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Some Basic Concepts

of Chemistry 1
Introduction

Ancient Greek Philosophers used to believe that all matter is composed of tiny building blocks
that are hard and indivisible. The Greek philosopher Democritus named these building blocks as
atoms, which means indivisible.

Matter

Anything that occupies space and mass is called matter

 Classification of matter
Classification of matter

On the basis of physical behaviour On the basis of chemical behaviour

Solids Liquids Gases Pure substances Mixtures

Element Compound
On the basis of physical behaviour
• Solids: have definite volume and definite shape.

• Liquids: have definite volume but not definite shape. They take the shape of the container
in which they are kept
• Gases: have neither definite volume nor definite shape. They occupy the shape of the con-
tainer completely in which they are stored.
2 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

These three states are interconvertible on changing the conditions of temperatures and
pressure.
Heat Heat

Solid   
 Liquid  
 Gas
Cool Cool

On the basis of chemical behaviour


1. Pure substances: They have a fixed composition. For instance, water contains hydrogen
and oxygen in a fixed ratio and it has fixed constituents. The constituents of pure substances
cannot be separated by physical methods:
These can be classified further into elements and compounds.
• Element: It consists of a single type of particles, atoms or molecules. It implies that they all
contain atoms of one type only.
• Compound: When two or more atoms of different elements combine, the molecule of a com-
pound is formed. For example, water ammonia, carbon monoxide, sodium chloride, etc.
2. Mixtures: A mixture contains two or more substances present in it in any ratio which are
called its components. For example, sugar solution in water, air, tea, etc.
Homogenous mixture: A mixture in which the components completely mix with each
other and its composition is uniform throughout. For example, salt solution, sugar
solution, air, etc.
Heterogenous mixture: In this type of mixture, the composition is not uniform
throughout, Due to this reason, different compounds can be found within the mixture.
For example, a mixture of salt and sugar. Components of a mixture can be separated by
physical methods such as mechanical separation, hand-picking, filtration, crystallization,
distillation, etc.
In a compound, the atoms of different elements are present in a fixed and definite ratio,
and this ratio is a characteristic of that particular compound. Noteworthy point being the
characteristic properties of the compound will be different from its constituent elements.
The constitutents of a compound cannot be separated into simpler substances by physcial
methods, but they can be separated by chemical methods.

Properties of Matter and their Measurements

1. Physical Properties: Those properties which can be measured or observed without changing
the identity or composition of the substance are known as physical properties, e.g., color, melt-
ing point, boiling point, odour, etc.
2. Chemical Properties: Those properties which describe a matter's potential to undergo some
chemical changes are known as chemical properties, e.g., characteristics reactions of different
substances which include acidity or basicity, combustibility, etc.
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 3

The International System of Units (SI)

The international system of units (in French, Le System International d'unites-abbreviated as SI)
was established at the 11th General Conference of Weights and Measures.

 Table 1.1 SI base units

Rase physical quantity and


Name of the Unit Symbol
symbol for quantity

Mass (m) kilogram kg

Length (l) metre m

Time (t) second s


Temperatue (T) kelvin K
Electric current (I) ampere A
Luminous intensity (Iv) candela cd
Amount of substance (n) mole mol
 Table 1.2 SI prefixes

Multiple Prefix Symbol

1024 yotta Y
1021 zetta Z
1018 exa E
1015 peta P
1012 tera T
109 giga G
106 mega M
103 kilo k
102 hecto h
10 deca da
10–1 deci d
10–2 centi c
4 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

10–3 milli m
10–6 micro m
10–9 nano n
10–12 pico p
10–15 femto f
10–18 atto a
10–21 zepto z
10–24 yocto y
 Table 1.3 Derived units

Expression in terms of SI base


Quantity Definition of quantity
units
Area Length squared m2
Volume Length cubed m3

Density Mass per unit volume kg/m3 or kg m–3


Distance travelled per unit
Velocity m/s or m s–1
time
Acceleration Velocity changed per unit time m/s2 or m s–2
Mass times accelrations of
Force kg m/s2 or kg m s–2 (newton, N)
objects
kg/(ms­2) or kg m–1s–2 (pascal,
Pressure Force per unit area
Pa)
Energy (work, heat) Force times distance travelled kg2/s2 or kg m2s–2 (joule, J)
Electric charge Ampere times second (As) (Coulomb, C)
J A–1 s–1 potential difference
Electric potential Energy per unit charge
(volt, V)
 Table 1.4 Definition of SI base units

Unit Symbol Definition

It is equal to the mass of a Pt-Ir cylinder that is


stored in an airtight jar at the International Bu-

Mass Kilogram (kg) reau of Weights and Measures in Sevres, France.


Or
It is equal to the mass of the international pro-
totype of the kilogram.
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 5

It is the length of the path travelled


Length Metre (m) by light in vacuum during a time in-
terval of 1/299,792,458 of a second.
It is the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods
of the radiation corresponding to the tran-
Time Second (s) sition between two hyper fine levels of the
ground state of the Caesium-133 atom.
It is the amount of substance of a system which
contains as many elementary entities as the
number of atoms in 0.012 kg of C-12. The ele-
Amount of the substance Mole (n)
mentary entities must be specified and may be
atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other parti-
cles, or specified groups of such particles.
It is the fraction of 1/273.16 of the thermody-
Thermodynamic temperature Kelvin (K) namic temperature of the triple point of water.

It is the current which, if maintained between


two straight parallel conductors of infinite
length, of negligible circular cross-section and
Electric current Ampere (A)
placed 1 meter apart in a vacuum will produce
a force equal to 2 × 10–7 newton per meter of
length.
It is the luminous intensity, in a given direction,
of a source that emits monochromatic radiation
Luminous intensity Candela (cd) of frequency 540 × 1012 hertz and that has a
radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt
per steradian.

Derived Units

The units of all other physical quantities that are derived out of basic physical quantities, the units
that will be obtained are called derived units.

Mass and Weight


Mass of a substance is the amount of matter contained in it whereas weight is the force exerted by
gravity on a substance. The mass of a substance is constant while its weight changes from one place,
Since a smaller amount of substance is used in the chemical reaction, a fraction of kilograms, i.e.,
gram, is used (1 kg = 1000 g).
Volume

Unit of volume is (length)3. SI unit of volume is m3, for smaller volumes, cm3 or dm3 units are used.
Another unit, litre (L), which is not an SI unit, is used for measurement of volume of liquids.
6 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

   1 L = 1000 mL
1000 cm3 = 1 dm3 = 1 L
Volume of liquids or solutions is measured by using burette, pipette, graduated cylinder, or volu-
metric flask.

Density

 Absolute density
• For liquid and solids:-
mass
Absolute density =
volume

Density of Subs tance


Specific gravity 
Density of water at 4C

• For gases:
Molar volume of gas
Absolute density (mass/volume) = (at same T & P)
Molar volume of H2 gas
Absolute density has a definite unit, but specific gravity has no unit. (Dimesionless)
 Relative Density:
It is the density of a substance with respect to any other substance.
Ex: What is the V.D. of CO2 with respect to N2
Molecular weight of CO2 44
=Sol: V.D. = = 1.57
molecular weight of N2 28
 Vapour density:
Vapour density is defined as the density of the gas with respect to hydrogen gas at the same
temperature and pressure.
d gas molar mass of gas molar volume of gas
=
Vapour density =
d H2 molar mass of H2 molar volume of H2

(at same T & P molar volume can be cancelled) so,
molar mass of gas molar mass of gas
=V.D. = = ;M=gas 2 V.D.
molar mass of H2 2

Ex: 15 litre of the particular gas at 32 F and 1atm weight as 16 gram. What is the V.D. of gas.
Sol: 15 litre at NTP = 15/22.4 = 0.6696 mol
molar mass of gas = 16/0.6696 = 23.89 gram
V.D. = 11.95.
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 7

 Temperature:
Temperature of a substance is measured in three common scales, i.e., °C (degree Celsius), °F
(degree Fahrenheit) and K (Kelvin). K is the SI unit. The temperatures °F and °C are related to
each other by the following relationship:
9
F  (C)  32
5
The Kelvin scale is related to Celsius scales as follows
K = °C + 273.15
Temperature below 0°C (i.e., negative values) is possible in Celsius scale, but in Kelvin scale,
negative temperature is not possible.

Uncertainty in Measurement

There are meaningful ways to handle the numbers conveniently and present the data realistically
with certainty to the extent possible.

Scientific Notation

Scientific notation is used, i.e. exponential notation in which any number can be represented in the
form of N × 10n, where n is an exponent having positive or negative values and n can vary between
1 and 10.

Thus, 543.609 can be written in scientific notation as 5.43609 × 102. In this operation, decimal had
to be moved to the left by two places and same is the exponent (2) of 10 in the scientific notation.

Accuracy and Precision

The measurement that involves the counting of whole numbers of identifiable objects, e.g., apples,
oranges, chairs, etc., can be known accurately, i.e., their exact numbers.
The accuracy of any such measurement depends upon.
a. The accuracy of the instrument, i.e., measuring device.
b. The skill of the operator.
 Precision:

It refers to the closeness of various measurements for the same quantity. If the values of dif-
ferent measurements are close to each other and hence close to their average value, the mea-
surement is said to be precise. This average value of different measurements may be close to
the correct value. The precision depends upon the measuring device as well as the skill of the
person operating the device.
8 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

 Accuracy:

It is the agreement of a particular value of the true value of the result. If the average value of
different measurements are close to the true value, the measurement is said to be accurate.
Significant Figures

 Rules to Determine the Number of Significant Figures


• All non-zero digits and zeroes between non-zero digits are significant.
• Zeroes to the left of the first non-zero digit in a number are not significant. Such zeroes
indicate the position of decimal.
• If a number ends in zeroes but these zeroes are to the right of decimal point, then these
zeroes are signifcant.
• Zeroes at the end or right of a number are significant provided they are on the right side of
decimal point, otherwise the zeroes are not significant.
• Exact numbers have an infinite number of significant figures.
• If a number ends in zero but these zeroes are not to the right of a decimal point, then these
zeroes may or may not be significant.
 Addition and Subtraction of Significant Figures
The result should not have more digits to the right of the decimal point than either of the origi-
nal numbers. For example,
22.22
15.0
2.024

39.244

In the above case, 15.0 has only one digit after the decimal point. So, the result should be re-
ported only upto one digit after decimal point and therefore the result is 39.2.
 Multiplication and Division of Significant Figures
For these two operations, the result should be reported with no more significant figures as are
there in the measurement with the few significant figures, e.g.,
4.5 × 2.15 = 9.675
Since 4.5 has two significant figures, the result should not have more than two significant fig-
ures. Thus, the result is 9.6.
Ex: Calculate the following:
(i) (7.6 × 107) × (3.8 × 10–4)
(ii) (6.7 × 105) ÷ (4.6 × 104)
(iii) (7.65 × 102) + (2.72 × 103)
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 9

Sol:
(i) (7.6 × 3.8) ( 107–4) = 28.88 × 103
6.7  105 6.7
(ii) 4
  (105 4 )  1.456  101  14.56.
4.6  10 4. 6
(iii) 7.65 × 102 + 2.72 × 103 = (7.65 + 2.72 × 101) × 102
= (7.65 + 27.2) × 102
= 34.85 × 102
Ex: How many significant figures in 19.3–0.4567
Sol: Three significant figures because the number with least significant figures involved in the
calculation (i.e., 19.3) has three significants figures.

