended communication.
Refer back to the Stakeholder Analysis you completed before working on the Project
Communications Table. For each communication objective pinpoint all of the stakeholders who
should be privy to this communication.

Communication Frequency

This category describes how often the specific communication will take place. When deciding
this think about how often it is necessary to relay the information so that it is effective, without
throwing your stakeholders into information overload.

An Example

Let’s look at an example using all the categories to illustrate a complete line in the Project
Communications Table. As the project manager, you have decided to create a steering team to
help guide and lead the project. A line in your Project Communications Table might look like
this:

Item/Delivery Accountability Objectives Recipients Frequency

To review successes,
Detailed Project John Doe, Steering Steering Team
progress and the Monthly
Status by Email Team Sponsor Members
short-term future.

Project Communications Table clearly defines who is responsible for what, where, when and
how. This way there is no confusion and employees know absolutely what they are responsible
for and how they are going to complete their tasks. Also, it is important to implement the
communication plan that results from the Project Communications Table at the beginning of the
project.

Breakdowns in communication are unacceptable reasons for project delays when some strategic
thinking, planning and use of the Project Communications Table would reduce, if not eliminate,
these problems. A little planning up front is worth its weight in gold.

MOTIVATING THE PROJECT TEAM


Project motivation is a key aspect to a successful project, yet few studies exist that shed light on
this important subject. Experts say that individual and team motivation is the leading factor
affecting the productivity of a project team. There are a few steps the Project Manager should
take to ensure that the foundation of sound motivation is in place in the project environment.

There are three things required to have a motivated employee:


 First, provide clear ownership of a defined task
 Ensure the person has the ways and means to do the task
 Follow-up with timely feedback and hold the individual accountable for results.

The Motivation Triangle

Worst Practices - To Avoid!

• Make it unclear who is responsible for tasks don't trust anyone with clear ownership, but
ask several people to get the job done.
• Keep yourself very busy, so team members will see how valuable you are, even if you
have no time to supervise their assignments, solve problems, or monitor work methods.
• Assign new team members to tasks without adequate task definitions, guidance or
training; use the sink or swim method for work assignments.
• Let poor performers continue without comment, and ignore gossip and dissension among
project team members.
• Reward your excellent performers by giving them an impossible workload; let them be
the heroes to carry the project on their backs.

Managing by Milestones

Projects are often stressful and hectic. It is hard to keep focused on what is important. It is normal
on a stressful project for the Project Manager to have that glazed look of the deer caught in the
headlights. The best way to cope with this is to rely on fundamental principles, to define
achievable objectives, and focus on short-term successes. What needs to be done? Understand
and document the requirements. How will we do it? Prepare a reasonable plan. Assign staff
ownership of tasks. Make sure they have good task definition and the ways and means to
accomplish the work.

The best feedback is success, so structure your project to be an endless series of little successes.
On a challenging project, managing by mini-milestones is the only way to keep things moving.
You could have a success every few days. Then celebrate and move on. Mini-milestones can lead
to eventual project success if they are chosen well. This means that every significant task will be
structured as a mini-milestone with criteria for determining when it is done.

For projects to succeed, the goals need to be well defined and clearly communicated to the project
team. If definition and communication do not occur, successful project completion becomes a
random stroke of luck (the odds of which are akin to winning the lottery). Effort engaged with
poorly defined targets is futile and, consciously or not, the whole project team will sense this. An
incomprehensible or unachievable goal lowers morale and kills enthusiasm and motivation. This,
in turn, affects the quality of the work and further lowers chances of success.
Build Team Dynamics

In addition to the benefits of having highly motivated individuals on your project team, there is an
additional opportunity for increased team motivation and productivity. When building the project
team, make sure people are committed to working hard for the team to succeed. Job satisfaction
and career growth are often important goals for project team members. Find out what each team
member win conditions are, and try to make these part of the project goals. When you are able to
get your project staff to work well together towards a challenging goal a real team may emerge.
When a team gels, it can go way beyond a mere group of people. Team synergy transcends the
mundane. It is supercharged. Not only does this produce high performance for the project, it also
provides a genuinely satisfying human experience for the team members. Creating an
environment in which such a team can gel is one of the ultimate goals of the Project Manager.

Q. No. 03

A system is a group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole.


Do you think that the project consists of sub-systems? Elucidate in detail?

Importance of System Integration

System integration plays a crucial role in performance aspect of the project. Just like a system
comprising of independent but interrelated elements, Project consists
of sub-systems.

 The sub systems in a project are independent in its nature but they are interrelated making
a unified system
 The success & performance of a project depends upon the success of sub-systems.

For Example

A software development project may be consist on subsystems like Design & Development
Section, Customer Relation Department, Engineering Department, Quality Control
Department, System Integration Department, and Customer Feedback Department.

