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Sommario

197 Andreas Janke, John Nádas


New Insights into the Florentine Transmission of the Songs of Antonio Zacara
da Teramo

215 Mikhail Lopatin


Echoes of the Caccia? Canonic Openings in Early Quattrocento Italian Motets
and their Historical Models

263 Bonnie J. Blackburn


Theorists as Primedonne: Reviewing Music Theory in the Early Cinquecento

283 Nicolò Maccavino


Forme oratoriali a Caltagirone nel XVIII secolo
Echoes of the Caccia? Canonic Openings in Early Quattrocento Italian Motets
and their Historical Models*
Mikhail Lopatin

In the caccia manner?

Since Margaret Bent’s groundbreaking study of the Italian motet, which was deliv-
ered at a conference in 1984, but whose proceedings were published only in 1992,1
some structural peculiarities of the genre — such as the cadential disposition of

* This paper has grown from research that I conducted at Villa I Tatti (The Harvard University
Center for Italian Renaissance Studies, Florence, Italy) in September-December 2014, while being
a Mellon Visiting Fellow there. I would like to express my deep gratitude to Prof. Susan Forscher
Weiss for being a constant source of inspiration, and for sharing with me her insights and inter-
pretations on many occasions throughout my stay at I Tatti. I thank Kathryn Bosi for her unceas-
ing help and assistance at the Berenson Library. I am truly indebted to Dr Margaret Bent and Prof.
Elizabeth Eva Leach for reading and reviewing a preliminary draft of this paper — their sugges-
tions helped me tremendously in sharpening my arguments and revising my prose. The main
points of this paper were discussed at the Medieval and Renaissance music conference in Brussels
in July 2015. I thank Dr Jason Stoessel for inviting me to participate in one of the sessions organ-
ized by him and Dr Dennis Collins, that were focused on canons and canonic techniques. Finally, I
am grateful to Prof. Michael Scott Cuthbert for his enduring support over the past few years.
1 Margaret Bent, The Fourteenth-Century Italian Motet, in L’Ars nova italiana del Trecento, vi.
Atti del congresso internazionale «L’Europa e la musica del Trecento» (Certaldo, 19-21 luglio
1984), a c. di Giulio Cattin e Patrizia Dalla Vecchia, Certaldo, Polis, 1992, pp. 85-125.
2 Ivi, pp. 104-106. The idea that the Italian motet and the caccia are interrelated is testified by the so-

215
mikhail lopatin

voices, chant-free accompanimental tenor, and the effect of canonic techniques —


have always been considered as closely linked to the older caccia repertoire.2 In
particular, the last of those aspects (canonic techniques) received considerable
attention in contributions both pre- and post-dating Bent’s analysis. Characteristic
canonic openings of the Italian motet have prompted some scholars to use stylisti-
cally colored descriptions, in which they were regarded as ‘caccia-like’: either writ-
ten in a ‘caccia manner’ (or style),3 or showing clear signs of ‘caccia influence’,4 or,
at the very least, ‘recalling the caccia’.5 This tendency is manifest in Robert
Nosow’s generic designation ‘Equal discantus [motet] / Caccia’, which he applies,
interestingly, to the only piece from his list — the motet Furnis reliquisti/Equum est
— written not by a native Italian composer, but by an oltremontano Egardus
(Johannes Ecghaerd).6 On the other hand, an alternative term ‘echo imitation’ (or
canon) has been in use since Bobby Wayne Cox’s dissertation7 (mostly alongside

called Capitulum treatise written in the mid-Trecento, which indicates that «cacie (sive incalci) a sim-
ili per omnia formantur ut motteti». For the critical edition and extensive philological discussion of
the treatise, see Thorsten Burkard-Oliver Huck, «Voces applicatae verbis». Ein musikologischer
und poetologischer Traktat aus dem 14. Jahrhundert, «Acta musicologica», lxxiv/1, 2002, pp. 1-34.
3 When summarizing the main features of the Italian motet (after Bent), Annette Kreutziger-
Herr mentions «caccia-artigen Imitationen», see Annette Kreutziger-Herr, Johannes Cico-
nia (ca. 1370-1412): Komponieren in einer Kultur des Wortes, Hamburg, Verlag der Musikalienhand-
lung Karl Dieter Wagner, 1991 (“Hamburger Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft”, 39), p. 134. Jane
Alden writes that «this style of dialogue [in canonic openings] is also found in Italian caccias»,
see Jane Alden, Text/Music Design in Ciconia’s Ceremonial Motets, in Johannes Ciconia, musicien de
la transition, ed. by Philippe Vendrix, Turnhout, Brepols, 2003, pp. 39-64: 46.
4 See Bobby Wayne Cox, The motets of MS Bologna, Civico Museo Bibliografico Musicale, Q 15,
PhD diss., North Texas State University, 1977, vol. i, p. 122 («the influence of the caccia is evident
[in Ciconia’s O felix templum]»), p. 212 («the first duet [in Rondelly’s Verbum tuum/In cruce te prov-
idens] is a canon with caccia influence») etc.
5 See Julie Cummings, The Motet in the Age of Du Fay, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,
1999, p. 80: «Dominicus a dono [by Cristoforus de Monte] begins with a two-voice imitative
opening that may recall the Italian caccia». It should be noted, however, that the opening from
Cristoforus’ motet differs from the examples discussed in my paper. Therefore, my conclusions
do not contradict Cumming’s view, which actually seems justified in this particular case.
6 Robert Nosow, The Florid and Equal-Discantus Motet Styles of Fifteenth-Century Italy, PhD diss.,
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1992, p. 308 (an explanation of the term) and p. 325
(where Egardus’ motet is listed). On the identification of Egardus, see Reinhard Strohm, Magister
Egardus and other Italo-Flemish contacts, in L’Ars nova italiana del Trecento, vi, cit., pp. 41-68.
7 See Cox, The motets of MS Bologna cit., vol. i, pp. 87-88, 111, 122 etc.

216
echoes of the caccia?

the kind of stylistic labeling mentioned above); this stylistically neutral designa-
tion seems to be preferred now, at least in some of the most recent publications,
including Bent’s fundamental facsimile edition of Q15.8
The shortcomings of the former approach are rather clear: the caccia’s direct
influence on canonic openings in motets was assumed on the basis of the simple
equation between canonic techniques of the two, yet no specific evidence of this
similarity has ever been provided.9 It failed to recognize that the canonic technique
alone is insufficient for drawing analogies, which should rely at least on other musi-
cal/textual factors as well. On the other hand, the term ‘echo imitation’, cleaned
from any stylistic allusions and, evidently, less ‘perilous’, seems to discourage any
search for putative historical models of this particular type of canonic writing,
whereas this search might be fruitful in recognizing the genesis of this complex
and certainly multi-faceted genre.
This introduction brings me, therefore, to the main aim of this article, which is,
firstly, to provide an in-depth analysis of canonic openings in some Italian motets
and outline their melodic, harmonic, contrapuntal and structural peculiarities,
and, secondly, building on this knowledge, to explore earlier repertoires, searching
for close correspondences in other canonic (but not necessarily canonic!) open-
ings. By (re)examining and (re)evaluating these historical links, I wish to demon-
strate that, at least to some extent, canonic motet openings were topical in the

8 See her description of Italian motets in Margaret Bent, Bologna Q15: The Making and Remak-
ing of a Musical Manuscript, 2 vols., Lucca, LIM, 2008, vol. 1, p. 210ff., as well as her earlier analysis
of Ciconia’s motets in The Works of Johannes Ciconia, ed. by Margaret Bent and Anne Hallmark,
Monaco, Éditions de l’Oiseau-Lyre, 1985 (“Polyphonic Music of the Fourteenth Century” [here-
after PMFC], 24), pp. xii-xiii and 205ff. The same preference is clear in Cumming, The Motet in
the Age of Du Fay cit. (see, for example, her Table 4.2 on pp. 72-73), and Steffen Seiferling, O
felix templum jubila: Musik, Text und Zeremoniell in den Motetten Johannes Ciconias, Berlin, Mensch &
Buch Verlag, 2004 (“Musikwissenschaft an der Technischen Universität Berlin”, 3), p. 101ff.
9 While the Capitulum treatise does indeed provide some evidence in favor of the caccia’s depend-
ence upon the motet (or vice versa), it does not acknowledge any canonic motet openings. Moreover,
its description of a canonic technique in the caccia is at odds with notated examples (although it
might have been an older technique echoed in the written repertoire — see Mikhail Lopatin,
Canonic techniques in the caccia: compositional strategies and historical development, «Plainsong and
Medieval Music», xxiii/2, 2014, pp. 179-200). The similarities mentioned in the treatise are related
only to the texture and voice disposition in general (when one voice ascends, the other descends etc.).
10 This latter piece is transmitted in a Veneto Liber cantus, see a facsimile edition, commentaries
and transcription in Margaret Bent-Robert Klugseder, A Veneto Liber cantus (c. 1440):

217
mikhail lopatin

sense that they utilized a stock of certain musical and textual formulas of lauda-
tion, and that the characteristics of their canonic writing might be understood bet-
ter in the light of this musico-textual topos.

Canonic openings in Italian motets

A brief glance at the repertoire of Italian motets (with canonic openings) dating
from ca.1360s to ca.1430s, from the anonymous Marce, Marcum imitaris to post-
Ciconian ceremonial motets (see Appendix A), reveals a peculiar uniformity of
canonic openings in the majority of pieces (all written in bold). Column five
summarizes their main characteristics: the mode (either d or F, with only one
exception), the melodic span of cantus and tenor (if present) as defined by their
extreme notes, and, finally, the voice ranges. In all motets in bold face (10 out of
18) the melodic span of the first statement is identical — while the cantus moves
downward by a fifth (i.e., a1-d1 in mode d or c2-f1 in mode F), the tenor has a
wider octave descent (d1-d or f1-f ). The voice ranges fluctuate for the cantus
voice, where the fifth is extended (in one or both directions) either to an octave
(in five cases) or seventh (three cases); exceptionally, it is extended by one note
only (as in Ciconia’s O felix templum), or goes beyond the octave (in Antonio
Romano’s Aurea flamigeri). The tenor’s range, however, normally does not
exceed the octave — only in two pieces (Matteo da Brescia’s Ihesus postquam
monstraverat and the anonymous O Antoni expulsor demonum10) is the octave span
further extended upwards by one note.
This uniformity of melodic ductus is striking — less so in the cantus voice, which
normally has similar characteristics in other canonic compositions (e.g., in the cac-
cia and canonic madrigals), but much more in the case of freely composed tenors,
whose melodic writing is not determined and/or restricted by any prerequisites,
and whose integration into the texture (at least conceptually) comes last.11 Is it a
stereotyped incipit pattern? And if so, are we allowed to draw any analogies and par-

Fragments in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Munich and the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek Vien-
na, Wiesbaden, Reichert, 2012, p. 91 (comments), pp. 128-129 (facsimile) and pp. 154-155 (tran-
scription).
11 See Bent, The Fourteenth-Century Italian Motet cit., p. 98: the motet’s compositional type (in
Italy) is «conceived from the top parts down». This, of course, implies the conceptual, not neces-

218
echoes of the caccia?

allels to this style of melodic writing?12 Firstly, it is important to bear in mind that
what is ‘stereotyped’ in one repertoire might well be a highly unusual figure in
another — as we will see later, this melodic/contrapuntal style is encountered in just
a few examples from earlier Trecento repertoires, but these examples happen to be
crucial for our understanding of its possible origins. Secondly, the term ‘stereotype’
implies something neutral and uncharacteristic, while in fact the opposite is true
here — the sheer number of examples proves that this style was very much the crux
of the Italian motet, at least of its introductory section. With this in mind, I would
rather argue that it constitutes a certain melodic topos of introduction — i.e., stock
introductory formulas that were in use in the Italian motet from the anonymous
Marce Marcum up to the post-Ciconian generation of both Italians and oltramontani
(but not in earlier Italian motets).
Let us first take a closer look at this style of melodic writing, focusing on an
early motet that seems to have set up some basic stylistic features of the genre and
influenced the later motet tradition in Italy, particularly some of Ciconia’s pieces.
The anonymous Marce, Marcum imitaris,13 whose imitative opening has
been reconstructed through conflation of its two sources (Mac and Gr frag-

sarily the factual, order of composition (in some cases the tenor voice might well be integrated
into the texture early on).
12 The same question (in relation to the corpus of early Quattrocento parody masses) has been
posited in Michael Scott Cuthbert, Zacara’s D’Amor languire and Strategies for Borrowing in
the Early Fifteenth-Century Italian Mass, in Antonio Zacara da Teramo e il suo tempo, a c. di Francesco
Zimei, Lucca, LIM, 2004, pp. 337-357: 349-350; I fully agree that «while we must be careful not to
interpret every stereotyped gesture or motive as quotation, borrowing […] had many different
subtle and sophisticated guises» (p. 350).
13 Composed for Marco Cornaro (Doge of Venice in 1365-7). This motet had initially been attrib-
uted to Francesco Landini (Kurt von Fischer); it is listed (as Landini’s opus dubium) in the New
Grove article dedicated to the composer. Ursula Günther, however, rejected this attribution on
stylistic grounds, proposing Jacopo da Bologna as a possible candidate. See Kurt von Fischer,
Neue Quellen zur Musik des 13., 14. und 15. Jahrhunderts, «Acta musicologica», xxxvi/2, 1964, pp.
79-97: 90-92; Ursula Günther, Quelques remarques sur des feuillets récemment découverts à
Grottaferrata, in L’Ars Nova Italiana del Trecento, III. Secondo convegno internazionale 17-22 luglio
1969 sotto il patrocinio della Società internazionale di musicologia, a c. di F. Alberto Gallo, Certal-
do, Centro di studi sull’Ars Nova italiana del Trecento, 1970, pp. 315-397: 337; and Kurt von Fis-
cher-Gianluca D’Agostino, Landini, Francesco, in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and
Musicians, Second Edition, ed. by Stanley Sadie [hereafter NGD-2], vol. 14, London, Macmillan,
2001, pp. 212-221. The attribution to Jacopo, tentative as it may be, seems more convincing, con-