Dimensional Analysis
a. First, determine the unit conversion factor/factors. Just consider, for the conversion of inches
into centimeters or vice versa.
1 in = 2.54 cm
1 in 2.54 cm
 1
2.54 cm 1 in

b. Multiply the given physical quantities with the unit conversion factor in such a manner that
gives the desired units, i.e., the numerator should have that part which is required in the de-
sired result.
For example, convert 6 inch into cm. Multiplying the unit conversion factor (containing cm. in
the numerator) by 6 to get the desired result.
2.54 cm
6 in  6 in   15.24 cm
1 in

c. If the conversion involves various steps, each conversion factor should be used in such a way
that the units of the preceding factor cancel out.
Moreover, like other numerical parts, the units can be cancelled, divided, multiplied squared, etc.

Example :

Convert the following


200 lb into kilogram
Solution: 1 kg = 2.205 lb
2.204 lb 1 kg
 1
1 kg 2.205 lb

10 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

1 kg
Hence, 200 lb = 200 lb   90.7 kg
2.205 lb

In-Chapter Exercise -1
1. Express the number 68000 in exponential notation which shows
i. Two significants figures
ii. Three significants figures
2. Express the following in SI units:
i. –20°C
ii. 5 days

The Laws of Chemical Combination


There are four laws of chemical combination and these are:
1. Law of consevation of mass
2. Law of Constant Proportion
3. Law of Multiple Proportion
4. Law of reciprocal proportion

Apart from the above-stated laws, there is another important law which is not included laws of
chemical combination; Gay-lussac's Law.

The Law of Conservation of Mass

It states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. It implies that in a
chemical change, the total mass will remain conserved. i.e.
mass of all reactants = mass of products after the reaction. (In a closed system)

Example :

Five grams of KClO3 yield 3.041 g of KCl and 1.36 L of oxygen at standard temperature and pres-
sure. Show that these figures support the law of conservation of mass within limits of ±0.4% error.

Solution:

According to gram-molecular volume law, 22.4 L of all gases and vapours at STP weigh equal to
their molecular weights denoted in grams.
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 11

32  1.36
\ Weight of 1.36 L of oxygen at STP   1.943g
22.4
Weight of KCl formed = 3.041 g (given)
\ Total weight of product (KCl + O2)
= 3.041 + 1.943 = 4.984 g
Error = 5 – 4.984 = 0.016g
0.016  100
 %error   0.32
5
Hence, the law of conservation of mass is valid within limits of –0.4% error. Thus, the law is
supported.

Law of Constant Proportion/Definite Proportion

A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by weight irrespective
of their source or method of preparation.

Example :

3.6 g of a certain metal burnt in oxygen gave 6.0 g of its oxide. 3.0 g of the same metal heated in
steam gave 5.0 g of its oxide. Show that these results illustrate the law of constant proportion.
Solution: In the first sample of the oxide,
Wt. of metal = 3.60 g,
Wt. of oxygen = (6.0 – 3.6) g = 2.4 g
3. 6
=
weight ratio of metal to oxygen = 1.5
2. 4
In the second sample of the oxide,
Wt. of metal = 3.0 g,
Wt. of oxygen = (5.0 – 3) g = 2 g.
3.0
=
weight ratio of metal to oxygen = 1. 5
2.0
Thus, in both samples of the oxide the proportions of the weights of the metal and oxygen are
fixed. Hence, the results follow the law of constant proportion.

The Law of Multiple Proportion

When one element combines with the other element to form two or more different compounds, the
mass of one elements, which combines with a constant mass of the other, maintain a simple ratio
to one another.
12 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Example :

Elements X and Y form two different compounds. In the first compound, 0.324 g X is combined
with 0.471 g Y. In the second compound, 0.117 g X is the combined with 0.509 g Y. Show that these
data illustrate the law of multiple proportions.

Solution:
In the first compound:
0.324 g of X combines with 0.471 g of Y.
In the second compound:
0.117 g of X combines with 0.509 g of Y.
Therefore, 0.324 g of X combines with the weight of Y
0.509  0.324
 1.4095g
0.117
Now, the weights of Y that combine with the same weight of X, i.e., 0.324 g of it, are in the ratio
of 0.471 : 1.4095 or 1 : 3. The ratio, being simple, illustrates the law of multiple proportions.

Law of reciprocal proportion

• It is given by Richter.

Statement: The ratio of the weights of two elements A and B which combine separately with a
the fixed weight of the third element C is either the same or is in a simple ratio of the weights
in which A and B combine directly with each other.
This law is also called as law of equivalent weight due to each element combined in their
equivalent weight ratio.
M w / At.wt.
E=
V.F.
Here, Mw is the molecular weight, At.wt. is the atomic weight and V.F. is the valency factor.
For ions
V.F. = Total number of positive charge
or V.F. = Total number of negative charge

Example :

Ammonia contains 82.35% of nitrogen and 17.65% of hydrogen. Water contains 88.90% of oxygen
and 11.10% of hydrogen. Nitrogen trioxide contains 63.15% of oxygen and 36.85% of nitrogen.
Show that these data illustrate the law of reciprocal proportions.
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 13

Solution:
In NH3 17.65g of H combine with N = 82.35g
82.35
\ 1g of H combine with
= N = g 4.67g
17.65
In H2O, 11.10g of H combine with O = 88.90g
88.90
=
\ 1g of H combine with O = g 8.01g
11.10
\ Ratio of the weights of N and O which combine with fixed weight (=1 g) of H = 4.67 : 8.01
= 1 : 1.7
In N2O3, ratio of weights of N and O which combine with each other = 36.85 : 63.15 = 1 : 1.7
Thus, the two ratios are the same. Hence, it illustrates the law of reciprocal proportions.

Gay-lussac’s law of combining volume

Gases combine in a simple ratio of their volumes. (all measurements should be done at the same
temperature and pressure)

H2 (g) + Cl2 (g) → 2HCl

1 vol 1 vol 2 vol


Avogadro's Hypothesis
Equal volume of all gases have equal number of molecules (not atoms) at same temperature and
pressure condition.

Mathematically, for ideal gases, V α n ( at constant T & P)

Example :

Air contains 21% oxygen by volume. Calculate the theoretical volume of air which will be required
for burning completely 500 cubic ft of acetylene gas (C2H2). All volumes are measured under the
same conditions of temperature and pressure.

Solution:

2C2H2(g)   +   5O2 (g) → 4CO2 (g)   +   2H2O(steam)


2vol     5 vol      4 vol     2 vol

(Here, the ratio of the reacting molecules and those of the products is taken as the ratio of their
volumes. This holds true with Avagadro's hypothesis that states- equal volumes of all gases under
similar conditions of temperature and pressure contain an equal number of molecules or its re-
verse, an equal number of molecules or its conditions of temperature and pressure occupy equal
volumes, is equally true).
14 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

According to the above equation.


2 volumes of acetylene require 5 volumes of O2 for combustion.

\ 500 cu. ft of acetylene will require O2


5  500
  1250 cu.ft.
2
Hence, the quantity of air required
100  1250
  5952.38 cu.ft
21

  Note:
Simple ratio in multiple proportions means the ratio between small natural num-
bers, such as 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1 : 3, later on this simple ratio becomes the valency and then
oxidation state of the element.

Dalton fail to explain gay lussac's principle


In-Chapter Exercise -2
1. 0.22 g of hydrocarbon (i.e., a compound containing carbon and hydrogen only) on complete
combustion with oxygen gave 0.9 g water and 0.44 g carbon dixode. Show that these results are
in accordance with the law of conservation of mass.

2. 0.7 g of iron reacts directly with 0.4 g of sulphur to form ferrous sulphide. If 2.8 g of iron is
dissolved in dilute HCl and excess of sodium sulphide solution is added, 4.4 g of iron sulphide
is precipitated. Prove the law of constant composition.

3. One volume of a gaseous compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen was burnt in
the presence of 2 volumes of oxygen. The resultant gases contained 2 volumes of carbon diox-
ide and 2 volumes of steam. Find the molecular formula of the compound, if all the volumes
were measured under the same conditions of temperature and pressure.

Dalton's Atomic Theory


• Matter is made up of very small indivisible particle called atom.
• All the atoms of a given element is identical in all respect i.e. mass, shape, size, etc.
• Atoms cannot be created or destroyed by any chemical process or physical process.
• Atoms of different elements are different in nature.
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 15

Relative Atomic Mass


It is the ratio of the mass of 1 atom of any substance and 1/12 of mass of 1 atom of C-12 isotope. For
atoms this is done by expressing mass of one atom with respect to a fixed standard. (C-12 isotope
of carbon is latest chosen standard, Dalton used hydrogen as the standard (H = 1), later on oxygen
(O = 16) replaced hydrogen as the reference.)
Therefore, different forms to express relative atomic mass is given as:
Mass of 1 atom of any substannce
Relative Atomic Mass (R.A.M) =
1
× Mass of 1 atom of C-12 isotope
12
Total number of nucleon × Mass of 1 nucleon
Relative Atomic Mass (R.A.M) =
1
×12 × Mass of 1 nucleon
12
Relative Atomic Mass (R.A.M) = Total number of nucleons

Atomic Mass Unit

The atomic mass unit (amu) is equal to one twelfth of the mass of one atom of carbon-12 isotope.
(Mathematically one amu is equal to denominator part of R.A.M formula)
1
1 amu = × Mass of 1 atom of C-12 isotope. So, approximately,
2
1 amu = Mass of one nucleon = 1.66 × 10–24 gm or 1.66 × 10–27 kg

Atomic Mass
It is the mass of 1 atom of a substance it is expressed in ‘amu’ or ‘u’.
Atomic mass = R.A.M × 1 amu
Relative atomic mass is nothing but the number of nucleons present in the atom.

Example :

Find the relative atomic mass of 'O' atom (8O16) and its atomic mass.
Solution:
The number of nucleon present in 'O' atom is 16.
Relative atomic mass of 'O' atom = 16 (simply total number of proton and neutron)
Atomic mass = R.A.M × 1 amu = 16 × 1 amu = 16 amu.

Mole
A mole is the amount of a substance that contains equal substituents (atoms, molecules or other
particles) as the atoms of a 12 gm of the carbon-12 isotope.
16 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Experimentally, there are 6.023 × 1023 atoms are present in 12 gm of C-12 isotope. (for numerical
approximation we can consider 6.022 × 1023).
• Mole is represented in mathematical equation as ‘mol’ & the 6.022 × 1023 is termed as
Avogadro constant (NA not Na which is used for sodium)

Example :

Find total charge on one gram – ion of PO43– in Coulomb.

Solution:
One polyatomic phosphate anion contain 3 electron extra
So, charge on 1 electron = 1.66 × 10–19C,
Charge on 3 electron = 3 × 1.66 × 10–19C
Total charge in one mole of PO43– = NA × 3 × 1.66 × 10–19C.

Gram Atomic Mass

The atomic mass of an element expressed in gram is called atomic mass of the element.
Element Relative atomic mass Atomic mass Gram atomic mass
C 12 12 u 12 g
O 16 16 u 16 g

Example :

Find gram atomic mass of F atom.