These subsystems are although working independently in their performance area but these have to
produce an overall product “Development of Software”

System integration concerns with three major objectives:

Performance

What a System does

It includes System design, Reliability, quality, maintainability and repair ability obviously these
are not separate, independent elements of the system but are highly interrelated qualities. Any of
these system characteristics are subject to over design as well as under design but must fall within
the design parameters established by the client.

Effectiveness

The objective is to design the individual components of a system to achieve the desired
performance in an optimal manner. This is accomplished by guidelines:

GUIDELINES TO ACHIEVE EFFECTIVENESS


 No component performance specifications unless necessary to meet one or more
system requirements
 Every component requirement should be traceable to one or more system
requirements
 Design components to optimize system performance not the performance of a sub-
system

Cost

 System integration considers a cost to be a design parameter and cost can be accumulated
in several areas:
 Added design cost may lead to decreased component cost leaving performance &
effectiveness otherwise unchanged
 Added design cost may yield decreased production cost system integration plays a major
role in the success or failure of any project
 A good design will also avoid locking the project into a rigid solution with little flexibility.
Multifunctional teaming is a way of achieving systems integration and may play a major role in
the success or failure of any complex project. A good design will take all these trades off in to
account in the initial stages of the technical approach. A good design will also avoid locking the
project in to rigid solution with little flexibility or adaptability in case problems occur later or
changes in the environment demand changes in project performance of effectiveness.

Concept of Work Breakdown Structure:

The work breakdown structure acts as a vehicle for breaking the work down in to smaller
elements, thus providing a greater probability that every major or minor activity will be
accounted for. In general work breakdown is an important document and can be tailored for use
in a number of different ways. It may illustrate how each piece of project contributed to the whole
in term of performance responsibility, budget and schedule. It may list the vendors or sub
contractors associated with specific tasks. It may be used t document that all parties have signed
off on their various commitments to the project. It may note detailed specification for any work
package, establish account number, specify hardware/software to be used and identify resource
needs. It may serve as the basis for making cost estimates or estimates of task duration.

Q. No. 04
At what stage of project life cycle the project manager should be appointed. Should the
project manager be given training inside or outside the organization and should he be
trained with respect to several project management functions or for specific function.
Explain with the help of example?

Project Life Cycle

THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE REFERS TO A LOGICAL SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES


TO ACCOMPLISH THE PROJECT’S GOALS OR OBJECTIVES.

Regardless of scope or complexity, any project goes through a series of stages during its life.
There is first an Initiation or Birth phase, in which the outputs and critical success factors are
defined, followed by a Planning phase, characterized by breaking down the project into smaller
parts/tasks, an Execution phase, in which the project plan is executed, and lastly a Closure or
Exit phase, that marks the completion of the project.
Project activities must be grouped into phases because by doing so, the project manager and the
core team can efficiently plan and organize resources for each activity, and also objectively
measure achievement of goals and justify their decisions to move ahead, correct, or terminate. It
is of great importance to organize project phases into industry-specific project cycles. Why? Not
only because each industry sector involves specific requirements, tasks, and procedures when it
comes to projects, but also because different industry sectors have different needs for life cycle
management methodology. And paying close attention to such details is the difference between
doing things well and excelling as project managers.

Initiation
In this first stage, the scope of the project is defined along with the approach to be taken to
deliver the desired outputs. The project manager is appointed and in turn, he selects the team
members based on their skills and experience. The most common tools or methodologies used in
the initiation stage are Project Charter, Business Plan, Project Framework (or Overview),
Business Case Justification, and Milestones reviews.

Project initiation activities


Planning

The second phase should include a detailed identification and assignment of each task until the
end of the project. It should also include a risk analysis and a definition of criteria for the
successful completion of each deliverable. The governance process is defined, stake holders
identified and reporting frequency and channels agreed. The most common tools or
methodologies used in the planning stage are Business Plan and Milestones Reviews.

Project planning activities

Execution and Controlling

The most important issue in this phase is to ensure project activities are properly executed and
controlled. During the execution phase, the planned solution is implemented to solve the problem
specified in the project's requirements. In product and system development, a design resulting in a
specific set of product requirements is created. This convergence is measured by prototypes,
testing, and reviews. As the execution phase progresses, groups across the organization become
more deeply involved in planning for the final testing, production, and support. The most
common tools or methodologies used in the execution phase are an update of Risk Analysis and
Score Cards, in addition to Business Plan and Milestones Reviews.

Project management execution activities

Closure
In this last stage, the project manager must ensure that the project is brought to its proper
completion. The closure phase is characterized by a written formal project review report
containing the following components: a formal acceptance of the final product by the client,
Weighted Critical Measurements (matching the initial requirements specified by the client with
the final delivered product), rewarding the team, a list of lessons learned, releasing project
resources, and a formal project closure notification to higher management. No special tool or
methodology is needed during the closure phase.