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mikhail lopatin

ments),14 is an extremely clear-cut example of this melodic ductus (see Ex. 1a15).
The first tenor statement of the initial melisma (see lines two and four in the exam-
ple) is a straightforward octave descent from d1 to d, which is interrupted and
slightly ornamented with a reiteration of a melodic figure c1-b-a (from meas. 2) in
meas. 3. The background dyadic counterpoint (which is shown in line five) reveals
a bipartite division of the tenor’s octave descent. Both segments — the fourth d1-a
and the fifth a-d — are articulated with directed progressions: an ouvert cadentia16
b-[flat]/g1-a/a1 (meas. 3 and 8) and a final clos cadence e/c-[sharp]1-d/d1 (meas. 5-
6 and 10-11), respectively. The second statement in the tenor (line three in the
example) deviates somewhat from this scheme, as the initial descent d1-a is replaced
with an ascent d-a; however, its second part (meas. 9-11) is an exact replica of meas.
4-6. The endings of both statements (meas. 5-6 and 10-11) are important insofar as
they introduce an emblematic sonority not only for this particular motet, but for
the later motet tradition as well— i.e., 8/12 (with the penultimate 6/10).
The dyadic contours of the initial statement reappear twice in later non-canon-
ic segments, in both cases between tenor and cantus ii (at meas. 39-42 and 51-4; see

sidering his activity in north-Italian courts and his authorship of another motet listed in Appen-
dix A — Lux purpurata / Diligite iustitiam. Stylistic links proposed below seem to strengthen this
attribution as well. See also two currently published studies of the motet — Claudia Caffagni,
Omaggio a Johannes Ciconia (ca.1370-1412). Un modello per i mottetti di Ciconia: Marce Marcum imi-
taris, «Marcianum», viii/2, 2012, pp. 479-501 (with a new edition on pp. 498-501); and Jamie
Reuland, Voicing the Doge’s Sacred Image, «The Journal of Musicology», xxxii/2, 2015, pp. 198-
245, with some important observations regarding the motet’s «musical joining of the Evangelist
[Mark] and Doge», and its political and ceremonial background.
14 Mac, fol. 2r (cantus ii only), Gr, fol. 5v-6r (see full references in Manuscript Sigla). First edition
in Günther, Quelques remarques cit., pp. 369-375. See also Italian Sacred and Ceremonial Music, ed.
by Kurt von Fischer and F. Alberto Gallo, Monaco, Éditions de l’Oiseau-Lyre, 1987 (PMFC, 13),
pp. 197-201. In both editions the motet ends on G, with a 3/6-5/8 cadence, whereas more plausible
would be an emblematic 6/10-8/12 cadence on d. Hence, in the Appendix A I indicate the mode as
d, after Bent, The Fourteenth-Century Italian Motet cit., pp. 122-123 (Table I).
15 Note that Examples 1a and 2 are analytical diagrams (not normal scores), in which lines 1-2
present the first canonic statement (Cantus i / Tenor), lines 1 and 3 — the canonic response (Can-
tus ii [=Cantus i] / Tenor), lines 4-5 — melodic and contrapuntal reductions respectively. Con-
cerning these reductions, see notes in Ex. 1a. In all examples the following abbreviations are used:
i = Cantus i, ii = Cantus ii, Ca = Cantus, Ct = Contratenor, T = Tenor.
16 The term does not necessarily imply a sense of closure, as explained in Margaret Bent,
Ciconia, Prosdocimus, and the Workings of Musical Grammar as Exemplified in O felix templum and

220
echoes of the caccia?

Ex. 1b). Both reiterations are slightly shorter than the initial melisma (only four
tempora instead of six), yet the melodic contours are easily recognizable. The tenor
line of the last statement (the textless melisma in meas. 51-4) is particularly note-
worthy, for it presents a clear-cut and unembellished octave descent which sum-
marizes two previous fragments, while the cantus ii reiterates some earlier orna-
mentations of cantus i (cf. meas. 4-5 and 40-41 — e1-f1-g1-f1; meas. 4, 5-6 and 53-4
— a1-g1-f1-e1-d1 and the cadential c1-[sharp]-d1-b-c1-[sharp]-d1). Contrapuntally
(and texturally), this last statement is, again, clearly divided into two parts by an
ouvert progression b-[flat]/d1-a/e1. These repetitions certainly increase the struc-
tural importance of the canonic opening and solidify its aural effect.17
This model of canonic introduction was presumably taken up by Ciconia in
his well-studied motet O felix templum jubila,18 composed some decades later for
Stefano Carrara, bishop of Padua in 1402-5 (see Ex. 2). Although Ciconia’s open-
ing is syllabic rather than melismatic, and melodically more complex, some fun-
damental melodic and contrapuntal features of the earlier motet are clearly per-
ceptible: the d mode, the descending motion and its span in both cantus and
tenor (a1-d1/d1-d), and even the two-part structure with an alternation of ouvert-
clos cadences: all this points either to a direct dependence of Ciconia’s motet
upon the earlier Marce, Marcum imitaris, or to the same antecedent(s) of both
motets in the earlier (Trecento) repertoire.
The opening of Ciconia’s motet is exemplary in many respects, and was certainly
highly influential for the post-Ciconian tradition; it thus deserves some analytical
comments. The complexity of Ciconia’s melodic style could be observed in the tenor
line, which is less straightforward in its octave descent (see line two in the example),
though the stepwise downward motion from d1 to d (at the background level) could
be reconstructed analytically (see line four in the example). While the first part of

O Padua, in Johannes Ciconia, musicien de la transition, ed. by Philippe Vendrix, Turnhout, Brepols,
2003, pp. 65-106: 81.
17 Jamie Reuland notices how the distance between the top voices shortens progressively with
each imitative statement (meas. 1-11, 27-31, 62-5, 73-5, 84-6 and 107-13), interpreting it as a part of a
larger musico-textual strategy of the motet, which is to present (aurally) the Doge as the Evangel-
ist Mark’s imago, see Reuland, Voicing the Doge’s Sacred Image cit., pp. 215-225, particularly her
analytical edition on pp. 218-222.
18 Transmitted in Q15 (fol. 223v-224r) and Ox213 (fol. 22v-23r). Edition in PMFC, 24, pp. 68-72.
For analysis, see Margaret Bent’s article mentioned in fn. 16 above and Seiferling’s O felix templum
jubila cit., p. 87ff.

221
mikhail lopatin

this descent (from d1 to a) is presented unambiguously in meas. 3-4, its continuation


(a-d) is somewhat obfuscated within the first tenor statement (g-a-e-d instead of g-
f-e-d in meas. 6-8). The tenor voice then goes back to d1 (meas. 9-10) but at the
beginning of the second phrase leaps back again to d (meas. 10-11, see line three).
The second phrase is directed backwards, from d to d1, ascending first to a, as in the
anonymous Marce, Marcum imitaris (meas. 11-15, note the inversion of the original
d1-c1-b in meas. 1319), and later to d1 (15-17), and concluding with a reiteration of the
cadence from meas. 9-10 (in 18-19). This cadential ascent (a-b-c1-[sharp]-d1), more-
over, mirrors the beginning of phrase I (meas. 2-3), which stays outside the schema
outlined above — in all three cases (meas. 2-3, 9-10 and 18-19 — see bracketed sec-
tions in the example) tenor and cantus converge in the ‘madrigalian’ unison cadence
(3-1: c1-[sharp]/e1-d1/d1), which thus demarcates the beginning, middle, and end of
the opening canonic section.
Apart from the unison cadences described above, the dyadic background
reveals other ‘directed progressions’:20 an already familiar ouvert formula b-
[flat]/d1-a/e1 is encountered at meas. 3-4 (with a prolongation at meas. 4-6),
followed by a widely spaced (and typical for the Italian motet) cadentia e/g1-
[sharp]-d/a1 at meas. 7-8. Although in total each phrase includes four caden-
tie, their internal structure would be better explained as being essentially
bipartite due to the text underlay (O felix templum jubila / et chors tua canoni-
ci), rhythmic profile (see clear stops on perfect breves at meas. 6 and 10), and

19 It is fruitful to compare parallel statements in Ciconia’s motets — at a micro-level of 1-2 tempo-


ra they often happen to be consciously related with each other, showing many contrapuntal mod-
ifications of and deviations from the original model. This micro-variation technique is presented,
for instance, in some motets with the double statement tenor structure (Albane misse celitus /
Albane doctor maxime), as well as in the motet of Ciconia with tenor diminutions, Petrum Marcello
venetum / O Petre antistes inclite (see a striking retrograde transformation in meas. 18-21 and 74-77).
These and other examples provide substantial evidence of Ciconia’s interest in structural plan-
ning and certainly justifies Pedro Memelsdorff’s view of Ciconia’s motets as «hyperorganized»,
see Pedro Memelsdorff, Motti a motti: Reflections on a Motet Intabulation of the Early Quattro-
cento, «Recercare», x, 1998, pp. 39-68: 49-50, fn. 42.
20 My counterpoint analysis is largely dependent on the methodology proposed by Margaret
Bent. On the directed progression, see Sarah Fuller, Tendencies and Resolutions: The Directed
Progression in «Ars Nova» music, «Journal of Music Theory», xxxvi/2, 1992, pp. 229-258. See also
links below (fns. 22 and 30).

222
echoes of the caccia?

the same bipartite division of the tenor’s octave descent (d1-a/a-d) as in


Marce, Marcum imitaris.21
It is no exaggeration to claim that the opening of Ciconia’s O felix templum jubi-
la is representative of the whole Italian motet tradition and is an ideal starting
point for my own discussion, since it reflects the earlier exemplars, shows many
similarities with the opening gestures of other Ciconia motets (see lines 2-5 in Ex.
3, with similar tenor openings from O Padua sidus preclarum; O virum omnimoda /
O lux et decus / O beate Nicholae; Albane misse celitus / Albane doctor maxime and O
proles Hispanie), and influences the post-Ciconian generation of musicians; it also
accumulates many characteristic features (e.g., the voice ranges, the bipartite
structure of the opening, the dyadic background and the alternation of ouvert-clos
cadences, descending vs. ascending motion in the tenor in phrases I/II, etc.) that
might be dispersed and blurred in other examples.
Another feature of this opening (but not of the whole motet) — the one that
further encourages my search for historical models — is its seemingly archaic (or
deliberately archaizing?) contrapuntal style. Although it has been shown in Mar-
garet Bent’s analysis of the motet, that Ciconia’s background counterpoint (i.e.,
counterpoint ‘in the proper or strict sense’ according to Prosdocimus) could be
reduced to normative progressions22 — for instance, in meas. 3-4: 1-3-3-5 instead
of 1-3-5-5, with parallel fifths at the surface level — the sole presence of such
ambiguous passages is telling. The parallel statement in meas. 12-13 is even more

21 Steffen Seiferling argues for a symmetrical division of both phrases (1-5/6-10 and 10-14/15-19),
noting a similar rhythmic structure of the two halves (see his O felix templum jubila, p. 102 — note
that his meas. 15-20 must be a misprint for 15-19); this is contradicted both by the text underlay
(as he himself admits later) and cadential structure.
22 See her analytical examples 4-5 — Bent, Ciconia, Prosdocimus, and the Workings of Musical
Grammar cit., pp. 89-91. Bent based her analyses on the premise that the background counter-
point is essentially dyadic and is governed by various rules and prohibitions, as explained by many
contemporary theorists (the prohibition of parallel perfect intervals being one of those rules).
These analytical «preconditions» have been expressed most clearly in Ead., The Grammar of Early
Music: Preconditions for Analysis, in Tonal Structures in Early Music, ed. by Cristle Collins Judd, New
York and London, Garland, 1998, pp. 15-59. In the following analysis, which is based on the same
foundations, I do not intend to contradict Bent’s view, but rather to apply those rules less rigidly
(and, perhaps, less systematically) in order to reveal ambiguous, and potentially «exceptional»,
progressions that do not strictly adhere to the «norms» expressed by, say, Prosdocimus (whether
the norms themselves are all-embracing is another issue, which lies beyond the scope of this arti-
cle — suffice it to say for the moment, that Trecento polyphony, particularly the early madrigal

223
mikhail lopatin

perplexing. Bent interprets this progression as 6-6-3-5 (g/e1-a/f1-b-flat/d1-a/e1


at the background level23), thus considering first beats as mere appoggiaturas
leading to the structurally more important second beats, although the progres-
sion unequivocally sounds as 5-5-5/3-5, i.e., a series of barely concealed parallel
fifths. Bent’s reading implies Ciconia’s intention to ‘reharmonise’ the passage
and redefine the ‘harmonic’ notes of the melody,24 since in the first statement
(meas. 3-4) structurally important intervals are initially provided by the first
beats (d1/d1-c1/e1), yet the question remains to what extent this procedure and
the whole concept of ‘reharmonisation’ is our own interpretation, albeit one
based on some contemporary evidence.25
In this regard it is interesting to note that the contemporary theoretical
evidence would rather preclude us from considering the second note in three-
note figurations as contrapuntally important: according to the Mittelton-Dis-
sonanz rule, it is usually the first and the last note that are consonant with the
given tenor, while the middle note may become dissonant (hence, ‘non-har-
monic').26 One of the few contemporary Italian theorists that do discuss the
florid counterpoint — Antonio de Leno — provides clear instructions of this
procedure while examining contraponto de iii note per una:27

repertoire, seems to provide many exceptional cases in terms of the dyadic counterpoint, which
may indicate a different contrapuntal practice). See also fn. 30 below.
23 Bent, Ciconia, Prosdocimus, and the Workings of Musical Grammar cit., p. 91 (Example 5).
24 Bent compares this to later practices of reharmonisation (private communication, 10 May, 2015).
25 Bent herself acknowledges this and notes that «sometimes there are alternative possibilities
for the contrapuntal reduction. […] Just as a literary text may lend itself to different readings and
indeed to ambiguity, the composer may have contrived the piece in such a way that more than one
understanding is possible, as are still more ways of projecting those readings» ( Bent, Ciconia,
Prosdocimus, and the Workings of Musical Grammar cit., p. 91).
26 See Klaus-Jürgen Sachs, Der Contrapunctus im 14. und 15. Jahrhundert, Wiesbaden, Steiner,
1974, p. 141.
27 Antonio de Leno, Regulae de contrapunto, ed. by Albert Seay, Colorado Springs, Colorado
College Music Press, 1977, p. 19. This passage has also been cited and discussed (with a slightly dif-
ferent reading, which I adopt here) in Sachs, Der Contrapunctus cit., p. 141 and Id., Die Contra-
punctus-Lehre im 14. und 15. Jahrhundert, in Die mittelalterliche Lehre von der Mehrstimmigkeit, hrsg.
von Frieder Zaminer, Darmstadt, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1984 (“Geschichte der
Musiktheorie”, 5), pp. 161-256: 243. Translation is mine.

224
echoes of the caccia?