Solution:
Atomic mass of 'F' atom = mass of one 'F' atom = 19 amu
Gram atomic mass = mass of 6.02 × 1023 'F' atoms
= 19 amu × 6.023 × 1023
= 19 × 1.66 × 10–24 g × 6.023 × 1023 = 19 g

Molecules

It is the smallest particle of matter which can exist freely on its own. Molecules can be further di-
vided into its constituent atoms by employing the physical & chemical process.

Number of atoms present in one molecule is called its atomicity.

Element: N2, O2, H2

Compound: H2O, H2SO4 etc.


Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 17

Example :
Find the atomicity in H2SO4

Solution: 7

Example :

Find the atomicity in CuSO4.5H2O


Solution: 21
Molecular Mass

It is the mass of one molecule (it is the sum of constituents atomic mass because molecules are
made up of atoms)

Example :

Find molecular mass of O3 and H2SO4.

Solution:
For O3,
3 × (molar mass of O) = 3 × 16 amu = 48 amu
For H2SO4 = (2 + 32 + 64) amu = 98 amu.

Gram Molecular Mass

It is also defined as mass of 6.02 × 1023 molecules or the mass of one mole molecules. (simply Molar
mass)

Example :
Calculate gram molecular mass of O3 molecule
Solution:
Molecular mass of 'O3' molecule = mass of one 'O3' molecule
= 3 × mass of one 'O' atom
= 3 × 16 amu
= 48 amu
Gram molecular mass = mass of 6.023 × 1023 'O3' molecules = 48 amu × 6.02 × 1023

= 48 × 1.66 × 10–24 gm × 6.02 × 1023 = 48 gm


18 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Average Atomic Msss

The average atomic mass of an element is determined by taking into account the existence of iso-
topes and their relative percent occurrence. For example, the average atomic mass of carbon is
calculated from the data given below:

Relative
Isotope Atomic mass (amu)
abundance
12
C 98.892 12
13
C 1.108 13.00335
14
C 2 × 10–10 14.00317

Average atomic mass of carbon


= (0.98892) (12 u) + (0.01108)(13.00335 u) + (2 × 10–12) (14.00317 u)

= 12.011 u

  Note:
• We also use term 'gram-atom' and 'gram-molecule' to represent 1 mole quantity.

• For mathematical approximation product of 1 amu and NA is taken 1. (1.66 ×


10–24) × (6.023 × 10–23) ≅ 1

• Suppose R.A.M., atomic mass and Gram Atomic mass of element having atomic
number 9 is to be calculated then,

R.A.M = 19, At. Mass = 19 amu & Gm. At. Mass = 19 gm


In-Chapter Exercise -3
1. Find the relative atomic mass, atomic mass of the following elements.
a. 9F19   b. 26Fe56
2. How many nucleons are present in 50 atoms of an element which has atomic mass 10 amu?

3. Find the mass in grams of 3 mole of iron. (GMM = 56 gm)

4. How many atoms of copper are present in 0.5 mol of pure copper metal?

5. The molecular mass of H3PO4 is 98 amu. Calculate the number of moles of each element in 294
g of H3PO4.
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 19

Percentage Composition
Percent composition is the percent by mass of each element present in a compound. We know that
according to law of definite proportions any sample of a pure compound always possess constant
ratio with their combining elements.

Example :

Single molecule of ammonia always has formula NH3 irrespective of method of preparation or
sources, i.e. 1 mole of ammonia always contains 1 mol of N and 3 mole of H. In other words, 17
gm of NH3 always contains 14 gm of N and 3 gm of H. Now, find out % of each element in the
compound.

Solution:
mass of N in 1 mole of NH3 14
Mass % of N in NH3   100%   100%  82.35%
mass of 1 mole of NH3 17
mass of H in 1mole of NH3 3
Mass % of H in NH3   100%   100%  17.65%
mass of 1 mole of NH3 17

Empirical and Molecular Formula


The empirical formula of a compound is a chemical formula that indicates the relative number of
atoms in the simplest ratio while the molecular formula gives the actual number of atoms of each
element in a molecule. The molecular formula is generally an integral multiple of the empirical
formula.

i.e. molecular formula = empirical formula × n


molecular formula
where, n =
empirical formula

Example :
Ethyne and benzene both have the empirical formula CH. The molecular masses of ethyne and
benzene are 26 and 78 respectively. Deduce their molecular formulae.
Solution:
Empirical Formula is CH
Step-1
The empirical formula of the compound is CH
\ Empirical formula mass = (1 × 12) + 1 = 13.
Molecular mass = 26
20 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Step-2
To calculate the value of ‘n’
26
=
n = 2
13
Step-3
To calculate the molecular formula of the compound.
Molecular formula = n × (Empirical formula of the compound)
= 2 × CH = C2 H2
Thus, the molecular formula is C2 H2
Similarly for benzene,
To calculate the value of ‘n’,
78
=
n = 6
13
Thus, the molecular formula is 6 × CH = C6H6

Example :

An organic substance containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen has the following percentage com-
position.
C = 40% ; H = 5% and O = 55%

The molecular weight of the compound is 118. Calculate the molecular formula of the compound.
Solution:
Step-1
To calculate the empirical formula of the compound.
simplest
Relative At.
At. Mass simplest whole no
Element Symbol % of element Mass =
of element atomic ratio atomic
(%/mass)
ratio
Carbon C 40 12 40/12 = 3.33 3.33/3.33 = 1 2
Hydrogen H 5 1 5/1 = 1 5/3.33 = 1.5 3
Oxygen O 55 16 55/16 = 3.44 3.44/3.33 = 1 2
\ Empirical Formula is C2H3O2
Step-2
To calculate the empirical formula mass.
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 21

The empirical formula of the compound is C2H3O2.


\ Empirical formula mass
= (2 × 12) + (3 × 1) + (2 × 16) = 59.
Step-3
To calculate the value of ‘n’
118
=
n = 2
2

Step-4
To calculate the molecular formula of the salt,
Molecular formula = n × (Empirical formula) = 2 × C2H3O2 = C4H6O4
Thus, the molecular formula is C4H6O4.

Chemical Reaction

It is the process in which two or more than two substances interact with each other where old
bonds are broken and new bonds are formed.
 Chemical equation :
However, a balanced chemical equation gives us a lot of quantitative information mainly about
the molar ratio in which reactants combine. It also gives us information about the molar ratio
in which products are formed.
 Attributes of a balanced chemical equation
(a) It contains an equal number of atoms of each element on both sides of equation
(b) It should follow law of charge conservation on either side.
(c) Physical states of all the reagents should be included in brackets.
(d) All reagents should be written in their standard molecular forms
(e) The coefficients give the relative molar ratios of each reagent.
 Balancing a Chemical Equation
According to the law of conservation of mass, a balanced chemical equation has the same
number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation.

Due to this many chemical equations can be balanced by trial and error method also.
4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) → 2Fe2O3(s) (a) balanced equation
P4(s) + O2(g) → P4O10(s) (b) unbalanced equation
Equation (a) is balanced since there are same number of metal and oxygen atoms on each side
22 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

of equations. However equation (b) is not balanced. In this equation, phosphorus atoms are
balanced but not the oxygen atoms. To balance it, we must place the coefficient 5 on the left of
oxygen on the left side of the equation to balance the oxygen atoms appearing on the right side
of the equation.

P4(s) + 5O2(g) → P4O10(s) balanced equation


Now let us take combustion of propane, C3H8, This equation can be balanced in steps.

Step1. Write down the correct formulas of reactants and products. Here propane and oxygen
are reactants, and carbon dioxide and water are products.

C3H8(g) + O2(g) → CO2(g) + H2O (l) unbalanced equation


Step 2. Balance the number of C atoms : Since 3 carbon atoms are in the reactant, therefore,
three CO2 molecules are required on the right side.

C3H8(g) + O2(g) → 3CO2(g) + H2O (l)


Step 3. Balance the number of H atoms : on the left there are 8 hydrogen atoms in the reactants
however, each molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms , so four molecules of water will be
required for eight hydrogen atoms on the right side.

C3H8(g) + O2(g) → 3CO2(g) + 4H2O (l)

Step 4. Balance the number of O atoms : There are ten oxygen on the right side (3 × 2 = 6 in
CO2 and 4 × 1 = 4 in water). Therefore, five O2 molecules are needed to supply the required
ten oxygen atoms.
C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) → 3CO2(g) + 4H2O (l)
Step 5. Verify that the number of atoms of each element is balanced in the final equation.

Always remember that subscripts in formula of reactants and products cannot be changed to
balance an equation.

Mole-Mole Analysis

This technique is very important from quantitative analysis point of view. Now, consider the de-
composition of KClO3.
2KClO3 
 2KCl  3O2

First step of mole-mole analysis, read the balanced chemical equation like 2 moles KClO3 on de-
composition gives 3 moles O2 and 2 moles KCl and from the stoichiometry of reaction, it can be
written as:
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 23

moleof KClO3 moleof KCl moleof O2


= =
2 2 3

Now for any general balance chemical equation like

aA+bB→cC+dD
we can write.
mole of A reacted mole of B reacted mole of C produced mole of D produced
= = =
a b c d

Exmple :

367.5 gm of KClO3 when heated how many moles KCl and O2 is produced.

Solution:
The reaction is

2KClO3 → 2KCl + 3O2


moleof KClO3 reacted moleof KCl produced
=
2 2
3 moleof KCl produced
=
2 2
Moles of KCl produced = 3
Similarly, mole of O2 produced = 4.5 mol

Example :

CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O

What conclusions can be drawn from the reaction?

Solution:
Following conclusions can be drawn from above reaction by observing its stoichiometry
1. One mole of CH4(g) reacts with two moles of O2 (g) to give one mole of CO2 (g) and two moles
of H2O(g).
2. One molecule of CH4 (g) reacts with 2 molecues of O2 (g) to give one molecule of CO2 (g) and
2 molecules of H2O (g)
3. 22.4 L of CH4 (g) reacts with 44.8 L of O2 (g) to give 22.4L of CO2 (g) and 44.8 L of H2O (g)

4. 16 g CH4(g) reacts with 2 × 32 g of O2 (g) to give 44 g of CO2 (g) and 2 × 18 g of H2O (g).
24 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Principle of Atom Conservation (POAC)

POAC is based on the law of mass conservation where it states that if atoms are conserved, moles
of atoms shall also be conserved, thereby the mass of atoms will also be conserved.

(No need of balancing the chemical equation)

Consider the decomposition of KClO3 (s) → KCl (s) + O2(g)

Apply the principle of atom conservation (POAC) for K atoms.

Moles of K atoms in reactant = moles of K atoms in product

or moles of K atoms in KClO3 = moles of K atoms in KCl.

Now, since 1 molecule of KClO3 contains 1 atom of K

or 1 mole of KClO3 contains 1 mole of K, similarly 1 mole of KCl contains 1 mole of K.