Project closure activities

PROJECT MANAGER SELECTION

Selection of the Project Manager is one the most important decision concerning the project

At Planning, Scheduling, Monitoring & Control stage of project life cycle Project Manager
should be appointed in order to successful execution and completion of the project within
stipulated cost and time. If Project Manager appoints on later stages this will result in delay in
project execution and completion and ultimately the cost of the project will increase.

 A P.M. should posses most popular attributes, skills and qualities


 A strong technical background
 A hard-nosed manager
 A mature individual
 Currently available
 Having good terms with senior executives
 Having good relations with project team
 Having diversified work experience with several departments.
 Having greater flexibility

THE PROJECT MANAGER SHOULD BE TRAINED WITH RESPECT TO


SEVERAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

A Project Manager should be trained with respect to several project management functions

He should be well-trained in Scope management, Time management, Communication.


management, Human Resource management. Quality management. Procurement management,
Risk management. & Cost management.

For Example

If a P.M. is trained within project organization dealing with manufacturing of cement industry
machinery, he would be incapable to manage a project in textile industry

He should be trained in project management functions enabling him to manage any type of a
project. A PM is a “Generalist” rather than a “Specialist”, therefore, he should be trained in all
project mgt. functions instead of training him for specific functions.

Training of Project Manager

A PROJET MANGER should be given “on the job training” as well as he should be
given outside the organization training to improve his weak skills in specific areas. The
Training of the Project Manger is very key for successful and execution and completion
of the project. The Project Manger should be trained in various fields of the Project
Management in order to execute the project successfully.

Q. No. 05

The role conflict, communication problem, lack of team definition, members commitment
and senior management support are the among the key barriers that hinders the effective
team building process. What approaches can be helpful to cope with these barriers. Assume
any practical situation.

How Successful Manager Resolves Conflict:

Although each project within the company may be inherently different, the company may wish to
have resulting conflicts resolved in same manner.
The four most common methods are:

Conflict Resolution

The development of company wide conflict resolution policies and procedures results have
shown that this method is doomed to failure because each project is different and not all conflicts
can be handed the same way. Further more Project Manager prefers to resolve conflicts in their
own fashion. In order to eradicate problems of conflicts among team members, conflicts should
be explicitly discussed between affected parties and should be resolved using conflict resolution
techniques.

The establishment of project conflict resolution procedures during the early planning activities is
very useful for resolving conflicts. Each project manger can develop his own policies, rule and
procedures in planning.

Communication Problems

Communication between the team members may lead to misleading and consequently objectives
of teams may not be successfully achieved. Effective communication plan should be implemented
by Project Manger to provide guidelines for team members for effective communication.
Effective communication between the members of the project will result the successful execution
and completion of the project.

Importance of Communication

Time and time again in post-project assessments, project teams list communication as one of the
most needed areas for improvement. Many times on troubled projects, project team members feel
that if the communication had been better, the project would have run smoother.

Communication not only keeps everyone up-to-date on the project progress, but also facilitates
buy-in and ownership of major project decisions and milestones. To ensure the success of a
project much information, including expectations, goals, needs, resources, status reports, budgets
and purchase requests, needs to be communicated on a regular basis to all the major
stakeholders.

Project communication can often be more difficult due to challenges unique to project
management. Many projects are short-term, and therefore project communication is temporary.
This means that communications systems need to be established quickly in shorter periods of
time. It is just as important to develop a communication plan for the project as it is to develop
task planning.

Another challenge is that projects often include cross-functional or inter-organizational teams.


Project teams are not normally natural teams and sometimes do not even reside in the same
geographic location. Unique delivery methods and communication devices need to be utilized to
overcome this challenge. But, it is possible to quickly implement effective communications that
reach all affected parties, no matter how complicated or diverse your project team may be.

It is understood that better communication facilitates the success of a project, but how do you
overcome obstacles and get better at communication? We have found one very successful tool to
improve communication:

Lack of Team
Definition of team and importance of team spirit must be clearly defined and conveyed to each
team member. A successful Project Manager should seek support of senior management to keep
the project on track and to acquire resources timely.
Build Team Dynamics
In addition to the benefits of having highly motivated individuals on your project team, there is an
additional opportunity for increased team motivation and productivity. When building the project
team, make sure people are committed to working hard for the team to succeed. Job satisfaction
and career growth are often important goals for project team members. Find out what each team
member win conditions are, and try to make these part of the project goals. When you are able to
get your project staff to work well together towards a challenging goal a real team may emerge.
When a team gels, it can go way beyond a mere group of people. Team synergy transcends the
mundane. It is supercharged. Not only does this produce high performance for the project, it also
provides a genuinely satisfying human experience for the team members. Creating an
environment in which such a team can gel is one of the ultimate goals of the Project Manager.

If a project manager has a good team they can execute and complete the project effectively and
efficiently. Project team is the key for the success of the project so defining the team is very
important for the success of the project.

For Example:

Running a Five Star hotel a Project Manger should focus on conflict resolution,
communication, team building and relationship with top management.