Volendole far de iii, fa sempre che de Wishing to make [counterpoint] in


esse iii la prima e la ultima nota di con- three [notes against one], always make
traponto siano bone, e anche tute iii; se it in such a way that from these three
poy caso che non potesse far bona the first and the last notes of the coun-
quella de mezo, non monta niente, pur terpoint are good [i.e., consonant with
che le altre siano bone. the given note in the tenor], and also
all three [if possible]. If then you could
not make consonant the one in the
middle, it does not matter, as long as
other notes are consonant.

To this theoretical evidence some practical examples could be added. Thus, the
same triplet figurations as in O felix templum are encountered in at least two other
compositions written by Ciconia, both in close temporal proximity to the motet,
and both — most importantly — madrigals (see Ex. 4).
These madrigals (Una panthera and Per quella strada lactea28), apparently
written just a couple of years before the motet (1399/140129), provide enough
context for the motet passage under examination. In terms of contrapuntal writ-
ing, they mostly conform to Antonio de Leno’s rule (the first and the last notes of
a triplet figuration are consonant, the middle one might be dissonant), with one
important exception concerning figurations starting with a sixth and going
downwards to a dissonant fourth (6-5-4), or, conversely, those starting with a
dissonant fourth and going upwards to a sixth (4-5-6). In these ‘exceptional’
cases it is the sixth (i.e., either the first or the last note) that define the back-
ground counterpoint. Apart from these exceptions, there is only one passage
where an appoggiatura on the first beat leads to a structurally important second
note (Una panthera, m. 39, see the bracketed section).
All this point to a certain ambivalence of Ciconia’s passage at meas. 12-13 and
raises another question of how do we interpret a (potential) series of parallel

28 See edition in PMFC, 24, pp. 123-129.


29 For a revised dating (and reading) of Una panthera, see John Nádas-Agostino Ziino, The
Lucca Codex. Codice Mancini. Lucca, Archivio di Stato, ms 184. Perugia, Biblioteca comunale Augusta,
ms 3065. Introductory Study and Facsimile Edition, Lucca, LIM, 1990 (“Ars Nova”, 1), pp. 42-43; Per
quella strada lactea has been dated 1401 in Anne Hallmark, Protector, imo verus pater: Francesco
Zabarella’s Patronage of Johannes Ciconia, in Music and Renaissance Cities and Courts: Studies in
Honor of Lewis Lockwood, ed. by Jessie Ann Owens and Anthony M. Cummings, Warren, MI, Har-
monie Park Press, 1997, pp. 153-168: 165.

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mikhail lopatin

fifths at the background level: was it Ciconia’s deliberate intention to break the
generally accepted rule, or rather an ‘echo’ of certain earlier practices (or earlier
contrapuntal languages), which were not governed by those rules?30 I would sug-
gest the latter — namely, that such progressions are archaic in a sense that they
occur rarely in Ciconia’s pieces, but are often used (with similar ‘surface’ orna-
mentations that conceal parallelisms of perfect consonances) in pieces written
some 30-50 years before Ciconia — for instance, in the anonymous Marce Mar-
cum (cf. Ex. 1a, meas. 3 and 4-5, with clearly audible parallel fifths in the former
and parallel octaves in the latter case). As will be shown later, this harmonic style
is characteristic also for the earlier madrigal/caccia repertoire.
The ‘madrigalian’ unison cadence (3-1) used by Ciconia is another feature
that seems to recall earlier madrigals (but not cacce).31 The threefold repetition
of this cadence in the opening is symptomatic, as it happens to contradict the
emblematic 6/10-8/12 cadence characteristic of Italian motets and cacce. For
now, it suffices to say, that Ciconia’s O felix templum — with all its archaizing and
forward-looking features — is without doubt the best possible guide in the
search for the motet’s putative historical antecedents that I aim to undertake.

30 The same question (regarding certain contrapuntal licences) has been posited both by Mar-
garet Bent and Elizabeth Eva Leach. Thus, Bent writes that «just as the basic grammar of an
ancient language can be reconstructed from elementary and insufficient manuals and vocabulary
and then amplified on the basis of literary usage, so with music; principles drawn in common
from music and theory can be tested on composed music, refined and extended, gradually codify-
ing irregular general usages and idiosyncratic or personal idioms» ( Bent, The Grammar of Early Music
cit., pp. 27-28; emphasis mine); Leach provides a similar response to this question: «the difficulty
of constructing a theoretically correct contrapuntal background could point to a number of
things: a manuscript error, incompetence or a compositional error, or to a deliberate compositional
effect wrought by breaking with received practice» (Elizabeth Eva Leach, Counterpoint and Analysis
in Fourteenth-Century Song, «Journal of Music Theory», xliv/1, 2000, pp. 45-79: 57; emphasis
mine). Most recently, however, Felix Diergarten has expressed some skepticism on universal
applicability of the contrapunctus (as a set of rules and prescriptions) to all fourteenth-century
songs, noting that some exceptional cases might hint at a different contrapuntal language, see his
Beyond contrapunctus: On a hypothesis by Hugo Riemann and Klaus-Jürgen Sachs, paper read at the
Medieval and Renaissance Music Conference, Brussels, July 2015.
31 When describing the madrigal, the anonymous author of the so-called Vercelli treatise indi-
cates this as an important generic feature: «et debe finire in una voce» [and it has to end on a uni-
son], see Anna Cornagliotti-Maria Caraci Vela, Un inedito trattato musicale del Medioevo:
Vercelli, Biblioteca Agnesiana, cod. 11, Firenze, SISMEL, 1998, p. 90.

226
echoes of the caccia?

The uniformity and consistency of the tradition itself are hardly surprising.
The poetic style of these introductions is no less formulaic and consists of a few
recognizable elements: e.g., a direct invocation of a dedicatee, often in the voca-
tive case (Marce; O Padua; Venecie / Michael; O virum omnimoda / O lux et decus /
O beate Nicholae; Albane; etc.), and the use of second person singular thereafter,
sometimes in the imperative mood (Marcum imitaris; Italie cum sis decor, in te
viget omnis livor; supplicum vota suscipe, etc.). Whether we agree or not that Cico-
nia’s motets might be linked with the great rhetorical tradition of Antiquity and
its revival in Paduan humanistic circles,32 whether we believe or not that their
openings might be viewed as the rhetorical exordium, or even as salutatio (an ini-
tial part from the art of medieval letter-writing, ars dictaminis33), it is clear that
they reveal a certain textual (and not only musical) topos as well. In searching for
models, therefore, we should bear in mind this particular mode of musical and
textual expression.

Models — the French motet, the caccia, the madrigal?

In searching for Ciconia’s putative models we should first take a brief look at the
French motet repertoire, particularly the pieces transmitted in Italian sources of
the period. Appendix B comprises French motets with canonic introductions.
They range from the Ars nova and Ars subtilior periods (including Philippe de
Vitry’s Petre clemens / Lugentium and the widely transmitted Royllart’s Rex Karole
/ Leticie, among a few other pieces) to the ones written by oltramontani who

32 On humanistic influence, see Willem Elders, Humanism and Early-Renaissance Music: A


Study of Ceremonial Music by Ciconia and Dufay, «Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor Nederlandse
Muziekgeschiedenis», xxvii/2, 1977, pp. 65-101. There is now the abundant literature on Ciconia
and his Veneto connections, I will list only a few contributions: Hallmark, Protector, imo verus
pater cit.; Margaret Bent, Music and the Early Veneto Humanists: Italian Lecture, «Proceedings
from the British Academy», CI, 1998, pp. 101-130; Jason Stoessel, Music and Moral Philosophy in
Early Fifteenth-Century Padua, in Identity and Locality in Early European Music, ed. by Jason Stoessel,
Farnham, Ashgate, 2009, pp. 107-127; Id., Con lagreme bagnandome el viso: Mourning and Music
in Late Medieval Padua, «Plainsong and Medieval Music», xxiv/1, 2015, pp. 71-89. I thank Dr Jason
Stoessel for sending me the proofs of this last article prior to publication.
33 This link has been proposed in Robert Nosow, Ritual Meanings in the Fifteenth-Century Motet,
Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2012, pp. 84-85.

227
mikhail lopatin

stayed in Italy mostly after Ciconia’s death in 1412. This chronological span is
thus roughly similar to the Italian tradition outlined in Appendix A.
While it is true that some earlier French motets must have been well known
to Italian musicians, and that these two traditions coexisted and interacted, at
least in the manuscript transmission (whose ‘snapshot’ in Italy is presented, for
instance, in gathering 19 of SL34), this repertoire, nevertheless, seems to be a
poor hunting ground for the canonic procedures outlined above. In the earlier
pieces canonic openings are generally shorter (and therefore structurally sim-
pler), the cantus line would descend by an octave rather than a fifth (in Rex Karole
/ Leticie), and, most importantly, the tenor voice (even when present) shows no
signs of any downward motion, let alone the octave descent. For the most part,
the later pieces (transmitted primarily in Q15 and Ox) reveal a different attitude
towards canonic openings as well: these are predominantly unaccompanied (i.e.,
tenor-less) canonic duos, often canons proper of a considerable length, with no
effect of Italianate echo-imitation. A few examples, however, stand out as being
closer to the Italian ‘standards’ (see motets in bold face in the Appendix B) —
these pieces (all undoubtedly post-Ciconian and presumably written in Italy)
demonstrate how the Italian tradition of canonic writing was recognized and
adopted by oltremontani of the early Quattrocento, but they certainly cannot
reveal anything about the origins of the tradition itself and its earlier models.
The indigenous caccia repertoire, with its melismatic accompanied openings,
seems more appropriate for this search — and yet, no piece provides an exact
match in terms of structural planning and melodic / contrapuntal ductus.
Regarding the latter, the beginning of the Ritornello from State su, donne! written
by Nicolò del Preposto35 seems to be close, but it lacks the bipartite structure

34 On gathering structure and contents of the palimpsest SL, see two classical studies: Frank A.
D’Accone, Una nuova fonte dell’Ars Nova italiana: Il codice di San Lorenzo 2211, «Studi musicali»,
xiii, 1984, pp. 3-31, and John Nádas, Manuscript San Lorenzo 2211: Some Further Observations, in
L’Ars Nova italiana del Trecento, vi cit., pp. 145-168. See also Id., The Lucca Codex and San Lorenzo
2211: Native and Foreign Songs in Early Quattrocento Florence, paper read at the American Musico-
logical Society Annual Meeting, Austin, Texas, October 1989. The facsimile edition of the source,
which will include new observations and identifications made by John Nádas and Andreas Janke,
is forthcoming.
35 See a complete edition of Nicolò’s works in PMFC, 8, p. 101ff. Two other complete editions of
his works were included in PhD theses of Stephen K. Kelly and, most recently, Antonio Calvia; see

228
echoes of the caccia?

noted in the previous examples, and its tenor line, although based on the same
octave descent d1-d, looks rather angular and unsophisticated as compared to
Marce Marcum, and particularly to Ciconia’s O felix templum. On the contrary, an
initial phrase from Zacara’s Cacciando per gustar / Ay cinci ay toppi36 has a lot in
common with Ciconia’s example in terms of its musical and poetical structure
(Ex. 5): both examples present two phrases (in Zacara’s caccia there is also the
beginning of a third phrase), whose endings are marked by ouvert/clos cadences
(see meas. 11-13 and 21-2 in Zacara’s piece — the clos cadence is very weak
though); furthermore, in both cases the initial musical phrase is slightly longer
then the subsequent one (13/10 tempora in Zacara, 6/4 in Ciconia). However,
Zacara’s melodic writing and its rhythmic profile is dramatically different, most-
ly due to the restrictions imposed by the quaternaria division. The ranges are sig-
nificantly wider in both voices of the caccia (a full octave c2-c1 in the Cantus i,
and a ninth e1-d in the Tenor – cf. Ciconia’s ranges indicated in Appendix A).
Considering that Ciconia must have met Zacara during his Roman years in
the 1390s,37 and that Zacara’s Cacciando per gustar / Ay cinci ay toppi presum-
ably belongs to the same Roman period when Ciconia’s motets begin to emerge
(among them, O virum omnimoda with a similar canonic introduction)38, con-
sidering also the transmission of this caccia alongside Marce Marcum and two
other motets in the Egidi fragment, — again, a seemingly Roman source39 — it

Stephen K. Kelly, The Works of Niccolò da Perugia, PhD diss., The Ohio State University, 1974,
vol. 2, and Antonio Calvia, Ballate, madrigali e cacce intonati da Nicolò del Preposto: studio ed edi-
zione critica commentata dei testi e delle musiche, Tesi di dottorato, Università degli studi di Siena,
2012, pp. 101-275 (texts) and pp. 277-567 (music).
36 Edition in PMFC, 10, pp. 117-123, and in Fourteenth-Century Italian Cacce, ed. by Thomas W. Mar-
rocco, Second Edition, Cambridge, Mass., The Mediaeval Academy of America, 1961, pp. 6-14.
37 On Ciconia’s Roman period, see Giuliano Di Bacco-John Nádas, Verso uno «stile inter-
nazionale» della musica nelle cappelle papali e cardinalizie durante il Grande Scisma (1378-1417): il caso
di Johannes Ciconia da Liège, in Collectanea i, ed. by Adalbert Roth, Città del Vaticano, Biblioteca
Apostolica Vaticana, 1994 (“Capellae apostolicae sixtinaeque collectanea acta monumenta”, 3),
pp. 7-74; and Id., The Papal Chapels and Italian Sources of Polyphony during the Great Schism, in Papal
Music and Musicians in Late Medieval and Renaissance Rome, ed. by Richard Sherr, Oxford, Claren-
don Press, 1998, pp. 44-91.
38 See a linguistic analysis of Zacara’s caccia in Ivi, pp. 65-67. Ciconia’s motet O virum omnimoda
has been associated with the installation of a new Bishop of Trani in 1393 and the 300th anniver-
sary of St Nicholas of Trani in 1394, see Ivi, p. 56 and PMFC, 24, p. xiii.
39 Di Bacco-Nádas, The Papal Chapels and Italian Sources of Polyphony cit., p. 69.

229
mikhail lopatin

is tempting to assume its possible influence on Ciconia’s musical language.