Thus, moles of K atoms in KClO3 = 1 × moles of KClO3


and moles of K atoms in KCl = 1 × moles of KCl.
∴ moles of KClO3 = moles of KCl
weight of KClO3 weight of KCl
1  1
molecular mass of KClO3 molecular mass of KCl

Again, applying the principle of atom conservation for O atoms,


moles of O in KClO3 = 3 × moles of KClO3
moles of O in O2 = 2 × moles of O2
\ 3 × moles of KClO3 = 2 × moles of O2
weight of KClO3 weight of O2
or 3 ×  2
molecular mass of KClO3 molecular mass of O2

Example :

27.6 g K2CO3 was treated by a series of reagents so as to convert all of its carbon to K2Zn3 [Fe(CN)6]2.
Calculate the weight of the product. [mol. wt. of K2CO3 = 138 and mol. wt. of K2Zn3[Fe(CN)6]2 = 698]

Solution:
Here, we are not aware of the series of chemical reactions but we know about the initial reactant and
final product. According to this, write down the reaction as:
series of reagents
K 2CO3  K 2 Zn3[Fe(CN)6 ]2

Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 25

Since C atoms are conserved, applying POAC for C atoms,

moles of C in K2CO3 = moles of C in K2Zn3[Fe(CN)6]2

1 × moles of K2CO3 = 12 × moles of K2Zn3[Fe(CN)6]2

weight of K 2CO3 weight of K 2 Zn3[Fe(CN)6 ]2


 1  12 
molecular weight of K 2CO3 molecular weight of K 2CO3

wt. of K2Zn3[Fe(CN)6]2 = 11.6 g
Limiting reagent

The reactant which is consumed first limits the amount of product formed into the reaction, and is,
therefore, called limiting reagent and the remaining or left out reactant is called the excess reagent.

Limiting reagent is present in the least stoichiometric amount and therefore controls the amount of
product. When you are dealing with a balanced chemical equation then if the number of moles of
reactants are not in the ratio of the stoichiometric coefficient of a balanced chemical equation, then
there should be one reactant that should be a limiting reactant.

Example :

Three mole of Na2CO3 is reacted with 6 moles of HCl solution. Find the volume of CO2 gas pro-
duced at STP. The reaction is

Na2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O

Solution:
From the reaction :   Na2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O

Given moles     3 mol 6 mol

Given mole ratio   1 : 2

Stoichiometric coefficient ratio  1 : 2

As per the given balanced equation; given moles of reactant are in the stoichiometric coeffi-
cient ratio therefore no reactants are left.

Moles of Na2CO3 reacted = mole of CO2 produced

Moles of CO2 produced = 3


volume of CO2 produced at NTP = 3 × 22.4 L = 67.2 L
26 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Example :
6 moles of Na2CO3 is reacted with 4 moles of HCl solution. Find the volume of CO2 gas produced
at STP. The reaction is
Na2CO3 + 2HCl → 2 NaCl + CO2 + H2O

Solution:
From the reaction :     Na2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O
given mole of reactant 6 : 4
give molar ratio      3 : 2
Stoichiometric coefficient ratio 1 : 2
You must observe here that the number of moles of reactants given here are not in the stoi-
chiometric coefficient ratio. Therefore, there should be one reactant that is consumed first and
becomes a limiting reagent.
But the question is how to find which reactant is limiting, it is not very difficult. You can easily
find it according to the following method.

  Note:
HOW TO FIND LIMITING REAGENT :
In a balanced chemical reaction, you have to divide the moles of the reactant by its
stoichiometric coefficient
 moleof reac tan t 
 
 stoichiometriccoefficient 
and which value is lowest that will be the limiting reagent for that reaction. In this
reaction, HCl is limiting reagent.
Mole of CO2 produced = 2 mol
Volume of CO2 produced at S.T.P. = 2 × 22.4 = 44.8 L.

In-Chapter Exercise -4

1. How many grams of Fe2O3 is formed by heating 18 gm FeO with Oxygen.


4FeO + O2 → 2Fe2O3
2. How many litre of O2 at N.T.P. is required for complete combustion of 1 mole C5H10.
3. A compound used as a photographic developer, is 65.4%C, 5.5% H, and 29.1%O, by mass.
What is the empirical formula of that compound ?
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 27

4. 0.32 mole of LiAlH4 in ether solution was placed in a flask and 74 g (1 moles) of t-butyl alcohol
was added. The product is LiAlHC12H27O3. Find the weight of the product if lithium atoms are
conserved.
[Li = 7, Al = 27, H = 1, C = 12, O = 16]
5. Six moles of Phosphorus is reacted with 4 moles of iodine to form PI3 according to the reaction
P + I2 → PI3, PI3 formed in the above reaction is further reacted with 54 g of water. According
to the reaction.PI3 + H2O → H3PO3 + HI, HI formed in the above reaction is collected in the
gaseous form. At higher temperature HI dissociated 50% then find the molecules of H2 gas
liberated as HI → H2 + I2

Concentration Terms
1. Strength of Solution
The concentration of solution in gram/litre is said to be strength of solution.
(a) A 65% solution has the following meanings
65% by weight i.e. 100 gm solution contain 65 gm solute
65% by volume i.e. 100 ml of solution contain 65 ml solute
65% by strength i.e. 100 ml of solution contain 65 gm solute
If, anything is not specified, 65% generally mean 65% by mass
(b) For concentrated acids, like 98% H2SO4, 65% HNO3 etc, if anything is not specified, then
percentage by mass/volume is usually considered.
(c) For the calculation of strength (% w/w, %w/v etc), the solute must be completely dissolved
into the solution, otherwise, the given terminologies will be invalid.

Example :
The specific gravity of gold is 18.3 gm/cm3, if we add 183 gm gold powder in 1 litre of water, find
its % w/w.
Solution:
183
% w/w = x 100 = 15.47 is appears to be correct, but gold is not dissolved in water, so, its
1000 + 183
% w/w in water cannot be calculated.
2. Molarity (M)
The number of moles of a solute dissolved in 1 L of the solution is known as the molarity of the
solution.
number of moles of solute
i.e., Molarity of solution =
volumeof solution (litre)
28 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Let a solution be prepared by dissolving w gm of the solute of mol.wt. M in V ml water.


w
Number of moles of solute dissolved =
M
w
V ml water have mole of solute,
M
1000 mL water have
w 1000
Molarity (M) 
Msolute .V(ml )

Number of millimoles = (Molarity of solution × V in mL) (molarity decreases as temperature
increases.)
1 1
Molarity α α
Temperature Volume
• Dilution Rule:

(i) If a particular solution having volume V1 and molarity = M1 is diluted to V2 mL

then M1V1 = M2V2; M2 is Resultant molarity of solution


(ii) If a solution having volume V1 and molarity M1 is mixed with another solution of

same solute having volume V2 mL and molarity M2, then M1V1 + M2V2 = MR(V1 +
V2)
MR = Resultant molarity
M1V1  M2 V2
MR 
(V1  V2 )

Example :

298 gm of potassium chloride (KCl) is dissolved in 10 L of an aqueous solution. Determine the


molarity of the solution (K = 39, Cl = 35.5)

Solution:
Molecular mass of KCl = 39 + 35.5 = 74.5 gm/mol
Moles of KCl = 298/74.5 = 4 mol
Molarity of the solution = 4/10 = 0.4 M
Molality (M)

The number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 kg of a solvent is known as the molality of the solution.
moles of solute
i.e., molality =
weight of solvent (kg )
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 29

Example :
225 gm of an aqueous solution contains 10 gm of urea. What is the concentration of the solution in
terms of molality. (Mol. wt. of urea = 60)
Solution:
Mass of urea = 10 gm
Molecular mass of urea = 60
Number of moles of urea = = 0.167
Mass of solvent = (225 – 10) = 215 gm
Molality of the solution = 0.167/0.215= 0.7767

Mole Fraction (x)

The ratio of the number of moles of the solute or solvent present in the solution and the total num-
ber of moles present in the solution is known as the mole fraction of substances concerned.

Let number of moles of soute in solution = n


Number of moles of solvent in solution = N
n
\ Mole fraction of solution (x1) 
Nn
N
\ Mole fraction of solvent (x2) 
Nn
Also, x1 + x2 = 1

Example :
A solution contains 2.5 mol of ethanol (C2H5OH) and 7.5 mol of H2O. Calculate the mole fraction
of each component of the solution.
Solution:
n2 2. 5 2. 5
ethanol     0.25
n1  n2 2.5  7.5 10
H2O  1  0.25  0.75

% Calculation
The concentration of a solution may also expressed in terms of percentage in the following way.

(i) % weight by weight (w/w): It is given as mass of solute present in per 100 gm of solution.
mass of solute in gm
i.e., % w/ w   100
mass of solutionin gm
30 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

(ii) % weight by volume (w/v) : It is given as mass of solute present in per 100 ml of solution.
mass of solute in gm
i.e., % w/ v  100
volume of solutionin mL

(iii) % volume by volume (V/V) : It is given as volume of solute present in per 100 ml solution.
volume of solute in mL
i.e., %V / V  100
volume of solutionin mL

Normality

It is defined as the number of gram equivalents of the solute in 1 L of the solution and is denoted
by N. Thus,
Number of gram equivalent of the solute
Normality (N) =
Volume of solution in litres

Mass of solute (W2 )


Gram equivalent =
Equivalent mass of the solute (Ew 2 )

Molar mass of the solute (Mw 2 )


Equivalent mass (or weight) of solute =
n
Here, n is the basicity of an acid or acidity of a base or total positive or negative charge of an
ionic compound or number of electrons involved in a redox reaction (called n factor or va-
lency factor)
• Basicity of an acid : It is the number of replaceable H+ ion.
For example,
HCl is monobasic acid, n = 1, one H+ ion is replaceable.
H2SO4 is dibasic acid, n = 2, two H+ ions are replaceable.
• Acidity of base: It is the number of replaceable OH– ions.
For example,
NaOH is monoacidic base, n = 1, one OH– ion is replaceable.
 Formulae of Normality (N)
Number of gram equivalent of the solute
N=
Volume of solution in litres

W2 W2
 
E w2  Vsol (in L) V in mL
E w2  sol
1000
W2  1000 W2 1000
 
E w2  Vsol (in L) Mw 2
 Vsol (in mL)
n
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 31

W2  1000
 n  nM
Mw 2  Vsol (in mL)

N = n × M.

Here, W2 is the weight of solute, Mw2 is the molecular weight of solute, Vsol is the volume of

solution, Ew2 is the equivalent weight of solute.

• Normality equations: If a solution having normality N1 and volume V1 is diluted to vol-


ume V2, so that the new normality is N2, then the number of gram equivalents- will re-
main the same in the solution.

N1 × V1 = N2 × V2

This equation is called normality equation.

For the neutralisation of V1 mL of an acid with molarity M1 and basicity na by V2 mL of a


base with molarity M2 and acidity nb.
naM1V1 = nbM2V2

Example :

Calculate the molarity (M) and normality (N) of a solution of oxalic acid [(COOH)2.2H2O] con-
taining 12.6g of the acid in 500 mL of the solution.

Solution:
Molar mass of (COOH)2.2H2O = 2(12 + 32 + 1) + 2(18)
= 90 + 36 = 126 g
Molar mass
Equivalent mass of (COOH)2.2H2O =
n
126
= = 63g
2
+
(n = 2, since two H ions are replacable, i.e., dibasic acid)
W2  1000 12.6  1000
M   0.02M
Mw 2  Vsol (in mL) 126  500

W2  1000 12.6  1000
N   0. 4 N
Ew 2  Vsol (in mL) 63  500

(Alternatively, N = n × M = 2 × 0.2 = 0.4N)
32 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Parts Per Million (ppm)


It is defined as the mass of solute dissolved in 1 millionth part (106) of the mass of solution. It is
denoted by ppm. Thus,
Mass of solute  106 W2 106
ppm  
Mass of solution Wsol

  Note:
Temperature dependent Temperature independent
w/V% Mole fraction
V/V% molality
Molarity w/w/%
Normality ppm

In-Chapter Exercise -5

1. Calculate the number of oxalic acid molecules in 100 mL of 0.02 N oxalic acid.

2. Calculate the normality of the resulting solution made by adding 2 drops (0.1 mL) of 0.1N

H2SO4 in 1 litre of distilled water.

3. An aqueous solution of diabasic acid (molecular mass = 118) containing 35.4 g of acid per litre
of the solution has density 1.0077 g mL–1.

Express the concentration in as many ways as you can?

4. A solution contains 410.3g H2SO4 per litre of the solution at 20°C. If the density = 1.243g mL­–1,
what will be its molality and molarity?
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 33

Points To Remember

  1. 1 mol = 6.022 × 1023 molecules = 6.022 × 1023 atoms = 6.022 × 1023 ions

  2. Molecular formula = n × empirical formula

w Weight of solute
  3. %  100%
w Weight of solution

V Volume of solute
 4. %  100%
V Volume of solution

w Weight of solute
  5. %  100%
V Volume of solution

Moles of solute
  6. M =
Volume of solution (in L)

Moles of solute
  7. m =
Mass of solvent (in kg )

Moles of solute
  8. Mole fraction of solute 
Moles of solute  molesof solvent

Number of gram equivalent (solute)


  9. N =
Volume of solution (in L)

Mass of solute
  10. ppm  106
Mass of solution
34 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Solved Examples 1 mol NH3(g) = 17.0 g NH3(g)


17.0 g NH3 (g )
1. 50.0 kg of N2 (g) and 10.0 kg of H2 (g) are 3.30 × 103 mol NH3 (g ) ×
1 mol NH3 (g )
mixed to produce NH3 (g). Calculate the
amount of NH3 (g) formed. Identify the = 3.30 × 103 × 17 g NH3(g)
limiting reagent in the production of NH3 = 56.1 × 103 g NH3
in this situation. = 56.1 kg NH3

Sol. A balanced equation for the above reaction 2. A solution is prepared by adding 2 g of a
is written as follows substance A to 18 g of water. Calculate the
 mass percent of the solute.
N2 (g ) + 3H2 (g ) 
 2 NH3 (g )
Mass of A
Sol. Mass percent of A  100
Calculation of moles : Mass of solution
2g
Number of moles of N2   100
2g of A  18g of water
1000 g H2 1 mol N2
 50.0 kg N 2   2g
1 kg H2 28.0 g N2   100
20 g

= 17.86 × 102 mol = 10%
According to the above equation, 1 mol
3. The density of 3 M solution of NaCl is 1.25
N2 (g) requires 3 mol H2 (g), for the reac- g mL–1. Calculate the molality of the solu-
tion. tion.
Hence, for 17.86×102 mol of N2, the moles Sol. M = 3 mol L–1
of H2 (g) required would bet
Mass of NaCl in 1 L solution = 3 × 58.5 =
3mol H2 (g )
17.86 × 102 mol N2 × 175.5 g
1 mol N2 (g )

= 5.36 ×103 mol H2 Mass of 1L solution = 1000 × 1.25 = 1250 g
(since density = 1.25 g mL–1)
But we have only 4.96 × 103 mol H2. Hence,
dihydrogen is the limiting reagent in this Mass of water in solution = (1250 –75.5)g
case. So, NH3(g) would be formed only
= 1074.5 g
from that amount of available dihydrogen
i.e., 4.96 × 103 mol No. of moles of solute
Molality =
Mass of solvent in kg
Since, 3 mol H2(g) gives 2 mol NH3(g)
2 mol NH3 (g ) 3 mol
4.96 × 103 mol H2 (g ) × = = 2.79 m
3 mol H2 (g ) 1.0745 kg

= 3.30 × 103 mol NH3 (g) 4. Calculate the concentration of nitric acid
3
3.30 × 10 mol NH3(g) is obtained. in moles per litre in a sample which has a
If they are to be converted to grams, it is density, 1.41 g mL–1 and the mass per cent
done as follows : of nitric acid in it being 69%
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 35

Sol. Mass percent of nitric acid in the sample = Ratio of iron to oxygen in the oxide,
69%. Thus, 100 g of nitric acid contains 69g = 1.25 : 1.88
of nitric acid by mass. Molar mass of nitric 1.25 1.88
= :
acid (HNO3) 1.25 1.25
–1
= {1 + 14 + 3(16)} g mol = 1 : 1.5
–1 =2:3
= (1 + 14 + 48)g mol
= 63 g mol–1 \ The empirical formula of the oxide is
Fe2O3.
\ Number of moles in 69g of HNO3
Empirical formula mass of Fe2O3 =
69g [2(55.85) + 3(16.00)] g = 159.7 g

63g mol 1
Molar mass of Fe2O3 = 159.69 g
= 1.095 mol Molar mass 159.69g
n  
Volume of 100g of nitric acid solution Empricial formula mass 159.7g

Mass of solution =0.999
=
density of solution = 1(approx)

100g Molecular formula of a compound is obtained

1.41g mL1
by multiplying the empirical formula with n.
= 70.92 mL = 70.92 × 10–3 L
Thus, the empirical formula of the given oxide is
Concentration of nitric acid Fe2,O3 and n is 1.
1.095 mol Hence, the molecular formula of the oxide is

70.92  103 L Fe2O3.
= 15.44 mol/L 6. The following data are obtained when dini-
\ Concentration of nitric acid = 15.44 trogen and dioxygen react together to form
mol/L different compounds:
5. Determine the molecular formula of an ox- Mass of dinitrogen Mass of dioxygen
ide of iron, in which the mass per cent of
(i) 14 g 16 g
iron and oxygen are 69.9 and 30.1, respec-
tively. (ii) 14 g 32 g

Sol. Mass percent of iron (Fe) = 69.9% (iii) 28 g 32 g

Mass percent of oxygen (O) = 30.1% (iv) 28 g 80 g

Number of moles of iron present in the ox- (a) Which law of chemical combination
69.90 is obeyed by the above experimental
ide = = 1.25
55.85 data? Give its statement.
Number of moles of oxygen present in the
30.1 (b) Fill in the blanks in the following
oxide = = 1.88 conversions:
16.0
36 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

(i) 1 km = ................ mm = ...................... pm 7. Calculate the molarity of a solution of etha-


(ii) 1 mg = ...................... kg = ................... ng nol in water, in which the mole fraction of
(iii) 1 mL = ...................... L = .................dm3 ethanol is 0.040 (assume the density of wa-
Sol. ter to be one).
(a) If we fix the mass of dinitrogen at 28g, Sol. Mole fraction of C2H5 OH
then the masses of dioxygen that Number of moles C 2 H5OH
will combine with the fixed mass of Number of moles of solution
dinitrogen are 32g, 64g, 32g, and 80g.
nC2H5OH
The masses of dioxygen bear a whole num- 0.040 
nC2H5OH  n H2O
ber ratio of 1 : 2 : 1 : 5. Hence, the given .......(i)
experimental data obeys the law of multi- Number of moles present in 1L water:
ple proportions. The law states that if two 1000g
n H2 O 
elements combine to form more than one 18g mol 1
compound, then the masses of one element n H2O = 55.55 mol

that combines with the fixed mass of anoth-
er element are in the ratio of small whole Substituting the value of n H2O in equation
(i),
numbers.
1000m 100cm 10mm nC2H5OH
(b) (i) 1km  1km     0.040
1km 1m 1cm nC2H5OH  55.55
\ 1 km = 106­ mm

1000m 1pm nC2H5OH  0.040 nC2H5OH  (0.040)(55.55)


1km  1km  
1km 1012 m
0.96nC2H5OH = 2.222 mole

\ 1 km = 1015 pm
2.222
Hence, 1 km = 106 mm = 1015 pm nC2H5OH = mole
0.96
1g 1kg
(ii) 1mg  1mg  
nC2H5OH = 2.314 mole
1000mg 1000g

 1 mg  106 kg
2.314 mol
\ 1mg = 10–6 kg = 106 ng \ Molarity of solution =
1L
1L = 2.314 M
(iii) 1mL  1mL 
1000mL
 1 mL  103 L 8. Chlorine is prepared in the laboratory by

1dm × 1dm × 1dm treating manganese dioxide (MnO2) with


1 mL = 1 cm3 = 1 cm3 × aqueous hydrochloric acid according to the
10cm × 10cm × 10cm
 1 mL  103 dm 3 reaction
4HCl(aq) + MnO2(s) → 2H2O(l) + MnCl2(aq)
\ 1 mL = 10–3 L = 10–3 dm3 + Cl2 (g)
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 37

How many grams of HCl react with 5.0 g of Sol: (V.D.)A = 4 (V.D.)B
manganese dioxide?
M
(V.D.)B = B …(1)
Sol. 1 mol [55 + 2 × 10 = 87g] MnO2 reacts 2
completely with 4 mol [4 × 36.5 = 146g] of MA
(V.D.)A =   …(2)
HCL. 2
MA MB
\ 5.0 g of MnO2 will react with = ×4
2 2
146g MA = 4M 
  5. 0g
87g
12. What quantity (in mL) of a 45% acid solu-
= 8.4 g of HCl tion of a mono-protic strong acid must be
mixed with a 20% solution of the same acid
Hence, 8.4 g of HCl will react completely
to produce 800 mL of a 29.875% acid solu-
with 5.0 g of manganese dioxide.
tion?
9. The element whose atom has mass of 10.86
A. 320 B. 325
× 10-26 kg is
C. 316 D. 330
A. Boron B. Calcium
Sol: 45 ml of acid in 100 ml solution=45%
C. Silver D. Zinc
Final solution = 29.875 ml acid in 100 ml
Sol: atomic mass of the given element solution.
23 -26
=6.023 × 10 × 10.86 × 10 kg Considering ‘V’ volume of 45% acid is
=65.4 × 10-3 kg mixed with (800-V) volume of 20% solution. 
=65.4 g Since, mixture of a 45% acid solution of
The element whose atom has mass of 10.86 a mono-protic strong acid is mixed with
× 10-26 kg is zinc.
a 20% solution of the same acid to pro-
10. The hydrated salt Na2SO4.nH2O, undergoes duce 800 mL of a 29.875% acid solution.
55% loss in weight on heating and becomes Volume of the total mixture= 800 x 29.875
anhydrous. The value of n will be
hence, 45(V) + 20(800-V) = 800 x 29.875
A. 5 B. 3
or 45V +16000 -20V = 23900
C. 7 D. 10 or 25V = 7900
or V = 316 mL
55 18n
Sol: H2O% = = = n= 10
100 142 + 18n Hence, option 3 is correct.
11. The vapour density of gas A is four times
13. Equal volumes of 0.50 M of HCl, 0.25 M of
that of B. If molecular mass of B is M, then NaOH and 0.75 M of NaCl are mixed. The
molecular mass of A is - molarity of the NaCl solution is -
A. M B. 4M A. 0.75 M B. 1/3 M
M
C.  D. 2M C. 0.50 M D. 2.00 M
4
38 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Sol:     HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O C. 72.0 mL D. None of these