What makes me reluctant to jump to conclusions, however, is not only the
melodic style, but also the textual topoi of Zacara’s caccia (a hunt, which then
transforms into a market scene), that are characteristic for this particular
genre, but have little to do with the purpose and tone of the Italian motet. It is
rather difficult to presume that in this particular case Ciconia would recycle an
opening with an Italian text that speaks of hunting and marketing in the con-
text of a laudatory piece in Latin.
This reservation casts some doubts on the idea of any direct dependence of one
genre upon the other, and the idea of ‘caccia-like’ motet openings in particular.
While in early Quattrocento Italy examples of interaction between genres of differ-
ent languages and registers abound,40 the motet and the caccia seem not to intersect
either linguistically or conceptually; their openings do not intersect melodically and
contrapuntally as well. In this regard it seems significant that the period of the
motet’s flourishing (Ciconia and the post-Ciconian generation) coincides with that
of the caccia’s decay. If Ciconia was modeling his motet openings on the caccia, then
why did he not write any cacce, and why are his own canonic compositions patently
non-caccia-like? Even the aformentioned Zacara example (perhaps, the last rem-
nant and an ‘offshoot’ of the repertoire) is exceptional and innovative in so many
regards, that it could hardly have belonged to any ‘tradition’. It seems that by the
1390s there was no practical interest in the caccia, and, therefore, its influence could
have been only cicumstantial and indirect (at least, in these years), via other genres.
With this in mind, we finally approach another indigenous repertoire, which is
closely related to the caccia, yet offers a wider range of topics and techniques, and
which experienced the true revival in Ciconia’s years — the madrigal. It is here that
we find a more substantial corpus of pieces, whose openings resemble the motet’s

40 There is, of course, a sizable repertoire of the early Quattrocento Italian parody masses (obviously,
written in Latin) that recycle Italian-texted ballate. Kurt von Fischer was the first to draw attention to
this repertoire, see Kurt von Fischer, Kontrafakturen und Parodien italienischer Werke des Trecento
und frühen Quattrocento, «Annales musicologiques», V, 1957, pp. 43-59; see also Cuthbert, Zacara’s
D’Amor languire cit. The literature on bilinguismo in Italian Tre- and Quattrocento is vast. I will only
mention Pedro Memelsdorff’s important study of equivocus, which aims to bridge some north-Italian
and French practices, and show their transnational scope — Pedro Memelsdorff, Equivocus. Per
una nuova lettura del rapporto testo-musica nel Trecento italiano, in L’Ars Nova italiana del Trecento, vii.
«Dolci e nuove note»: atti del quinto convegno internazionale in ricordo di Federico Ghisi (1901-
1975), Certaldo, 17-18 dicembre 2005, a c. di Francesco Zimei, Lucca, LIM, 2009, pp. 143-187.

230
echoes of the caccia?

musico-textual topos described above (see Appendices C- i/ii). What follows are
brief comments on those pieces that I consider crucial in understanding and
reevaluating the putative historical origins of canonic motet openings.

O felix templum jubila / Per quella strada lactea / Inperiale sedendo

Following this path, we should take Ciconia’s own madrigals Per quella strada lactea
and Una panthera as a point of departure, since, as has already been shown above,
they reveal the rhythmic and melodic ductus that Ciconia would recycle slightly later
in his O felix templum jubila (see Ex. 4). Moreover, in the former madrigal, as well as
in the motet, this style of melismatic writing goes hand in hand with pro-Carrarese
laudatory rhetoric in general, and with the Carrara heraldic and astrological sign —
plaustrum, il carro (the oxcart) — in particular.
I refer to the madrigal’s melisma at meas. 50-7 (note particularly its rhythmic
profile and the tenor ductus), and a syllabic passage afterwards, at meas. 60-64
(see voice ranges). Both passages set the second line of the strophe, which in both
terzine invokes the Carrara heraldic symbol — the burning oxcart (un carro
abrasato) that goes upwards (vien su montando) towards angels singing:

Vedeva un carro andar tutto abrasato //


El carro triumphal vien su montando.

In the motet O felix templum jubila, written shortly after 1401, Ciconia celebrates
Stefano Carrara’s investiture as the bishop of Padua, elaborating the same lauda-
tory topos and employing, as it were, some common poetic motives and strate-
gies, of which I will only mention two: firstly, the words plaustriger illustrissime
(the most illustrious bearer of the oxcart) hint again at Carrara heraldry and the
zodiacal asterism associated with the family; secondly, the commonplace motif
of laudatory rhetoric — Qui <…> de summo missus cardine (he who has been sent
from on high41) — might be seen as a reflection (or even inversion) of the madri-
gal’s image of the oxcart that goes instead upwards, to the heavens.
41 I adopt Michael J. Connolly’s translation from PMFC, 24 , but with some revisions proposed in
Leofranc Holford-Strevens, The Latin Poetry of Johannes Ciconia and “Guilhermus”, in “Qui
musicam in se habet”: Essays in honor of Alejandro Planchart, ed. by S. Boorman and A. Zayaruznaya,

231
mikhail lopatin

This pro-Carrarese rhetoric is strengthened by Ciconia’s decision to use various


portions of the opening melisma in the main body of the motet. For instance, he
reuses a characteristic cadential formula from the melisma (meas. 8-10) later at
meas. 48-50 (imitated at 50-52), and at 52-4 (a shortened variant in both voices, again
in imitation), thus emphasizing the dedicatee’s invocation — Stephane, o plaustriger
illustrissime (O Stefano, the most illustrious bearer of the oxcart)42 — and reinforc-
ing the links between the madrigal Per quella strada lactea and the later motet. Both
pieces thus reveal common textual strategies expressed by common musical means.
Ciconia’s Per quella strada lactea leads us to further examples of this musico-tex-
tual topos, for it is closely related to another madrigal — Bartolino’s (?) Inperiale
sedendo — composed for the same celebration of Francesco Novello’s investiture as
the captain-general of the Imperial army,43 and textually built around the same poet-
ic motives. Although it is unclear who wrote this madrigal — Bartolino’s authorship
has been doubted on grounds of both musical style and manuscript transmission44
— it is more important for the present study that the madrigal came from the Padu-
an orbit and was written by a composer (be it Bartolino or not) who should have been
closely related to Johannes Ciconia and his circle. In the following analytical com-
ments I still presume this piece to be written by Bartolino, rather than a mysterious
‘Dactalus de Padua’ (attribution in ModA), although this question is far from settled.

American Institute of Musicology (forthcoming), pp. 439-472: 441-443. I thank Leofranc Holford-
Strevens for allowing me to read the proofs of his article prior to publication.
42 Jason Stoessel notes that this parallelism may indicate an intended sense of affinity between
canonici in the opening melisma and Stephane, their new bishop; see Jason Stoessel, Music,
Imagination and Place in Late Medieval Music at Padua, paper read at the 32nd National Conference
of the Musicological Society of Australia, September 2009.
43 Pierluigi Petrobelli, Some dates for Bartolino da Padova, in Studies in Music History: Essays
for Oliver Strunk, ed. by Harold Powers, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1968, pp. 85-112:
94-100. Sarah M. Carleton’s earlier dating (1376-1388) is based on the madrigal’s textual resem-
blance to Caronelli’s treatise De curru carrariensi written in 1376. Even supposing it were true,
there is still little evidence to reject the later dating. In fact, Carleton herself admits at one point
that the terminus ante quem might be as late as 1405. See Sarah M. Carleton, Heraldry in the Tre-
cento Madrigal, PhD diss., University of Toronto, 2009, pp. 184-197.
44 See David Fallows, Ciconia’s Last Songs and Their Milieu, in Johannes Ciconia: musicien de la
transition cit, pp. 107-130: 120. Recently, this question has been examined in Signe Rotter-Bro-
man, Komponieren in Italien um 1400: Studien zu dreistimmig Liedsätzen von Andrea und Paolo da
Firenze, Bartolino da Padova, Antonio Zacara da Teramo und Johannes Ciconia, Hildesheim et al.,
Olms, 2012 (“Musica mensurabilis”, 6), pp. 310-313, but no definitive answer emerged.

232
echoes of the caccia?

Unsurprisingly, Bartolino’s piece employs much the same musico-textual strate-


gies as Ciconia’s madrigal (Per quella strada lactea) and motet (O felix templum jubi-
la), but this time in the opening melisma from the ritornello (see the cantus/tenor
duet in Ex. 6a45). The senaria perfecta division with some triplets in the cantus part; a
characteristic downward motion in both contrapuntally essential voices (by an
octave in the tenor and by a fifth in the cantus); a clear bipartite contrapuntal struc-
ture with the alternation of ouvert and clos cadences (see meas. 97-8 and 101-2, and
the contrapuntal background in Ex. 6a); finally, the d mode — all these features
define Bartolino’s opening melisma as much as Ciconia’s canonic opening from his
motet. Both musicians seem to intend this kind of melismatic writing as a musical
equivalent to the formal laudation expressed in the text.
Bartolino’s madrigal mirrors some textual strategies from Ciconia’s pieces,
too. It has already been noted that Per quella strada lactea employs the image of
the oxcart going upwards, towards the heavens. Bartolino’s madrigal is built
around the same motives and symbols, but it works contrariwise, opening at the
highest point, and proceeding downwards in its subsequent lines:

Inperiale sedendo fra più stelle,


dal ciel discese un carro d’onor degno,
sott’un signor d’ogn’altro via benegno <…>

This textual correlation is obvious, and it leaves no doubt that the two pieces
were interrelated and composed for the same historical event. It has been
hypothesized, that yet another piece — Ciconia’s celebratory motet O Padua,
sidus preclarum — might have belonged to the same ceremony.46 This seems
important, as it provides some presumable social context and hints at political
and social situations where the motet and the madrigal could have been related

45 Unfortunately, Marrocco’s transcription in PMFC, 9, pp. 25-27 is unreliable. I base the following
analysis, as well as my Ex. 6a, on a 3-voice transcription (from Lu) offered in Rotter-Broman,
Komponieren in Italien cit., pp. 434-436.
46 This hypothesis is based on an astrological reading of the motet’s text. See Jason Stoessel, A
Wain, Arthur, and Scipio’s Triumph: The Last Carraresi and Humanist Music in Early Fifteenth-Century
Padua, paper read at the Medieval and Renaissance Music Conference, Bangor University, July 2008,
and Id., Arms, A Saint, and Inperial sedendo fra più stelle: The Illuminator of ModA, «The Journal of
Musicology», xxxi/1, 2014, pp. 1-42.

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mikhail lopatin

to each other and performed side by side. It seems now that this historical event
in 1401 could have provided an impetus for Ciconia’s later recycling of the same
textual and musical topoi in his O felix templum jubila, composed for one of the
Carraras just a few years later.
All the laudatory pieces considered above, however, must have been influ-
enced by a still older laudatory tradition. That this musico-textual topos formed
well before Ciconia’s time is attested, for instance, by the anonymous motet
Marce, Marcum imitaris, whose canonic opening was certainly one of Ciconia’s
inspirations. There might have been other sources of influence, though.
In this regard it is worth remembering that Marce, Marcum imitaris was
attributed to Jacopo da Bologna, who himself composed at least two motets and
was certainly one of the progenitors of this sub-genre, and who also was the key
figure for some antiquarian tendencies of the late Trecento and early Quattro-
cento.47 Considering all this, it would be logical to assume that we might find
more examples of this musical topos in his works — surprisingly, though, in his
madrigals, rather than motets.

Aquila altera / Creatura gentile / Uccel di Dio

Jacopo’s polytextual madrigal opens with a melisma that closely resembles the
melodic and contrapuntal ductus analyzed above in relation to later madrigals
and motets (see Ex. 7). It is noteworthy that the madrigal starts with a canonic
imitation — not at all a stereotyped beginning for a three-voice madrigal. There

47 On antiquarian tastes of some early Quattrocento musicians (with a focus on Paolo’s madri-
gals and his Jacopo models) see John Nádas, Song Collections in Late-Medieval Florence, in
Trasmissione e recezione delle forme di cultura musicale. Atti del xiv congresso della società inter-
nazionale di musicologia, Bologna, 27 agosto-1 settembre 1987; Ferrara-Parma, 30 agosto 1987, a c.
di Angelo Pompilio, Lorenzo Bianconi, Donatella Restani e F. Alberto Gallo, Torino, EDT, 1990,
pp. 126-135: 131-133 (see also discussions on pp. 135-137). This idea has been elaborated further in
relation to late Trecento madrigals in Rotter-Broman, Komponieren in Italien cit., p. 282ff., par-
ticularly on pp. 285-293; and in relation to Landini’s madrigals in Pedro Memelsdorff, La
«tibia» di Apollo, i modelli di Jacopo e l’eloquenza landiniana, in Col dolce suon che da te piove: Studi su
Francesco Landini e la musica del suo tempo. In memoria di Nino Pirrotta, a c. di Antonio Delfino e
Maria Teresa Rosa Barezzani, Florence, SISMEL, 1999, pp. 241-257. It becomes clear from all these
contributions, that in this process of historical reception Jacopo’s role was crucial.

234
echoes of the caccia?

is in fact nothing stereotypical in this composition, whose textual and musical


complexity has been (and is being) revealed in a growing number of recent stud-
ies.48 For now, I will only mention three important points here.
Firstly, not only is this one of the very few Trecento madrigals with multiple
texts — it is also, in a way, a multi-generic composition which combines and
elaborates characteristic features of at least three different genera — the madri-
gal (poetic form), the motet (polytextuality and presumably political content, of
which more below), and the caccia. The latter genre could be revealed not so
much in the canonic opening (again, I insist that this style is not at all ‘caccia-
like’), as in the musical style of what follows. Particularly telling is the sectional
musical structure, with ‘caccia-like’ cadential overlapping between different
phrases of Cantus I and II (see Ex. 8 which provides a comparison of Aquila altera,
Jacopo’s caccia Per sparverare and his canonic madrigal Oselletto selvagio). This
stylistic similarity would explain why Jacopo’s madrigal occupies an initial open-
ing in the caccia gathering in FP.
All three texts seem to be politically charged. There have been many debates
on what these texts signify and what they allude to. Now it seems clear that they
all concentrate on the eagle (Aquila altera / Creatura gentile / Uccel di Dio), whose
description, as has been shown by Maria Caraci Vela, is interwoven with many
intertextual allusions to Dante’s Commedia, pointing neither to Giangaleazzo
Visconti’s heraldry, nor to the ordinary eagle from medieval Bestiaries, but
rather to the imperial symbol and authority.49
Finally, it is important for our own study, that Jacopo’s madrigal enjoyed a
rather widespread manuscript transmission — it was copied in both Florentine
(FP, Sq, SL) and north-Italian (Lu, Fa) manuscripts, including one intabulation (in
Fa). Although composed in the mid-Trecento (i.e., some 30-50 years before Cico-
nia’s motets, but probably contemporaneously with Marce Marcum), it must have
been known and sung in the late Trecento and early Quattrocento. Simone Pro-

48 I will only mention here three studies that were most relevant for the present contribution:
Elena Abramov-van Rijk, The Madrigal Aquil’altera by Jacopo da Bologna and Intertextual Rela-
tionships in the Musical Repertory of the Italian Trecento, «Early Music History», xxviii, 2009, pp. 1-
37; Maria Caraci Vela, Per una nuova lettura del madrigale Aquila altera / Creatura gentile /
Uccel di Dio di Jacopo da Bologna, «Philomusica online», xiii, 2014, pp. 1-58; and Memelsdorff,
La «tibia» di Apollo, i modelli di Jacopo e l’eloquenza landiniana cit.
49 See Caraci Vela, Per una nuova lettura cit., p. 21ff., particularly her conclusions on pp. 33-35.