Initial   0.5 0.25 0.75 Sol: % m/v =  (mass of solute (g)) / volume of
Equilibrium 0.25  0    1 solution (ml) X 100

Total V = 3 L as mass of solute = 1.80 g

M = 1/3 % m/v = 1.8/volume X 100 = 2.5


therefore, volume = 1.8 X 100 / 2.5 = 72 ml
14. A definite amount of gaseous hydrocar-
bon having (carbon atoms less than 5) was 17. 20 mL solution containing 0.1 M Na2CO3,0.15
burnt with sufficient amount of O2. The M NaOH and 0.20 M  NaHCO3 is titrated
volume of all reactants was 600 mL, after with 25 mL of HCl solution using
the explosion the volume of the products
phenolphthalein indicator, then what will
[CO2(g) and H2O(g)] was found to be 700
mL under the similar conditions. The mo- be the strength of HCl in molarity.
lecular formula of the compound is A. 0.1 M B. 0.15 M
A. C3H8 B. C3H6
C. 0.4 M D. 0.2 M
C. C3H4 D. C4H10 1
Sol:   eq. of  Na2CO3 + eq. of NaOH =  eq. of
Sol: According to Avogadro's hypothesis, 2
n ∝ V (at same temperature and pressure) HCl
1
CxHy + (x + y/4)O2→xCO2 + y/2H2O × 20 × 0.2 + 20 × 0.15 = 25 × N
2
Ratio of (x + y/4 + 1)/(x + y/2) = 6/7
N = 0.2 and molarity = 0.2
7 + x = 5y/4
18. Given the numbers: 161 cm,
hence, x = 3 and y = 8. 0.161cm,0.0161cm. the number of signifi-
15. When water is removed from Na2CO3 on cant figures for the three numbers are:
heating looses 33.8% of its mass. What is A. 3,4,5 B. 3,3,3
the correct number of water molecules in
hydrate? C. 3,3,4 D. 3,4,4

A. 10 B. 7 Sol: Zeroes placed left to the number are never

C. 5 D. 3 significant. Therefore, the number of sig-


nificant figures for the number 161, 0.161
Sol: Mass of Na2CO3 = 23 x 2 + 12 + 16 x 3 = 106
and 0.0161 are 3, 3, 3 respectively.
Mass of H2O = 18
Let number of water molecules be x 19. What is the correct scientific notation for
0.00016 ?
18 x = 33.8/100 (106 + 18 x)
A. 1.6 × 10-4 B. 16 × 10-5
1191.6 x = 3582.8
C. 0.16 × 10-3 D. All are correct.
x=3
Sol: Move the decimal places 4 times towards the
16. Volume of 2.50% (m/v) salt solution that
would contain 1.80 g of salt? right to reach 1.6 (the number now lies be-
tween 0 and 10. Accordingly add the powers
A. 105 mL B. 104 mL
of 10. Hence A is the correct answer.
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 39

EXERCISE-1
Single Correct Answer Type moles of Ba3(PO4)2 that can be formed is
1. 10 g of CaCO3 contains A. 0.1 B. 0.2
A. 10 moles of CaCO3 C. 0.5 D. 0.7
B. 0.1 g atom of Ca 7. Upon mixing 50.0 mL of 0.1 M lead ni-
C. 6 × 102 atoms of Ca trate solution with 50 mL of 0.05 M chro-
D. 0.1 of equivalent of Ca mic sulphate solution, precipitation of lead
2. Two glucose solutions are mixed. One has sulphate solution takes place. How many
moles of lead sulphate are formed and what
a volume of 480 mL and a concentration of
is the molar concentration of chromic sul-
1.50 M and the second has a volume of 520
phate left in the solution?
mL and concentration 1.20 M. The molar-
A. 0.005, 0.0084 B. 0.0084, 0.005
ity of final solution is
C. 0.005, 0.00084 D. 0.05, 00084
A. 1.20 M B. 1.50 M
C. 1.344 M D. 2.70 M 8. One litre of 0.15 M HCl and one litre of 0.3 M
3. How many moles of ferric alum HCl is given. What is the maximum volume
(NH4)2SO4Fe2(SO4)3.24H2O can be made
of 0.2 M HCl which one can make from these
from the sample of Fe containing 0.0056 g
of it? two solutions? (No water is added.)
A. 10–4 mol B. 0.5 × 10–4 mol A. 1.2 L B. 1.5 L
C. 0.33 × 10–4 mol D. 2 × 10–4 mol C. 1.3 L D. 1.4 L
4. In an experiment, 6.67 g of AlCl3 was pro- 9. The molarity of H SO is 18 M. Its density
2 4
duced and 0.54 g of Al remained unreacted.
is 1.8 g mL–1. Hence, molality is:
How many g atoms of Al and Cl2 were tak-
en originally (Al = 27, Cl = 35.5)? A. 36 B. 200
A. 0.07, 0.15 B. 0.07, 0.05 C. 500 D. 18
C. 0.02, 0.05 D. 0.02, 0.15 10. When 10 mL of ethyl alcohol (density =
5. A gaseous mixture contains O2 and N2 in 0.7893 g mL–1) is mixed with 20 mL of wa-
the ratio of 1 : 4 by weight. The ratio of their ter (density 0.9971 g mL–1) at 25°C, the fi-
number of molecules is
nal solution has a density of 0.9571 g mL–1.
A. 1 : 4 B. 1 : 8 The percentage change in total volume on
C. 7 : 32 D. 3 : 16 mixing is
6. If 0.5 moles of BaCl2 is mixed with 0.20 A. 3.1% B. 2.4%
mole of Na3PO4, the maximum number of C. 1% D. None of these
40 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

11. The molality of 1 L solution with x% H2SO4 is A. 75%, –1/2 B. 75%, –1


equal to 9. The weight of the solvent present C. 50%, –1/3 D. 50%, –1/4
in the solution is 910 g. The value of x is
16. The expression relating mole fraction of
A. 90 B. 80.3
solute (M) of the solution is: (where d is
C. 40.13 D. 9
the density of the solution in g L–1 and Mw1
12. An organic compound contains 4% sul- and Mw2 are the molar masses of solvent
phate. Its minimum molecular weight is
and solute, respectively
A. 200 B. 400 M  Mw1
A. x 2 
M(Mw1  Mw 2 )  1000d
C. 800 D. 1600
M  Mw
B. x 2  M(Mw  Mw )  d
1
13. A hydrate of Na2SO3 has 50% water by
1 2
mass. It is M  Mw
C. x 2  M(Mw  Mw )  1000d
1

A. Na2SO3.5H2O B. Na2SO3.6H2O 1 2

M  Mw
D. x 2  M(Mw  Mw )  d
1
C. Na2SO3.7H2O D. Na2SO3.2H2O
1 2

14. Mole fraction of ethanol in ethanol-water 17. Calculate the number of oxygen atoms re-
mixture is 0.25. Hence, the percentage con- quired to combine with 7.0 g of N2 to form
centration of ethanol by weight of mixture
N2O3 if 80% of N2 is converted into prod-
is ucts.
A. 25% B. 75% 3
N 2  O2  N 2 O3
2
C. 46% D. 54%
A. 3.24 × 1023 B. 3.6 × 1023
15. To 1 L of 1.0 M impure H2SO4 sample, 1.0
M NaOH solution was added and a plot C. 18 × 1023 D. 6.02 × 1023
was obtained as follows: 18. 36.5% HCl has density equal to 1.20 g mL–1.
The molarity (M) and molarity (m). respec-
tively, are
A. 15.7, 15.7 B. 12, 12
C. 15.7, 12 D. 12, 15.7

19. If 100 mL of H2SO4 and 100 mL of H2O are


mixed, the mass percent of H2SO4 in the
resulting solution is (dH2SO4 = 0.09 g mL–1,
dH2O = 1.0 g mL–1)
The % purity of H2SO4 and the slope of
A. 90 B. 47.36
curve, respectively, are:
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 41

C. 50 D. 60 26. Consider the ionisation of H2SO4 as follow-


20. The total number of electrons in one mol- H2SO4  2H2O  2H3O  SO24

ecule of carbon dioxide is
A. 22 B. 44 The total number of ions furnished by 100
mL of 0.1 M H2SO4 will be
C. 66 D. 88
A. 1.2 × 1023
21. A molal solution is one that contains 1 mol
of a solute in B. 0.12 × 1023
A. 1000 g of solvent C. 0.18 × 1023
B. 1 L of solvent D. 1.8 × 1023

C. 1 L of solution 27. From 200 mg of CO2, 1021 molecules are


removed. How many grams and moles of
D. 22.4 L of solution.
CO2 are left.
22. At 100°C and 1 atm, if the density of the
A. 0.0032 mol
liquid water is 1.0 g cm–3 and that of wa-
ter vapour is 0.0006 g cm–3, then the vol- B. 0.0028 mol
ume occupied by water molecular in 1 L of C. 0.0140 mol
steam at this temperature is D. 0.0048 mol
A. 6 cm3 B. 60 cm3
28. Calculate the mass of carbon present in 0.1
C. 0.6 cm3 D. 0.06 cm3 mole of sodium ferricyanide Na3[Fe(CN)6].
23. How many moles of electron weigh 1 kg? A. 9.635 × 1021
1 31 B. 9.635 × 1022
A. 6.023 × 1023 B. 9.108 ×10
6.023 C. 9.635 × 1024
C. × 1054 D .
9.108
1 D. 9.635 × 1023
× 108
9.108 × 6.023 29. 20 mg of K+ ions are present in 1 L of aque-
24. Given the abundance of isotopes 54Fe, 56Fe ous solution. Density of the solution is 0.8 g
and 57Fe is 5%, 90%, and 5%, respectively. mL–1. What is the concentration of K+ ions
The atomic mass of Fe is in ppm?
A. 55.85 B. 55.95 A. 25 ppm
C. 55.75 D. 55.05 B. 30 ppm
25. Express the result of the following data to C. 20 ppm
the appropriate number of significant fig- D. 35 ppm
ures.
30. Calculate the number of Cl– and Ca2+ ions
4.84 × 0.0744
in 222 g anhydrous CaCl2.
6.016
A. 0.059885 B. 0.0599 A. 6N, 2N B. 4N, 2N

C. 0.0598 D. 0.05988 C. 2N, 6N D. 2N, 4N


42 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

EXERCISE-2
Multiple Correct Answer Type C. Dalton proposed the law of multiple
1. Which of the statements are true? proportions.

A. Law of constant composition is true D. Richter proposed the law of reciprocal


for all types of compounds. proportions.
B. Molar volume of a gas at standard 5. Which of the following pair of compounds
conditions is 22.4 L.
illustrate the law of multiple proportins?
C. Vapour density of a gas is twice of its
molecular mass. A. SO2 and SO3
D. Atomic mass of most of the elements is B. NO2 and N2O
fractional. C. MgO and Mg(OH)2
2. Two bulbs A and B contain 16 g O2 and 16g
D. NO and N2O5
O3, respectively. Which of the statements
are true? 6. Which of the following statements is/are
A. Both bulbs contain same number of wrong?
atoms.
The following reactions occur:
B. Both bulbs contain different number
of atoms. i. P4  5O2  P4 O10 .