235
mikhail lopatin

denzani’s famous Il Saporetto, written in the 1410s, provides at least some indirect
evidence of the popularity enjoyed by Jacopo da Bologna in the early Quattrocen-
to.50 Regarding Jacopo’s madrigal Non al suo amante, he noted in Sonnet 48:
«Quive cantaro Non a suo amante / Che ben che sia antico è molto buono». Aquila
altera is mentioned in Sonnet 25, along with other pieces including Bartolino’s
Inperiale sedendo — «Una arpa fo adducta assai reale / Ove Solaço fe La dolce çera, /
Ucel di Dio con Aquila altera, / Verde buschetto et puoi Imperiale <…>».
Hence, we may safely assume that Jacopo’s piece was rather popular in the
early Quattrocento and must have been known by musicians, including Ciconia.
Its elevated politically-charged tone, as well as its generic hybridity, make it a
suitable candidate for later emulations and the intergeneric translation to the
motet repertory.

Aquila altera / Inperiale sedendo

It is generally accepted that Bartolino’s musical style was influenced by that of his
predecessor, Jacopo da Bologna.51 Moreover, the text of Jacopo’s Aquila altera has
been shown to influence another Bartolino madrigal — Se premio di virtù.52 I
would argue that Jacopo’s madrigal might be linked to Inperiale sedendo, too. To
start with, both pieces are written in the d mode and have a very similar cadential
system. In both pieces the final unison cadence in the strophe and ritornello is
anticipated by an octave ascent in the tenor (d-d1), though this might be regarded
as a madrigal cliché. The mensural structure of both pieces is based on the same
alternation of octonaria (in the strophe) and senaria perfecta (in the ritornello)
divisions, which is presented in a more complex way (o-sp-o-sp in the strophe, sp-
q in the Ritornello) in the later madrigal. Perhaps more revealing is Inperiale’s sur-
prisingly austere (or should we consider it deliberately archaizing?) harmonic

50 John Nádas argues that Simone Prodenzani might have derived his musical citations from the
repertoire to which he had access in written form, he thus questions the credibility of informa-
tion provided in Il Saporetto, see John Nádas, A cautious reading of Simone Prodenzani’s «Il Saporet-
to», «Recercare», x, 1998, pp. 23-38.
51 See, for example, Kurt von Fischer-Gianluca D’Agostino, Bartolino da Padova, in
NGD-2, vol.2, pp. 820-822.
52 Abramov-van Rijk, The Madrigal Aquil’altera cit., pp. 30-34.

236
echoes of the caccia?

style. Even the structural duo Cantus-Tenor provides many examples of parallel
fifths and octaves (!), often presented unambiguously (see meas. 14-6, 39-40, 86-7,
94-6, and particularly meas. 101-4). Passages such as the last one (meas. 101-4)
seem completely out-of-date for a piece written at the beginning of the Quattro-
cento (perhaps for this reason it was misinterpreted in Marrocco’s edition). Inter-
estingly, this passage is a continuation of the opening melisma, whose structure
and melodic ductus resemble both Jacopo’s Aquila altera and Ciconia’s O felix tem-
plum (meas. 94-102).
The melisma itself (see Ex. 6a), although written in senaria perfecta
(instead of Jacopo’s octonaria) division, resembles the beginning of Aquila
altera, in that it also starts with the figure a1-b1-a1-g1 which is then elaborated
sequentially (a1-g1-f1 / g1-f1-e1 / f1-e1-d1), and has a rather unornamented
descending tenor line.
Apart from the musical similarities described above, the two pieces have sim-
ilar transmission patterns. Bartolino’s madrigal survives in six sources: PR, Pit,
Lu, Sq, ModA and Fa;53 three of them (north-Italian Lu and Fa, and Florentine Sq)
contain both pieces. Of all these, Fa stands out as being the only source which
alternates Jacopo’s and Bartolino’s pieces,54 and in which Aquila altera and Inpe-
riale sedendo are copied successively. Although ‘it remains unclear if any order
was meant in the placing of the madrigals’ (Memelsdorff ),55 I would not rule out
the possibility that scribe D might have had certain stylistic (or simply melodic)
criteria in mind while structuring the section.
Finally, these madrigals seem related as far as their textual strategies are
concerned. Both allude to imperial authority — in fact, they open with an
invocation of imperial symbols (the eagle) and stature: Aquila altera ferma in
su la vetta; Inperiale sedendo fra piú stelle. Both focus on ‘highness’ in their
description — thus, in Jacopo’s piece the eagle is praised for his admirable
ability to look at the Sun, and all epithets in the description imply the high-
ness and the upwardness of this gesture:

53 Contratenor in Lu only; in PR, Pit, Sq and ModA it is transmitted as a 2-voice piece, Fa presents
a 2-voice intabulation.
54 Gatherings viii-ix, fol. 68r-79r, scribe D. See a detailed codicological analysis of the manu-
script in Pedro Memelsdorff, The Codex Faenza 117. Instrumental Polyphony in Late Medieval
Italy, 2 vols., Lucca, LIM, 2012, vol. 1.
55 Ivi, p. 127.

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mikhail lopatin

Aquila altera ferma in su la vetta


dell’alta mente <…> //
Creatura gentile, animal degno,
salire in alto e rimirar nel sole <…>

It is also important to bear in mind that Inperiale’s ritornello is peculiar insofar as it


reuses and elaborates earlier melismas from the strophe. In fact, the major part of
the second section is nothing else than direct quotations from or allusions to the
first part.56 In particular, the ritornello’s opening melisma in senaria perfecta is
anticipated in the strophe at meas. 62-7 (cf. particularly tenor at meas. 64-7), where
another initial melisma is set on the word sotto (see the cantus/tenor pair in Ex.
6b). Interestingly, when the ritornello restates this melisma, it now sets the words
Nel meço [un saracin con l’ale d’oro] — i.e., in both cases it accentuates the spatial
characteristics described above, the downward motion of the madrigal’s descrip-
tion. Could this have been an intentional borrowing from Jacopo that puns on the
spatial reversal from height to things that lie below (sotto), or in the middle (nel
meço)? Could this spatial reversal, in turn, explain the melisma’s mensural shift
from octonaria in Aquila altera to senaria perfecta in Inperiale, as well as its structural
transposition to the ritornello? All answers will remain hypothetical and tentative,
as we do not know much about Bartolino (if it was he who wrote this madrigal). At
least, this kind of sophisticated intertextuality between the two pieces, which
involves musico-textual strategies and spatial characteristics, is not completely
unthinkable in the repertoire of the period; and it certainly comes as no surprise
that Johannes Ciconia would be the right person to take this even further and elab-
orate on Jacopo/Bartolino’s musico-textual topoi.57

56 Cf. meas. 94-102 and 62-67; 104-106/123-127 and 46-48; 119-121 and 79-81; and, finally, 131-133
and 5-6/13-14 (note that in the last case the exact repetition occurs in Sq and Pit, but not in PR, Lu
and ModA).
57 See, for instance, those studies that reveal a sophisticated intertextuality within the French/Ital-
ian Ars subtilior repertoire in general and in Ciconia’s works in particular: Anne Stone, A Singer at
the Fountain: Homage and Irony in Ciconia’s «Sus une fontayne», «Music & Letters», lxxxii/3, 2001,
pp. 361-390; Yolanda Plumley, Ciconia’s Sus une fontayne and the Legacy of Philipoctus de Caserta,
in Johannes Ciconia, musicien de la transition cit., p. 9-29; Ead., Citation and Allusion in the Late Ars
Nova: The Case of Esperance and the En attendant Songs, «Early Music History», xviii, 1999, pp. 287-
363 etc. A very detailed examination of the concept and its ramifications in various medieval and
Renaissance repertoires has been undertaken in Maria Caraci Vela, La filologia musicale. Isti-
tuzioni, storia, strumenti critici, vol. 2 (Approfondimenti), Lucca, LIM, 2009, Cap. iv (pp. 117-173).

238
echoes of the caccia?

Aquila altera / O felix templum jubila

Jacopo’s opening melisma in Aquila altera, although it does not have the same
structural and cadential characteristics, nor sets the pro-Carrarese rhetoric of
Bartolino’s and Ciconia’s pieces, seems extremely relevant for Ciconia’s opening
melisma for other reasons. Already Nino Pirrotta, in his classic three-part study
of Lu written together with Ettore Li Gotti, noticed a certain similarity between
the opening melismas of Jacopo’s Aquila altera and Ciconia’s O felix templum,
although he did not go any further.58 What is important to bear in mind is that,
unlike Inperiale sedendo, both melismas have a canonic answer in Cantus ii.
Although Jacopo does not use the effect of an ‘echo imitation’, and his canonic
writing is freer in general, the way he handles the voices resembles Ciconia’s
approach: for instance, in both melismas the descending tenor line of the first
segment (d1-d — meas. 1-7 in Aquila altera) is then reversed in the second (d-d1—
meas. 7-13).59 The harmonic style of both melismas seem surprisingly close, too.
In this regard Jacopo’s opening has its closest counterpart in the anonymous (or
possibly Jacopo’s) Marce Marcum. In the case of Ciconia’s motet this style (with
its extensive use of barely concealed perfect consonances in parallel motion)
seems outdated, or rather deliberately antiquarian, though we cannot be sure
which model might have inspired him. To this we must add the unison cadentie,
which Ciconia uses throughout the opening melisma, and later on the words
Stephane, o plaustriger illustrissime, and elsewhere — this clearly ‘madrigalian’
idiom is used extensively in Aquila altera (see, for instance, the cadential progres-
sions in the cantus I and tenor at meas. 48-9 and 80-81).
There are other factors that contribute to Jacopo’s relevance for Ciconia’s
motets, and for the tradition of the Italian motet in general. As has been noted
above, Aquila altera has some ‘motet-like’ features: polytextuality and politically
charged poetic content. What makes it look even more like the motet (and less
like the caccia) is the way this piece is transmitted in the manuscripts — its lay-

58 Nino Pirrotta-Ettore Li Gotti, Il codice di Lucca: iii. Il repertorio musicale, «Musica


Disciplina», v, 1951, pp. 115-142: 127, fn. 39.
59 In the case of Jacopo’s madrigal, this reversal might have had a textual impulse, for this
«upwardness» and moral height are clearly accentuated at meas. 7-13 in all three voices (ferma in
su / animal degno / insegna di giustizia), and particularly later, at meas. 17-21 (salire in alto). Ciconia
replicates this melodic idea in his motet without any textual stimulus.

239
mikhail lopatin

out. Unlike cacce, Aquila altera is presented in four out of five sources (Fa is an
obvious exception) with Cantus i and Tenor occupying the upper and lower parts
of the verso side respectively, and Cantus ii (Contra) written separately on the
facing recto — exactly in the same way as, for instance, Ciconia’s motets are
transmitted in Q15. It is not just a matter of presenting the musical text — this
mis-en-page reveals the inner structure of the piece, the way the voices interact
with each other. It emphasizes an important textural idea that Aquila altera
shares with many motets: the (potential) equality of the upper voices (but not
their synonymity, as in the caccia), their ‘essentially imitative’60 (but not
mechanically repetitive) structure.
To sum up so far, Jacopo’s piece seems to set all the key musico-textual ele-
ments of the topos that we find later in Bartolino’s madrigal Inperiale sedendo,
Ciconia’s madrigal Per quella strada lactea, and his motet O felix templum: the ele-
vated laudatory tone, political content, the focus on things ‘high’, celestial, and
truly essential, and the specific style of melismatic writing that accompanies this
poetic discourse. Moreover, with Jacopo this tradition has been located from the
very beginning in the northern Italian regions — from Lombardy to the Veneto
and Venice. Later examples of the same kind (Ciconia’s and post-Ciconian Ital-
ian motets) prove to originate mostly in these northern areas.
Taking all these analytical, historical and geographical considerations into
account, I am inclined to reevaluate and somewhat diminish the role that the cac-
cia might have played in the formation of opening motet melismas. These seem
rather to originate in a no less venerated tradition of the laudatory/heraldic
madrigal, being not only a part of a certain musico-textual laudatory topos, but
also of what might be called the ‘regional style’ of the north-Italian area.
This brings me to the final part of my article.