C. Both bulbs contain same number of ii. P4  3O2  P4 O6 .


molecules. 1.24 g of P4 reacts with 8.0 g of O2.
D. Bulb A contain NA/2 molecules while A. P4 is the limiting quantity.
bulb B contains NA/3 molecules. (NA = B. O2 is the limiting quantity
Avogadro's number).
C. Mass of P4O10 obtained is 2.2 g.
3. Which of the following have same signifi- D. Mass of P4O6 obtained is 2.84 g.
cant figures? 7. Which of the following is/are correct?
A. 6.02 × 1023 B. 7.70 × 10–20 The following reaction occurs:
C. 7.50 D. 0.75 Na 2 CO3  2HCl  2NaCl  CO2  H2 O

4. Which of the following statements are cor- 106.0 g of Na2CO3 reacts with 109.5 g of HCl.
rect? A. The HCl is in excess.
A. French chemist A. Lavoisier is called B. 117.0 g of NaCl is formed.
the father of chemistry and proposed C. The volume of CO2 produced at 1 bar
the law of conservation of mass. and 273 K is 22.7 L.
B. French chemist Joseph Proust proposed D. The volume of CO2 produced at 1 bar
the law of definite proportions. and 298 K is 24.7 L.
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 43

8. Which of the following solutions contains C. 45.6 g of Ba(ClO3)2 is obtained.


same molar concentration? D. 4.56 g of Ba(ClO3)2 is obtained.
A. 166 g KI/L solution
12. An excellent solution for cleaning grease
B. 33.0 g (NH4)2SO4 in 200 mL solution stains from cloth or leather consists of the
C. 25.0 g CuSO4.5H2O in 100 mL solution following components: CCl4 (80% by vol-
D. 27.0 mg Al3+ per mL solution. ume), ligroin (16%), and amyl alcohol (4%).
How many mL of each should be taken to
9. Which of the following has equal mass of
Cl– ions in 1.0 L of each of the following make up 800 mL of solution?
solutions? A. 64 mL CCl4
A. 5% NaCl (density = 1.07 g mL–1) B. 12.8 mL ligroin
B. 5% KCl (d = 1.06 g mL–1) C. 32 mL of amyl alcohol
D. 3.2 mL of amyl alcohol
C. 58.5 g NaCl
13. 100 mL of 0.06 M Ca(NO3)2 is added to 50
D. 55.5 g BaCl2 mL of 0.06 M Na2C2O4. After the reaction
10. Which of the following statements is /are is complete.
correct? A. 0.003 moles of calcium oxalate will get
Excess of H2S(g) is bubbled into 1.0 L of 0.1 precipitated.
M CuCl2 solution. B. 0.003 M of excess Ca2+ will remain in
Cu 2   H2 S(g )  CuS(s)  2 H  excess.

C. Na2C2O4 is the limiting reagent.
A. 9.55 of CuS is produced.
D. Ca(NO3)2 is the excess reagent.
B. The concentration of H+ ions is 0.2 M
C. The concentration of H+ ions is 0.1 M. 14. 100 g sample of clay (containing 19% H2O,

D. 95.5 g CuS is produced 40% silica, and inert impurities as rest) is


partially dried so as to contain 10% H2O.
11. Which of the following is/are correct?
Which of the following is/are correct
100 mL of 3.0 M HClO3 reacts with excess
statement(s)?
of Ba(OH)2 according to the equation: A. The percentage of silica in it is 44.4%.
Ba(OH)2  2HClO3  Ba(ClO3 )2  2H2 O
B. The mass of partially dried clay is 90.0 g.
(Mw of Ba(ClO3)2 = 304 g mol–1) C. The percentage of inert impurity in it
A. 1.5 mol of Ba(ClO3)2 is formed. is 45.6%.
B. 3 mol of Ba(ClO3)2 is formed. D. The mass of water evaporated is 10.0 g.
44 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

EXERCISE-3
Fill in the blanks: Assertion Reasoning Type
1. Moles and g equivalents in 196 g of Ca(OH)2 In each of the following, as Assertion (A) is fol-
are.........and...........
lowed by a corresponding Reason (R). Use the
2. The residue obtained on strongly heating following keys to choose the appropriate answer.
2.76 g Ag2CO3 is.........
a. If both (A) and (R) are correct and (R)
[Ag 2 CO3 
 Ag  CO2  O3 ] is the correct explanation for (A).

Atomic mass of Ag = 108 b. If both (A) and (R) are correct but (R)
is not the correct explanation for (A).
3. The density of 1.48 mass percent calcium
c. If (A) is correct but (R) is incorrect.
hyroxide solution is 1.025 g mL–1. The vol-
d. If both (A) and (R) are in correct.
ume of 0.1 M HCl solution required to neu-
1. Assertion (A): Atomic mass of potassium
tralise 25 mL of this solution is....... is 39.
4. Three grams of salt of molecular weight 30 Reason (R): An atom of potassium is 39
times heavier than 1/12th of the mass of
is dissolved in 250 g of water. The molality
carbon atom (C)12).
of the solution is.............
2. Assertion (A): 1 g of O2 and 1 g atom of O3
5. The weight of 1 × 1022 molecules of have equal number of molecules.
CuSO4.5H2O is.................... Reason (R): Mass of 1 mol atom is equal to
True/Flase its gram atomic mass.
3. Assertion (A): The equivalent mass of an
1. If mole fraction of solute is 0.2, then molal-
element is variable.
ity will be 1.388.
Reason (R): It depends on the valency of
2. The molarity of solution obtained by mix- the element.
ing 750 mL of 0.5 M HCl with 250 mL of
4. Assertion (A): Pure water is obtained from
2M HCl will be 2.22 M.
different states of India always contains
3. The density of NH3 at 30°C and 5 atm pres- hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 1:8 by
sure is 3.417 g/L mass.

4. The molarity of water if density is 1000 kg/ Reason (R): Total mass of reactants and
m3 is (w/v) 55.555 M. products during chemical change is always
the same.
5. The molality of 1L soln of 93% H2SO4 (d is
5. Assertion (A): Calomel is a chemical com-
1.84 g/L) is 10.428 m.
pound whereas brass is a mixture.
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 45

Reason (R): Calomel always contains 5.6 4. How much Cl2 is needed to prepare 106.5 g
times as much mercury as chlorine by of NaClO3 by the above sequence?
weight. Brass can be made with widely dif- A. 284.0 g B. 213.0 g
ferent ratios of copper and zinc.
C. 142.0 g D. 71.0 g
Comprehension Type
Paragraph for Problems 1 and 2 Paragraph for Problems 5,6 and 7:

A sample of urine containing 0.3 g of urea was Cisplatin is used as an anticancer agent for the
treated with an excess of 0.2 M nitrous acid, ac- treatment of solid tumors, and it is prepared as
cording to the equation. follows:
NH2 CONH2  2HNO2  CO2  2N2  2H2 O K 2 [PtCl 4 ]  2NH3  [Pt(NH3 )2 Cl] 2KCl
Potassium tetra Cisplatin
chloro platinate ( II )
The gases produced are passed through aqueous
KOH solution and the final volume is measured. Given 83.0 g of K2[PtCl4] is reacted with 83.0 g
of NH3.
(Given, Mwurea = 60 g mol–1, molar volume of
gas at standard condition, i.e., at room tem- [Atomic weights: K = 39, Pt = 415, Cl = 35.5, N
= 14]
perature 25°C and 1 atm pressure. RTP (room
temperture pressure) also is 24.4L or 24400 mL 5. Which reactant is the limiting reagent and
mol–1) which is in excess?
Limiting Excess
1. What is the volume at RTP?
A. K2[PtCl4] NH3
A. 122 mL B. 244 mL
B. NH3 K2[PtCl4]
C. 366 mL D. 488 mL
C. None None
2. What is the volume of HNO2 consumed by
urea? D. Both Both

A. 12.5 mL B. 25 mL 6. The number of ml of K2[PtCl4] and NH3


used, respectively, are
C. 50 mL D. 75 mL
A. 0.1, 02 B. 0.2, 0.4
Paragraph for Problems 3 and 4: C. 0.3, 0.6 D. 0.03, 0.06
Consider the following series of reactions: 7. The number of mol of excess reactant is
Cl 2  2NaOH  NaCl  NaClO  H2 O A. 4.68 B. 4.78
3NaClO  2NaCl  NaClO3
C. 4.58 D. 4.48
4 NaClO3  3NaClO 4  NaCl
3. How much Cl2 is needed to prepare 122.5 g Integer Type Questions
of NaClO4 by above sequence? 1. What volume of 90% alcohol by weight (d =
A. 284.0 g B. 213.0 g 0.8 g mL–1) must be used to prepare 80 mL
C. 142.0 g D. 71.0 g of 10% alcohol by weight (d = 0.9 g mL–1)?
46 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

2. 50 mL of 1 M HCl, 100 mL of 0.5 M HNO3, ecules (d = 1.5 g L–1). All density measure-
and x mL of 5 M H2SO4 are mixed together ments are made at STP. Calculate the total
and the total volume is made upto 1.0 L number of molecules (N) present in the
with water. 100 mL of this solution exactly given sample. Report your answer in '1023
neutralises 10 mL of M/3 Al2(CO3). Calcu- N'.
late the value of x. Assume Avogadro's number as 6 × 1023.
3. A solution contains 75 mg NaCl per mL. To 7. HCl gas is passed into water, yielding a so-
what extent must it be diluted to give a so- lution of density 1.095 g mL–1 and contain-
lution of concentration 15 mg NaCl per mL ing 30% HCl by weight. Calculate the mo-
of solution. larity of the solution.
4. A person takes 6.1 g of an anta-acid tablet
comprising bicarbonate ion at 20.8%. The 8. How many mL of a solution of concentra-
volume of CO2 evolved at (1 atm and 25°C) tion 100 mg CO2+ per mL is needed to pre-
in the stomach (on neutralisation) multi- pare 10 mL of a solution of concentration
plied by a factor of '10' will be x L. Calcu- 20 mg CO2+ per mL.
lated the approximate (integer) value of x.
5. The specific gravity of a salt solution is 9. To prepare 100 g of a 92% by weight solu-
1.025. If V mL of water is added to 1.0 L of tion of NaOH, how many g of H2O is need-
this solution to make its density 1.02 g mL–1, ed?
what is value of V in mL approximately?
10. Haemoglobin contains 0.25% iron by
6. A 19.6 g of a given gaseous sample contains weight. The molecular weight of haemoglo-
2.8 g of molecules (d = 0.75 g mL–1), 11.2 g bin is 89600. Calculate the number of iron
atom per molecule of haemoglobin.
of molecules (d = 3g L–1) and 5.6 g of mol-

EXERCISE-4
Previous Year's Questions ygen (61.4%); Carbon (22.9%), Hydrogen
(10.0%); and Nitrogen (2.6%). The weight
1. A gaseous compound of nitrogen and hy-
drogen contains 12.5% (by mass) of hydro- which a 75 kg person would gain if all  1H
gen. The density of the compound relative atoms are replaced by 2H atoms is:
to hydrogen is 16. The molecular formula [JEE-MAIN 2017]
of the compound is : [JEE-MAIN 2014] A. 7.5 kg
A. NH2 B. N3H
B. 10 kg
C. NH3 D. N2H4
C. 15 kg
2. The most abundant elements by mass in
D. 37.5 kg
the body of a healthy human adult are: Ox-
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 47