Laudatory topos and regional style: other examples and some preliminary conclusions

If my assumptions are correct and the motet’s canonic openings constitute a part
of the same laudatory/honorific strategy as expressed in the text, and these were
shaped under a direct influence from the earlier laudatory/heraldic madrigal,

60 Memelsdorff, Motti a motti cit., p. 53 and fn. 48.

240
echoes of the caccia?

then it should not be very difficult to find some other examples — perhaps less
rigid and focused in their melodic/contrapuntal ductus — that could serve to sup-
port this hypothesis (see Appendix C-iii).
Let us consider first the anonymous three-voice madrigal La nobil scala,
most probably written for Cansignorio della Scala, who ruled Verona from 1359
to 1375.61 Its opening melisma (see Ex. 9), which accompanies a textual refer-
ence to la scala (the ladder — the most important heraldic sign of the
Scaligeri), reveals some melodic, harmonic and contrapuntal features outlined
above: the two-part structure and its characteristic cadential system
(ouvert/clos cadences, see meas. 1-5 and 6-9), and the rhythmic profile of the
top voice (note the use of triplets, as in later pieces by Bartolino and Ciconia).
The use of short melodic imitations between Cantus and Contratenor (like
those at meas. 10-14 and 22-6) recalls earlier examples, too. These musical sim-
ilarities are blurred, however, by the tenor voice, whose range and melodic duc-
tus does not conform to the model. Nevertheless, given Jacopo’s ties with
Verona and its Lord Mastino ii della Scala, this might be another piece influ-
enced by Jacopo’s laudatory topos (if not the one actually written by Jacopo62).
Another honorific piece influenced by Jacopo is transmitted in a recently
described fragment from the private library of Michele Manganelli — it is the
anonymous madrigal Prudenza superna, which was probably composed with-
in Visconti dominions to praise the wedding of Galeazzo Visconti and Bianca
di Savoia (the sister of Amedeo vi).63 As has been noted by Marco Gozzi, the
style of this madrigal recalls some mature compositions of Jacopo da Bologna,

61 Unicum in PR. Edition in PMFC, 8, pp. 49-52; The Music of Fourteenth-Century Italy, vol. ii:
Maestro Piero, Codex Vatican Rossi 215, Anonymous Madrigals and Cacce from other Manuscripts, ed.
by Nino Pirrotta, Rome, American Institute of Musicology, 1960 (“Corpus Mensurabilis Musi-
cae” [hereafter CMM], 8), pp. 53-56; and Nigel Wilkins, A Madrigal in Praise of the Della Scala
Family, «Revue belge de Musicologie / Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Muziekwetenschap», xix/1,
1965, pp. 82-88: 83-87. Dating and the dedicatee are proposed by Pirrotta in CMM, 8, vol. ii, p. ii.
62 The attribution proposed in Wilkins, A Madrigal in Praise of the Della Scala Family cit., p. 88.
63 The fragment is presented in Marco Gozzi-Michele Manganelli, Un nuovo frammento
italiano del Trecento: il manoscritto M 50 della biblioteca Michele Manganelli, in Beyond 50 years of Ars
Nova studies at Certaldo (1959-2009): atti del convegno internazionale di studi, Certaldo, 12-14
giugno 2009, a c. di Marco Gozzi, Agostino Ziino and Francesco Zimei, Lucca, LIM, 2014 (L’Ars
Nova italiana del Trecento, viii), pp. 183-216. See the discussion of the madrigal and its transcrip-
tion on pp. 194-198 and pp. 215-216, respectively.

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mikhail lopatin

‘particularly Aquila altera’.64 The opening melisma (Ex. 10) starts with a
melodic ornamentation similar to Aquila altera (and to some other pieces by
Jacopo, particularly Non al suo amante), Inperiale sedendo and O felix templum
(and exactly the same in terms of the melodic and rhythmic profile as in Fa’s
intabulations of the former two); it has an ouvert cadence in the middle, very
much in the style of the last two pieces; finally, the tenor line has an octave
range d-d1, and starts with a descent that may recall any piece from those
named above. The first half of the melisma is thus an extremely close match
to the Jacopo/Bartolino/Ciconia model. What it lacks though is a clear caden-
tial stop on the octave d-d1 at the end.
All these examples prove that Jacopo da Bologna was a key figure in this
process of shaping the musical topos. Returning from pieces influenced by Jacopo
to ones actually written by him, we find a few other examples that recall this
model in one way or another. The closest matches are surely Sì come al canto (the
ritornello opening, meas. 73-6) and Di novo e giunt’ un cavalier errante (the open-
ing of the second line, meas. 15-20), but there are other madrigals where this style
of melismatic writing could be revealed. While clearly present in Jacopo’s com-
positions, it is practically absent in the works of his Florentine contemporaries
and followers, including — most noticeably — Francesco Landini. Even if pres-
ent (see Appendix C-ii), they are never given a prominent position at the begin-
ning of the strophe or ritornello. It thus seems that Jacopo’s style of melismatic
writing was rather localized in the later tradition and became more influential
for north-Italian regions than, say, Florence.
Eventually this melismatic writing became an essential stylistic feature of the
repertoire praising north-Italian tyrants of the Visconti, Della Scala and Carrara
families. Presumably, by the time when Ciconia started to write his motets
(1390s), this melismatic opening might well have become more or less standard-
ized and clichéd, at least in north Italian regions. Given that by the end of the
Trecento the northern repertoire, and specifically Jacopo’s works, must have
already been exported to central Italy (and particularly to Rome65), and that in

64 Ivi, p. 198.
65 On Roman sources, which frequently show traces of this northern import, see Di Bacco-
Nádas, The Papal Chapels and Italian Sources of Polyphony during the Great Schism cit., particularly
Table 2.1 on p. 59, and the discussion of Gr and Mac (and Marce Marcum) on pp. 62-70.

242
echoes of the caccia?

the late 1390s Ciconia himself was apparently active not only in Rome, but also,
as it seems, in the northern dominions of the Visconti,66 it becomes clear in what
historical circumstances he could have been influenced first by Jacopo, and then
by the northern musico-textual laudatory topos in general. The later generation
certainly took this model directly from Ciconia, rather than from the earlier
laudatory repertoires.
I hope to have proved with this tentative historical reconstruction that the
designation ‘caccia-like’ in relation to canonic motet openings is misleading, and
that the canonic technique per se could not be sufficient for drawing analogies
and revealing the putative origins of these passages, which might be better
understood in the light of the earlier laudatory/honorific topos. This, however,
does not necessarily imply that the caccia played no role in the formation of the
Italian motet as a distinctive genre, and that, as a consequence, we should deci-
sively rule out any possibility of the caccia/motet interaction. The web of inter-
generic influences and emulations was certainly multidirectional and multi-
dimensional; it cannot be easily reduced to any single pattern. In fact, the key
example of this paper — Jacopo’s madrigal/caccia/motet Aquila altera / Creatura
gentile / Uccel di Dio — is itself an excellent representation of generic hybridity
that provides infinitely rich resources for interplay between the genres.
The motet, too, was certainly a multi-faceted genre that accumulated various
indigenous and foreign approaches and influences. While I was primarily con-
cerned with canonic motet openings, there are other types of openings, and there
are many possibilities in the main body of the motet. The story is not over with
the ‘madrigal-like’ salutatio: while unfolding, the motet reflects other traditions
and creates a multi-layered historical narrative, where the topos of laudation
becomes only a small part of a growing complex structure.

66 Assumption based on new readings of Una panthera and Le ray au soleyl; see Nádas-Ziino, The
Lucca Codex cit., pp. 42-45.

243
mikhail lopatin

MANUSCRIPT SIGLA

Ao Aosta, Seminario Maggiore, 15


BU Bologna, Biblioteca Universitaria, MS 2216
Ch Chantilly, Musée Condé, MS 564 (olim 1047)
Fa Faenza, Biblioteca Comunale, MS 117
FC Firenze, Biblioteca del Conservatorio di Musica ‘Luigi Cherubini”, Cassa
forte 74 (olim D 1175)
FP Firenze, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Panciatichiano 26
Gr Grottaferrata, Biblioteca dell’Abbazia Greca di S. Nilo, Kript. Lat. 224
Iv Ivrea, Biblioteca Capitolare, MS 115
J.II.9 Torino, Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria, MS J.II.9
Lo London, British Library, MS Additional 29987
Lo E24 London, The National Archives (olim Public Record Office), E 163/22/1/24
Lu Lucca, Archivio di Stato, MS 184 [part of Mancini Codex]
M 50 Fiesole, Biblioteca privata Michele Manganelli, MS M 50
Mac Montefiore dell’Aso, Biblioteca-Archivio di Francesco Egidi [lost]
Mo Montpellier, Faculté de Médecine, H 196
Mod A Modena, Biblioteca Estense e Universitaria, MS α.M.5.24
Mod B Modena, Biblioteca Estense e Universitaria, MS α.X.1.11
Mu München, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Mus.ms. 3224 [part of Liber cantus
from Veneto]
Munich Inc. München, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, 2 Inc. c.a. 2887-1, 2 and 3; 2 Inc. c.a.
3375d [offsets, parts of Liber cantus from Veneto]
Ox 213 Oxford, Bodleian Library, Canon. Misc. 213
Pad 1475 Padova, Biblioteca Universitaria, MS 1475 [part of Pad A]
Pad 658 Padova, Biblioteca Universitaria, MS 658 [=PadC]
Per 15755 Perugia, Biblioteca del Dottorato dell’Università degli Studi, Incunabolo inv.
15755 N.F.
Per 3065 Perugia, Biblioteca Comunale Augusta, MS 3065 [part of Mancini Codex]
Pit Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS fonds it.568
PR Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS fonds nouvelles acquisitions
françaises 6771
Q 15 Bologna, Museo Internazionale e Biblioteca della Musica, MS Q15

Siena 36 Siena, Biblioteca Comunale degl’Intronati, L.V.36

244
echoes of the caccia?

SL Firenze, Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana, Archivio Capitolare di San Lorenzo,


MS 2211
Sq Firenze, Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana, Mediceo Palatino 87
Str Strasbourg, Bibliothèque Municipale, MS 222. C.22 [lost]
Tr 87 Trento, Museo Provinciale d’Arte, Castello del Buonconsiglio, MS 1374 [87]
Tr 88 Trento, Museo Provinciale d’Arte, Castello del Buonconsiglio, MS 1375 [88]
Trém Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS fonds nouvelles acquisitions
françaises 23190
Wash Washington D.C., Library of Congress, MS M.2.1.C6a.14
Wn Wien, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Fragm. 661 [part of Liber cantus
from Veneto]

245
mikhail lopatin

Appendix

In the Appendices A-C I list pieces first by composer (in a roughly chronological order), then
alphabetically. When describing canonic openings, I use the following terms: “pseudo
imit[ation]” for an incomplete repetition of the first statement; “echo imit[ation]” for a com-
plete canonic response, but with rests in the first voice; “canonic imit[ation]” for a complete and
rigid repetition of the first statement; “canon” for entirely canonic compositions. I indicate
mode first by Introduction, and then by the ending (if different). The melodic span is defined by
the extreme notes of the first canonic statement; likewise, the voice ranges take account of the
first statement only.
I owe all information regarding dating, provenance and presumable political occasions of all
pieces to the following editions and studies:

• CMM 8, 11 and 39.

• PMFC, 1, 5-10, 13 and 24.

• JON MICHAEL ALLSEN, Style and Intertextuality in the Isorhythmic Motet, 1400-1440, PhD diss., The
University of Wisconsin, 1992.
• MARGARET BENT, Bologna Q15: The Making and Remaking of a Musical Manuscript, in 2 vols.,
Lucca, LIM, 2008.
• MARGARET BENT-ROBERT KLUGSEDER, A Veneto Liber cantus (c. 1440). Fragments in the Bayerische
Staatsbibliothek Munich and the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek Vienna, Wiesbaden, Reichert,
2012.
• MARGARET BENT, Early Papal Motets, in Papal Music and Musicians in Late Medieval and Renais-
sance Rome, ed. by Richard Sherr, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1998, pp. 5-43.
• MARGARET BENT, The Fourteenth-Century Italian Motet, in L’Ars nova italiana del Trecento, vi.
Atti del congresso internazionale «L’Europa e la musica del Trecento» (Certaldo, 19-21 luglio
1984), a c. di Giulio Cattin e Patrizia Dalla Vecchia, Certaldo, Polis, 1992, pp. 85-125.
• ANTONIO CALVIA, Ballate, madrigali e cacce intonati da Nicolò del Preposto: studio ed edizione criti-
ca commentata dei testi e delle musiche, Tesi di dottorato, Università degli studi di Siena, 2012.
• MARIA CARACI VELA, Per una nuova lettura del madrigale Aquila altera / Creatura gentile / Uccel
di Dio di Jacopo da Bologna, «Philomusica online», XIII, 2014, pp. 1-58.
• SARAH M. CARLETON, Heraldry in the Trecento Madrigal, PhD diss., University of Toronto, 2009.
• BOBBY WANE COX, The motets of MS Bologna, Civico Museo Bibliografico Musicale, Q 15, PhD
diss., North Texas State University, 1977.

246
echoes of the caccia?

• JULIE CUMMING, The Motet in the Age of Du Fay, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999.
• MICHAEL SCOTT CUTHBERT, Trecento Fragments and Polyphony Beyond the Codex, PhD diss., Har-
vard University, 2006.
• GIULIANO DI BACCO-JOHN NÁDAS, The Papal Chapels and Italian Sources of Polyphony during the
Great Schism, in Papal Music and Musicians in Late Medieval and Renaissance Rome, ed. by
Richard Sherr, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1998, pp. 44-91.
• JERRY H. ETHERIDGE, The Works of Johannes de Lymburgia, PhD diss., Indiana University, 1972.
• DAVID FALLOWS, Oxford, Bodleian Library MS Canon. Misc. 213, Chicago and London, Universi-
ty of Chicago Press, 1995 (“Late Medieval and Early Renaissance Music in Facsimile”, 1).
• Four Late Isorhythmic Motets, ed. by Jon Michael Allsen, Newton Abbot, Antico Edition, 1997.
• MARCO GOZZI-MICHELE MANGANELLI, Un nuovo frammento italiano del Trecento: il manoscritto M
50 della biblioteca Michele Manganelli, in Beyond 50 years of Ars Nova studies at Certaldo (1959-
2009): atti del convegno internazionale di studi, Certaldo, 12-14 giugno 2009, a c. di Marco
Gozzi, Agostino Ziino and Francesco Zimei, Lucca, LIM, 2014 (L’Ars Nova italiana del Trecen-
to, viii), pp. 183-216.
• URSULA GÜNTHER, Quelques remarques sur des feuillets récemment découverts à Grottaferrata, in
L’Ars Nova italiana del Trecento, iii. Secondo convegno internazionale 17-22 luglio 1969 sotto il
patrocinio della Società internazionale di musicologia, a c. di F. Alberto Gallo, Certaldo, Cen-
tro di studi sull’Ars Nova italiana del Trecento, 1970, pp. 315-397.
• Anne Hallmark, Protector, imo verus pater: Francesco Zabarella’s Patronage of Johannes Cico-
nia, in Music and Renaissance Cities and Courts: Studies in Honor of Lewis Lockwood, ed. by Jessie
Ann Owens and Anthony M. Cummings, Warren, MI, Harmonie Park Press, 1997, pp. 153-168.
• Stephen K. Kelly, The Works of Niccolò da Perugia, PhD diss., the Ohio State University, 1974.
• Karl Kügle, The Manuscript Ivrea, Biblioteca Capitolare 115: Studies in the Transmission and
Composition of Ars Nova Polyphony, Ottawa, The Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1997 (“Wis-
senschaftliche Abhandlungen/Musicological Studies”, 69).
• Pedro Memelsdorff, The Codex Faenza 117. Instrumental Polyphony in Late Medieval Italy, in
2 vols., Lucca, LIM, 2012.
• John Nádas-Agostino Ziino, The Lucca Codex. Codice Mancini. Lucca, Archivio di Stato, ms
184. Perugia, Biblioteca comunale Augusta, ms 3065. Introductory Study and Facsimile Edition,
Lucca, LIM, 1990 (“Ars Nova”, 1).
• John Nádas, Manuscript San Lorenzo 2211: Some Further Observations, in L’Ars Nova italiana
del Trecento, vi. Atti del congresso internazionale «L’Europa e la musica del Trecento»
(Certaldo, 19-21 luglio 1984), a c. di Giulio Cattin e Patrizia Dalla Vecchia, Certaldo,
Polis, 1992, pp. 145-168.