3. An organic compound contains C, H and A. 0.35 B. 0.41


S. The minimum molecular weight of C. 0.48 D. 0.54
the compound containing 8% sulphur is:
(atomic weight of S=32 amu) 8. The amount of BaSO4 formed upon mixing
100 mL of 20.8% BaCl2 solution with
[JEE-MAIN 2016]
50 mL of 9.8% H2SO4 solution will be:
A. 200 g mol–1 B. 400 g mol–1
(Ba = 137, Cl = 35.5, S = 32, H = 1 and O =
C. 600 mol–1 D. 300 g mol–1 16) [JEE-MAIN 2014]
4. Experimentally it was found that a metal
A. 23.3 g B. 11.65 g
oxide has formula M0.98O. Metal M, is pre-
sent as M2+ and M3+ in its oxide. Fraction C. 30.6 g D. 33.2 g
of the metal which exists as M  would be
3+
9. The ratio of mass percent of C and H
[JEE-MAIN 2013]
of an organic compound CXHYOZ is
A. 4.08% B. 6.05% 6 : 1. If one molecule of the above
C. 5.08% D. 7.01% compound  (CXHYOZ) contains half as
5. The amount of arsenic pentasulphide that much oxygen as required to burn one
can be obtained when 35.5 g arsenic acid is molecule of compound CXHY completely
treated with excess H2S in the presence of to CO2 and H2O. The empirical formula of
conc. HCl (assuming100% conversion) is:
compound CXHYOZ is : [JEE-MAIN 2018]
[JEE-MAIN 2016]
A. C2H4O3 B. C3H6O3
A. 0.50 mol B. 0.25 mol
C. C2H4O D. C3H4O2
C. 0.125 mol D. 0.333 mol
6. An unknown chlorohydrocarbon has 3.55% 10. A + 2B + 3C  AB2C 3


of chlorine. If each molecule of the hydrocar- Reaction of 6.0 g of A, 6.0 × 1023 atoms of B,
bon has one chlorine atom only; chlorine at- and 0.036 mol of C yields 4.8 g of compound
oms present in 1 g of chlorohydrocarbon are : AB2C3. If the atomic mass of A and C are 60
(Atomic wt. of Cl=35.5 u; Avogadro con- and 80 amu, respectively, the atomic mass
23
stant = 6.023 × 10 mol ) –1 of B (in amu)is (Avogadro no. = 6 × 1023):

[JEE-MAIN 2018] [JEE-MAIN 2015]

A. 6.023 × 1020 B. 6.023 × 109 A. 70 B. 60

C. 6.012 × 1021 D. 6.023 × 1023 C. 50 D. 40

7. A sample of NaClO3 is converted by heat 11. What quantity (in mL) of a 45% acid solu-
to NaCl with a loss of 0.16 g of oxygen. tion of a mono-protic strong acid must be
The residue is dissolved in water and mixed with a 20% solution of the same acid
to produce 800 mL of a 29.875% acid solu-
precipitated as AgCl. The mass of AgCl (in
tion? [JEE-MAIN 2017]
g) obtained will be : (Given : Molar mass
of AgCl=143.5 g mol−1) A. 320 B. 325

[JEE-MAIN 2018] C. 316 D. 330


48 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

12. The amount of oxygen in 3.6 moles of water B. 22g of carbon and 3g of hydrogen
is : [JEE-MAIN 2014] C. 18g of carbon and 7g of hydrogen
A. 115.2 g B. 57.6 g D. 20g of carbon and 5g of hydrogen
C. 28.8 g D. 18.4 g 17. The ppm level of F- in a 500 g sample of a
tooth paste containing 0 .2 g F- is
13. Excess of NaOH (aq) was added to 100
mL of FeCl3 (aq) resulting into 2.14 g of [JEE-MAIN 2012]
Fe(OH)3. The molarity of FeCl3 (aq) is: A. 400 B. 1000
(Given molar mass of Fe=56 g mol-1 and
C. 250 D. 200
molar mass of Cl=35.5 g mol-1)
18. 5 g of benzene on nitration gave 6 .6 g of
[JEE-MAIN 2017]
nitrobenzene. The theoretical yield of the
A. 0.2 M B. 0.3 M nitrobenzene will be [JEE-MAIN 2012]
C. 0.6 M D. 1.8 M A. 4.5 g B. 5.6 g
14. One gram of a carbonate (M2CO3) on treat- C. 8.09 g D. 6.6 g
ment with excess HCl produces 0.01186
19. The concentrated sulphuric acid that is ped-
mole of CO2. The molar mass of M2CO3 in
dled commercial is 95% H2SO4 by weight.
g mol-1 is: [JEE-MAIN 2017]
If the density of this commercial acid is
A. 118.6 B. 11.86
1.834 g cm-3, the molarity of this solution is
C. 1186 D. 84.3
[JEE-MAIN 2012]
15. 5 moles of AB2 weigh 125 × 10-3 kg and 10 A. 17.8 M B. 12.0 M
moles of A2B2 weigh 300 × 10-3 kg. The C. 10.5 M D. 15.7 M
molar mass of A (MA) and molar mass of B 20. 50 mL of 0.5 M oxalic acid is needed to
neutralize 25 mL of sodium hydroxide so-
(MB) in kg mol-1 are : [JEE-MAIN 2019]
lution. The amount of NaOH (in g) in 50
A. MA= 10 × 10-3 and MB = 5 × 10-3 mL of the given sodium hydroxide solution
is [JEE-MAIN 2019]
B. MA= 25 × 10-3 and MB = 50 × 10-3 A. 20 B. 10
C. MA= 5 × 10-3 and MB = 10 × 10-3 C. 80 D. 4
21. An aqueous solution of oxalic acid dihy-
D. MA= 50 × 10-3 and MB = 25 × 10-3
drate contains its 6 .3 g in 250 ml. The volume
16. 25 g of an unknown hydrocarbon upon of 0 .1 N NaOH required to completely neu-
burning produces 88g of CO2 and 9g of H2 tralize 10 ml of this solution-
O. [JEE-MAIN 2019] [JEE-MAIN 2012]
This unknown hydrocarbon contains. A. 4 ml B. 20 ml
A. 24g of carbon and 1 g of hydrogen C. 2 ml D. 40 ml
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 49

22. The ratio of number of  oxygen atoms(O)


in 16.0 g ozone (O3) , 28.0 g carbon monox- 2 1
C.  D. 
ide (CO) and 16 .0g oxygen (O2) is - 309 412
27. A sample of a hydrate of barium chloride
(Atomic mass: C=12, O=16 and Avogadro’s weighing 61 g was heated until all the water
constant NA=6 .0x1023mol-1) of hydration is removed. The dried sample
[JEE-MAIN 2012] weighed 52 g. The formula of the hydrated
A. 3:1:2 B. 1:1:2 salt is: (atomic mass, Ba=137 amu, Cl=35.5
amu) [JEE-MAIN 2015]
C. 3:1:1 D. 1:1:1
23. Dissolving 120 g of a compound of (mol. A. BaCl2. H2O B. BaCl2.2H2O
Wt. 60) in 1000 g of water gave a solution C. BaCl2.3H2O D. BaCl2.4H2O
of density 1.12g /mL. The molarity of the
solution (in M)is : [JEE-MAIN 2014]
A. 1 B. 2 28. If the value of Avogadro number is 6.023 ×
C. 2.5 D. 4 1023 mol–1 and the value of Boltzmann con-
24. The volume in mL of 0.1N dibasic acid suf- stant is 1.380 × 10–23 J K–1, then the number
ficient to neutralize 1 g of a base that fur- of significant digits in the calculated value
nishes 0.04 mole of OH– in aqueous solu- of the universal gas constant is
tion is: [JEE-MAIN 2016] [JEE-Adv. 2014]
A. 200 B. 400
29. Galena (an ore) is partially oxidized by pass-
C. 600 D. 800 ing air through it at high temperature. After
25. The density of a solution prepared by dis- some time, the passage of air is stopped, but
solving 120 g of urea (mol. Mass = 60 u) in the heating is continued in a closed furnace
1000g of water is 1.15 g/mL. The molarity such that the contents undergo self-reduc-
of this solution is : [JEE-MAIN 2012] tion. The weight (in kg) of Pb produced per
kg of O2 consumed is ___________.
A. 0.50 B. 1.78
[JEE-Adv. 2018]
C. 1.02 D. 2.05
(Atomic weights in g mol-1: O = 16, S = 32,
26. The molecular formula of a commercial Pb = 207)
resin used for exchanging ions in water sof- 30. The mole fraction of urea in an aqueous so-
tening is C8H7SO3Na (Mol. wt. 206). What lution containing 900 g of water is 0.05. If
would be the maximum uptake of Ca2+ ions the density of the solution is 1.2 g cm–3, the
by the resin when expressed in mole per molarity of urea solution is___
gram resin? [JEE-MAIN 2015]
(Given data: Molar masses of urea and wa-
1 1
ter are 60 g mol–1 and 18 g mol–1, respec-
A.  B.  tively) [JEE-Adv. 2019]
103 206

  
50 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Answer Key
In-Chapter Exercise -1
  1. (i) 6.8 × 104
(ii) 6.80 × 104
 2. (i) 253.15 K
(ii) 4320005
In-Chapter Exercise -2
  1. Proved
  2. Proved
  3. C2H4O2
In-Chapter Exercise -3
  1. a. 19 and 19 amu
b. 56 and 56 amu
 2. 500
  3. 168 g
  4. 3.01 × 1023­
  5. 98 g
In-Chapter Exercise -4
  1. 20 g
  2. 168 L
  3. C3H3O
  4. 81.28 g
  5. 3/2 NA
In-Chapter Exercise -5
 1. 6.023 × 1020
  2. 10–5
 3. m = 0.31, M = 0.3, N = 0.6, χ2 = 0.0055, χ1 = 0.9945
  4. m = 5.027, M = 4.186
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 51

Exercise -1
Single Correct Answer Type

  1. B
2. C 3. B 4. A 5. C 6. A 7. A 8. B 9. C 10. A 11. B  12. C

 13. C 14. C 15. B 16. B 17. B 18. D 19. B 20. A 21. A 22. D 23. D  24. B

 25. B 26. A 27. B 28. D 29. A 30. B

Exercise -2
Multiple Correct Answer Type

 1. D 2. A,D 3. A,B,C 4. A,B,C,D 5. A,B,D, 6. B,C,D, 7. A,B,C,D

  8. A,C,D
9. C,D 10. A,B 11. A,C 12. A,B,D 13. A,C,D 14. A,C

Exercise -3
Fill in the blanks

  1. 2.65, 5.3 2. 2.16 g 3. 102.54 mL 4. 0.4 5. 4.14 g

True/False

 1. False 2. False 3. True 4. True 5. True

Assertion-Reasoning Type

  1. A
2. B 3. A 4. B 5. A

Comprehension Type

 1. B
2. C 3. A 4. B 5. A 6. B 7. D

Integer Type

  1. 10 2. 10 3. 5 4. 7 5. 5 6. 3 7. 9 8. 2 9. 8 10. 4

Exercise -4
Previous Years Questions

 1. D
2. A 3. B 4. A 5. C 6. A 7. C 8. B 9. A 10. C 11. C  12.  B

 13. A 14. D 15. C 16. A 17. A 18. C 19. A 20. D 21. D 22. D 23. D  24. B

  25. D 26. D 27. B 28. 4 29. 6.47 30. 2.985


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