247
mikhail lopatin

• John Nádas, The Squarcialupi Codex: An Edition of Trecento Songs, ca. 1410-1415, in Il codice
Squarcialupi, MS. Mediceo Palatino 87, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana di Firenze, Studi raccolti a
c. di F. Alberto Gallo, Lucca, LIM – Firenze, Giunti Barbèra, 1992 (“Ars Nova”, 4), pp. 19-86.
• Robert Nosow, The Equal-Discantus Motet Style after Ciconia, «Musica Disciplina», xlv,
1991, pp. 221-275.
• Robert Nosow, Ritual Meanings in the Fifteenth-Century Motet, Cambridge, Cambridge
University Press, 2012.
• Robert Nosow, The Florid and Equal-Discantus Motet Styles of Fifteenth-Century Italy, PhD
diss., The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1992.
• Pierluigi Petrobelli, Some dates for Bartolino da Padova, in Studies in Music History: Essays for
Oliver Strunk, ed. by Harold Powers, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1968, pp. 85-112.
• Yolanda Plumley-Anne Stone, Codex Chantilly: Bibliothèque du Chateau de Chantilly, Ms.
564: Introduction and Facsimile, Turnhout, Brepols, 2008.
• Signe Rotter-Broman, Komponieren in Italien um 1400: Studien zu dreistimmig Liedsätzen
von Andrea und Paolo da Firenze, Bartolino da Padova, Antonio Zacara da Teramo und Johannes
Ciconia, Hildesheim et al., Olms, 2012 (“Musica mensurabilis”, 6).
• Reinhard Strohm, Magister Egardus and other Italo-Flemish contacts, in L’Ars nova italiana del
Trecento, vi. Atti del congresso internazionale «L’Europa e la musica del Trecento» (Certaldo,
19-21 luglio 1984), a c. di Giulio Cattin e Patrizia Dalla Vecchia, Certaldo, Polis, 1992, pp. 41-68.
• Nigel Wilkins, A Madrigal in Praise of the Della Scala Family, «Revue belge de Musicologie /
Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Muziekwetenschap», xix/1, 1965, pp. 82-88.
• Anna Zayaruznaya, Form and Idea in the Ars Nova Motet, PhD diss., Harvard University, 2010.

248
echoes of the caccia?

Appendix A: Canonic Openings in Italian Motets of the Trecento and Early Quattrocento

Title / Author Music Occasion / Date Canonic Mode, Text


sources opening — melodic underlay
type/length span and
voice
ranges
Lux purpurata / Pad1475; for Luchino Visconti; pseudo imit d melisma
Diligite iustitiam SL acrostic ‘Luchinus 1-4/4-6 1 1
a -d /d-d
(Jacopo) Vucecomes’
[a1-b/a-d]
Marce Marcum Mac; Gr for Marco Cornaro canonic d melisma
imitaris (anon., (Doge in 1365-67) imit a1-d1/d1-d
Jacopo?) 1-6/6-11
[a1-b/d1-
d]
O felix templum Q15; for Stefano Carrara echo imit d, ends on melisma,
(Ciconia) Ox213 (bishop of Padua in 1-10/10-19 F then syl-
1402-05) a1-d1/d1- labic
d(d1)
[b1-d1/d1-
d]
O virum omnimoda Q15; BU; for St Nicholas of echo imit F melisma,
/ O lux et decus / O Siena36 Trani / for the installa- 1-9/9-17 c2- then syl-
beate Nicholae tion of a new bishop in labic
f1/f(f1)-f
(Ciconia) Trani; 1394?
[d2-e1/f1-
f]
Aurea flamigeri Q15 for Gianfrancesco echo imit F untexted
(Antonio Romano) Gonzaga of Mantua, 1-9/10-18 c2-
before 1425
f1/f(f1)-f
[d2-c1/f1-
f]
Ducalis sedes inclita Q15; BU for Tommaso Moceni- pseudo imit F untexted
/ Stirps Mocenico go (elected Doge on (1-5/5-8) c2- (1-5), syl-
(Antonio Romano) January 7th, 1414) labic (5-8)
f1/f(f1)-f
[d2-d1/f1-
f]
Ihesus postquam Q15 Transfiguration of echo imit F untexted
monstraverat Christ 1-8/9-16 c2-f1/f1-f
(Matteo da Brescia)
[d2-d1/g1-
f]

249
mikhail lopatin

Clarus ortus / Glo- Ox213 for St George and canonic imit, F untexted
riosa mater ecclesia / Martin V; Rome, no T c2-c1/—
[Justus non con- 1421? 1-3/3-5
[c2-c1/—]
turbabitur] (Antonio (canon up to
da Cividale?) 12)
O felix flos Florentia / Q15 in praise of the canonic imit G syllabic
Gaude felix Dominice Dominican Order, a3 g1-g1/d2-
(Antonio da Cividale) Florence, and 1-4/4-7/7-10 2 2 2
d /d -d
Leonardo Dati
[g1-d1/d2-
a1/d2-a1]
Pie pater Dominice / Q15; for Dominican saints pseudo imit F syllabic
O Petre martir / O Munich Dominic, Peter mar- 1-5/5-9 c2-f1/f-f
Thoma (Antonio da Inc. tyr and Thomas
[c2-d1/c1-
Cividale) (offsets) Aquinas
f]
Strenua quem duxit / Ox213 on the marriage of canonic imit d syllabic
Gaudeat (Antonio da Giorgio Ordelaffi 1-10/10-19 1 1 1
a -d /d -d
Cividale) and Lucrezia (July
[c2-c1/d1-
3rd, 1412); date in the
d]
ms - June 8, 1423
Descendi in ortum Q15 Song of Songs 6:10, canonic imit, F melisma
(Cristoforo de 12 no T c2-c1/—
Monte?) 1-3/3-5
[c2-c1/—]
Dominicus a dono Q15 for some Dominic canonic imit, F melisma
(Cristoforo de Monte) (but not St Dominic) no T 2 1
c -c /—
1-5/5-9
[c2-c1/—]
Plaude decus / Vene- Q15 for Francesco Foscari echo imit F syllabic
tum clarissima (elected Doge on 4th 1-3/3-5 c2-f1/f-f
(Cristoforo de Monte) April 1423)
[c2-e1/c1-
f)
Caro mea vere est Q15 Alleluia verse, for echo imit F syllabic
(Pietro Rosso) Corpus Christi 1-7/7-13 c2-f1/f1-f
[d2-e1/f1-
f]
Missus est Gabriel Q15 sung during the pro- echo imit F melisma
angelus (Pietro Rosso) cession in Treviso in 1-6/6-11 c2-f1/f-f
1443, 1444 and 1447
[c2-c1/c1-
f]

250
echoes of the caccia?

Letetur plebs fidelis / Pastor Ox213 for St Barbara; echo imit G syllabic
qui revelavit (Nicolaus composed in 1-10/10-19 d2-g1/g1-g
Zacharie) Taranto ‘in a
[e2-e1/g1-g]
hurry’
O Antoni expulsor demon- Wn for St Antho- echo imit F melisma
um (anon.) ny abbot 1-8/8-15 c2-f1/f(f1)-f
[d2-d1/g1-f]

Appendix B: Canonic openings in French motets transmitted in Italian sources / in motets


written in Italy by oltremontani

Title / Author Music Occasion / Date Canonic Mode, Text


Sources opening — melodic underlay
type/length span and
voice
ranges
Petre clemens / Lugen- Iv; Trém for Pope canonic imit F syllabic
tium [lost] Clement VI; 1342 1-5/5-9 c2-f1/f-f
(Philippe de Vitry)
[c2-e1/c1-f]

Pictagore per dogmata Ch for Pope Grego- pseudo imit, F, ends on G melisma
/ O terra sancta / Rosa ry XI, 1375 no T (but c2-f1/c1-f
vernans caritatis with Ct)
[c2-d1/d1-f]
(anon.) 1-5/5-7

Rex Karole / Leticie Ch; Str for Charles V; echo imit, F syllabic
(Philippe Royllart) [lost]; 1375-6 no T c2-c1/—
Wash; SL; 1-5/6-10
[c2-c1/—]
Per15755; Lo
E24

Verbum tuum (Ron- Q15 for Easter; canonic F syllabic


delly) ca.1400? imit, no T c2-c1/—
1-5/5-9
[d2-c1/—]
Psallat chorus / Eximie Q15; SL for St Lambert, echo imita- G syllabic
pater the patron saint tion d2-
(Salinis) of Liege; text 1-11/12-22
d1/g(g1)-
from St
Nicholas motet d1[d2-
in Mo d1/g1-g]

251
mikhail lopatin

Summe summy / Q15; Tr for God / Mary; com- echo imit d melisma,
summa summy 87 posed in the 1420s 1-11/12-22 1 1 1
a -d /d -d then syl-
(Gilet Velut) labic
[b1-c1/d1-
d]
Ave virgo lux Maria / Q15 BVM canonic d untexted
[Sancta Maria] imit, no T, a1-d1/d-d
(Franchois de Gem- but with a
[c2-d1/f1-
blaco) Trompetta
d]
part
1-7/7-13
(canon up
to 43)
Apostolo glorioso / Q15 for Pandolfo canonic G untexted
Cum tua doctrina / Malatesta, bishop of imit, no T g1-d2/—
[Andreas Christi Patras; 1424 or 1426 1-4/4-7
[e2-d1/—]
famulus]
(Du Fay)

Ecclesiae militantis / Tr 87 for Eugene IV 1431-3? canonic d syllabic


Sanctorum arbitrio / imit, no T a1-a/—
Bella canunt gentes 1-4/4-7
[a1-a/—]
(Du Fay)
Elizabet Zacharie / Tr 87 for St John the Baptist; canonic G syllabic
Lingua pectus / before 1430 imit, no T d2-d1/—
Elizabet 1-4/4-7
[d2-d1/—]
(anon., Du Fay?) (canon up
to 15)

Mirandas parit ModB; a praise for Florence canonic F syllabic


(Du Fay) Tr88 imit, no T c2-f1/—
1-3/3-5
[d2-f1/—]
O gemma, lux et spe- Q15; for St Nicholas of Bari; canonic d melisma
culum / Sacer pastor Ox213 late 1420s? imit, no T a1-a/—
Barensium / [Beatus 1-5/5-9
[b1-a/—]
Nicolaus] (canon up
(Du Fay) to 24)
O sancte Sebastiane / Q15; for St Sebastian, canonic imit, d syllabic
O martyr Sebastiane Ox213 against plague; no T a1-d1/—
/ O quam mira ca.1428 or earlier 1-5/5-9 (canon
[a1-d1/—]
(Du Fay) up to 28)

252
echoes of the caccia?

Vasilissa, ergo gaude Q15; for the wedding canonic imit, d syllabic
(Du Fay) Ox213; of Cleophe Mala- no T a1-d1/—
Tr87 testa and Theo- 1-4/4-7 (canon
[a1-d1/—]
dore Paleologus up to 22)
(1420-21)
Ave gemma claritas Q15 for St Catherine echo imit F syllabic
(Hugo de Lantins) 1-8/9-16 c2-f1/f(f1)-f
[d2-d1/g1-f]

Celsa sublimatur Ox213 for St Nicholas of canonic imit, F syllabic


(Hugo de Lantins) Bari; 1424-5? no T c2-f1/—
1-4/4-7
[d2-f1/—]
Ave Maria / O Maria Q15; Tr BVM; Rome, echo imit d syllabic
(Brassart) 87 1424-6? 1-12/13-24 a1-a1/d-a with
2 1 1 penult.
[c -c /d -d]
melisma

Magne Deus poten- Q15 possibly for Pope canonic imit, F melisma
cie / Genus regale Martin V; Rome, no T f1-c2/—
esperie (Brassart) before 1425 1-4/4-7
[d2-f1/—]
Ad honorem Q15; for the Holy Trin- canonic imit, F melisma
(Grenon) Ox213 ity; Rome, 1426-7 no T c2-f1/—
1-5/5-9 (canon
[c2-c1/—]
up to 24)
Puer natus in Beth- Q15 Hymn echo imit F syllabic
leem (Lymburgia) 1-6/6-11 c2-f1/f-f
[d2-d1/b-f]
Tota pulchra (Lym- Q15 Song of Songs echo imit d, ends on G untexted
burgia) 1-11/12-22 a1-g1/d(d1)-
g
[c2-d1/d1-d]
Gaude, tu baptista Q15 for St John the canonic imit, G syllabic
Christi Baptist; ‘fuga sex no T d2-d1/—
(Benoit) temporum’; Flo- 1-4/4-7 (canon
[d2-d1/—]
rence, after 1438 up to 13)

253
mikhail lopatin

Appendix C-I: Madrigals with the same melodic ductus in opening melismas

Title / Author Music Section Mode and Voice Remarks


Sources ranges, Mensura-
tion
Aquila altera / Crea- FP, Pit, PR, Fa, strophe, open- d canonic imitation
tura gentile / Uccel Sq, SL ing melisma a1-d1 / d1-d
di Dio (Jacopo)
[b1-c1 / d1-d]
octonaria
Sì come al canto FP, PR, Lo, Sq, ritornello, d, ends on C
(Jacopo) Gr opening a1-d1 / d1-d
melisma
[a1-c1 / d1-d]
duodenaria
Nel prato pien di PR ritornello, d, ends on B canon
fiori (anon., opening a1-d1 / d1-d
Jacopo?) melisma
[b1-c1 / d1-d]
duodenaria
Faccia chi de’se’l po Pit, Sq strophe, open- d canon
(Donato) ing melisma a1-d1 / d1-d
[b1-c1 / d1-d]
octonaria
Inperiale sedendo Pit, PR, Lu, ritornello, d see transcription in
(Bartolino?) ModA, Fa, Sq opening a1-d1 / d1-d ROTTER-BROMAN,
melisma Komponieren in Ital-
[b1-c1 / d1-d]
ien, pp. 434-436
senaria perfecta
Quel sole che nutri- Sq, SL ritornello, d, ends on C T starts with a
ca (Bartolino) opening a1-d1 / a(d1)-d instead of d1
melisma
[a1-a / d1-d]
senaria perfecta

254
echoes of the caccia?

Appendix C-II: Madrigals/cacce with the same melodic ductus in penultimate melismas or
various other parts of a poetic line

Title / Author / Genre Music Section Mode and Voice Text under-
(M = madri-gal, C = sources ranges, Mensuration lay
caccia)
Di novo è giunt’un FP, Pit, strophe, 15-20 d, ends on a syllables 1-4
cavalier errante (Ja- PR, Lo, (in PMFC, 6) a1-d1 / d1-d
copo, M) Sq
[a1-a / d1-d]
octonaria
Dal cielo scese (Do- Sq, SL ritornello, 52-56 d, ends on C syllables 1-4
nato, M) a1-d1 / d1-d
[a1-b / d1-d]
senaria imperfecta
Allo spirar dell’arie Sq strophe, 49-54 d, ends on C syllables 1-6
(Gherardello, M) a1-d1 / d(d1)-d
[a1-c1 / d1-d]
duodenaria
Una colonba (Gher- Sq strophe, 58-62 d, ends on a syllables 1-5
ardello, M) a1-d1 / d1-d
[b1-b / d1-d]
duodenaria
Povero pellegrin (Nic- Lo, Sq ritornello, 83-88 d, ends on a syllables 1-5
colò, M) (see transcription a1-d1 / d1-d
in ANTONIO CALVIA, 1 1 1
[a -c / d -d]
Ballate, madrigali e
senaria perfecta
cacce intonati da
Nicolò del Preposto,
pp. 316-318.
State su, donne (Nic- Lo ritornello, 206-210 d canon, sylla-
colò, C) (Ivi, pp. 439-450) a1-d1 / d1-d bles 1-10
[a1-c1 / d1-d]
quaternaria
Per quella strada lac- Per3065 strophe, 60-64 d syllables 1-10
tea a1-d1 / d1-d
(Ciconia, M)
[a1-c1 / d1-d]
senaria perfecta

255
mikhail lopatin

Appendix C-III: Some further examples of similarly structured opening melismas in the
madrigal repertory

Title / Author Music Selection Cadential struc- Remarks


Sources ture

Nel bel giardino (Ja- FP, Pit, PR, Sq, strophe, 1-10 ouvert c1-sharp/e1 opening melisma
copo) SL, FC
at 5-6 // clos d1/d1
at 9-10

Non al suo amante FP, Pit, PR, Sq, strophe, 1-6 ouvert a/e1 at 4 // opening melisma
(Jacopo) SL, Per15755,
clos d1/d1 at 6
Fa

Prudenza superna M 50 strophe, 1-5 ouvert a/e1 at 3 // opening melisma


(anon.) no clos

La nobil scala PR strophe, 1-9 ouvert a/e1 at 5 // opening melisma


(anon.)
clos d1/d1 at 9

Avendo me falcon PR strophe, 1-13 ouvert e/c1-sharp opening melisma


(anon.)
at 5-6 // clos d/d1
at 13

Du’ anzoliti PR strophe, 1-10 ouvert c1-[sharp]/ opening melisma


(anon.)
e1 at 7 // clos a/a1
at 10

256
echoes of the caccia?

Ex. 1 a

Anon., Marce Marcum imitaris:


a) meas. 1-11 (analytical diagram)

° 4 j j j j
œ œ œ œj ‰ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰‰ œj œ œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œj œœœ œ
#
&4 w
#
w
I, 1-6
II, 6-11
œ - œ œ [ce]
˙ œb œj ‰ œ œb œ œ ‰ ˙
- - - - - - - -
4w
Mar

T, 1-6
¢& 4 J ˙ ˙ ˙ w

4 j œ ˙ œ
¢& 4 w œœ œ œ‰ œ œ ˙
b
T, 6-11
˙ ˙ w

˙
Melodic reduction (T, meas. 1-6)

& œ bœ ˙ œ œ œ œ ˙
œ background
‹ Contrapuntal œ ¿ (meas.
œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ¿ œ
œ œ #œ ˙
1-6)

& œ b œ œ œ bœ ˙ œ œ œ œ ˙

In the contrapuntal reduction here and elsewhere in the article I use black (and white) stemless notes to indicate structural consonances, 'cross' signs for consonances that
should be considered ornamental rather than structural (due to linear considerations, or interval parallelisms that they create), and arrows for closural progressions (ouvert/clos).
In these white notes indicate resolution. Note that in the majority of examples ornamental consonances appear on the last beat of figurations.

Ex. 1 b

b) meas. 39-42 and 51-4 (Cantus II and Tenor only)

° 439 j j j
&4 w œ œ œ œj œ œ œ œ œj œj œj œj œj j w
#

œ
II

4w ˙
Prin - ceps iu -stus su - bli - ma - ris Ka - ri -sma -tum gra - ti - a

˙ œb œ œ œ œ œ œ
T
¢& 4 w

° 451 ‰ j j ‰ ‰ j j ‰ ‰ j Œ
&4 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœœ œ œ œ œ ˙
# #

œ
II


b
˙ ˙ ˙
T
¢& 4 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

257
mikhail lopatin

Ex. 2

Ciconia, O felix templum jubila, meas. 1-19 (analytical diagram)

° 3 œ j j j j
& 4 ˙™ œœ œ œ œœœœœœœ œœ œ œj œœj œ œj œ œj ˙ ™ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœœœœœ œj ˙™
b #
I, 1-10
II, 10-19

- - chors tu-a - - -
3 ˙ ™ œ œ# œ œ œb ˙™
O fe lix tem plum ju bi la et ca no ni ci

¢& 4 œ œ˙ œ ˙ ˙™ œ ˙ œ œ œ
#
˙™
T, 1-10


3 ˙™ œ œj œœj œ œj œ œj ˙™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙™
¢& 4 ˙™ œ œ bœ
#
T, 10-19


Melodic reduction (T, meas. 1-10)

˙ œ œ bœ ˙
& œ œ œ ˙
œœ œ œ œ œœ œ œ ¿ œœ #œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙˙
‹ Contrapuntal background (meas. 1-10)
œ œ #œ œ bœ ˙˙ œ œ #œ
& ¿ œ œ

Ex. 3

Tenor openings from Ciconia's motets:


O felix templum jubila, meas. 1-8

3 ˙™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙
# b
œ ˙ œ ˙
&4 ˙™ ˙™

O Padua, sidus preclarum, meas. 1-6

2
b
˙ œ œ œ œ w
b
&2 w ˙
‹ w w
˙™ œ œ œ ˙™
O virum omnimoda/O lux et decus/O beate Nicholae, meas. 1-10
3 ˙™
& b 4 ˙™ ˙™ ˙™ œ œ œ ˙™ ˙™

3˙ ˙ ˙ 2w
Albane, misse celitus/Albane, doctor maxime, meas. 7-15
2 w
& b2 w 2 2 ˙ ˙ w w w w

œ œ œ ˙™
O proles Hispanie, meas. 11-18
3
& b 4 ˙™ ˙™ ˙™ ˙™ ˙™ ˙™

258
echoes of the caccia?

Ex. 4

a) Per quella strada lactea, meas. 53-7 b) Per quella strada lactea, meas. 78-80

° 3 œ 3
6-5-4/4-5-6 6-5-4/4-5-6 6-5-4/4-5-6
53 78 6-5-4/4-5-6

& 4 œ œ œœœœœœœœœ œœœ œœœ œœ œœœ 4 œ œœœœœœœœ œœœ


# #

œ œ œœœœœ ˙™ œ œœœœœ œ
C

3 œ bœ œ 3œ
[Ve] - - - - - [deva] [me]na - - - [va]

T
¢ & 4 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙™ 4 œ œ œ œ œ ˙™

3 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ ˙ 3 œ œœ¿ œ œ
& 4 œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ #œœ ˙ 4 œ œ œ œ œœ œœ #œœ ˙˙
Contrapuntal background


c) Una panthera, meas. 39-41 d) Una panthera, meas. 95-7

° 3 # j #
3
4 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œj ˙ ™
39 4-5-6 95

& 4 œ œ œ œœœœœ œ œ œ œœ œ
#
C
œœœœ œ
3 3
4œ œ
- - - - - b - b-
œ œ œ œ
[ador] [no] [re] gno.

T
¢ & 4 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙™

3œœœ œœ ¿ 3 œ œ œ ¿ œ œ#œ œ #œ ˙
Contrapuntal background

& 4 œ œ œ œœ œœ #œœ ˙
˙ 4 œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ ˙

Ex. 5

Zacara, Cacciando per gustar/Ay cinci ay toppi, meas. 1-23

° 2
I &4 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙
Cac - - cian - do per gus - tar di qual te - so - ro

2 ˙ ˙ œb œ œ œ œ œ ˙
T
¢& 4 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ ˙

œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ ˙
bœ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œ
Contrapuntal background

& œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙

j j
14
j œ œ œj ˙
& œ œ œ œ œ œJ œ œ œ œ œ œ œj œ œ œ Œ
° b

˙
I

- - ti e bo - schi - - - d'u - no bo - schet -


œ œ œ
per a spri mon pe ri glio si to

œ œ œ
b
œ œ œ œ œ œ
b
T
¢& œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙
œ
œœ œœ œœ œ œ œœ bœœ

œ œ œ œ
& œ œ œ œ œœ bœœ œœ œ œœ œœ ˙
˙
‹ ( k l )

259
mikhail lopatin

Ex. 6

a) Bartolino (?), Inperiale sedendo, meas. 94-102 (cantus/tenor only)

œb
3 ˙ œ Œ œ œ œ œœœœ œœ œœœœ œ Œ œœ œ œ œœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœ œœ œ
° 94 ™ #
C &4
Nel me - ço
3 ˙™ ˙™ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ Œ
b
T
¢ & 4
‹ Nel me[ço]

œœ
Contrapuntal background
œœ œœ œ œ ¿¿ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ ˙
& bœ bœ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙

b) Inperiale sedendo, meas. 62-7 (cantus/tenor only)

° ˙™ œb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #
œ œ œœœ ˙™
62

C &
Sot - - - - - - - - - to

T
¢& ˙™ œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
‹ Sot - - - - - - - - - to

œ ¿ œ œ œ œ œ ¿ #œ
Contrapuntal background

œ ˙
& œ ¿ œ œ œ œ œ œ ¿ œ ˙
‹ (avoided)

Ex. 7

Jacopo, Aquila altera/Creatura gentile/Uccel di Dio, meas. 1-13

° 2˙ ˙ œb œ œ œœ œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ#
C &4 ‰ J œ
‹ A - - - - - - - - - -
2
Ct &4 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

2˙ ˙ œ œ œ
b
œ j
T
¢& 4 J J œ œ™ œ œ œ
‹ Uc - - - - - - - - - -

° œ œ #˙ œ œ‰ œœ œ™ œœ œœ œœœœœ
‰ J œ
7

J œ
C &
˙ ˙ œœœ œœ œœœ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œ œ
‹ -qui - la al -
b
te - ra fer - ma in su

Ct & ‰ J œ œ
‹ Cre
j
- - - - ti - le,a -
œ
a tu ra gen ni mal de[gno]

‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ
T
¢& ˙ ˙ œ œ œ
‹ - cel di Di - o, in - se - gna di giu - sti[zia]

260
echoes of the caccia?

Ex. 8

a) Jacopo, Aquila altera/Creatura gentile/Uccel di Dio, meas. 29-35

° 2 #˙ ˙ œœœ œœœœœ œœœœœœœ œ


29 b #

C &4 ≈ J #œ œJ œ œ œ
J
#˙ ˙ œ
‹ do - - - - - - - - - ve

2 R
Ct &4 ˙ ˙ ∑ ∑
‹ [so]le
œ œ
-
? 42 ˙ œ
sin [gularmente]

˙ ˙ J ˙ ˙ œ
T
¢ J
[glori]a per - - [ché]
b) Jacopo, Per sparverare (a 3), meas. 45-51

° 2 #˙ œœœ œœ œ œ œ œ œœœœœ œ œ œ œ
b
˙
45

I &4 ˙
#˙ œ
‹ Poi
2œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœœœ œ œ
del re - di - re non mi du - bi - ta - [i]

II &4 ΠR
‹ don - na - - glie - -
?2 ˙ ˙ ˙
pre si qua as sa i. Poi del

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
T
¢ 4
c) Jacopo, Oselletto selvagio, meas. 41-7

° 241#˙ œ#œ œœœœœœœœœ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ


I &4 œ œœœ ˙ ˙ œ
‹ Tut -
‰ œj #˙ œ#œ œœœœœœœœœ œ
- - - e - -
2
ti si fan ma [stri]

&4 ˙ ˙ œœ œ œ œ
II

œ ˙
? 2 ˙ ‰ œJ ‰ œJ
‹ [maestri]a, po - chi l'han - no - -
œ
# e tut ti

Œ ∑ ∑
T
¢ 4

261
mikhail lopatin

Ex. 9

Anon. (Jacopo?), La nobil scala, meas. 1-9

œ≈≈œœ œ ˙ œ œ ‰ œj œ ≈œœ≈ œœœœœ œœ ˙


° 2 Œ
&4 ˙ œ œœœœœœ œ
#

œ
C

La

2
no[bil]

j j ≈≈
b b
&4 ˙ œ œ œ
#

œ œ œœœ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙
Ct

2˙ œ Œ œœ ˙ ˙
La

∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
T
¢& 4 œ
œœ œ œ ¿ œœ œ œ œœ ˙ œœ œœ œ œ œ
‹ Contrapuntal background
œ bœ œ ¿ œ œœ #œœ ˙˙
& œœ ˙ bœ œ œ œ

Ex. 10

Anon. (Jacopo?), Prudenza superna, meas. 1-5

° 3
b b b

& 4 ˙™ œœœœ œ œ œœœœœœœ Œ œ œ œ œœœœ œ œ œœœ œ


œ œ
C

- - - - - - - -
3 ˙™ œ
Pru den[za]

œ œ œ œ Œ œ
b
T
¢& 4 œ œ œ
‹ Pru - - - - - - - - den[za]

œœ
Background counterpoint
œ œ ˙˙ œ œ œ œ
& œ bœ bœœ œ œ œ
œ
‹ (no clos)

262
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